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Dejection - A state of melancholy or depression; low spirits, the blues.

The 159th Article

Of dejection.
dejection, or vicious humility it consists chiefly in this: that a man perceives himself weak, or little resolute, and, as if he had not the absolute use of his free disposition, he cannot refrain from doing things whereof he knows not whether he shall repent or no afterwards than besides; that he believes he cannot subsist of himself, nor forgo many things, whose acquisition depends from without him. So it is directly opposite to generosity, and it oft befalls that men of a mean spirit are most arrogant and proud, just as the most generous are most modest, and humble. But whereas those of a generous spirit alter not their nature by any prosperity or adversity that befalls them, those who are weak and abject are only guided by fortune and prosperity does not puff up so high, but adversity brings them down as low. Yea, it is often seen that they abase themselves shamefully to such as they expect profit or fear evil from, and at the same time lift themselves up insolently over those from whom they neither hope, nor fear anything.

The 160th Article

What the motions of the spirits in these passions is.
Moreover, it is easy to understand that
pride and dejection are not only vices but passions, because their emotion is very palpable exteriorly in those who are suddenly puffed up or brought down by any new occasion. But it may be doubted whether generosity and humility, which are virtues, may also be passions, because their motions appear less, and it seems, virtue does not so much symbolize with passions, as vice does. Yet I see no reason why the same motion of the spirits which serves to fortify a thought when it has an ill ground, should not also fortify it when it has a just one. And because pride and generosity consist only in the good opinion a man has of himself, and differ only herein that the opinion in one is unjust in the other just, me thinks they may be attributed to one and the same passion, which is excited by a motion compounded of admiration, joy, and love, as well that a man bears to himself as to the thing for which he does esteem himself. As on the contrary, the motion that excites humility, whether virtuous or vicious, is composed of admiration, sadness, and self love, mixed with hatred of those defects which cause one to be condemned. And all the difference that I observe in these motions is that that of admiration has two properties. The first, that the surprise makes it strong from the very beginning. The other, that it is equal in its continuance. That is, the spirits continue moving at the same rate in the brain. Of which properties, the first is found more often in pride and dejection than in generosity or virtuous humility. And on the other side the last is more observed in these than in the others. The reason whereof is, that vice proceeds commonly from ignorance, so that they who least understand themselves are most apt to grow more proud, or become more abject than they ought to be, because every new thing that befalls them surprises them, and causes them, that attributing it to themselves, they admire and esteem or condemn themselves, as they judge that which is befallen them advantageous to them or not. But because as soon as one thing has elated them comes another that dejects them, the motion of their passion is various. Contrarily, there is nothing in generosity, incompatible with virtuous humility, nor anything extraneous that can alter it. Wherefore the motions thereof are firm, constant, and ever like themselves. But they proceed not so much from surprise, because they who in this manner esteem themselves, do very well understand the reason why they so esteem themselves. Yet it may be said that these causes are so wonderful (to wit, the power of their free disposition, which makes them prize them themselves and the infirmities of the subject in which this power is, which makes them not to value themselves too high) that as often as they are presented new, they will cause new admiration.

The 161st Article

How generosity may be acquired.
And it is to be noted that
what commonly are called virtues are habits in the soul which dispose it to certain thoughts, so that they are different from these thoughts but they may produce them, and reciprocally be produced by them. It is also to be noted, that these thoughts may be produced only by the soul, but it oft befalls that some motion of the spirits fortifies them, and then they are at the same time actions of virtue and passions of the soul. So though there be no virtue whereunto (me thinks) good birth so much contributes, as that which causes a man to esteem himself according to his just value; and it be easy to believe that all souls which God puts into our bodies are not equally noble and strong (wherefore I called this virtue generosity, according to the acceptation* of our language, rather than magnanimity, the school terms that it may be the more unknown) yet it is certain that good education much conduces to correct
the defects of our birth. And that if a man busy himself frequently to consider what this free disposition is, and how great advantages accrue from a steadfast resolution to use it well, as on the other side, how vain and unprofitable all the cares that puzzle the ambitious are, a man may by exciting the passion in himself, acquire the virtue of generosity, which being as the key of all the other virtues, and a general remedy against all the irregularities of passions, me thinks this consideration ought to be very seriously noted.

Proverbs 13

13:10 With pride 32  comes only 33  contention,

but wisdom is with the well-advised.

Luke 9

9:37 Now on 125  the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126  a man from the crowd cried out, 127  “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128  my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129  spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130  it throws him into convulsions 131  and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132  him severely. 9:40 I 133  begged 134  your disciples to cast it out, but 135  they could not do so.” 136  9:41 Jesus answered, 137  “You 138  unbelieving 139  and perverse generation! How much longer 140  must I be with you and endure 141  you? 142  Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143  the boy 144  was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145  and shook him with convulsions. 146  But Jesus rebuked 147  the unclean 148  spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149  they were all astonished at the mighty power 150  of God.

Luke 11

11:24 “When an unclean spirit 71  goes out of a person, 72  it passes through waterless places 73  looking for rest but 74  not finding any. Then 75  it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 76  11:25 When it returns, 77  it finds the house 78  swept clean and put in order. 79  11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 80  the last state of that person 81  is worse than the first.” 82 

11:27 As 83  he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”  11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”


 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you 17  through an empty, deceitful philosophy 18  that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits 19  of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives 20  in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority.

2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence


The emphases of these false teachers are still with us today. The first is “higher” knowledge (Gnosticism). The second is the observance of laws to win God’s love (legalism). The third is the belief that beings other than Christ must mediate between people and God (mysticism). The fourth is the practice of abstaining from things to earn merit with God (asceticism).

“When we make Jesus Christ and the Christian revelation only part of a total religious system or philosophy, we cease to give Him the preeminence. When we strive for ‘spiritual perfection’ or ‘spiritual fullness’ by means of formulas, disciplines, or rituals, we go backward instead of forward. Christian believers must beware of mixing their Christian faith with such alluring things as yoga, transcendental meditation, Oriental mysticism, and the like. We must also beware of ‘deeper life’ teachers who offer a system for victory and fullness that bypasses devotion to Jesus Christ. In all things, He must have the preeminence!”[147]

Reformed theology has historically taught that a true Christian will never renounce faith in Christ. The fact that Paul wrote this epistle to Christians who were in danger of doing precisely that should prove that this teaching is wrong. Nowhere in the epistle did he make a distinction between professing Christians, who were supposedly the objects of his warnings, and true Christians. Rather he appealed to the Colossians as genuine Christians to watch out for this real danger. Genuine Christians can be deceived by false teaching, even teaching concerning Christ.


2:14 Remind people 24  of these things and solemnly charge them 25  before the Lord 26  not to wrangle over words. This is of no benefit; it just brings ruin on those who listen. 27  2:15 Make every effort to present yourself before God as a proven worker who does not need to be ashamed, teaching the message of truth accurately. 28  2:16 But avoid profane chatter, 29  because those occupied with it will stray further and further into ungodliness, 


3:1 But understand this, that in the last days difficult 1  times will come. 3:2 For people 2  will be lovers of themselves, 3  lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3:3 unloving, irreconcilable, slanderers, without self-control, savage, opposed to what is good, 3:4 treacherous, reckless, conceited, loving pleasure rather than loving God. 3:5 They will maintain the outward appearance 4  of religion but will have repudiated its power. So avoid people like these. 5  


1:10 But the rich person’s pride should be in his humiliation, because he will pass away like a wildflower in the meadow. 11  1:11 For the sun rises with its heat and dries up the meadow; the petal of the flower falls off and its beauty is lost forever. 12  So also the rich person in the midst of his pursuits will wither away. 1:12 Happy is the one 13  who endures testing, because when he has proven to be genuine, he will receive the crown of life that God 14  promised to those who love him. 1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, 15  and he himself tempts no one. 1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires. 1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death. 1:16 Do not be led astray, my dear brothers and sisters. 16  1:17 All generous giving and every perfect gift 17  is from above, coming down 18  from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or the slightest hint of change. 19  1:18 By his sovereign plan he gave us birth 20  through the message of truth, that we would be a kind of firstfruits of all he created.


7:18 He said to them, “Are you so foolish? Don’t you understand that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him? 7:19 For it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and then goes out into the sewer.” 22  (This means all foods are clean.) 23  7:20 He said, “What comes out of a person defiles him. 7:21 For from within, out of the human heart, come evil ideas, sexual immorality, theft, murder, 7:22 adultery, greed, evil, deceit, debauchery, envy, slander, pride, and folly. 7:23 All these evils come from within and defile a person.”


1:3 Dear friends, although I have been eager to write to you 7  about our common salvation, I now feel compelled 8  instead to write to encourage 9  you to contend earnestly 10  for the faith 11  that was once for all 12  entrusted to the saints. 13  1:4 For certain men 14  have secretly slipped in among you 15  – men who long ago 16  were marked out 17  for the condemnation I am about to describe 18  – ungodly men who have turned the grace of our God into a license for evil 19  and who deny our only Master 20  and Lord, 21  Jesus Christ.

1:5 Now I desire to remind you (even though you have been fully informed of these facts 22  once for all 23 ) that Jesus, 24  having saved the 25  people out of the land of Egypt, later 26  destroyed those who did not believe. 1:6 You also know that 27  the angels who did not keep within their proper domain 28  but abandoned their own place of residence, he has kept 29  in eternal chains 30  in utter 31  darkness, locked up 32  for the judgment of the great Day. 1:7 So also 33  Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighboring towns, 34  since they indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire 35  in a way similar to 36  these angels, 37  are now displayed as an example by suffering the punishment of eternal fire.

1:8 Yet these men, 38  as a result of their dreams, 39  defile the flesh, reject authority, 40  and insult 41  the glorious ones. 42  1:9 But even 43  when Michael the archangel 44  was arguing with the devil and debating with him 45  concerning Moses’ body, he did not dare to bring a slanderous judgment, but said, “May the Lord rebuke you!” 1:10 But these men do not understand the things they slander, and they are being destroyed by the very things that, like irrational animals, they instinctively comprehend. 46  1:11 Woe to them! For they have traveled down Cain’s path, 47  and because of greed 48  have abandoned themselves 49  to 50  Balaam’s error; hence, 51  they will certainly perish 52  in Korah’s rebellion. 1:12 These men are 53  dangerous reefs 54  at your love feasts, 55  feasting without reverence, 56  feeding only themselves. 57  They are 58  waterless 59  clouds, carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit 60  – twice dead, 61  uprooted; 1:13 wild sea waves, 62  spewing out the foam of 63  their shame; 64  wayward stars 65  for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness 66  have been reserved.

1:14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, 67  even prophesied of them, 68  saying, “Look! The Lord is coming 69  with thousands and thousands 70  of his holy ones, 1:15 to execute judgment on 71  all, and to convict every person 72  of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds 73  that they have committed, 74  and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” 75  1:16 These people are grumblers and 76  fault-finders who go 77  wherever their desires lead them, 78  and they give bombastic speeches, 79  enchanting folks 80  for their own gain.

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The 162nd Article

Of veneration.
Veneration, or respect, is an inclination of the soul not only to esteem the object it reverences, but also to submit to it with some kind of fear, to endeavor to make it become gracious to her. So that we bear only a veneration to free causes, which we conceive able to do good or
evil to us, without knowing which of the two they will do. For we bear love and devotion rather than mere veneration to those from whom we only expect good, and we bear hatred to none but such as we only expect evil from. And if we conceive the cause of the good or evil not to be free, we do not submit ourselves thereunto to get the goodwill of it. So when the Pagans bore a veneration to woods, springs, mountains, they did not properly reverence these inanimate things, but the divinities which they thought presided over them. And the motion of the spirits that excite this passion is compounded of that which excites admiration and that which excites fear, whereof I will speak hereafter.

The 163rd Article

Of Disdain.
Just so, that which I call disdain is an inclination of the soul
to condemn a free cause by judging that though of its own nature it be able to do either good or evil, yet it is so far beneath us that it can do us neither; and the motion of the spirits that excite it is compounded of those that excite admiration and security or boldness.

Deification - The act of deifying; exaltation to divine honors; apotheosis; excessive praise.

The 164th Article

Of the use of these two passions.
And it is either generosity or
deification and weakness of spirit that determine the good or ill use of the two passions. For by how much a man's soul is more noble or generous, so much the more inclination he has to give every one his own. And so [he] has not only an extraordinary humility towards God, but without reluctance bestows all the honor and respect which are due to men, to each according to the rank and authority he holds in the world, and condemns nothing but vice. On the contrary, they who are of a mean and weak spirit are apt to sin in excess, sometimes by reverencing and fearing things only worthy of contempt, sometimes by insolently disdaining such as deserve to be reverenced. And they often slip suddenly from extreme in piety to superstition, thence again from superstition to impiety, so that there is no vice nor irregularity of spirit which they are not subject to.


18:14 A person’s spirit 47  sustains him through sickness –

but who can bear 48  a crushed spirit? 49 

18:15 The discerning person 50  acquires knowledge,

and the wise person 51  seeks 52  knowledge.


3:16 Then those who respected 28  the Lord spoke to one another, and the Lord took notice. 29  A scroll 30  was prepared before him in which were recorded the names of those who respected the Lord and honored his name. 3:17 “They will belong to me,” says the Lord who rules over all, “in the day when I prepare my own special property. 31  I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him. 3:18 Then once more you will see that I make a distinction between 32  the righteous and the wicked, between the one who serves God and the one who does not.


5:15 Therefore be very careful how you live – not as unwise but as wise, 5:16 taking advantage of every opportunity, because the days are evil. 5:17 For this reason do not be foolish, but be wise 22  by understanding 23  what the Lord’s will is. 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, which 24  is debauchery, 25  but be filled by the Spirit, 26  5:19 speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music 27  in 28  your hearts to the Lord, 5:20 always giving thanks to God the Father for each other 29  in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5:21 and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ. 


2:13 Be subject to every human institution 34  for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 2:14 or to governors as those he commissions 35  to punish wrongdoers and praise 36  those who do good. 2:15 For God wants you 37  to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 2:16 Live 38  as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves. 39  2:17 Honor all people, love the family of believers, 40  fear God, honor the king.

2:18 Slaves, 41  be subject 42  to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 2:19 For this finds God’s favor, 43  if because of conscience toward God 44  someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 2:20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God. 45  2:21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 2:22 He 46  committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. 47  2:23 When he was maligned, he 48  did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened 49  no retaliation, 50  but committed himself to God 51  who judges justly. 2:24 He 52  himself bore our sins 53  in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning 54  and live for righteousness. By his 55  wounds 56  you were healed. 57  2:25 For you were going astray like sheep 58  but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.

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The 165th Article

Of hope and fear.
Hope is a disposition of the soul to persuade her that what she desires shall come to pass, which is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, to wit, by those of joy and desire mixed together.
And fear is another disposition of the soul which persuades her that it shall not come to pass. And it is to be noted that though these two passions be contrary to one another, yet a man may have them both together, to wit, when he fancies to himself several reasons whereof some make him conceive the accomplishment of his desire is easy, the other make it seem difficult.

The 166th Article

Of security and despair.
And one of these passions never accompanies desire, but it leaves room for the other. For when hope is so strong that it utterly expels
fear, it alters the nature thereof and is called security. And when a man is sure that what he desires shall come to pass, though he still wishes that it would come, yet he nevertheless ceases to be agitated with the passion of desire which made him seek after the event with anxiety. In like manner when fear is so extreme that it takes away all kind of hope, it converts into despair; and this despair fancying the thing impossible, clearly extinguishes desire, which only is bent on things possible.

The 167th Article

Of jealousy.
Jealousy is a sort of fear relating to the desire a man has to keep the possession of some good; and it proceeds not so much from strength of reason, which makes him conjecture he may lose it, as the great value he sets on it, which causes him to dive into the least occasions of suspicion and take them for very considerable arguments.


10:19 When words abound, transgression is inevitable, 71 

but the one who restrains 72  his words 73  is wise.

10:20 What the righteous say 74  is like 75  the best 76  silver,

but what the wicked think 77  is of little value. 78 

10:21 The teaching 79  of the righteous feeds 80  many,

but fools die 81  for lack of wisdom. 82 

10:22 The blessing 83  from the Lord 84  makes a person rich, 85 

and he adds no sorrow 86  to 87  it.

10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme 88  is enjoyable 89  to a fool,

and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment. 90 

10:24 What the wicked fears 91  will come on him;

what the righteous desire 92  will be granted. 93 

10:25 When the storm 94  passes through, the wicked are swept away, 95 

but the righteous are an everlasting foundation. 96 

10:26 Like vinegar to the teeth and like smoke to the eyes, 97 

so is the sluggard to those 98  who send him.

10:27 Fearing the Lord 99  prolongs life, 100 

but the life span 101  of the wicked will be shortened. 102 

10:28 The hope 103  of the righteous is joy,

but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled. 104 


27:4 Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming, 9 

but who can stand before jealousy?


12:4 “I 12  tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 13  and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 14  you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 15  has authority to throw you 16  into hell. 17  Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 18  Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 19  you are more valuable than many sparrows.

12:8 “I 20  tell you, whoever acknowledges 21  me before men, 22  the Son of Man will also acknowledge 23  before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 24  will not be forgiven. 25  12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 26  the 27  rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 28  or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 29  what you must say.” 30 


11:17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among them and participated in 13  the richness of the olive root, 11:18 do not boast over the branches. But if you boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you. 11:19 Then you will say, “The branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 11:20 Granted! 14  They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but fear! 11:21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare you. 11:22 Notice therefore the kindness and harshness of God – harshness toward those who have fallen, but 15  God’s kindness toward you, provided you continue in his kindness; 16  otherwise you also will be cut off. 11:23 And even they – if they do not continue in their unbelief – will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11:24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree?

11:25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, 17  so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel 18  until the full number 19  of the Gentiles has come in. 11:26 And so 20  all Israel will be saved, as it is written:

“The Deliverer will come out of Zion;

he will remove ungodliness from Jacob.

11:27 And this is my covenant with them, 21 

when I take away their sins.” 22 

Romans 15

15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you believe in him, 11  so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

1 John 4

4:15 If anyone 37  confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God resides 38  in him and he in God. 4:16 And we have come to know and to believe 39  the love that God has in us. 40  God is love, and the one who resides 41  in love resides in God, and God resides in him. 4:17 By this 42  love is perfected with 43  us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment, because just as Jesus 44  is, so also are we in this world. 4:18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love drives out fear, because fear has to do with punishment. 45  The 46  one who fears punishment 47  has not been perfected in love. 4:19 We love 48  because he loved us first.

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The 170th Article

Of irresolution.
Irresolution also is a sort of fear, which causing the soul to waver between several actions that she may do is the cause she cannot execute any, and thereby she has time to choose before she determines on them. Whereof, truly, some good use may be made but when it lasts longer than it ought, and it takes up that time to debate which is required to act, it is very evil. Now, I say it is a sort of fear, though it may so fall out, when a man has choice of many things whose goodness is equally apparent, that he may be at a stand and irresolute, and yet not be afraid. For this sort of irresolution comes only from the subject presented, and not from any emotion of the spirits. Wherefore it is not a passion, unless the fear of failing in his choice increase the uncertainty. But this fear is so usual, and so strong in some, that oftentimes although they have not any choice, and though they see only one thing to take or leave, yet it seizes on them and causes them unprofitably to stop there and search after others. And then it is any excess of irresolution, which proceeds from too great a desire to do well, and an imbecility in the understanding, which having no clear and distinct notions, has only a great company of confused ones. Wherefore the remedy against this excess is to accustom a man's self to frame certain and determinate judgments concerning all things that present themselves, and conceive he does always do his duty when he does what he conceives to be best, though it may be he conceive amiss.

The 171st Article

Of courage and boldness.
Courage, when it is a passion and not a habit or natural inclination, is a certain heat or agitation which disposes the soul to addict her powerfully to the execution of the things she will do, of what nature so ever they be. And boldness is a sort of courage that disposes the soul to the execution of things most dangerous.

The 172nd Article

Of emulation.
And emulation also is a sort of it, but in another sense, for
courage may be considered as a kind (or genus) that is divided into as may sorts (or species) as there are several objects, and as many more as it has causes. In the first sense boldness is a sort, in the other emulation; and this last is nothing else but a heat, which disposes the soul to undertake things that she hopes may succeed with her, because she sees them succeed with others. And so it is a sort of courage whose external cause is example. I say the external cause because it ought ever (besides that) to have an internal one which consists in this: that the body is so disposed, as desire and hope are stronger to drive abundance of blood to the heart than fear or despair to hinder it.

Chapter 18

15 A prophet like me* will the LORD, your God, raise up for you from among your own kindred; that is the one to whom you shall listen.
16 This is exactly what you requested of the LORD, your God, at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when you said, “Let me not again hear the voice of the LORD, my God, nor see this great fire any more, or I will die.”
17 And the LORD said to me, What they have said is good.
18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kindred, and will put my words into the mouth of the prophet; the prophet shall tell them all that I command.
19 Anyone who will not listen to my words which the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will hold accountable for it.
20 But if a prophet presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded, or speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.

Psalm 38

38:7 ...I am overcome with shame 

and my whole body is sick. 

38:8 I am numb with pain and severely battered

I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel. 

38:9 O Lord, you understand my heart’s desire; 

my groaning is not hidden from you.

38:10 My heart beats quickly;

my strength leaves me;

I can hardly see

38:11 Because of my condition, even my friends and acquaintances keep their distance

my neighbors stand far away

38:12 Those who seek my life try to entrap me; 

those who want to harm me speak destructive words;

all day long they say deceitful things.

38:13 But I am like a deaf man – I hear nothing;

I am like a mute who cannot speak. 

38:14 I am like a man who cannot hear

and is incapable of arguing his defense. 

38:15 Yet I wait for you, O Lord!

You will respond, O Lord, my God!

38:16 I have prayed for deliverance, because otherwise they will gloat over me

when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me. 

38:17 For I am about to stumble,

and I am in constant pain.

 38:18 Yes, I confess my wrongdoing,

and I am concerned about my sins.

38:19 But those who are my enemies for no reason are numerous;  

those who hate me without cause outnumber me

38:20 They repay me evil for the good I have done;

though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me

38:21 Do not abandon me, O Lord!

My God, do not remain far away from me!

38:22 Hurry and help me, O Lord, my deliverer!

Proverbs 3

3:31 Do not envy a violent man,  

and do not choose to imitate any of his ways;

3:32 for one who goes astray is an abomination to the Lord,

but he reveals his intimate counsel to the upright.

Proverbs 12

12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down, 

but an encouraging word brings him joy.

Isaiah 32

32:6 ...a fool speaks disgraceful things;

his mind plans out sinful deeds.

He commits godless deeds

and says misleading things about the Lord;

he gives the hungry nothing to satisfy their appetite 

and gives the thirsty nothing to drink.

32:7 A deceiver’s methods are evil

he dreams up evil plans  

to ruin the poor with lies,

even when the needy are in the right.

32:8 An honorable man makes honorable plans;

his honorable character gives him security.

Micah 3

3:8 But I 21  am full of the courage that the Lord’s Spirit gives,

and have a strong commitment to justice. 22 

This enables me to confront Jacob with its rebellion,

and Israel with its sin. 23 

Matthew 10

10:16 “I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. 10:17 Beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils and flog you in their synagogues. 35  10:18 And you will be brought before governors and kings because of me, as a witness to them and the Gentiles. 10:19 Whenever they hand you over for trial, do not worry about how to speak or what to say, for what you should say will be given to you at that time.  10:20 For it is not you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.

10:21 “Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against parents and have them put to death. 10:22 And you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 10:23 Whenever they persecute you in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth,  you will not finish going through all the towns Israel before the Son of Man comes.

10:24 “A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave greater than his master. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much more will they defame the members of his household!

10:26 “Do not be afraid of them, for nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 10:27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the housetops. 51  10:28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body  but cannot kill the soul. Instead, fear the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Mark 1

1:21 ...When the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 1:22 The people there were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, not like the experts in the law.  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1:24 “Leave us alone, Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are the Holy One of God!” 1:25 But Jesus rebuked him: “Silence! Come out of him!” 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

Luke 12

1 ...so many people were crowding together that they were trampling one another underfoot.a He began to speak, first to his disciples, Beware of the leaven—that is, the hypocrisy—of the Pharisees.
2 “There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known.
3 Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered behind closed doors will be proclaimed on the housetops.
4 I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body but after that can do no more.
5 I shall show you whom to fear. Be afraid of the one who after killing has the power to cast into Gehenna;* yes, I tell you, be afraid of that one.

Acts 9

9:26 When he arrived in Jerusalem, 59  he attempted to associate 60  with the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe 61  that he was a disciple. 9:27 But Barnabas took 62  Saul, 63  brought 64  him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, that 65  the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out boldly 66  in the name of Jesus. 9:28 So he was staying with them, associating openly with them 67  in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord.

32 I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord.
33 But a married man is anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife,
34 and he is divided. An unmarried woman or a virgin is anxious about the things of the Lord, so that she may be holy in both body and spirit. A married woman, on the other hand, is anxious about the things of the world, how she may please her husband.
35 I am telling you this for your own benefit, not to impose a restraint upon you, but for the sake of propriety and adherence to the Lord without distraction.

1 Corinthians 13

13:8 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 13:10 but when what is perfect comes, the partial will be set aside. 13:11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But when I became an adult,  I set aside childish ways. 13:12 For now we see in a mirror indirectly,  but then we will see face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I have been fully known. 13:13 And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love.

Galations 5

5:19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: 33  sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 34  hostilities, strife, 36  jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 37  factions, 5:21 envying, 38  murder, 39  drunkenness, carousing, 40  and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 41  is love, 42  joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 43  5:23 gentleness, and 44  self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45  have crucified the flesh 46  with its passions 47  and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48  the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49  provoking 50  one another, being jealous 51  of one another.

Ephesians 5

5:1 Therefore, be 1  imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live 2  in love, just as Christ also loved us 3  and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering 4  to God. 5:3 But 5  among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, 6  or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: 8  that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

Hebrews 6

 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 11  but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.

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The 173rd Article

How boldness depends on hope.
For it is to be noted that although the object of boldness
be difficulty, from whence commonly ensues fear, or even despair, so that it is in most dangerous and desperate affairs that most boldness and courage is required. Nevertheless there must be some hope, or else a man must be assured that the end he propounds to himself shall succeed to oppose himself vigorously against the difficulties he shall encounter. But this end is different from this object, for he cannot be assured and despairing of the same thing at the same time. So when the Decii flung themselves in the midst of their enemies, and ran upon a certain death, the object of their boldness was the difficulty of keeping their lives in this action, of which difficulty they utterly despaired, for they were sure to die. But their end was to animate their soldiers by their example, and make them win the victory, of which they had hope, or else their end was to get fame after their death, whereof they were assured.

The 174th Article

Of cowardice and fearfulness.
Cowardice is directly opposite to courage, and is a languishing or coldness, which hinders the soul from addicting herself to the execution of things which she would do if she were exempted from this passion. And fearfulness or affright, the contrary to boldness, is not only a coldness, but a distraction and astonishment of the soul that robs her of the power to resist evils which she thinks are near her.

The 175th Article

Of the use of cowardice.
Now, although I cannot be persuaded that nature has bestowed on man any passion that is always vicious, and has not some good and laudable use; yet I am very much puzzled to divine what these two are good for. Only, me thinks,
cowardice is of some use when it causes a man to be free from pains he might be incited to take, for reasons like truths, if other more certain truths which make them be judged unprofitable, had not invited this passion in him. For besides her exemption of the soul from these pains, it is then also very useful to the body, for that retarding the motion of the spirits, it hinders the forces thereof from being dissipated. But is commonly very hurtful, because it diverts the will from profitable actions. And because it proceeds from hence, that a man has not hope, or desire enough to correct it, he need only augment these two passions in himself.

Job 6

6:14 “To the one in despair, kindness should come from his friend 

even if he forsakes the fear of the Almighty.

Job 15

15:20 All his days the wicked man suffers torment,

throughout the number of the years

that are stored up for the tyrant.

15:21 Terrifying sounds fill his ears;

in a time of peace marauders attack him.

15:22 He does not expect to escape from darkness

he is marked for the sword;

15:23 he wanders about – food for vultures

he knows that the day of darkness is at hand

15:24 Distress and anguish terrify him;

they prevail against him

like a king ready to launch an attack

15:25 for he stretches out his hand against God

and vaunts himself against the Almighty,

15:26 defiantly charging against Him

with a thick, strong shield!

15:27 Because he covered his face with fat,

and made his hips bulge with fat

15:28 he lived in ruined towns 

and in houses where no one lives,

where they are ready to crumble into heaps.

15:29 He will not grow rich,

and his wealth will not endure,

nor will his possessions spread over the land.

15:30 He will not escape the darkness;  

a flame will wither his shoots

and he will depart

by the breath of God’s mouth

Psalms 82

82:6 I thought, ‘You are gods;

all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 

82:7 Yet you will die like mortals

you will fall like all the other rulers.”


14:12 Look how you have fallen from the sky,

O shining one, son of the dawn!  

You have been cut down to the ground,

O conqueror of the nations!

14:13 You said to yourself

I will climb up to the sky.

Above the stars of El 

I will set up my throne.

I will rule on the mountain of assembly

on the remote slopes of Zaphon

14:14 I will climb up to the tops of the clouds;

I will make myself like the Most High!” 

14:15 But you were brought down to Sheol,

to the remote slopes of the pit

14:16 Those who see you stare at you,

they look at you carefully, thinking

Is this the man who shook the earth,

the one who made kingdoms tremble?

14:17 Is this the one who made the world like a desert,

who ruined its cities,

and refused to free his prisoners so they could return home?”’ 

4:18 As for all the kings of the nations,

all of them lie down in splendor, 

each in his own tomb. 

14:19 But you have been thrown out of your grave

like a shoot that is thrown away.  

You lie among the slain,

among those who have been slashed by the sword,

among those headed for the stones of the pit,

as if you were a mangled corpse

14:20 You will not be buried with them

because you destroyed your land

and killed your people.

The offspring of the wicked

will never be mentioned again.

Jeremiah 17

17:5 The Lord says,

I will put a curse on people

who trust in mere human beings,

who depend on mere flesh and blood for their strength,

and whose hearts have turned away from the Lord.

17:6 They will be like a shrub in the desert.

They will not experience good things even when they happen.

It will be as though they were growing in the desert,

in a salt land where no one can live.

17:7 My blessing is on those people who trust in me,

who put their confidence in me. 

17:8 They will be like a tree planted near a stream

whose roots spread out toward the water.

It has nothing to fear when the heat comes.

Its leaves are always green.

It has no need to be concerned in a year of drought.

It does not stop bearing fruit.

17:9 The human mind is more deceitful than anything else.

It is incurably bad. Who can understand it?

17:10 I, the Lord, probe into people’s minds.

I examine people’s hearts. 

I deal with each person according to how he has behaved.

I give them what they deserve based on what they have done.

17:11 The person who gathers wealth by unjust means

is like the partridge that broods over eggs but does not hatch them.

Before his life is half over he will lose his ill-gotten gains.

At the end of his life it will be clear he was a fool.”

2 Timothy 1

1:6 Because of this I remind you to rekindle God’s gift that you possess through the laying on of my hands. 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control. 1:8 So do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord or of me, a prisoner for his sake, but by God’s power accept your share of suffering for the gospel. 1:9 He is the one who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not based on our works but on his own purpose and grace, granted to us in Christ Jesus before time began, 1:10 but now made visible through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus. He has broken the power of death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel! 1:11 For this gospel I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher. 19  1:12 Because of this, in fact, I suffer as I do.  But I am not ashamed, because I know the one in whom my faith is set and I am convinced that he is able to protect what has been entrusted to me until that day.  1:13 Hold to the standard of sound words that you heard from me and do so with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 25  1:14 Protect that good thing entrusted to you, through the Holy Spirit who lives within us.

Hebrews 10

10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury of fire that will consume God’s enemies.  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for the Son of God, and profanes the blood of the covenant that made him holy,  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

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The 176th Article

Of the use of fearfulness.
As for fearfulness or affright, I see not how it can ever be laudable, or useful. Neither is it one particular passion, but only an excess of
cowardice, astonishment, and fear, which is always vicious as boldness is an excel of courage, ever good, provided the end proposed be good. And because the chief cause of fearfulness is surprise, there is no better way to be rid of it than to use premeditation, and prepare oneself against all events, the fear whereof may cause them.

The 177th Article

Of remorse.
Remorse of conscience is a sort of sadness, which comes from the scruple a man has, that a thing he has done, or has not done, is not good. And it necessarily presupposes doubt. For if he had been absolutely assured that what he did had been evil, he had refrained from doing it; since the will inclines us not to any things but such as have an appearance of goodness. And if he were assured that what he has already done were evil it would breed repentance, and not only remorse. Now, the use of this passion is to make him examine whether the thing he doubts of be good or not, and to hinder him from doing it another time, if he be not assured that it is good. But because it presupposes an evil, the best way were never to be subject to feel it; and it may be prevented the same way, as a man may be exempted of irresolution.

The 178th Article

Of derision.
Derision is a sort of joy mingled with
hatred which proceeds from this, that a man perceives some little evil in a person, whereof he thinks him worthy. He hates this evil, and rejoices to see it in one that is worthy of it. And when this comes unexpectedly, the surprise of admiration causes him to break out into laughter, according to what has formerly been said of the nature of laughter. But this evil must be a small one: for if it be great, it cannot be thought that he who has it is worthy of it, unless one be of a very ill nature, or bear him a great deal of hatred.

contemptuous ridicule or mockery



3:20 “Why does God give light to one who is in misery, 

and life to those whose soul is bitter,

3:21 to those who wait for death that does not come,

and search for it 

more than for hidden treasures,

3:22 who rejoice even to jubilation, 

and are exultant when they find the grave?

3:23 Why is light given to a man

whose way is hidden,

and whom God has hedged in? 

3:24 For my sighing comes in place of my food, 

and my groanings flow forth like water. 

3:25 For the very thing I dreaded has happened to me,

and what I feared has come upon me. 

3:26 I have no ease, I have no quietness;

I cannot rest; turmoil has come upon me.”

Job 4

4:12 “Now a word was secretly 39  brought 40  to me,

and my ear caught 41  a whisper 42  of it.

4:13 In the troubling thoughts 43  of the dreams 44  in the night

when a deep sleep 45  falls on men,

4:14 a trembling 46  gripped me – and a terror! –

and made all my bones shake. 47 

4:15 Then a breath of air 48  passes 49  by my face;

it makes 50  the hair of my flesh stand up.

4:16 It stands still, 51 

but I cannot recognize 52  its appearance;

an image is before my eyes,

and I hear a murmuring voice: 53 

4:17 “Is 54  a mortal man 55  righteous 56  before 57  God?

Or a man pure 58  before his Creator? 59 

4:18 If 60  God 61  puts no trust in 62  his servants 63 

and attributes 64  folly 65  to his angels,

4:19 how much more to those who live in houses of clay, 66 

whose foundation is in the dust,

who are crushed 67  like 68  a moth?

4:20 They are destroyed 69  between morning and evening; 70 

they perish forever 71  without anyone regarding it. 72 

4:21 Is not their excess wealth 73  taken away from them? 74 

They die, 75  yet without attaining wisdom. 76 

5:1 “Call now! 1  Is there anyone who will answer you? 2 

To which of the holy ones 3  will you turn? 4 

5:2 For 5  wrath kills the foolish person, 6 

and anger 7  slays the silly one.

5:3 I myself 8  have seen the fool 9  taking root,

but suddenly I cursed his place of residence. 10 

5:4 His children are far 11  from safety,

and they are crushed 12  at the place where judgment is rendered, 13 

nor is there anyone to deliver them. 14 

5:5 The hungry 15  eat up his harvest, 16 

and take it even from behind the thorns, 17 

and the thirsty 18  swallow up 19  their fortune. 20 

5:6 For evil does not come up from the dust, 21 

nor does trouble spring up from the ground,

5:7 but people 22  are born 23  to trouble,

as surely as the sparks 24  fly 25  upward. 

5:8 “But 28  as for me, 29  I would seek 30  God, 31 

and to God 32  I would set forth my case. 33 

5:9 He does 34  great and unsearchable 35  things,

marvelous things without 36  number; 37 

5:10 he gives 38  rain on the earth, 39 

and sends 40  water on the fields; 41 

5:11 he sets 42  the lowly 43  on high,

that those who mourn 44  are raised 45  to safety.

5:12 He frustrates 46  the plans 47  of the crafty 48 

so that 49  their hands cannot accomplish

what they had planned! 50 

5:13 He catches 51  the wise in their own craftiness, 52 

and the counsel of the cunning 53  is brought to a quick end. 54 

5:14 They meet with darkness in the daytime, 55 

and grope about 56  in the noontime as if it were night. 57 

5:15 So he saves 58  from the sword that comes from their mouth, 59 

even 60  the poor from the hand of the powerful.

5:16 Thus the poor have hope,

and iniquity 61  shuts its mouth. 62 

5:17 “Therefore, 63  blessed 64  is the man whom God corrects, 65 

so do not despise the discipline 66  of the Almighty. 67 

5:18 For 68  he 69  wounds, 70  but he also bandages;

he strikes, but his hands also heal.

5:19 He will deliver you 71  from six calamities;

yes, in seven 72  no evil will touch you.

2 Timothy 1

1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control.


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The 180th Article

Of the use of jesting.
As for modest jesting, which wholesomely reprehends (finds fault) 
vices by making them appear ridiculous, so a man laugh not at them himself, nor show any hatred against persons, it is not a passion but a becoming quality in a man, that makes the liveliness of his disposition appear, and the tranquility of his soul, which are marks of virtue; and oft-times the nimblessness of his wit too, in that he knows how to set a handsome gloss on things he jests at.

The 181st Article

Of the use of laughter in jesting.
And it is not
unhandsome to laugh at the hearing of another man's jests: nay, perchance they may be such, that it were doltishness (foolish) not to laugh at them. But when a man jests himself, it is more seemly to abstain from it, that he may not seem to be surprised by the things he speaks, nor admire the dexterity of their invention; and that causes those who hear them to be surprised so much the more.

The 182nd Article

Of envy.
That which commonly is called envy is a vice that consists in a perverseness (irrational behavior) of nature, which causes certain men to fret at the good that they see befalls other men. But I here use this word to signify a passion which is not always vicious. Envy then, as it is a passion, is a sort of sadness mixed with hatred which comes from seeing good betide those we think unworthy of it; which cannot be thought with reason, but of the goods of fortune. For, as for those of the soul, yea and the body too, seeing a man has them by birth, it is to be sufficiently worthy of them, that he received them from God before he was capable to commit any evil.

Reparation means making of amends


14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,  

or you will not understand wise counsel. 

14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

but the folly of fools is deception.  

14:9 Fools mock at reparation, 

but among the upright there is favor.


10:12 The words of a wise person win him favor, 

but the words of a fool are self-destructive.

10:13 At the beginning his words are foolish

and at the end his talk is wicked madness,

10:14 yet a fool keeps on babbling.

No one knows what will happen;

who can tell him what will happen in the future? 

10:15 The toil of a stupid fool wears him out, 

because he does not even know the way to the city. 


5:1 Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. 5:3 But among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

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The 183rd Article

How it may be just or unjust.
But when fortune sends goods to anyone whereof he is
truly unworthy, and envy is not excited in us but because naturally, loving justice, we are vexed that it is not observed in the distribution of those goods, it is a zeal (passion) that may be excusable. Especially when the good a man envies others is of such a nature that it may turn to an evil in their hands, as if it be some command or office in the exercising whereof they may misdemean themselves. Yea, even when he desires that good for himself and cannot get it because others less worthy possess it. This makes this passion become the more violent; and yet it may be excusable, provided the hatred in it relate only to the ill distribution of the thing envied, and not to the persons that possess, or distribute it. But there are a few who are so just and generous as to bear no hatred against those that prevent them in the acquisition of a good that is not communicable to many, and that they desired it for themselves, though they who acquired it are as much or more worthy of it. And what is most usually envied is glory. For although that of others does not hinder us from aspiring thereunto, yet it makes the access to it more difficult, and enhances the price.

The 184th Article

From whence it comes that envious men have sallow complexions.
there is no vice so baneful (harmful) to the felicity (happiness) of man as envy. For, besides that those who are tainted with it afflict themselves, they also, to the utmost of their power trouble the delight of others. And they have commonly sallow (pasty) complexions, that is, a pale mingled with yellow and black, and like blood in a bruise. Whence, envy is called in Latin "livor," which agrees very well with what has been said here before of the motions of the blood in sadness and hatred; for this causes the yellow choler coming from the lower part of the liver, and the black coming from the spleen, to spread from the heart through the arteries into all the veins; and that causes the blood of the veins to have less heat, and flow more slowly than ordinarily, which is sufficient to make the complexion livid. But because choler, as well as yellow as black, may be also sent into the veins by many other causes, and envy may not drive enough into them to alter the colour of the complexion, unless it be exceeding[ly] great, and of long continuance it ought not to be thought that all those of this complexion are thereunto inclined.

The 185th Article

Of pity.
Pity is sort of sadness, mingled with love or goodwill towards those whom we see suffer any evil whereof we esteem them unworthy. So it is contrary to envy because of its object, and derision because it considers them in another manner.


5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 52  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56 


27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 18  whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 19  Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 20  Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 21  27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 22  27:19 As 23  he was sitting on the judgment seat, 24  his wife sent a message 25  to him: 26  “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 27  I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 28  about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 29  governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 30  They all said, “Crucify him!” 31  27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”


11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment.


10:32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 10:33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 10:34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison, 40  and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly had a better and lasting possession. 10:35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it has great reward. 10:36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised. 10:37 For just a little longer 44  and he who is coming will arrive and not delay. 10:38 But my righteous one will live by faith [Isaiah  26:20 Go, my people! Enter your inner rooms! Close your doors behind you! Hide for a little while, until his angry judgment is over! 35  26:21 For look, the Lord is coming out of the place where he lives, to punish the sin of those who live on the earth. The earth will display the blood shed on it; it will no longer cover up its slain.], and if he shrinks back, I take no pleasure in him. 10:39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls. 


3:1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and 1  authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work. 3:2 They must not slander 2  anyone, but be peaceable, gentle, showing complete courtesy to all people. 3:3 For we too were once foolish, disobedient, misled, enslaved to various passions and desires, spending our lives in evil and envy, hateful and hating one another. 3:4 3  But “when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, 3:5 he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, 3:6 whom he poured out on us in full measure 4  through Jesus Christ our Savior. 3:7 And so, 5  since we have been justified by his grace, we become heirs with the confident expectation of eternal life.

1 JOHN 1

2:3 Now 7  by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep his commandments. 2:4 The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person. 2:5 But whoever obeys his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in him. 2:6 The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk  just as Jesus walked.


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The 186th Article

Who are most pitiful.
Those who feel themselves very weak and subject to the adversities of fortune seem to be more inclined to this passion than any else, because they fancy the evil of another as possible to befall them, and so they are moved to pity rather out of the love they bear themselves than that they bear to others.

The 187th Article

How the most generous men are sensible of this passion.
But nevertheless, they who are most generous and have the greatest spirits so that they fear not any
evil to themselves, and hold themselves above the power of fortune, are not exempted from compassion when they see the infirmity of other men and hear their complaints. For it is a part of generosity to bear goodwill to every man. But the sadness of this pity is not bitter, and like that which tragic actions personated (pretended) on the stage cause, is more in the exteriors and the senses, than the interiors of the soul, which in the meanwhile is satisfied to think she has done her duty, in that she has a fellow feeling with the afflicted. And there is this difference in it, that whereas the vulgar pity those who complain because they think the ills they suffer are very grievous (serious), the principal object of great men's pity is the weakness of those that they see complain; because they esteem not any accident that may befall to be so great an evil, as is the baseness of those who cannot suffer constantly; and though they hate the vices (wickedness), yet they hate not those they see subject to them, they only pity them.

The 188th Article

Who those are that are not sensible of it.
But there are none but
malignant and envious spirits who naturally hate all men, or else those who are so belluine (brutal) and blinded by good fortune, or desperate through ill, that they think no further evil can befall them who are insensible of pity.


16:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 16:2 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her abominable practices 16:3 and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your umbilical cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water; you were certainly not rubbed down with salt, nor wrapped with blankets.  16:5 No eye took pity on you to do even one of these things for you to spare you; you were thrown out into the open field because you were detested on the day you were born.

16:6 “‘I passed by you and saw you kicking around helplessly in your blood. I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” 16:7 I made you plentiful like sprouts in a field; you grew tall and came of age so that you could wear jewelry. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, but you were still unclothed and bare.

16:8 “‘Then I passed by you and watched you, noticing that you had reached the age for love. I spread my cloak over you and covered your nakedness. I swore a solemn oath to you and entered into a marriage covenant with you, declares the sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. 16:10 I dressed you in embroidered clothing and put fine leather sandals on your feet. I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 16:11 I adorned you with jewelry. I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 16:12 I put a ring in your nose, earrings on your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. 16:13 You were adorned with gold and silver, while your clothing was of fine linen, silk, and embroidery. You ate the finest flour, honey, and olive oil. You became extremely beautiful and attained the position of royalty. 16:14 Your fame spread among the nations because of your beauty; your beauty was perfect because of the splendor which I bestowed on you, declares the sovereign Lord.  

16:15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and capitalized on your fame by becoming a prostitute. You offered your sexual favors to every man who passed by so that your beauty became his. 16:16 You took some of your clothing and made for yourself decorated high places; you engaged in prostitution on them. You went to him to become his. 13  16:17 You also took your beautiful jewelry, made of my gold and my silver I had given to you, and made for yourself male images and engaged in prostitution with them. 16:18 You took your embroidered clothing and used it to cover them; you offered my olive oil and my incense to them. 16:19 As for my food that I gave you – the fine flour, olive oil, and honey I fed you – you placed it before them as a soothing aroma. That is exactly what happened, declares the sovereign Lord.

16:20 “‘You took your sons and your daughters whom you bore to me and you sacrificed them as food for the idols to eat. As if your prostitution not enough, 16:21 you slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 16:22 And with all your abominable practices and prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth when you were unclothed and bare, kicking around in your blood.


14:23 ...“If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.



16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’  16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness  because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me;  16:10 concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned.


7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office,  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness,  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.


3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise.

4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians  and managers until the date set by his father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors,  were enslaved under the basic forces of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8  4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father! 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are a son, then you are also an heir through God. 

4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless basic forces? Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again?



6:10 Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. 6:11 Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 6:12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood,  but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens. 26  6:13 For this reason, take up the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand your ground on the evil day, and having done everything, to stand. 6:14 Stand firm therefore, by fastening the belt of truth around your waist, by putting on the breastplate of righteousness, 6:15 by fitting your feet with the preparation that comes from the good news of peace, 6:16 and in all of this, by taking up the shield of faith with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 6:18 With every prayer and petition, pray at all times in the Spirit, and to this end be alert, with all perseverance and requests for all the saints

Is stoicheia tou kosmou (“the elemental things of the world”) the worthless basic forces  Paul is referencing? Event, occurrence, state, the force that came



2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him, 2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:11 In him you also were circumcisednot, however, with a circumcision performed by human hands, but by the removal of the fleshly body, that is, through the circumcision done by Christ. 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. 2:13 And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. 2:14 He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. 2:15 Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross.  

2:16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you with respect to food or drink, or in the matter of a feast, new moon, or Sabbath days – 2:17 these are only the shadow of the things to come, but the reality is Christ! 2:18 Let no one who delights in humility and the worship of angels pass judgment on you. That person goes on at great lengths about what he has supposedly seen, but he is puffed up with empty notions by his fleshly mind. 37  2:19 He has not held fast to the head from whom the whole body, supported and knit together through its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God.

2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence. 

Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

If, in teaching the great doctrine of the divine nature. of the Soul, and in striving to explain its longings after immortality, and in proving its superiority over the souls of the animals, which have no aspirations Heavenward, the ancients struggled in vain to express the nature of the soul, by comparing it to FIRE and LIGHT, it will be well for us to consider whether, with all our boasted knowledge, we have any better or clearer idea of its nature, and whether we have not despairingly taken refuge in having none at all. And if they erred as to its original place of abode, and understood literally the mode and path of its descent, these were but the accessories of the great Truth, and probably, to the Initiates, mere allegories, designed to make the idea more palpable and impressive to the mind.

They are at least no more fit to be smiled at by the self-conceit of a vain ignorance, the wealth of whose knowledge consists solely in words, than the bosom of Abraham, as a home for the spirits of the just dead; the gulf of actual fire, for the eternal torture of spirits; and the City of the New Jerusalem, with its walls of jasper and its edifices of pure gold like clear glass, its foundations of precious stones, and its gates each of a single pearl. "I knew a man," says PAUL, "caught up to the third Heaven; . . . . that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard ineffable words, which it is not possible for a man to utter." And nowhere is the antagonism and conflict between the spirit and body more frequently and forcibly insisted on than in the writings of this apostle, nowhere the Divine nature of the soul more strongly asserted. "With the mind," he says, "I serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin. . . .As many as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of GOD.... The earnest expectation of the created waits for the manifestation of the sons of God. . . . The created shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, of the flesh liable to decay, into the glorious liberty of the children of God."


8:27 “God does not really live on the earth! Look, if the sky and the highest heaven cannot contain you, how much less this temple I have built! 8:28 But respond favorably to your servant’s prayer and his request for help, O Lord my God. Answer the desperate prayer your servant is presenting to you today. 8:29 Night and day may you watch over this temple, the place where you promised you would live. May you answer your servant’s prayer for this place. 8:30 Respond to the request of your servant and your people Israel for this place. Hear from inside your heavenly dwelling place and respond favorably.


2:9 When they had crossed over, Elijah said to Elisha, “What can I do for you, before I am taken away from you?” Elisha answered, “May I receive a double portion of the prophetic spirit that energizes you. 2:10 Elijah replied, “That’s a difficult request! If you see me taken from you, may it be so, but if you don’t, it will not happen.”

2:11 As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a fiery chariot pulled by fiery horses appeared. They went between Elijah and Elisha, and Elijah went up to heaven in a windstorm. 2:12 While Elisha was watching, he was crying out, “My father, my father! The chariot and horsemen of Israel!” Then he could no longer see him.


12:1 ...Though it is not profitable, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. 12:2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago (whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows) was caught up to the third heaven. 12:3 And I know that this man (whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows) 12:4 was caught up into paradise and heard things too sacred to be put into words, things that a person is not permitted to speak. 12:5 On behalf of such an individual I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except about my weaknesses. 12:6 For even if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I would be telling the truth, but I refrain from this so that no one may regard me beyond what he sees in me or what he hears from me, 12:7 even because of the extraordinary character of the revelations. Therefore, so that I would not become arrogant, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to trouble me – so that I would not become arrogant.  12:8 I asked the Lord three times about this, that it would depart from me. 12:9 But he said to me, “My grace is enough for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” So then, I will boast most gladly about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may reside in  me. 12:10 Therefore I am content with weaknesses, with insults, with troubles, with persecutions and difficulties for the sake of Christ, for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.


1:8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God – the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come – the All-Powerful! 

1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus. 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day when I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, 1:11 saying: Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me,  and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands, 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. 1:14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 1:17 When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last, 1:18 and the one who lives! I was dead, but look, now I am alive – forever and ever – and I hold the keys of death and of Hades! 59  1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things. 60  1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this:   The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has a firm grasp on the seven stars in his right hand – the one who walks among the seven golden  lampstands: 2:2 ‘I know your works as well as your labor and steadfast endurance, and that you cannot tolerate evil. You have even put to the test those who refer to themselves as apostles (but are not), and have discovered that they are false. 2:3 I am also aware that you have persisted steadfastly, endured much for the sake of my name, and have not grown weary. 2:4 But I have this against you: You have departed from your first love! 2:5 Therefore, remember from what high state you have fallen and repent! Do the deeds you did at the first; if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place – that is, if you do not repent. 16  2:6 But you do have this going for you: You hate what the Nicolaitans practice  – practices I also hate.  2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, I will permit him to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.’

Stars are a luminary, and they have a strong gravity. Similarly, a leader of a local church must be a luminary who shines brightly serving the Lord in a special way, with a charismatic gravity to draw people in fellowship and transform them into one family body in Christ. Nicolaitans were known in the cities of Ephesus and Pergamum.

Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

The Will is a force; its limits as yet unknown. It is in the power of the will that we chiefly see the spiritual and divine in man. There is a seeming identity between his will that moves other men, and the Creative Will whose action seems so incomprehensible. It is the men of will and action, not the men of pure intellect, that govern the world.


4:9 Show hospitality to one another without complaining. 4:10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 4:11 Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.


1:5 But now I ask you, lady (not as if I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one we have had from the beginning), that we love one another. 1:6 (Now this is love: that we walk according to His commandments.) This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning; thus you should walk in it. 1:7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, people who do not confess Jesus as Christ coming in the fleshThis person is the deceiver and the antichrist!  1:8 Watch out, so that you do not lose the things we have worked for, but receive a full reward. 

1:9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not remain in the teaching (Didache) of Christ does not have God. The one who remains in this teaching (Didache) has both the Father and the Son. 1:10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching (Didache), do not receive him into your house and do not give him any greeting,   1:11 because the person who gives him a greeting shares in his evil deeds.


6:14 Do not become partners with those who do not believe, for what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship does light have with darkness? 6:15 And what agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share in common with an unbeliever? 6:16 And what mutual agreement does the temple of God have with idols? For we are the temple of the living God, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.” 6:17 Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you, 6:18 and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,says the All-Powerful Lord. 


1:10 ...there are many rebellious people, idle talkers, and deceivers, especially those with Jewish connections 1:11 who must be silenced because they mislead whole families by teaching for dishonest gain what ought not to be taught. 1:12 A certain one of them, in fact, one of their own prophets, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.”  1:13 Such testimony is true. For this reason rebuke them sharply that they may be healthy in the faith 1:14 and not pay attention to Jewish myths and commands of people who reject the truth. 1:15 All is pure to those who are pure. But to those who are corrupt and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 1:16 They profess to know God but with their deeds they deny Him, since they are detestable, disobedient, and unfit for any good deed.


3:10 You, however, have followed my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, my endurance, 3:11 as well as the persecutions and sufferings that happened to me in Antioch, in Iconium, and in Lystra. I endured these persecutions and the Lord delivered me from them all. 3:12 Now in fact all who want to live godly lives in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 3:13 But evil people and charlatans will go from bad to worsedeceiving others and being deceived themselves. 3:14 You, however, must continue in the things you have learned and are confident about. You know who taught you 3:15 and how from infancy you have known the holy writings, which are able to give you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 3:16 Every scripture  is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 3:17 that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work.


5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 5:18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.  5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law and the Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

Until "everything takes place" is a subject of controversy


24:44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled.” 24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures, 24:46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ would suffer and would rise from the dead on the third day, 24:47 and repentance for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 24:48 You are witnesses of these things.

Hosea 6

6:1 Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up.

6:2 After two days will he revive us: in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.

Luke 24

24:13 Now that very day two of them were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. 24:14 They were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 24:15 While they were talking and debating these things,  Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 24:16 (but their eyes were kept from recognizing him). 24:17 Then he said to them, “What are these matters you are discussing so intently as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 24:18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him,  “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” 24:19 He said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet before God and all the people; 24:20 and how our chief priests and rulers handed him over to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24:21 But we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 24:22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us. They were at the tomb early this morning, 24:23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. 24:24 Then some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.” 24:25 So he said to them, “You foolish people  – how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 24:26 Wasn’t  it necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and enter into his glory? 24:27 Then  beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them the things written about himself in all the scriptures.


Romans 11

11:13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Seeing that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 11:14 if somehow I could provoke my people to jealousy and save some of them. 11:15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?


15:12 Now if Christ is being preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead? 15:13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is futile and your faith is empty. 15:15 Also, we are found to be false witnesses about God, because we have testified against God that he raised Christ from the dead, when in reality he did not raise him, if indeed the dead are not raised. 15:16 For if the dead are not raised, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is useless; you are still in your sins. 15:18 Furthermore, those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished. 15:19 For if only in this life we have hope in Christ, we should be pitied more than anyone.

15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 12  15:22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to him. 13  15:24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. 15:25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15:26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death. 15:27 For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. But when it says “everything” has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the one who put everything in subjection to him. 15:28 And when all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all.


If our Lord Jesus Christ will submit to Yahweh in life and death, then we should really consider doing the same thing.

1 CORINTHIANS 88:5 If after all there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we live, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we live. 


28:16 So the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 28:17 When they saw him, they worshiped him, but some doubted. 28:18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,  “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 28:19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,  28:20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,  I am with you  always, to the end of the age.” 


 4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father!” 



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The 189th Article

Why this passion excites weeping.
Now, a man
weeps easily in this passion because love, sending much blood to the heart, causes many vapors to issue through the eyes; and the coldness of sadness retarding the agitation of these vapors converts them into tears, as has been formerly said.

The 190th Article

Of satisfaction of oneself.
The satisfaction that they have, who constantly follow the paths of virtue, is a habit in their soul called tranquility or quiet of conscience. But that which a man acquires anew when he has lately done any action that he thinks good, is a passion, to wit, a sort of joy which I believe is the softest of all, because the cause thereof depends only on ourselves. Yet
when this cause is not just, that is, when the actions from whence we deduct this satisfaction are not of consequence, or else are vicious, it is ridiculous and serves only to produce a pride and impertinent arrogance, which may particularly be observed in those who believing themselves to be devout are only hypocritical and superstitious, that is, who under pretense of frequenting the church, saying many prayers, wearing short hair, fasting, giving alms, suppose they are exquisitely perfect, and imagine they are God's so intimate friends that they can do nothing that can displease him; and whatsoever their passions dictate to them is a good zeal (devotion): although it sometime dictate to them the greatest crimes that can be committed by men, as betraying of cities murdering of princes, exterminating whole nations merely for this, that they are not of their opinion.

The 191st Article

Of repentance.
Repentance is directly contrary to satisfaction of oneself. And it is a sort of sadness proceeding from a belief that
a man has done some evil action, and it is very bitter because the cause comes only from ourselves. Yet nevertheless, this hinders it not from being very useful, when it is true, that the action we repent of is evil, and that we have a certain knowledge thereof, because it incites us to do better another time. But it oft-times comes to pass that weak spirits repent the things they have done, not knowing certainly that they are evil. They persuade themselves so, only because they fear it is so, and had they done the contrary, they had repented too--which is an imperfection in them to be pitied. And the remedies against this defect are the same that serve to take away irresolution.


8:20 I walk in the path of righteousness,

in the pathway of justice,

8:21 that I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth,

and that I may fill their treasuries.  

8:22 The Lord created me as the beginning of his works, 

before his deeds of long ago.

8:23 From eternity I was appointed, 

from the beginning, from before the world existed. 

8:24 When there were no deep oceans I was born, 

when there were no springs overflowing with water;

8:25 before the mountains were set in place –

before the hills – I was born,

8:26 before he made the earth and its fields,

or the beginning  of the dust of the world.

8:27 When he established the heavens, I was there;

when he marked out the horizon over the face of the deep,

8:28 when he established the clouds above,

when the fountains of the deep grew strong, 

8:29 when he gave the sea his decree

that the waters should not pass over his command, 

when he marked out the foundations of the earth,

8:30 then I was beside him as a master craftsman

and I was his delight day by day,

rejoicing before him at all times,

8:31 rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth,

and delighting in its people.

John 1

1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God. 1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning. 1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created. 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind. 1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it.



28:9 “And you, Solomon my son, obey the God of your father and serve him with a submissive attitude and a willing spirit, 12  for the Lord examines all minds and understands every motive of one’s thoughts. If you seek him, he will let you find him, 13  but if you abandon him, he will reject you permanently. 

Proverbs 8

8:32 “So now, children, listen to me;

blessed are those who keep my ways.

Luke 11

11:27 a woman in the crowd spoke out to him [Jesus], “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”  11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”

John 14

14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.”

8:33 Listen to my instruction so that you may be wise, 

and do not neglect it.

John 14

14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you  everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.

1 Peter 4

4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. 4:13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. 4:14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.

Job 32

32:7 I said to myself, ‘Age should speak,

and length of years should make wisdom known.’

32:8 But it is a spirit in people,

the breath of the Almighty,

that makes them understand.

Job 28

28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from?

Where is the place of understanding?

28:21 For it has been hidden

from the eyes of every living creature,

and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed.

28:22 Destruction and Death say,

‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’

28:23 God understands the way to it,

and he alone knows its place.

28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth

and observes everything under the heavens.

28:25 When he made the force of the wind

and measured the waters with a gauge.

28:26 When he imposed a limit for the rain,

and a path for the thunderstorm

28:27 then he looked at wisdom and assessed its value; 

he established it and examined it closely.

28:28 And he said to mankind,

The fear of the Lord  – that is wisdom,

and to turn away from evil is understanding.’

Proverbs 8

8:34 Blessed is the one who listens to me,

watching at my doors day by day,

waiting beside my doorway.

8:35 For the one who finds me finds life

and receives favor from the Lord.

8:36 But the one who does not find me brings harm to himself;

all who hate me love death.”

Isaiah 11

11:2 The Lord’s spirit will rest on him  –

a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, 

a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans,

a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord.

11:3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord.

He will not judge by mere appearances,

or make decisions on the basis of hearsay.

11:4 He will treat the poor fairly, 

and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth

He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, 

and order the wicked to be executed. 

11:5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist,

integrity will be like a belt around his hips.

Matthew 3

3:11 I baptize you with water, for repentance, but the one coming after me is more powerful than I am – I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.


1:9 Now in those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan River.  1:10 And just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens splitting apart and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my one dear Son; in you I take great delight.” 1:12 The Spirit immediately drove him into the wilderness. 


12:1 With regard to spiritual gifts, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed. 12:2 You know that when you were pagans you were often led astray by speechless idols, however you were led. 12:3 So I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit.

12:4 Now there are different gifts, but the same Spirit. 12:5 And there are different ministries, but the same Lord. 12:6 And there are different results, but the same God who produces all of them in everyone. 12:7 To each person the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the benefit of all. 12:8 For one person is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, and another the message of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 12:10 to another performance of miracles, to another prophecy, and to another discernment of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues. 12:11 It is one and the same Spirit, distributing as he decides to each person, who produces all these things.

12:12 For just as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body – though many – are one body, so too is Christ. 12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves 4  or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit.

John 14

14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

Exodus 3

3:13 Moses said to God, “If I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’  – what should I say to them?”

3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” And he said, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord  – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’

1 KINGS 19

19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”


11:20 In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots. 11:21 Peter remembered and said to him, Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered.” 11:22 Jesus said to them, “Have faith in God. 11:23 I tell you the truth,  if someone says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him. 11:24 For this reason I tell you, whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 11:25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will also forgive you your sins.”

 1 JOHN 5

This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. 5:5 Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? 5:6 Jesus Christ is the one who came by water and blood – not by the water only, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 5:7 For there are three that testify, 5:8 the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are in agreement.

Genesis 1

1:2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface  of the water.

Isaiah 44

44:1 Now, listen, Jacob my servant,

Israel whom I have chosen!”

44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

“Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

Jeshurun, 1  whom I have chosen!

44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground

and cause streams to flow on the dry land.

I will pour my spirit on your offspring

and my blessing on your children.

44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass,

like poplars beside channels of water.

44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’

and another will use the name ‘Jacob.’

One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

and use the name ‘Israel.’” 

Isaiah 58

58:11 The Lord will continually lead you;

he will feed you even in parched regions.

He will give you renewed strength,

and you will be like a well-watered garden,

like a spring that continually produces water.


15:18 He [Sampson] was very thirsty, so he cried out to the Lord and said, “You have given your servant this great victory. But now must I die of thirst and fall into hands of the Philistines?” 15:19 So God split open the basin at Lehi and water flowed out from it. When he took a drink, his strength was restored and he revived. For this reason he named the spring En Hakkore. It remains in Lehi to this very day.

Psalms 105

105:26 He [God] sent his servant Moses,

and Aaron, whom he had chosen.

105:27 They executed his miraculous signs among them, 

and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

105:28 He made it dark

they did not disobey his orders.

105:29 He turned their water into blood,

and killed their fish.

Psalms 107

107:33 He turned streams into a desert,

springs of water into arid land,

107:34 and a fruitful land into a barren place, 

because of the sin of its inhabitants.

107:35 As for his people, he turned a desert into a pool of water,

and a dry land into springs of water.

1 Kings 22

 22:20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die 20  there?’ One said this and another that. 22:21 Then a spirit 21  stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 22:22 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 22  said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 23  Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 22:23 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 22:24 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?”

1 Samuel 16

16:14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. 

Isaiah 19

19:3 The Egyptians will panic,

and I will confuse their strategy.

They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead,

from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians.

Mark 1

 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

John 4

4:13 Jesus replied, 33  “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty 34  again. 4:14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again, 35  but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain 36  of water springing up 37  to eternal life.” 


11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment. I will give directions about other matters when I come.

1 John 4

4:1 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to determine if they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4:2 By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses Jesus as the Christ who has come in the flesh is from God, 4:3 but every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming, and now is already in the world.

4:4 You are from God, little children, and have conquered them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world. 4:5 They are from the world; therefore they speak from the world’s perspective and the world listens to them. 4:6 We are from God; the person who knows God listens to us, but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of deceit. 


Water is used to purify those repenting sin against God.   strength was restored and he revived wash his clothes and bathe

In nature water moves throughout our planet to bring forth and restore life. Water is used by man to drink, bathe, and wash clothes. The Holy Spirit of Glory is a force of God's will that moves everywhere through nature purifying and restoring life. The communities of Moses and Jesus testify that the Spirit of Glory can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, knowledge, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment to loyal humble human spirits to testify the truth about God and lead followers according to His will.  Through prayer the communities of Moses and Jesus testify that humble living human spirits may ask God's Spirit to bless them with with clean water to purify repenting members from unclean sin.  The Lord's Spirit can manipulate nature to pollute and eradicate life from prideful living human spirits that reject God they know to be true and rebel against His will.  The Holy Spirit can also empower an evil unclean dead human spirit to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, disease and death to rejected prideful living humans spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community. 

Psalms 114

114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord –

before the God of Jacob,

114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,

a hard rock into springs of water!

Numbers 19

19:7 ...the priest must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, but the priest will be ceremonially unclean until evening. 19:8 The one who burns it must wash his clothes in water and bathe himself in water. He will be ceremonially unclean until evening.

19:9 “‘Then a man who is ceremonially clean must gather up the ashes of the red heifer and put them in a ceremonially clean place outside the camp. They must be kept for the community of the Israelites for use in the water of purification  – it is a purification for sin.

Numbers 27

27:15 Then Moses spoke to the Lord: 27:16 “Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all humankind, appoint a man over the community, 27:17 who will go out before them, and who will come in before them,  and who will lead them out, and who will bring them in, so that the community of the Lord may not be like sheep that have no shepherd.”

Psalms 51

51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! 

Renew a resolute spirit within me!

51:11 Do not reject me! 

Do not take your Holy Spirit away from me!

51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance!

Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 

51:13 Then I will teach rebels your merciful ways,  

and sinners will turn to you.

51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, O God, the God who delivers me!

Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance.

51:15 O Lord, give me the words!  

Then my mouth will praise you.

51:16 Certainly you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it

you do not desire a burnt sacrifice

51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit  –

O God, a humble and repentant heart you will not reject. 

Job 14

14:13 “O that 33  you would hide me in Sheol, 34 

and conceal me till your anger has passed! 35 

O that you would set me a time 36 

and then remember me! 37 

14:14 If a man dies, will he live again? 38 

All the days of my hard service 39  I will wait 40 

until my release comes. 41 

14:15 You will call 42  and I 43  – I will answer you;

you will long for 44  the creature you have made. 

John 14

14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34  my commandments.  14:16 Then 36  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38  because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you.


1:4 I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus. 1:5 For you were made rich 6  in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge 7  – 1:6 just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you – 1:7 so that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation 8  of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:8 He 9  will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son, Jesus Christ our Lord.


3:23 Now before faith 51  came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 52  until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 53  until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 54  by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 55  3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 56  3:27 For all of you who 57  were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 58  nor free, there is neither male nor female 59  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 60  heirs according to the promise.

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Genesis 9

9:4 But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 

9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood, 

by other humans 

must his blood be shed;

for in God’s image 

God has made humankind.”

Leviticus 17

17:10 “‘Any man 23  from the house of Israel or from the foreigners who reside in their 25  midst who eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from the midst of his people, 17:11 for the life of every living thing is in the blood. 28  So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 30  17:12 Therefore, I have said to the Israelites: No person among you is to eat blood, 31  and no resident foreigner who lives among you is to eat blood. 32 

17:13 “‘Any man from the Israelites 33  or from the foreigners who reside 34  in their 35  midst who hunts a wild animal 36  or a bird that may be eaten 37  must pour out its blood and cover it with soil, 17:14 for the life of all flesh is its blood. 38  So I have said to the Israelites: You must not eat the blood of any living thing 39  because the life of every living thing is its blood – all who eat it will be cut off. 

Numbers 35

35:33 “You must not pollute the land where you live, for blood defiles the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed there, except by the blood of the person who shed it. 


12:23 However, by no means eat the blood, for the blood is life itself 34  – you must not eat the life with the meat! 


16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil.

Ezekiel 22

22:23 The word of the Lord came to me: 22:24 “Son of man, say to her: ‘You are a land that receives no rain 32  or showers in the day of my anger.’ 33  22:25 Her princes 34  within her are like a roaring lion tearing its prey; they have devoured lives. They take away riches and valuable things; they have made many women widows 35  within it. 22:26 Her priests abuse my law and have desecrated my holy things. They do not distinguish between the holy and the profane, 36  or recognize any distinction between the unclean and the clean. They ignore 37  my Sabbaths and I am profaned in their midst. 22:27 Her officials are like wolves in her midst rending their prey – shedding blood and destroying lives – so they can get dishonest profit.

John 6

6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

1 Corinthians 15

15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen

Hebrews 9

9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 35 

Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted
10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 1  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 2  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 3  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 4  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

“Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

10:6 “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

10:7 “Then I said, ‘Here I am: 5  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 6 

10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offeringsyou did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 7  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 8  He does away with 9  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 10  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 11  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 12  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 13  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 14  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 15  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 16  10:16 “This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 17  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 18  10:17 then he says, 19  “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 20  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

Hebrews 10

10:19 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 21  since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 10:20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us 22  through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 23  10:21 and since we have a great priest 24  over the house of God, 10:22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings, 25  because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience 26  and our bodies washed in pure water. 10:23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 10:24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, 27  10:25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day 28  drawing near. 29 

10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 30  10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury 31  of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 32  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death 33  without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 34  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for 35  the Son of God, and profanes 36  the blood of the covenant that made him holy, 37  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 38  and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 39  10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.


2:11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh – who are called “uncircumcision” by the so-called “circumcision” that is performed on the body 24  by human hands – 2:12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, 25  alienated from the citizenship of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, 26  having no hope and without God in the world. 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 27  2:14 For he is our peace, the one who made both groups into one 28  and who destroyed the middle wall of partition, the hostility, 2:15 when he nullified 29  in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man 30  out of two, 31  thus making peace, 2:16 and to reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by which the hostility has been killed. 32  2:17 And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 2:18 so that 33  through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 2:19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of God’s household, 2:20 because you have been built 34  on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 35  with Christ Jesus himself as 36  the cornerstone. 37  2:21 In him 38  the whole building, 39  being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, 2:22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

Paul's Relationship to the Divine Mystery
3:1 For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 1  for the sake of you Gentiles – 3:2 if indeed 2  you have heard of the stewardship 3  of God’s grace that was given to me for you, 3:3 that 4  by revelation the divine secret 5  was made known to me, as I wrote before briefly. 6  3:4 When reading this, 7  you will be able to 8  understand my insight into this secret 9  of Christ. 3:5 Now this secret 10  was not disclosed to people 11  in former 12  generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by 13  the Spirit, 3:6 namely, that through the gospel 14  the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members 15  of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus. 

The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches those the community that follows God's covenant with Moses that the blood of a living creature is life that we must not drink or face punishment. But, humble clean living human spirits may be use the blood of a living creature an offering to God for the atonement a sins that members of the community of Moses have committed. The Holy Spirit teaches that the blood of a living human spirit is life that we must not take or drink of face punishment. The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches the community that follows God's covenant with Jesus, that humble living human spirits are offered to drink His Glorified blood for the atonement and resurrection of all that believe in him. 

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particles can be created from
nothing but energy, certain features,
such as electrical charge, cannot

 gravitational potential energy is negative. Because a negative amount of work is done to bring an object closer to the Earth, gravitational potential energy is always a negative number when using this reference point.  

 The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Space is also filled with radiation (e.g. light and heat), magnetic fields and high energy particles (e.g. cosmic rays).


In empty space, there is no air, and what we call "sound" is actually vibrations in the air. Now, like you've said, there are indeed light waves and radio waves in space, but these waves are not sound, but light. Light does not need air to travel, but then you don't hear it; you see it, or it is interpreted by your radio set and then translated into sound.

You're right that there are gases in space, and it's true that these gasses can propagate sound waves just like Earth's air allows sound to travel. The difference is that interstellar gas clouds are much less dense than the Earth's atmosphere. (They have fewer atoms per cubic foot.) So if a sound wave was traveling through a big gas cloud in space and we were out there listening

Space probably does go on forever, but the truth is we don’t know. 

The part of space we can see is called the observable universe. 

The observable universe can even be measured. It is 93 billion light years from one side to the other.

Our part of space, or the observable universe, has a special shape: it is flat.

The Universe simply expanded from a very small volume into a huge volume, and this expansion is occuring even today. 

something of the size of an atom expanded to the size of the solar system by the end of the inflationary epoch.

The orbits of the planets and the shapes of spiral galaxies has to do with the way they form and conservation of angular momentum, and nothing to do with the geometry of the universe as a whole. As the solar system formed from a giant spherical gas cloud, the cloud started to rotate. That meant that it was easier for material to fall in along the poles than around the 'equator', because around the equator it had to battle against the centripetal acceleration trying to push it out again. The cloud therefore slowly collapsed into a disk like structure from which the planets formed. The same exact process explains the disks of spiral galaxies.

Outer space' begins about 100 km above the Earth, where the shell of air around our planet disappears. With no air to scatter sunlight and produce a blue sky, space appears as a black blanket dotted with stars.

Particles are tiny bits of matter that make up everything in the universe. The space your body takes up is different from the space other matter takes up that you perceive in nature.

Experiencing visual space is a subtle act of the human body and mind.

Wayfinding, orientation, direction, etc. all come from visual clues. The lens of our eye, with a 22mm focal length allows us to experience perspective space in a consistent and readable way. Our neck and eyes move, completing a spherical dome of information surrounding us at any point. But, when a slight change is introduced to this formula we start to question what exactly space is.

The awareness of the position, size, form, distance, and direction of an object, or of oneself



Space is usually regarded as being completely empty. But this is not true. The vast gaps between the stars and planets are filled with huge amounts of thinly spread gas and dust. Even the emptiest parts of space contain at least a few hundred atoms or molecules per cubic metre.
Space is also filled with many forms of radiation that are dangerous to astronauts. Much of this infrared and ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun. High energy X-rays, gamma rays and cosmic rays – particles travelling close to the speed of light – arrive from distant star systems.

Since there are no molecules in the vacuum of space there are neither atmosphere nor pressure. When there is no atmosphere, all of the molecules in the area want to spread out as much as possible. If you were on a space ship and stepped outside, you would not be crushed. Instead, you would blow up like a huge balloon as your molecules began to spread out. Eventually you would pop. Very messy.

A total, or perfect, vacuum would be a space from which all matter has been removed. This includes solids, liquids, and gases (including air). It would be a space that contains “nothing.” Since there is no method or device that can remove all matter from an enclosed space, a perfect vacuum is unknown and has only theoretical meaning.

You take the last drink out of an orange juice container. As you put the empty container in the recycling bin, you wonder if it's really empty. Guess what? It isn't! There are still air molecules that take up space inside that orange juice container. But, if you could suck out all of those air molecules, you would have a vacuum. In science, a vacuum is defined as space without matter or air. 

Egocentric distances are defined as the interval between the viewer and an environmental location of interest. Exocentric distances are defined as the interval between two environmental locations of interest, neither being the viewer. (The term depth perception is often implicitly taken to refer to judgments of egocentric distance.) This chapter focuses on absolute egocentric distance perception, which involves accurately scaled perceptual judgments of the distance of environmental locations from the viewer.

Most of the work dealing with viewing from a fixed location
has been concerned with the perception of egocentric (absolute)
distance, exocentric (relative) distance or depth, and size.

an observer has an
internal representation of surrounding physical space, referred
to as visual space or visually perceived space, and then to
attempt to measure properties of visual space using a variety 



Space is everything in our surrounding environment or just simply everything around us. Our spatial perception is how we see the world and understand it. As a child the physical proportions and dimensions of space for us are small. As we grow and become more active we begin to orient ourselves to the space around us. Our eyes make thousands of subconscious computations to perceive positive space (objects) and negative space (empty areas). In time our mind becomes more familiar with the types of space around us that we are able to move more independently and our world begins to greatly expand. There are many that believe that our conscious mind gives us the ability to perceive Nature and understand Natural Law. Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews), Jesus (Christians), and Mohammed (Islam) believe and testify that through the Will of the Creator (God) has given human beings a conscious mind (living spirit) to understand the world around them. There are some quantum physicists that theorize that our conscious mind is actually a four dimensional radiant field outside our physical body connected to our nerves through Quantum entanglement.  Put simply our conscious mind is comprised of both a quantifiable (measurable) Central and Peripheral nervous system connected to nonquantifiable (immeasurable) negative space.  

As we grow our young minds learn that much of what we perceive as negative space is not completely empty and quite measurable. Every so often we may hear and/or feel a gentle wind moving in the negative space even though our eyes cannot see it. We do see the effect this breeze has on other object around us.  Watching the plants and trees sway we begin to understand there are invisible objects and active forces throughout our negative space. Every so often on a cold winter day we may see a  cloud of vapor (moisture) coming from the air we exhale out from our lungs. When we look up to the sky we notice larger clouds of vapor moving across negative space. In time we learn this vapor is called moisture and  it comes from the transformation of a liquid object we know as water we that we drink, swim, and bathe in to another object we know as gas that float through negative space. Every so often the clouds of vapor above us get larger and darker. Soon cool drops of liquid (water) we know as rain fall down and splashing on everything they land on. The sound rain makes can be heard when it lands on us or when it hits the ground. As we grow older we learn that sound is a disturbance (wave) that travels through objects and negative space. When enough rain lands on the ground a pool liquid forms what we call puddles that can be fun to play in. Every so often during the season when it is cold and our bodies shiver dark clouds pass over our heads. Soon crystal flakes called flurries gently fall from the clouds and land on the ground forming a white blanket we call snow.

As we grow we learn that we can only see objects if they give off light or light bounces off of them. When we look up and see a bright object shining through the clouds our loved ones call the Sun. Soon the clouds and rain disappear and the Sun dries the water from our skin. In time our body and objects around us get warmer. We soon learn this bright object that radiates heat has a name our loved ones call the Sun. Later in life we learn that light and heat originate from tiny wave particles called Photons that have traveled a great distance from the sun. A wave particle has properties of both a wave and a particle. A wave is a kind of disturbance (oscillation, vibration, motion) that travels through negative space and objects (matter) transferring energy from one area to another. A particle is a tiny object that cannot be seen with our eyes. To get an idea how small a particle is imagine a 2 millimeter grain of sand being composed of unique collection of 10 Quintillion (10 to the 19th power or simply 1019) particles. Now your imagine that your body is comprised of a unique collection of over 10 Octillion (10 to the 28th power or simply 1028) particles. 

. So we see things because light bounces off objects back towards us. We can use other
senses to gather information about things we cannot see, such as hearing. For example, sonar involves
bouncing sound waves off an object and observing the reflected wave. This technique is also used in echolocation.
Dolphins and bats use echo-location to detect the location and shape of an object, by sending out a
sound wave and observing how the reflected sound wave comes back to them

The form of your body is different from other forms that are visible in Nature.   particles that are arranged differently from other forms that you perceive in Nature.


Why do you matter? Because, you play a unique role in the evolution of our Nature (Universe).

 matter that make up everything in the universe

A Photon is a type of unstructured zero mass elementary Boson (packet of energy) particle that is a carrier (transmitter) of electromagnetic (electric and magnetic waves) force (power to attract or repel anything with an electrical charge) that moves at the speed of light in the vacuum of space, but is significantly slower in air and water. Photons have limitless energy range (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays). At  At high energy levels  a photon can change knock off electrons and change chemical compositions. If a photon's energy level is high enough it can collapse and form a Black Hole (2 billion joules). In Nature, Dark Matter has not yet been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are accepted as a fundamental part of the Universe. 

The energy Photons are dispersed by what is called electromagnetic (electric and magnetic wave) radiation. A Photon is so small that it is considered unstructured with zero mass, but has ability to carry electromagnetic force energy to Earth and other objects in space at the the speed of light. In the span of 8 minutes and 20 seconds Photons reach Earth from the Sun.  Plants, trees, and many other organisms convert the photon light energy packets into chemical energy in a process called Photosynthesis. When animals eat plants the stored chemical energy is transferred to the organism to function. Photon light energy heat the oceans, land masses, and the air. The heat makes wind and ocean currents. Photons light energy evaporates water, forms clouds, and drops rain and snow all over the place. There are Diest that believe and testify the Sun to a visible luminary (source of light) agent of the Creator which rises from the East and sets in the West, the source of all the seasons, the cause of day and night, the parent of vegetation, and a friend of man. There are many Polytheist that believe and testify the Sun to be a powerful Deity and a central figure in a pantheon of Gods. Jews and Christians believe and testify that that the Creator is not the Sun, but through a force of will God created light. 



 that disperse the energy released by the constant conversion of hydrogen to helium reaction occurring in our sun.In Nature, our Sun is one of trillions of other stars that generate visible light you see and the radiant heat you feel.  

We notice that when the Sun disappears into the negative space our body and the objects around us become colder or darker.  

When the space around us becomes too dark and cold our loved ones may create a small light similar to our Sun. We soon learn this bright object has a name called Fire. As we look closer at Fire we notice that it has has different bright colors glowing from pile fallen trees and branches similar to the ones we have seen standing when the Sun shining are called wood. Stretching our hands over the whitish orange flames our body warms up from the cold. If we put our hands too close to the blue flames the warmth becomes hot and painful. As the fire continues more wood is added to the existing coals glowing as they slowly break down into powder we call ash. 

Sitting next our fire hot flashes of light shoot up into the black negative space with other bright objects (satellites, ships, asteroids, comets, planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, etc...).  Later in life we learn our ancestors were sky watchers like ourselves. These sky watchers (astronomers) thought that our home called Earth was a motionless and all objects know collectively as the Universe moved around us through negative space. 



In time,  we learned that our Earth moves around (orbits) the Sun like other planets and objects.

We later learn that objects are any thing that is bound together by its own gravity.

We then learned that our   position in space was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and velocity (symbol v) as a fixed frame of reference. Velocity is the rate of motion in a specific direction. All motion is relative to the frame of reference from which it is being observed.

When we look up at the sky at night and see


Most of the universe is empty space, called a vacuum, but it is an imperfect vacuum. There are clouds of interstellar dust and the tiny particles that make up the solar wind. There are many isolated particles and hydrogen atoms, which sometimes form clouds over a billion kilometers wide called "nebulae."

Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference our eyes see Space consisting of 3 dimensions (coordinate symbols x,y,z). Where x, y, and z equal individual points of space. If a point in space is expanded outward in two directions with infinite (never ending) distance a line of a one dimensional plane will be created with infinite length, but no width (breadth) or height (or depth).  If that point of space is expanded outward in infinite directions and distance a two dimensional plane will be created with length and width (ex. square), but no height. Now if the two dimensional plane is expanded upwards and downwards with infinite distance then a three dimensional plane will be created with length, width and height (ex. cube).


Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we observe a constant rising and setting of the sun in the sky.  Before there were watches, time was measured by this physical process. Time is simply the rate of change happening all around us. As time progresses in a human lifespan we observe how starts as a newborn baby, a playful child, studious adolescent, mature adult parent, wise grandparent, and then death. Time  (coordinate symbol t) is the fourth dimension that measures physical change (movement) of an object in space. Spacetime is a mathematical model that joins the dimensions of space and time into a single idea called a continuum (continuous connection x,y,z,t) that contains length, width height and movement (tesseract).  Together space and time make up the four-dimension, in which all objects exist and interact with each other.  


Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we can observe that an object will move at a constant velocity unless another object or unbalanced force acts upon it.   All frames of reference moving at constant velocity with respect to inertial frame are equivalent to each other and are also inertial frames.

Time simply the rate of change happening all around us.


Modern astronomers believe that Creation did not start at a single point in space.


In Classical Physics Gravitational Potential Energy is proportional to the amount of work needed to bring an outside object into the gravitational field (an area of attractive force) of another object. The strength of the gravitational force of attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other. As the two objects accelerate closer to each other the Gravitational force gets smaller. Once the smaller object is trapped in the gravitational field it cannot escape unless and outside force can provide a greater amount of energy to escape. 

In the Gravitational Field Model, there is no gravity force of attraction, objects distort Spacetime by means of their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". 

light travels along geodesics, which are approximately straight lines in most circumstances that humans encounter in everyday life, but are curved by gravity)

When an object approaches the speed of light, its inertial energy (work done to resist change in state of motion) approaches infinity and therefore its inertial mass (work done to resist change in velocity) also approaches infinity.

13.8 Billion years ago a oscillation (vibration) disturbance (quantum fluctuation) occurred that changed a true vacuum of nothing into our Universe being born as a very hot and dense singularity (point, bubble, or virtual particle) in space. Some physicist believe that a quantum fluctuation (disturbance) occurred in a Instanton (pseudoparticle that contained gravity, space, time, and mass) within a false vacuum (metastable vacuum absent of gravity, space, time, and mass) of pure energy (symbol E).  In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable (unstable) vacuum state that wants to move to either a lower energy vacuum or a true vacuum state through a process known as bubble nucleation. 

This point in our Universe held a tremendous amount of high frequency stressed potential (stored) energy held together with a strong force of attraction.   In the fraction of a second, a Quantum Fluctuation (temporary change in the amount of energy) occurred within the Singularity. The change of state in the Singularity caused a massive wave of energy to generate a repulsive force (also known as Inflation) that expanded our Universe like a balloon over 100 trillion times its initial size. After several minutes of expansion, the temperature of the Universe became cooler, less dense and the frequency of energy lowered to form a perfect condition for the fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, and strong and weak interactions to generate the building blocks of matter known as quarks and electrons.  A quark is a tiny subatomic particle with a fractional charge



Nucleation occurs when the concentration of the precursors exceeds a critical
supersaturation value. Above this concentration, stable nuclei are formed which continue
to grow as additional energy is available.

Rather, space itself was expanding, with everything in the universe moving away from everything else.


The Earth's axis would pierce that sphere in two places: the celestial north pole and the celestial south pole.







the universe began cooling from the moment after the big bang, the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value at a very high temperature corresponding to when the universe was just a fraction of a second old, and when the number of spatial dimensions was approximately three.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-05-space-three-dimensional.html#jCp

Frame of reference

Something that oscillates is something that "vibrates",


In 1811, Count Avogadro of Italy proposed that the simple
integer coefficients in chemical reactions between gases could be explained by the rule
that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (at the same temperature and

physical space has three dimensions, which
means that it takes exactly three real numbers to locate a point in space. These numbers
are called the coordinates of the point, and the reference frame for coordinates is called the
coordinate system. I

This chapter paints in broad outline the transition from molecules to continuous matter,
or mathematically speaking from point particles to fields.

its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.

moving a mass from infinity (i.e. outside the gravitational field

particles statistically move where there is less resistance by collisions which is generally towards an area of lower density or lower temperature

High entropy generally means high disorder; and low entropy low disorder; the two paradigmatic cases that illustrate these two possibilities is a gas, for the first, and a crystal for the second.

black holes have entropy -- a lot of entropy. I

General Relativity gives a singularity at the very beginning, one spacet time point.

ctual phase diagram of the universe and even if you knew it, there would be no easy way to tell what time scales phase transitions to a higher entropy state will take! The next phase transition (from the phase of the universe we see, right now) to the phase of the universe that will come next, may very well happen on a time scale of 1e40-1e100 years, or so (if we believe black hole evaporation, proton decay estimates etc.). However, if you look at the time scale of that phase transition from the perspective of a "normal" time scale of the following phase, it may happen in an instant... or as quickly as inflation may have happened on the scale of human time perception.


he entropic force is determined by the variation of energy with respect to the radius,


In the extreme mathematical limit, material particles are taken to be truly infinitesimal and
all physical properties of the particles as well as the forces acting on them are described by
smooth—or at least piecewise smooth—functions of space and time.

What is the origin of such an entropic force? The most general answer is that the effect of thermal fluctuations tends to bring a thermodynamic system toward a macroscopic (visible to the unclothed eye) state that corresponds to a maximum in the number of microscopic states (or micro-states) that are compatible with this macroscopic state. In other words,

As the universe expands the gravity energy becomes less negative and in the case of our nearly "flat" universe will approach zero. 

so-called “virtual particles” that constantly wink into and out of existence

They appeal to the well-known phenomena of “virtual particle” creation and annihilation. The spontaneous (but short-lived) appearance of subatomic particles from a vacuum is called a quantum fluctuation.

Force can be strong or weak can and can push or pull on any object. graviton particles All the forces of nature can be simplified down to four most fundamental of forces, which are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear. 

Without a first mover, nothing could be set in motion. Thus we acknowledge the first and primary mover as God.

Electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. 

In empty space there are virtual quantum particles flitting in and out of existence

The only form that can accommodate the change from nothing to something in a
smooth transition without an infinite rate of change is the oscillatory




In crystallization science, this level is referred to as ‘critical supersaturation.'


The transition from ‘pure energy’ to particles is modeled as a crystallization process where the starting and end state consist of the same single entity.  

Formation of the Universe as a... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264339506_Formation_of_the_Universe_as_a_Crystallization_Process_and_the_Evolution_of_Gravity [accessed Apr 29 2018].

 low-energy fluctuations are characterized by local increase
in free energy density (‘bunching’) which is plotted in the positive y-direction of the plot.
To maintain energy balance, this energy bunching must be accompanied by a local
‘energy-hole’ which is deficient of energy and has equal energy density.



The energy in Light was so great that it spontaneously decayed (split) into 6 Fermion Particle types (also known as flavors) with a collective positive charge (Quark) and 6 Sfermion Antiparticle types with a collective negative charge (AntiQuark). Over 3 generations 6 flavors of Quarks and AntiQuarks have been created. The first generation: Up (symbol u) and Down (symbol d);  the second generation: Charm (symbol c) and Strange (symbol s); the third generation Top (symbol t), and Bottom (symbol b ).


but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.


which makes up protons and neutrons. An antiquark is a tiny subatomic antiparticle (antimatter). A Gluon is a zero mass subatomic particle that holds three quarks together forming either a larger proton (two up quarks and one down quark) or a neutron (two down quarks and one up quark) particle. In Nature a Graviton, is an unseen massless spin 2 particle that transmits gravity and travels at the speed of light.


A tiny fraction of a second later quarks clustered together to produce protons and neutrons. Several minutes later protons and neutrons combined into nuclei. At this point, the evolution of our Universe slowed down as it took an estimated 380,000 years to for electrons to be trapped in orbits around nuclei, forming the the smallest component of matter called Atoms (Elements). The first two Atoms created were Hydrogen and Helium.

The size of an Atom (Element) is roughly 4 billionths of an inch (0.000000004 inch) and cannot be divided chemically into a simpler substance. Every object that we can taste, smell and touch is comprised of atoms that come together and exist in the form of Matter. Atoms can come together and form into three different states of Matter: solid, liquid, or gas.  In science, Mass is the measurement of how much Matter is in an object you are observing by first counting the total number of atoms (atomic weight of elements), then counting total volume (size) of space matter takes up.

the You the reader and I the writer are both made up of Matter.

The term Mass (M) is defined as the measurement of how many total atoms are in an object.

  become a moving visible substance known as Primordial Light. This visible substance moved in all directions in both linear momentum (moving in a straight line)  and angular momentum (spin on an axis and orbit around an axis). Over a period of time this visible substance changed motion, divided and came together again through both collisions and scattering to form new substances with different more complex properties.  








When one Up Quark and  

force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

quantum superposition

Wavefunction of Spin One-Half Particle

interacting according to specific laws of force. 

When one up Quark (lightest of Quarks)  Some of these new particles grouped together to form

quantum noise energy

 particles over time. 



with complex phase interchanges and energy exchanges.

Even the feel of your body is different from other solid visible objects found in nature.

inert material body associated with inert energy 


The actions your

  un of matter that is visible  are unique visible physical forms of substance that 


comprised of a diverse collection of physical matter types.


 that can found in every visible object in the Universe that takes up space. I am writing to us this at a point in time moving across our known universe that is only known to you the reader after I have written it. 

 I testify that I am made of a we are in same place at the same time we can both observe and communicate with each other. Right now communication is one way. In the near future I imagine AI (Artificial Intelligence) will categorize our unique nature by recording our actions and brain waves. In the near future,   




there will be attraction between any two or more objects that have Mass.

 weight measures the force of gravity acting on an object

Weight and Size measurements are used to ship objects (packaged goods) from one location to another. In order to calculate the cost of shipping a package the size of the container will be needed to transport it, a transport carrier needs to know the weight of the object and the volume (size) dimensions by multiplying the width times the length times the height. Finding volume shipping cost is usually done with measuring tape and a precision scale.  Volume is also used in measuring cups to determine how much ingredients are needed in cooking and baking. Another way to measure volume is by dropping your observed object into a graduated cylinder containing a known volume of water and measuring the new volume. Gas pumps measure how much volume of fuel is going in your tank. 


On Earth, to find the Mass (symbolized M) of an object you need to divide its weight (symbolized w) by the gravitational field strength of the our planet. Before we understand weight,  a few concepts need be defined. First, weight on our planet is a result of the Gravitational field strength (gravity or gravitation) between the Mass of Earth and the Mass of the observed object. In our everyday life people measure weight of objects to determine their value. To give an example, if apples cost one dollar per pound and you selected an apple that weighed a half pound, then the amount you would have to pay to purchase the apple would be fifty cents. In our everyday life we use symbols to better understand and measure Nature.  When you checkout groceries at the store a person or machine will read (scan) a unique product code given to every item (meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, etc) to determine the unit cost per pound of the item selected. The grocer or machine will weigh the item and give you the cost. Product codes really save time when you are purchasing many items. Scientist also use symbols to better understand Nature. For example, the standard astronomical symbol for our planet Earth is ⊕.  Gnostics define the the cross within a circle as an ancient symbol ⊕  as the both the seen and unseen spiritual upper half and the seen and unseen physical lower half of our world. The point in the middle represents the seen and unseen physical and spiritual coming together as a spiritual being.

The unit of Mass equal to that of Earth is M. This value includes the atmosphere but excludes our moon. Our Earth has a gravitational field strength of 10 Newtons (symbolized N) per kilogram (symbolized kg)2.  The superscript (the number above the normal line type symbolized 2) means a given number multiplied (symbolized x) by itself. A Newton is a unit of force that would give an object with the mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second squared. The formula is N equals (symbolized ? 1 kg x 1 meter (symbolized m) per second (symbolized s) squared. 10 Newtons = 10 kg x 10 m/s2.   Gravitational acceleration (symbolized g) is the intensity of the gravitational field strength between two objects that increase the rate of speed on an object caused by the force of gravitation. On Earth, a 1 kg object weighs 2.2 pounds (symbolized lbs) which also means that 1 lb is the same as 4.45 N


Near the Earth's surface the gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.80665 m/swhich means that, ignoring the effects of air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely will increase by about 9.8 metres per second every second. In a free fall acceleration has the same magnitude as the gravitational field


vector as an arrow pointing in the direction of motion with a length proportional to the speed. We refer to this vector as the velocity.


N / 9.807 = kg


Once you know the mass and volume of an object, you can calculate its density.  This is done by a simple formula of dividing the object’s mass by its volume. Density determines whether the observed object will sink or float in a selected environment. Transport carriers use density to engineer vehicles to more efficiently float in water, fly in air, and drive in roads and railways. After determining the weight, volume and des





which affects only quarks, antiquarks, and gluons at a subatomic level.  




A Creator has not been directly observed, but is accepted by Jews, Christians, Diests, and Polytheist as the fundamental Architect of the Universe. 





and the knowledge of good and evil actions and events that can benefit or harm them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator gave human beings a conscious mind to reason actions or events that cause benefit or harm.

In Nature, human beings have observed actions and events that by which life arises from non-living matter. Jews and Christians believe and testify the that Creator's Holy Spirit breathed life into dust (non living matter) and formed the first living creatures. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator is responsible for the Origin of the Universe, Natural Law, and the Evolution of non living (inorganic) matter into living (organic) matter. Quantum physicists would consider matter in terms of energy and vibration, radiating a unique energy signature.


In Nature, parents teach their offspring what to do in order to survive during life. Jews and Christians teach their children that the Creator communicate with the Righteous who then share the Gospel (Accepted Testimony) of Truth on how to survive and prosper both physically and spiritually through a proper Code of Conduct (Morality). There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has directly assisted human beings to survive and prosper during life and after death.


but its gravitational effects are visible

Dark matter is a type of matter that has not yet been directly observed, but is thought to form a fundamental part of the universe.


Lord and His Angels (Messenger Spirits)


Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews) and Jesus (Christians) believe and testify that the Holy Spirit is a Supernatural (beyond Natural Law) force of Will of the Creator (God) that can can create, modify, and destroy Nature and Natural Law.  

In Nature and by Natural Law water moves throughout our planet to help bring forth and restore life. Like water, Jews and Christians believe and testify that in Nature the Lord's Spirit (Creator Spirit) moves Supernaturally by the Will of God throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Jews and Christians believe and testify that Creator's Holy Spirit has given certain loyal humble human spirits (Righteous) the Supernatural ability to perceive God's Will moving throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Christians believe in testify that the eternal water flows from within the Righteous. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings extrasensory perception (ESP) to perceive information of Unnatural (Supernatural) events where life was generated or restored that could not be viewed through normal senses.



In Society, the community can reject members that break agreed upon laws. Jews and Christians testify that the Spirit of the Lord can reject Sinners (prideful unclean human spirits) and Demons (prideful unclean Angels) and that reject the Creator's Law (Will) on how to live with one another. Jews and Christians testify that the Lord's Spirit (Spirit of the Lord) can rebuke, condemn, and destroy an unclean Demon (Fallen Angel) and Sinners

In Society, members of the community can bestow positions of power to individuals that are considered worthy of it. Jews and Christians testify that the Holy Spirit can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment of good and evil to Righteous to testify the truth about the Creator and lead followers according to His will. 


In Nature, water is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures a way to regulate temperature and transport vital nutrients throughout the organism.  Similar to water, Jews and Christians believe and testify the Lord's Spirit moves unperceivable through Nature with Supernatural power to control matter and bring nourishment to living creatures according to the Creator's Will. Both Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that both the seen and unseen in the Universe have no Supernatural power unless God wills it to be. Through prayer (communication with God) Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Spirit of the Creator to bless them with beneficial water to sustain the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to locate water and modify weather that cannot be done under normal circumstances.

In Nature, water is used to purify (wash) unclean matter that can harm or destroy living creatures. Similar to water, Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that God has the the power to purify the mind and body of all living creatures from that which is unclean to God's Will. Both Jews and Christians use water to perform a purification ritual (Tvilah and Baptism) over human beings that are initiates to their corresponding faith communities. Jews believe and testify that running water is used to temporarily purify the physical bodies of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to temporarily atone themselves from Sin (Transgression) and find fellowship with God. Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Lord's Spirit of Holiness to come and bless water that is used to purify the living spirits of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to atone themselves from Sin and the Desire of the Flesh in order to find fellowship with God and enter the Kingdom of Heaven when the Lord Jesus Christ calls out for them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to manipulate matter to purify the body and conscious of disease and unclean toxins. 

In Nature, water can kill living creatures by floods and contamination. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has used water to punish sinful living spirits with overwhelming floods and contamination according to His Will. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has given the Righteous power of prophecy perceive floods and manipulate water to protect members of the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities of precognition to see future flood events and manipulate matter to contaminate water with disease and unclean toxins.  

In Nature, air is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures with energy. 


through the air, water, and Jews and Christians testify the Lord (another name for God) can permit a vile (evil unclean) spirit (evil unclean spirit) to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, possess, disease and death to rejected prideful unclean living human spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community.

In Nature, drought can kill living creatures from the lack of drinking water. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has taken away water to punish sinful living spirits with drought.

In Nature, blood is the fluid that contains water and nutrients that sustains life in an organism. Jews and Christians testify that the blood within all living creatures (including human) is life.  

Jews  testify that that the Lord has taught sanctioned priests of the community to use the blood of a living creature as an offering for the temporary atonement of sins that have been committed and for the purpose of making a covenant with the Lord for a prosperous life. Christians believe and testify that the Holy Spirit of Glory (Holy Spirit) has taught that there is no longer a need to offer living creatures to the Creator, the unblemished Lamb (Jesus Christ) was sanctioned to sacrifice his blood as a permanent offering for the atonement of sins that have been committed and a new covenant with the Father (the Lord) for eternal life.


Christians believe that purified water of eternal life and the power of God's Spirit resides in the blood of glorified body of Jesus Christ.


In Nature, Attraction is an instinctual physical connection behavior (Physical Beauty) between two or more creatures to survive and reproduce. Many Diest and Polytheist believe that it was the Creator's Will to form creatures with temporary Physical Beauty to arouse the desire to mate (Pairing) by sexual reproduction. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Lord formed living creatures with temporary Physical Beauty be to be fruitful and multiply populations around the planet.

In Nature, affection is considered as an intense emotional connection behavior between two or more creatures. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Creator has affection for all living creatures. 


courtship is an instinctual physical attraction and the sending and receiving of pheromones. In Society

believes and testifies that love is a term of selfless giving to others.  While the instin

Jews and Christians believe that the Lord permitted the Father of lies,  the demon Adversary (Satan) to use Envy to tempt Eve and Adam to go against his will. The Lord used permitted Satan to mentally torment Job test to go against his will.

Jesus  follow God's will like he had successfully done with Eve and Adam. Christ rebuked Satan in the desert and later condemned God's Adversary. The Holy Spirit of Glory can also command unclean demons and spirits to test living human spirits. 


And we must not take or drink human blood (life) or face punishment. Catholics and Orthodox believe that through the sacrament (ritual) of communion (sharing) a real presence with the Messiah (Christ) can be made with humble living human spirits, in which Christ shares his Glorified blood for everlasting atonement of sins mankind has made against the Creator and other living creatures. Jesus blood also and contains the water of the Creator's new covenant with with living human spirits that grants eternal life to those that truly understand the command to Love.  


2:7 The Lord God formed 20  the man from the soil of the ground 21  and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, 22  and the man became a living being. 

Exodus 17

17:4 Then Moses cried out to the Lord, “What will I do with 14  this people? – a little more 15  and they will stone me!” 16  17:5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go over before the people; 17  take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile and go. 17:6 I will be standing 18  before you there on 19  the rock in Horeb, and you will strike 20  the rock, and water will come out of it so that the people may drink.” 21  And Moses did so in plain view 22  of the elders of Israel.

Exodus 24

24:3 Moses came 8  and told the people all the Lord’s words 9  and all the decisions. All the people answered together, 10  “We are willing to do 11  all the words that the Lord has said,” 24:4 and Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. Early in the morning he built 12  an altar at the foot 13  of the mountain and arranged 14  twelve standing stones 15  – according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24:5 He sent young Israelite men, 16  and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls for peace offerings 17  to the Lord. 24:6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and half of the blood he splashed on the altar. 24:7 He took the Book of the Covenant 19  and read it aloud 20  to the people, and they said, “We are willing to do and obey 21  all that the Lord has spoken.” 24:8 So Moses took the blood and splashed it on 22  the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant 23  that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

Exodus 30

30:17 The Lord spoke to Moses: 38  30:18 “You are also to make a large bronze 39  basin with a bronze stand 40  for washing. You are to put it between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it, 41  30:19 and Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet from it. 42  30:20 When they enter 43  the tent of meeting, they must wash with 44  water so that they do not die.


22:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 22:2 “Tell Aaron and his sons that they must deal respectfully with the holy offerings 1  of the Israelites, which they consecrate to me, so that they do not profane my holy name. 2  I am the Lord. 22:3 Say to them, ‘Throughout your generations, 3  if any man from all your descendants approaches the holy offerings which the Israelites consecrate 4  to the Lord while he is impure, 5  that person must be cut off from before me. 6  I am the Lord. 22:4 No man 7  from the descendants of Aaron who is diseased or has a discharge 8  may eat the holy offerings until he becomes clean. The one 9  who touches anything made unclean by contact with a dead person, 10  or a man who has a seminal emission, 11  22:5 or a man who touches a swarming thing by which he becomes unclean, 12  or touches a person 13  by which he becomes unclean, whatever that person’s impurity 14  – 22:6 the person who touches any of these 15  will be unclean until evening and must not eat from the holy offerings unless he has bathed his body in water. 22:7 When the sun goes down he will be clean, and afterward he may eat from the holy offerings, because they are his food. 22:8 He must not eat an animal that has died of natural causes 16  or an animal torn by beasts and thus become unclean by it. I am the Lord. 22:9 They must keep my charge so that they do not incur sin on account of it 17  and therefore die 18  because they profane it. I am the Lord who sanctifies them.

1 Kings 19

19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal 12  to the Lord, the sovereign God, 13  even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, 14  torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 15  19:11 The Lord 16  said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, 17  but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 18  19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden 19  a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 


31:30 Charm is deceitful 73  and beauty is fleeting, 74 

but a woman who fears the Lord 75  will be praised.

31:31 Give 76  her credit for what she has accomplished, 77 

and let her works praise her 78  in the city gates. 79 

Wisdom of Solomon 2

24 Nevertheless through envy of the devil came death into the world: and they that do hold of his side do find it.

Mark 1

1:21 Then 38  they went to Capernaum. 39  When the Sabbath came, 40  Jesus 41  went into the synagogue 42  and began to teach. 1:22 The people there 43  were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, 44  not like the experts in the law. 45  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

Healings at Simon’s House
1:29 Now 54  as soon as they left the synagogue, 55  they entered Simon and Andrew’s house, with James and John. 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, sick with a fever, so 56  they spoke to Jesus 57  at once about her. 1:31 He came and raised her up by gently taking her hand. Then the fever left her and she began to serve 58  them. 1:32 When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were sick and demon-possessed. 1:33 The whole town gathered by the door. 1:34 So 59  he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons. 60  But 61  he would not permit the demons to speak, 62  because they knew him. 63 

Praying and Preaching
1:35 Then 64  Jesus 65  got up early in the morning when it was still very dark, departed, and went out to a deserted place, and there he spent time in prayer. 66  1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him. 1:37 When they found him, they said, “Everyone is looking for you.” 1:38 He replied, 67  “Let us go elsewhere, into the surrounding villages, so that I can preach there too. For that is what I came out here to do.” 68  1:39 So 69  he went into all of Galilee preaching in their synagogues 70  and casting out demons.

John 1 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

 10. He
was in the world, and the world existed by his hand, and the world knew him not.
11. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. 12. But those that
received him, to them he gave authority to become the sons of God, even to them
that believe on his Name, 13. Those who had not been born of blood, nor of the
desire of the flesh, nor of the desire of a man, but of God.

29. And the day after, Yohannan saw
Yeshua Who came to him and Yohannan said : "Behold, The Lamb of God who
takes away the sins of the world!
" 30. "This is The One of whom I said: 'After me
a man is coming and he was himself before me because he had priority over me.'"

32. And Yohannan testified and said:
"I saw The Spirit who was descending from Heaven like a dove and remaining
upon him." 33. "And I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize in water,
he said to me: 'The One on whom you see The Spirit descending and remaining,
This is The One who baptizes in The Spirit of Holiness.' " 34. "And I have seen
and have testified that This One is The Son of God." 35. And another day
Yohannan was standing and two of his disciples; 36. And he gazed upon Yeshua
as he was walking and said: "Behold: The Lamb of God."


John 3 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

1. One man of the Pharisees was living there; his name was Nicodemus. He was a
leader of the Judeans. 2. This man came to Yeshua at night and said to him:
"Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher sent from God, for no man is able to do
these miracles that you are doing unless God were with him." 3. Yeshua answered
and said to him: "Timeless truth I am telling you: If a person is not born again, it is
impossible for that one to see the Kingdom of God.
" 4. Nicodemus said to him:
"How can an old man be born? Is it not impossible for him again to enter his
mother's womb a second time and be born?" 5. Yeshua answered and said to him:
"Timeless truth I am telling you: "If a person is not born from water and The Spirit,
it is impossible that he shall enter the Kingdom of God. 6. That which is born from
flesh is flesh, and that which is born from The Spirit is spirit.
7. Do not be
surprised that I said to you that all of you must be born again. 8. The Spirit
breathes where he will, and you hear his voice, but you do not know from where he
comes and where he goes; thus is everyone who is born from The Spirit.
" 9.
Nicodemus answered and said to him, "How can these things be?" 10. Yeshua
answered and said to him: "You are the Teacher of Israel and you do not know
these things? 11. Timeless truth I speak to you: The things that We know We are
speaking and the things that We see We are testifying, and Our testimony all of
you do not accept.
12. If I have told all of you that which is in the earth and you
are not believing, how shall you believe me if I tell you that which is in Heaven?
13. And no man has gone up to Heaven except he who went down from Heaven:
The Son of Man -- he who is in Heaven. 14. And just as Moses lifted up the
serpent in the wilderness, thus The Son of Man is going to be lifted up, 15. So that
every person who believes in him shall not be lost, but shall have eternal life
. 16.
For God loved the world in this way: so much that he would give up his Son, The
Only One, so that everyone who trusts in him shall not be lost, but he shall have
eternal life. 17. For God did not send his Son into the world that he would
condemn the world, but that he would give life to the world by him. 18. Whoever
believes in him is not judged, and whoever does not believe is judged already,
because he does not believe in The Name of The Only Begotten Son of God. 19.
This is the judgment: The Light has come into the world and the children of men
loved the darkness more than The Light, because their works were evil. 20. For
everyone who does what is hateful, hates The Light and does not come to The
Light, lest his works should be convicted. 21. But he who does The Truth comes
to The Light, so that his works may be revealed, that they are performed by God."

John 4 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

6. And Jaqob's spring of water was there, and Yeshua,
weary from walking, sat down by himself at the spring at the sixth hour. 7. And a
woman from Samaria came to draw water and Yeshua said to her, "Give me water
to drink." 8. For his disciples had entered the city to buy provisions for
themselves. 9. And the Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew,
would ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?" For the Jews do not associate
with the Samaritans. 10. Yeshua answered and said to her, "If only you knew what
the gift of God is, and who this is who says to you, 'Give me to drink', you would
have asked for what he has, and he would have given you living waters." 11. This
woman said to him, "My Lord, you have no bucket and the well is deep. From
where do you have living waters?" 12. "Are you greater than our forefather Jaqob,
he who gave us this well, and he drank from it, also his children and his flock? "

13. Yeshua answered and said to her, "Everyone who shall drink from these waters
shall thirst again
; 14. But everyone who shall drink of the waters that I will give
him shall not thirst for eternity, but those waters that I give him shall be springs of
waters in him that shall spring up into eternal life."
15. This woman said to him,
"My lord, give me from these waters that I shall not thirst again, and so I am not
coming to draw from here." 16. Yeshua said to her, "Go call your husband and
come here." 17. She said to him, "I have no husband.'" Yeshua said to her, "You
have said correctly, 'I have no husband'. 18. For you have had five husbands, and
this man that is with you now is not your husband; this you have spoken truly."
19. The woman said to him, "My lord, I perceive that you are a Prophet. 20. Our
forefathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem is the place
where it is necessary to worship." 21. Yeshua said to her, "Woman, believe me
that the hour is coming in which neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you
worship The Father. 22. You are worshiping what you do not know. We know
what we are worshiping, for The Life is of the Jews. 23. But the hour is coming
and now is, when the true worshippers will worship The Father in The Spirit and in
The Truth, for The Father also is seeking such worshippers as these. 24. For The
Spirit is God, and it is fitting that those who worship him worship in The Spirit and
in The Truth."
25. The woman said to him, "I know that The Messiah is coming,
and when he comes, he will teach us all things." 26. Yeshua said to her, "I AM
THE LIVING GOD , I who am speaking with you

John 6 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

53. And Yeshua
said to them, "Timeless truth I speak to you: Unless you eat the body of The Son of
Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves." 54. "But whoever eats
of my body and drinks of my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise him in the last
day." 55. "For my body truly is food, and my blood truly is drink." 56. "Whoever
eats my body and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him." 57. "Just as The
Living Father has sent me, and I am living because of The Father, whoever will eat
me, he also will live because of Me." 58. "This is the bread that came down from
Heaven. It is not as your forefathers who ate manna and have died; whoever eats
this bread shall live for eternity." 59. These things he said in the synagogue when
he taught in Kapernahum. 60. And many of his disciples who heard were saying,
"This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?" 61. But Yeshua knew in his soul that
his disciples were murmuring about this, and he said to them, "Does this subvert
you?" 62. "Truly you will see therefore The Son of Man ascending to the place
where he was from the first." 63. "The Spirit is The Life Giver; the body does not
benefit anything. The words that I speak with you are spirit and life."

John 7 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

35. The Judeans were saying among themselves, "Where is
This Man prepared to go that we cannot be, indeed to a region of the Gentiles? Is
he prepared to go teach the pagans?" 36. "What is this statement that he spoke:
'You will seek me and will not find me, and wherever I am, you are not able to
come?' " 37. But at the great day, which is the last of the feast, Yeshua stood and
he proclaimed and said: "If a man is thirsty, let him come to me and drink." 38.
"Everyone who trusts in me, just as the scriptures have said, rivers of living water
shall flow from within him
." 39. But this he spoke about The Spirit, Whom those
who were trusting in him were being prepared to receive; for The Spirit had not yet
been given, because Yeshua had not yet been glorified.

Jesus' "cleansing blood," that is, to his death that purifies believers from sin.

John 19 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

34. But one of the soldiers struck him on
his side with his spear, and at once blood and water issued forth
. 35. And he who
saw testified and his testimony is true and he knows that he spoke the truth so that
you also may believe. 36. For these things happened that the scripture should be
fulfilled that says, "Not a bone of him will be broken", 37. And another scripture
again, that says, "They shall gaze at him whom they pierced through,"

Zech 12:10. Here a single phrase is quoted from Zech 12, but the entire context is associated with the events surrounding the crucifixion. The “Spirit of grace and of supplication” is poured out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the first part of v. 10. A few verses later in 13:1 Yahweh (typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT) says “In that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.” The blood which flowed from Jesus’ pierced side may well be what the author saw as the connection here, since as the shedding of the blood of the sacrificial victim it represents cleansing from sin. Although the Jewish authorities and Roman soldiers certainly “looked on the one whom they have pierced” as he hung on the cross, the author may also have in mind the parousia (second coming) here. The context in Zech 12-14 is certainly the second coming, so that these who crucified Jesus will look upon him in another sense when he returns in judgment.


1:10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering 24  – from the sheep or the goats – he must present a flawless male, 1:11 and must slaughter it on the north side of the altar before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, will splash its blood against the altar’s sides. 


12:1 The revelation of the word of the Lord concerning Israel: The Lord – he who stretches out the heavens and lays the foundations of the earth, who forms the human spirit within a person 1  – says, 12:2 “I am about to make Jerusalem 2  a cup that brings dizziness 3  to all the surrounding nations; indeed, Judah will also be included when Jerusalem is besieged. 12:3 Moreover, on that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy burden 4  for all the nations, and all who try to carry it will be seriously injured; 5  yet all the peoples of the earth will be assembled against it. 12:4 In that day,” says the Lord, “I will strike every horse with confusion and its rider with madness. I will pay close attention to the house of Judah, but will strike all the horses 6  of the nations 7  with blindness. 12:5 Then the leaders of Judah will say to themselves, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are a means of strength to us through their God, the Lord who rules over all.’ 12:6 On that day 8  I will make the leaders of Judah like an igniter 9  among sticks and a burning torch among sheaves, and they will burn up all the surrounding nations right and left. Then the people of Jerusalem will settle once more in their place, the city of Jerusalem. 12:7 The Lord also will deliver the homes 10  of Judah first, so that the splendor of the kingship 11  of David and of the people of Jerusalem may not exceed that of Judah. 12:8 On that day the Lord himself will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the weakest among them will be like mighty David, and the dynasty of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them. 12  12:9 So on that day I will set out to destroy all the nations 13  that come against Jerusalem.”

12:10 “I will pour out on the kingship 14  of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to me, 15  the one they have pierced. They will lament for him as one laments for an only son, and there will be a bitter cry for him like the bitter cry for a firstborn. 16  12:11 On that day the lamentation in Jerusalem will be as great as the lamentation at Hadad-Rimmon 17  in the plain of Megiddo. 18  12:12 The land will mourn, clan by clan – the clan of the royal household of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the clan of the family of Nathan 19  by itself and their wives by themselves; 12:13 the clan of the descendants of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; and the clan of the Shimeites 20  by itself and their wives by themselves – 12:14 all the clans that remain, each separately with their wives.”


13:1 “In that day there will be a fountain opened up for the dynasty 1  of David and the people of Jerusalem 2  to cleanse them from sin and impurity. 3  13:2 And also on that day,” says the Lord who rules over all, “I will remove 4  the names of the idols from the land and they will never again be remembered. Moreover, I will remove the prophets and the unclean spirit from the land. 13:3 Then, if anyone prophesies in spite of this, his father and mother to whom he was born will say to him, ‘You cannot live, for you lie in the name of the Lord.’ Then his father and mother to whom he was born will run him through with a sword when he prophesies. 5 

13:4 “Therefore, on that day each prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies and will no longer wear the hairy garment 6  of a prophet to deceive the people. 7  13:5 Instead he will say, ‘I am no prophet – indeed, I am a farmer, for a man has made me his indentured servant since my youth.’ 8  13:6 Then someone will ask him, ‘What are these wounds on your chest?’ 9  and he will answer, ‘Some that I received in the house of my friends.’

1 John 5

6 This is the one who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. 

John 21 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

14. This was the third time Yeshua appeared to his disciples
after he had risen from the tomb. 15. And after they had breakfast, Yeshua said to
Shimeon Kaypha, "Shimeon, Bar Yonah, do you love me more than these things?"
He said to him, "Yes, my Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him,
"Shepherd my lambs for me." 16. He said to him again a second time, "Shimeon
Bar Yonah, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, my Lord. You know that I
love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my sheep for me." 17. He said a third
time, "Shimeon Bar Yonah, do you love me?" And Kaypha was saddened that he
said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "My lord, you
discern everything; you know that I love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my
ewes for me.


John 6

6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, 71  the one who believes 72  has eternal life. 73  6:48 I am the bread of life. 74  6:49 Your ancestors 75  ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6:50 This 76  is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person 77  may eat from it and not die. 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread 78  that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

John 16

16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate 15  will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he 16  comes, he will prove the world wrong 17  concerning sin and 18  righteousness and 19  judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because 20  they do not believe in me; 21  16:10 concerning righteousness, 22  because 23  I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24  because 25  the ruler of this world 26  has been condemned. 27 

Many Followers Depart
6:59 Jesus 96  said these things while he was teaching in the synagogue 97  in Capernaum. 98  6:60 Then many of his disciples, when they heard these things, 99  said, “This is a difficult 100  saying! 101  Who can understand it?” 102  6:61 When Jesus was aware 103  that his disciples were complaining 104  about this, he said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 105  6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before? 106  6:63 The Spirit is the one who gives life; human nature is of no help! The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 108  6:64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus had already known from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) 109  6:65 So Jesus added, 110  “Because of this I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has allowed him to come.” 111 

1 Corinthians 15 

15:42 It is the same with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 25  15:43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 15:44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 15:45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living person”; 26  the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15:46 However, the spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and then the spiritual. 15:47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 15:48 Like the one made of dust, so too are those made of dust, and like the one from heaven, so too those who are heavenly. 15:49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, let us also bear 27  the image of the man of heaven.

15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen,

“Death has been swallowed up in victory.” 32 

15:55 “Where, O death, is your victory?

Where, O death, is your sting?” 33 

15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! 15:58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, 34  be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.


19  4:15 ...practicing the truth in love, 20  we will in all things grow up into Christ, who is the head. 4:16 From him the whole body grows, fitted and held together  through every supporting ligament. As each one does its part, the body grows in love. 4:17 So I say this, and insist in the Lord, that you no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking 4:18 They are darkened in their understanding,  being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts. 4:19 Because they are callous, they have given themselves over to indecency for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 4:20 But you did not learn about Christ like this, 4:21 if indeed you heard about him and were taught in him, just as the truth is in Jesus. 4:22 You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old man who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, 4:23 to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 4:24 and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image 29  – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth.

Hebrews 9

9:1 Now the first covenant, 1  in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 2  which contained 3  the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 4  is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 5  were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 6  were the cherubim 7  of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 8  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 9  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 10  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 11  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 12  and various washings; they are external regulations 13  imposed until the new order came. 14 
9:11 But now Christ has come 15  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 16  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 17  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 18  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

9:15 And so he is the mediator 19  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 20  since he died 21  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 22  9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 

1 Peter 1

1:10 Concerning this salvation,  the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully. 1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when he testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and his subsequent glory. 27  1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven – things angels long to catch a glimpse of.

1 Peter 5

5:8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, 14  is on the prowl looking for someone 15  to devour. 5:9 Resist him, 16  strong in your faith, because you know 17  that your brothers and sisters 18  throughout the world 19  are enduring 20  the same kinds of suffering. 21  5:10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ 22  will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you. 23  5:11 To him belongs 24  the power forever. Amen.



The Peshitta Aramaic-English Interlinear Gospels
The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 10

1. He called His disciples and He gave to them authority over filfthy spirits to cast them out and to heal every ailment and disease

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 11

19. When they arrest you, not shall you be anxious how or what you will speak, it will be given to you for in that hour whatever you should speak. 20. Not it will be you speaking. but, The Spirit of your Father speaking in you, 21. will deliver but brother, his brother, to  death, and father, his son and will rise children against their parents, and they will put to death them. 22. And you will be hated of everyman, because of My name, whoever, but will endure until the end he will be saved.

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 12

16. And he warned them that not they should reveal Him

17. that it should be fulfilled the thing, that which is spoken by Isaiah the prophet which says

18. Behold My Servant in Whom I delight in Him. My Beloved for Whom has longed for Him, My Soul, My Spirit, I shall put upon him and judgment to the nations He will preach.  19. not He will dispute neither will he cry out, nor a man will hear his voice in the streets

27. And if I  am by Beelzebub I am casting out demons, you sons by whom do they cast  out them, because of this  they will be to you judges

28. And if by the Spirit of God, I am casting out demons has come near. it unto you the Kingdom of God.

29 Or How is able that man is able that he should enter the House of a mighty man. And his goods should plunder unless, only first he would bind him, the mighty man and then his house he may plunder 

31. Because of this I say to you, that all sins and blasphemies they will be forgiven, to the children of men the blasphemy, but that is against the Spirit not will be forgiven, to the children of men.

32. everyone who will say, a word against The Son of Man, it will be forgiven to him to everyone, but who against the Spirit of Holiness will talk, not it will be forgiven to him, not in this world and not in the world that is being prepared.

33 either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad, from its fruit is for known a tree.

34. offspring of vipers, How are able you good things to speak who evil are? from the fullness of the heart speaks the mouth

35. a man good from a treasure good, brings good things and a man evil from treasure evil brings evil things

36. say I unto you for that every word idle, that will say children of men, they will give an answer for it in the day of judgement

37. by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.

43. whenever but a spirit vile goes out, from a son of man it wanders about in places, where there is no water in them and it seeks rest and does not find it.

44 then it says I shall return to my house, from where I came out and it goes, finding that is empty and swept and decorated.

45. then it goes bringing with it seven other spirits, than it worse and they enter and dwell in it, and the end of a man that worse than the beginning, thus it will be done to it, to this evil generation

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 18

26. And falling down that servant worshiped him, and he said my lord prolong concerning me your spirit, and everything I shall pay you.

27. And moved with pity his lord of servant that, and he released him and his debt forgiving him.

28. went out but servant that and he found, one of his associates who had owed him a hundred danari and seized him and choked him, and he said to him give to m that which you owe to me.

29. And that associate he fell before his feet, begging of him and saying to him, prolong concerning me your spirit and I shall pay you.

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 26

41. watch and pray lest you enter into temptation, the spirit is ready but the body is weak

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 27

50. but He Yeshua cried again, with a voice loud, and departed his Spirit

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 28

therefore go you disciple all of them the and baptize them in the Name of the Father and the Son and the Spirit of Holiness

The Holy Gospel Preaching of Mark 1

8. I have immersed you in water He will immerse you in The Spirit of Holiness

10. And at once as He came up from the waters He saw the heavens that were ripped open and the The Spirit as a dove who was descending upon Him.

11. And a voice there was from the heavens You are My beloved Son with you I am delighted.

12. And at once the spirit drove Him into the wilderness.

23. And there was in their synagogue a man who had a vile spirit in him and he cried out.

24. And he said, to us what? and to You Yeshua Nazarene, have you come to destroy us? I know Who You are. You are the Holy One of God

25. And Yeshua rebuked and said to him shut your mouth and come out from him.

26. And threw him down and he cried out and the foul spirit in a loud voice came out of him



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Spirits of the air that try to direct us.

n Jewish mythology, a dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‎, from the Hebrew verb דָּבַק‬ dāḇaq meaning "adhere" or "cling") is a malicious possessing spirit believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person. It

The Holy Spirit (Hebrew: ‬רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ‬, Modern ruach hakodesh, Tiberian ruaħ haqqodɛʃ) in Judaism, also termed "Divine Inspiration,"

Ibbur (Hebrew: עיבור‬, "pregnancy" or "impregnation" or "incubation"), is one of the transmigration forms of the soul and has similarities with Gilgul neshamot. Ibbur is always good or positive, while dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‬‎), is negative. Ibbur is the most positive form of possession, and the most complicated. It happens when a righteous soul decides to occupy a living person's body for a time, and joins, or spiritually "impregnates" the existing soul. Ibbur is always temporary, and the living person may or may not know that it has taken place. Often the living person has graciously given consent for the Ibbur. The reason for Ibbur is always benevolent—the departed soul wishes to complete an important task, to fulfil a promise, or to perform a mitzvah (a religious duty) that can only be accomplished in the flesh. In Lurianic Kabbalah, ibbur occurs when an incomplete soul which cannot achieve tikun is completed by the addition of the soul of a tzadik,[1] or spiritual master. Luria believed this to be possible even whilst the possessor was still alive.



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