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The Didache - Introduction
"Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy.  Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of Science and Faith it can be difficult is discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of man.
I have chosen to research the Didache of the 12 Apostles because it is honored as the 'first catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church.  The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles is a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. For nonChristians the Didache is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles.The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. in life. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist the Didache is a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws give to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism  and Unitarianism.
In humble admiration, I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) to best present the truth in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural. President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work.
John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813


I admire your Employment, in Selecting the Philosophy and Divinity of Jesus and Separating it from all intermixtures. If I had Eyes and Nerves, I would go through both Testaments and mark all that I understand. To examine the Mishna Gemara Cabbala Jezirah, Sohar Cosri and Talmud of the Hebrews would require the life of Methuselah, and after all, his 969 years would be wasted to very little purpose.

I will follow the same method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to a particular Apostolic teaching. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition.
I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it.
 In our pursuit for the truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence.


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.'
Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of happiness and misery. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes.
Chapter III
No Innate Practical Principles


Nature, I confess, has put into man a desire of happiness and an aversion to misery: these indeed are innate practical principles which (as practical principles ought) do continue constantly to operate and influence all our actions without ceasing: these may be observed in all persons and all ages, steady and universal; but these are inclinations of the appetite to good, not impressions of truth on the understanding.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
John Locke


Chapter 3
No Innate Practical Principles
I grant the existence of God is so many ways manifest, and the obedience we owe him so congruous to the light of reason, that a great part of mankind give testimony to the law of nature: but yet I think it must be allowed that several moral rules may receive from mankind a very general approbation, without either knowing or admitting the true ground of morality; which can only be the will and law of a God, who sees men in the dark, has in His hand rewards and punishments and power enough to call to account the proudest offender.
Chapter 28
Of Other Relations
8. Divine law the measure of sin and duty. First, the Divine Law, whereby that law which God has set to the actions of men — whether promulgated to them by the light of nature, or the voice of revelation. That God has given a rule whereby men should govern themselves, I think there is nobody so brutish as to deny. He has a right to do it; we are his creatures: he has goodness and wisdom to direct our actions to that which is best: and he has power to enforce it by rewards and punishments of infinite weight and duration in another life; for nobody can take us out of his hands. This is the only true touchstone of moral rectitude; and, by comparing them to this law, it is that men judge of the most considerable moral good or evil of their actions; that is, whether, as duties or sins, they are like to procure them happiness or misery from the hands of the ALMIGHTY.

To understand how  Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England  by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765.
The Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life.
Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England
Of the Nature of Laws in General.



This will of his Maker is called the Law of Nature. For as God, when He created matter, and endued it with a principle of mobility, established certain rules for the perpetual direction of that motion; so, when he created man, and endued him with free will to conduct himself in all parts of life, He laid down certain immutable laws of human nature, whereby that free will is in some degree regulated and restrained, and gave him also the faculty of reason to discover the purpose of those laws.
IF man were to live in a state of nature, unconnected with other individuals, there would be no occasion for any other laws, than the law of nature, and the law of God. Neither could any other law possibly exist; for a law always supposes some superior who is to make it; and in a state of nature we are all equal, without any other superior but him who is the author of our being. But man was formed for society; and, as is demonstrated by the writers on this subject, is neither capable of living alone, nor indeed has the courage to do it. However, as it is impossible for the whole race of mankind to be united in one great society, they must necessarily divide into many; and form separate states, commonwealths, and nations; entirely independent of each other, and yet liable to a mutual intercourse. Hence arises a third kind of law to regulate this mutual intercourse, called “the law of “nations;” which, as none of these states will acknowledge a superiority in the other, cannot be dictated by either; but depends entirely upon the rules of natural law, or upon mutual compacts, treaties, leagues, and agreements between these several communities: in the construction also of which compacts we have no other rule to resort to, but the law of nature; being the only one to which both communities are equally subject: and therefore the civil law very justly observes, that quod naturalis ratio inter omnes hominess conftituit, vocatur jus gentium.

In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States.  But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document.
Locke, Blackstone and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them.
Locke, Blackstone, and Jefferson knew that 50 years before Jesus Christ walked the earth, Cicero, the Roman Philosopher theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator enables man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil).
Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814


Cicero did not wield the dense logic of Demosthenes, yet he was able, learned, laborious, practiced in the business of the world, & honest. he could not be the dupe of mere style, of which he was himself the first master in the world.

In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator.


According to the Greeks, therefore, the name of law implies an equitable distribution of goods: according to the Romans, an equitable discrimination between good and evil. The true definition of law should, however, include both these characteristics. And this being granted as an almost self–evident proposition, the origin of justice is to be sought in the divine law of eternal and immutable morality. This indeed is the true energy of nature, the very soul and essence of wisdom, the test of virtue and vice.

Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato. Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming.
Letter to Menoeceus


Accustom yourself to believing that death is nothing to us, for good and evil imply the capacity for sensation, and death is the privation of all sentience; therefore a correct understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable, not by adding to life a limitless time, but by taking away the yearning after immortality. For life has no terrors for him who has thoroughly understood that there are no terrors for him in ceasing to live. Foolish, therefore, is the man who says that he fears death, not because it will pain when it comes, but because it pains in the prospect. Whatever causes no annoyance when it is present, causes only a groundless pain in the expectation. Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not. It is nothing, then, either to the living or to the dead, for with the living it is not and the dead exist no longer.

Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law.  Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates.  Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree.
50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice.
Nicomachean Ethics
By Aristotle


Now often one contrary state is recognized from its contrary, and often states are recognized from the subjects that exhibit them; for ( A ) if good condition is known, bad condition also becomes known, and ( B ) good condition is known from the things that are in good condition, and they from it. If good condition is firmness of flesh, it is necessary both that bad condition should be flabbiness of flesh and that the wholesome should be that which causes firmness in flesh. And it follows for the most part that if one contrary is ambiguous the other also will be ambiguous; e.g. if 'just' is so, that 'unjust' will be so too.

Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. 
Against Aristocrates Section 75


The defendant, however, admitted no exception; he simply makes an outcast of any man who kills Charidemus, even though he kill him justly or as the laws permit. And yet to every act and to every word one of two epithets is applicable: it is either just or unjust. To no act and to no word can both these epithets be applied at the same time, for how can the same act at the same time be both just and not just? Every act is brought to the test as having the one or the other of these qualities; if it be found to have the quality of injustice, it is adjudged to be wicked, if of justice, to be good and honest.—But you, sir, used neither qualification when you wrote the words, “if any man kill.” You named the mere accusation, without any definition, and then immediately added, “let him be liable to seizure.” Thereby you have evidently ignored this tribunal and its usages as well as the other two.

Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them.
Olynthiac 1 Section 11


I suppose it is with national as with private wealth. If a man keeps what he gains, he is duly grateful to fortune; if he loses it by his own imprudence, he loses along with it the sense of gratitude. So in national affairs, those who fail to use their opportunities aright, fail also to acknowledge the good that the gods have given; for every advantage in the past is judged in the light of the final issue. It is therefore our duty, men of Athens, to keep a careful eye on the future, that by restoring our prosperity we may efface the discredit of the past.

Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality.
To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not.
page 22


"If" says he "what is said to be true, we shall in another "state die no more. In death "he says to his judges "we either lose all sense of things, or as it is said, go into some other place; and if it be so, it will be much better; as we shall be out " of the power of partial judges, and come before "those that are impartial."

Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost.
600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will.

Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11


1 Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord, but a perfect weight is His will.


Proverbs 16



16:9 A person plans his course,
but the Lord directs his steps.
16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,
his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.
16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;
all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. and a later became a goddess. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess. As a concept Ma’at was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi  (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence.
The Moaning of the Bedouin


Those who destroy the lie promote Ma'at;
those who promote the good will erase the evil.
As fullness casts out appetite,
as clothes cover the unclothed and
as heaven clears up after a storm


In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives.  The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality.
Book of the Dead of Hunefer
Papyrus of Un'neferu



Life is with thee, abundance is attached to thee. I offer Maat before thee; grant that I may be in the train of thy majesty like one who is on the earth. May thy name be called upon, may it be found among the just ones.
I have come to this god, to the city of god, to the region of old time; my soul, my ka, my Chu are in this land. The god of it is the lord of justice, the lord of abundance, the great and the venerable one, who is towed through the whole earth; he journeys to the South in his boat, and to the North driven by the winds, and his oars, to be entertained with gifts according to the command of the god, the lord of peace therein, who left me free of care. The god therein rejoices in who practices justice; he grants an old age to him who has done so; he is beloved, and the of it is a good burial and a sepulture in Ta-Tsert.
I have come to thee; my hands bring Maat, my heart does not contain any falsehood, I offer thee Maat before thy face, I know her; I swear by her; I have done no evil thing on earth; I have never wronged a man of his property. I am Thoth, the perfect and pure writer; my hands are pure. I have put away all evil things; I write justice and I hate evil; for I am the writing-reed of the Inviolate god, who utters his words, and whose words are written in the two earths.
I am Thoth, the lord of justice, who gives victory to him who is injured and who takes the defense of the oppressed, of him who is wronged in his property. I have dispelled darkness; I have driven away the storm; I have given air to Unneferu, and the sweet breezes of the North when he comes out of the womb of his mother.

 The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty. The Prisse Papyrus, dating from the twelfth dynasty Egyptian Middle Kingdom, was obtained by the French orientalist Émile Prisse d'Avennes at Thebes in 1856 and is now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.  The Prisse Papyrus contains the only complete surviving copy of the Instruction of Ptahhotep.
Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health.  Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life.  The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. 
Papyrus Prisse


8 (column 6, lines 3-6)
The one who overlooks laws is punished;
that is what is overlooked in the sight of the greedy.
It is the small-minded that seize riches,
but crime never managed to land its rewards.
Whoever says 'I snare for myself'
does not say 'I snare for my needs'.
The final part of what is right is its endurance;
of which a man says 'that is my father'
14 (column 7, lines 9-10)
Follow your heart as long as you live.
Do not make a loss on what is said,
do not subtract time from following the heart.
Harming its time is an offence to the ka.
Do not deflect the moment of every day
beyond establishing your heart.
As things happen, follow (your) heart.
There is no profit in things if it is stifled.
17 (column 8, lines 6-11)
The great of heart is the gift of god,
the one who obeys his body belongs to the enemy.
22 (column 9, line 13 to column 10, line 5)
If you wish your conduct to be good
and to save yourself from all evil,
resist the opportunity of greed.
It is a sore disease of the worm,
no advance can come of it.
It embroils fathers and mothers,
with mother's brothers.
It entangles the wife and the man,
it is a levy of all evils,
a bundle of all hatefulness.
The man endures whose guideline is Right,
who proceeds according to his paces.
He can draw up a will by it.
There is no tomb for the greedy hearted.
25 (column 11, lines 1-4)
The spirit of the correct man is the spirit that brings happiness.
28 (column 11, line 12 to column 12, line 6)
Do not have your heart too high, or it will be brought down.
42 (column 16, lines 3-13)

The hearer is one whom God loves.
The one whom God hates does not hear.
The heart is the creator of its master.
Do not hear from the one who does not hear.
A man's heart is his life, prosperity and health.
2 (column 5, lines 4-6)
Then the Power of this god said:
Teach him then the speech from the past
that he may provide the example for the children of the great.
May hearing enter into him, the measure of every heart.
Speak to him. For none can be born wise
44 (column 17, lines 4-9)

As for the fool unable to hear,
nothing can ever be done for him.
He sees wisdom as ignorance,
and what is good as what is painful.
He commits every error,
to be accused of it each day.
He lives on what one dies of,
corrupt speech is his food.
His character in this is well-known to the officials,
saying 'living death' each day.
His faults are passed over
from the sheer number of faults on him each day.


Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder),  In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits.  Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life.



Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a



R. Levi b. Hama says in the name of R. Simeon b. Lakish:
A man should always incite the good impulse in his soul to fight against the evil impulse. For it is written: Tremble and sin not.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him study the Torah. For it is written: 'Commune with your own heart'.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him recite the Shema'. For it is written:
'Upon your bed'. If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him remind himself of the day of death. For it is written:
[ Tehillim - Psalms 5: 1 To the conductor with melodies, a song of David. 2 When I call, answer me, O God of my righteousness; in my distress You have relieved me, be gracious to me and hearken to my prayer. 3 Sons of man, how long will my honor be disgraced? [How long] will you love futility? [How long] will you constantly seek lies? 4 You shall know that the Lord has set apart the pious man for Himself; the Lord shall hear when I call out to Him. 5 Quake and do not sin; say [this] in your heart on your bed and be forever silent. 6 Offer up sacrifices of righteousness and trust in the Lord. 7 Many say, "Who will show us goodness?" Raise up over us the light of Your countenance, O Lord. 8. You gave joy into my heart from the time that their corn and their wine increased. 9 In peace together, I would lie down and sleep, for You, O Lord, would make me dwell alone in safety.]
'And be still, Selah'.


“Inclination is pleasure, accompanied by the idea of something which is accidentally a cause of pleasure."
Everyone shapes his actions according to his emotion, ... a mental decision and a bodily appetite, or determined state, are simultaneous, or rather are one and the same thing, which we call decision
Now I should like to know whether there be in the mind two sorts of decisions, one sort illusive, and the other sort free? If our folly does not carry us so far as this, we must necessarily admit, that the decision of the mind, which is believed to be free, is not distinguishable from the imagination or memory, and is nothing more than the affirmation, which an idea, by virtue of being an idea, necessarily involves. Wherefore these decisions of the mind arise in the mind by the same necessity, as the ideas of things actually existing. 
This endeavor, when referred solely to the mind, is called will, when referred to the mind and body in conjunction it is called appetite; it is, in fact, nothing else but man's essence, from the nature of which necessarily follow all those results which tend to its preservation; and which man has thus been determined to perform.
Further, between appetite and desire there is no difference, except that the term desire is generally applied to men, in so far as they are conscious of their appetite, and may accordingly be thus defined: Desire is appetite with consciousness thereof. It is thus plain from what has been said, that in no case do we strive for, wish for, long for, or desire anything, because we deem it to be good, but on the other hand we deem a thing to be good, because we strive for it, wish for it, long for it, or desire it.
Thus we see, that the mind can undergo many changes, and can pass sometimes to a state of greater perfection, sometimes to a state of lesser perfection. These passive states of transition explain to us the emotions of pleasure and pain. By pleasure therefore in the following propositions I shall signify a passive state wherein the mind passes to a greater perfection. By pain I shall signify a passive state wherein the mind passes to a lesser perfection. Further, the emotion of pleasure in reference to the body and mind together I shall call stimulation (titillatio) or merriment (hilaritas), the emotion of pain in the same relation I shall call suffering or melancholy. 
Love is nothing else but pleasure accompanied by the idea of an external cause: Hate is nothing else but pain accompanied by the idea of an external cause. We further see, that he who loves necessarily endeavors to have, and to keep present to him, the object of his love; while he who hates endeavors to remove and destroy the object of his hatred. 
If the mind has once been affected by two emotions at the same time, it will, whenever it is afterwards affected by one of these two, be also affected by the other.
if the body, and consequently the mind has been once affected by two emotions at the same time, it will, whenever it is afterwards affected by one of the two, be also affected by the other.
I, therefore, recognize only three primitive or primary emotions, namely, pleasure, pain, and desire.
Anything can, accidentally, be the cause of pleasure, pain, or desire.
the mind afterwards conceiving the said thing is affected with the emotion of pleasure or pain, that is according as the power of the mind and body may be increased or diminished, and consequently according as the mind may desire or shrink from the conception of it, in other words, according as it may love or hate the same.
Hence we understand how it may happen, that we love or hate a thing without any cause for our emotion being known to us; merely, as a phrase is, from sympathy or antipathy.
Simply from the fact that we conceive, that a given object has some point of resemblance with another object which is wont to affect the mind pleasurably or painfully, although the point of resemblance be not the efficient cause of the said emotions, we shall still regard the first-named object with love or hate.
Pride,... is pleasure springing from a man thinking too highly of himself. Again, the pleasure which arises from a man thinking too highly of another is called over-esteem. Whereas the pleasure which arises from thinking too little of a man is called disdain.
In proportion as a man thinks, that a loved object is well affected towards him, will be the strength of his self-approval, that is, of his pleasure; he will, therefore, endeavor, as far as he can, to imagine the loved object as most closely bound to him: this endeavor or desire will be increased, if he thinks that someone else has a similar desire. But this endeavor or desire is assumed to be checked by the image of the loved object in conjunction with the image of him whom the loved object has joined to itself; therefore he will for that reason be affected with pain, accompanied by the idea of the loved object as a cause in conjunction with the image of his rival; that is, he will be affected with hatred towards the loved object and also towards his rival, which latter he will envy as enjoying the beloved object. 
This hatred towards an object of love joined with envy is called Jealousy, which accordingly is nothing else but a wavering of the disposition arising from combined love and hatred, accompanied by the idea of some rival who is envied. Further, this hatred towards the object of love will be greater, in proportion to the pleasure which the jealous man had been wont to derive from the reciprocated love of the said object; and also in proportion to the feelings he had previously entertained towards his rival. If he had hated him, he will forthwith hate the object of his love, because he conceives it is pleasurably affected by one whom he himself hates: and also because he is compelled to associate the image of his loved one with the image of him whom he hates. 
Desire arising through pain or pleasure, hatred or love, is greater in proportion as the emotion is greater.
King Solomon's Book of Ecclesiastes contains similar wisdom to Vizier Ptahhotep's Papyrus Prisse for a on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions.
Ecclesiastes 10
10:2 A wise person’s good sense protects him, 
but a fool’s lack of sense leaves him vulnerable.
10:3 Even when a fool walks along the road he lacks sense,
and shows everyone what a fool he is.
10:4 If the anger of the ruler flares up against you, do not resign from your position, 
for a calm response can undo great offenses.
10:5 I have seen another misfortune on the earth: 
It is an error a ruler makes.
10:6 Fools are placed in many positions of authority, 
while wealthy men sit in lowly positions.


In Genesis we see that the inclination to sin is able to dominate Cain from anger of the Creator being not pleased in his offering to Him.

Genesis 4



4:3 At the designated time  Cain brought some of the fruit of the ground for an offering  to the Lord.
4:4 But Abel brought  some of the firstborn of his flock – even the fattest of them. And the Lord was pleased with Abel and his offering,
4:5 but with Cain and his offering He was not pleased. So Cain became very angry, and his expression was downcast. 
4:6 Then the Lord said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why is your expression downcast?
4:7 Is it not true that if you do what is right, you will be fine? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at the door. It desires to dominate you, but you must subdue it.”


The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel explains that the Creator has given us authority over our inclinations (spirits) to be good or evil.


And the Lord said to Kain, Why hast thou anger, and why are the features of thy face downcast? If you do your work well, will not your guilt be forgiven? But, if you do not your work well in this world, thy sin is retained unto the day of the great judgment, and at the doors of your heart lye your sin. And into your hand have I delivered the power over evil passion, and unto thee shall be the inclination thereof, that you may have authority over it to become righteous, or to sin.

In 1785, Immanuel Kant wrote in Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals,  that a good will to be a moral interest (morality) in respecting of the law (Divine Will, command), which we impose on ourselves. Respect is a feeling that originates from a practical rational concept independent from the influences of inclinations(desire or fear senses), which do not allow themselves to be suppressed by any law or command. Kant wrote that "Duty is the necessity of acting from respect for the law" that excludes inclinations. Our moral worth is derived from duty of acting from pure respect for a law or command regardless of our mortal fate.

Jefferson understood the idea of balance of pleasure and pain should be approached through cautioned reason.

From Thomas Jefferson to Maria Cosway, 12 October 1786


 Everything in this world is matter of calculation. Advance then with caution, the balance in your hand. Put into one scale the pleasures which any object may offer; but put fairly into the other the pains which are to follow, and see which preponderates.

The Prophet Moses told the story about how the evil of human inclinations caused the Creator nearly destroy all life on earth, But, the Prophet Noah's offering of atonement for the sins of mankind abated the Creator's anger and in Mercy, He made a Covenant to no longer curse life. 

Genesis 6 - 8

6:4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days (and also after this) when the sons of God were having sexual relations with the daughters of humankind, who gave birth to their children. They were the mighty heroes 16  of old, the famous men.
6:5 But the Lord saw that the wickedness of humankind had become great on the earth. Every inclination of the thoughts of their minds was only evil all the time.  
6:6 The Lord regretted that he had made humankind on the earth, and he was highly offended.
6:7 So the Lord said, “I will wipe humankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth – everything from humankind to animals, including creatures that move on the ground and birds of the air, for I regret that I have made them.”
6:8 But Noah found favor in the sight of the Lord.
8:20 Noah built an altar to the Lord. He then took some of every kind of clean animal and clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
8:21 And the Lord smelled the soothing aroma and said to himself, “I will never again curse the ground because of humankind, even though the inclination of their minds is evil from childhood on. I will never again destroy everything that lives, as I have just done.
8:22 “While the earth continues to exist, 
planting time and harvest,
cold and heat,
summer and winter,
and day and night will not cease.”


Scientific American, Feeling Our Emotions,  reports that neurologist Antonio R. Damasio believes that feelings are what arise as the brain interprets emotions, which are themselves purely physical signals of the body reacting to external stimuli. In the book of Job, we see in a passage Zophar’s thought (spirit) is compelling him to respond to the prophet's words that dishonor the Creator.
Job 20
20:2 “This is why my troubled thoughts bring me back 
because of my feelings within me.
20:3 When I hear a reproof that dishonors me,
then my understanding prompts me to answer. 
20:4 “Surely you know that it has been from old,
ever since humankind was placed on the earth,
20:5 that the elation of the wicked is brief,
the joy of the godless lasts but a moment. 
20:6 Even though his stature reaches to the heavens
and his head touches the clouds,
20:7 he will perish forever, like his own excrement;  
those who used to see him will say, ‘Where is he?’
20:8 Like a dream he flies away, never again to be found, 
and like a vision of the night he is put to flight.
20:9 People who had seen him will not see him again,
and the place where he was will recognize him no longer.
Antonio R. Damasio has surfaced Jewish Philosopher Baruch Spinoza views regarding the body and soul to be used in neurology. In Spinoza's Ethics he wrote: 
The Prophet Isaiah revealed that the Creator kept his Covenant with Noah and would not destroy humankind for the sake of his grateful servants. The Hebrew word for Jew, Yehudi, means “one who gives thanks.” Jews believe that if you give thanks to the Creator (Hashem) for everything, you won’t need to run to holy ones for blessings, because you’ll be blessed in every single way. The Creator also warned the Jews to not to follow ideas that go against what He has commanded. And watch out for those that consider themselves too holy to be touched by mere mortals.
The Great Isaiah Scroll
Chapter 65 : Verse 2
I held out my hands all day long to a disobedient people, who walk in a way that is not good, pursuing their own inclinations;
Chapter 65 : Verse 3
a people who continually provoke me to my face, they keep sacrificing in gardens and waving their hands on stone altars;
Chapter 65 : Verse 4
who sit inside tombs, and spend the night in secret places; who eat swine's flesh, with the broth of detestable things in their pots;
Chapter 65 : Verse 5
who say, 'Keep to yourself; do not touch me, I am too holy for you.' Such people are smoke in my nostrils, a fire that keeps burning all day long.
Chapter 65 : Verse 6
See, it stands written before me: I will not keep silent, but I will repay; I will indeed repay into their laps.
Chapter 65 : Verse 7
both your iniquities and your ancestors' iniquities together, says the LORD; because they offered incense on the mountains and insulted me on hills, I will measure into their laps full payment for their previous actions.
Chapter 65 : Verse 8
Thus says the LORD: As when wine is found in the cluster, and people have said, 'Do not destroy it, for there is a gift in it,' so I will do for my servants' sake, by not destroying them all.
Chapter 65 : Verse 9
I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah they will inherit my mountains; my chosen people will inherit it, and my servants will settle there.


The prophet Jeremiah revealed to the Jews that sacrifice is worthless when people follow their own inclinations rather than following the Law that was revealed to them.


Jeremiah 7



7:21 The Lord said to the people of Judah,  “The Lord God of Israel who rules over all says: ‘You might as well go ahead and add the meat of your burnt offerings to that of the other sacrifices and eat it, too!


7:22 Consider this: When I spoke to your ancestors after I brought them out of Egypt, I did not merely give them commands about burnt offerings and sacrifices.


7:23 I also explicitly commanded them:  “Obey me. If you do, I  will be your God and you will be my people. Live exactly the way I tell you and things will go well with you.”


7:24 But they did not listen to me or pay any attention to me. They followed the stubborn inclinations of their own wicked hearts. They acted worse and worse instead of better.


7:25 From the time your ancestors departed the land of Egypt until now, I sent my servants the prophets to you again and again, day after day.


7:26 But your ancestors did not listen to me nor pay attention to me. They became obstinate and were more wicked than even their own forefathers.’”



Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year. In Jewish liturgy, Rosh Hashanah leads to Yom Kippur, also known as the Day of Atonement.  Yom Kippur is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are atonement and repentance.  According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, and waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. The Talmud states, "Yom Kippur atones for those who repent and does not atone for those who do not repent".


Rosh Hashanah 16b



It is taught in a baraita: Beit Shammai say:


There will be three groups of people on the great Day of Judgment at the end of days: One of wholly righteous people, one of wholly wicked people, and one of middling people. Wholly righteous people will immediately be written and sealed for eternal life. Wholly wicked people will immediately be written and sealed for Gehenna, as it is stated:


And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall wake, some to eternal life and some to shame and everlasting contempt(Daniel 12:2).


Middling people will descend to Gehenna to be cleansed and to achieve atonement for their sins, and they will cry out in their pain and eventually ascend from there, as it is stated:


“And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on My name, and I will answer them” (Zechariah 13:9).


This is referring to the members of the third group, who require refinement and cleansing. And about them, Hannah said:


“The Lord kills, and gives life; he brings down to the grave, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6).


Beit Hillel say:


He Who is “and abundant in kindness” (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people should not have to pass through Gehenna. And about them, David said:


“I love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications” (Psalms 116:1). And about them, David said the entire passage:


“I was brought low [daloti] and He saved me” (Psalms 116:6).


Although they are poor [dalim] in mitzvot, God saves them.



The Apostle Paul recognizes the difficulty in not following inclinations and remaining faithful to the Creator. 


Hebrews 12



12:7 Endure your suffering as discipline; God is treating you as sons. For what son is there that a father does not discipline? 


12:8 But if you do not experience discipline, something all sons have shared in, then you are illegitimate and are not sons.


12:9 Besides, we have experienced discipline from our earthly fathers and we respected them; shall we not submit ourselves all the more to the Father of spirits and receive life?


12:10 For they disciplined us for a little while as seemed good to them, but he does so for our benefit, that we may share his holiness.


12:11 Now all discipline seems painful at the time, not joyful. But later it produces the fruit of peace and righteousness for those trained by it.


12:12 Therefore, strengthen your listless hands and your weak knees,


12:13 and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be put out of joint but be healed.




Arabic people that consider themselves holy over others are referred to as mutakabbiroon (people of arrogance). In the Qur'ran, the Creator (Allah) warned people not to follow false deities or people that consider themselves holy ones that can see into your soul and give you guidance. Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that you need to be grateful to the Creator to receive His Mercy. 


Ibrahim Abrahim Chapter 14



14:6 And [recall, O Children of Israel], when Moses said to His people, "Remember the favor of Allah upon you when He saved you from the people of Pharaoh, who were afflicting you with the worst torment and were slaughtering your [newborn] sons and keeping your females alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.


14:7 And [remember] when your Lord proclaimed, 'If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favor]; but if you deny, indeed, My punishment is severe.' "


In Islam, the Prophet Mohamed defined evil inclinations as suggestions or impulses coming from Satan. By focusing on fearing to be cursed by the Creator one can overcome the power of Satanic impulses.


Al-A'raf The Heights Chapter 7

7:197 And those you call upon besides Him are unable to help you, nor can they help themselves."
7:198 And if you invite them to guidance, they do not hear; and you see them looking at you while they do not see.
7:199 Take what is given freely, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the ignorant.
7:200 And if an evil suggestion comes to you from Satan, then seek refuge in Allah . Indeed, He is Hearing and Knowing.
7:201 Indeed, those who fear Allah - when an impulse touches them from Satan, they remember [Him] and at once they have insight.
7:202 But their brothers - the devils increase them in error; then they do not stop short.
To gain greater understanding of inclination we must also look further east to India and The Hindu Mahābhārata is an epic narrative written around 900 BC that contains philosophical and devotional material similar to the Torah, New Testament, Talmud, and Qu'ran. Within the Mahābhārata their is   discussion on how human instincts attract dark inclinations and propensities that surround the soul, cloud judgement and instill greed, fear and pride. 
A piece of iron, which is inanimate, runs towards a piece of loadstone. Similarly, inclinations and propensities due to natural instincts, and all else, run towards the Soul in a new life. Indeed, even as those propensities and possessions born of Ignorance and Delusion, and inanimate in respect of their nature, are united with Soul when reborn...
Like dust following the wind that moves it, the creature-Soul, divested of body, but endued still with inclinations born of Passion and Darkness and with principles of causes constituted by the acts of the life that is over, moves on, following the direction that the Supreme Soul gives it. The Soul, however, is never touched by those inclinations and propensities. Nor are these touched by the Soul that is superior to them.
From the attribute of Passion arises delusion or loss of judgment. From the attribute of Darkness, O bull of Bharata's race, arise wrath and cupidity and fear and pride. When all these are destroyed, one becomes pure. By obtaining purity, a person succeeds in arriving at the knowledge of the Supreme Soul which is resplendent with effulgence, incapable of deterioration, without change, pervading all things, having the unmanifest for his refuge, and the foremost of all the deities.
To summarize what we have reasoned together is that Nature (The Creator) has given us authority over our positive and negative inclinations (spirits) by our ability to learn, understand (reason), and duty to follow the Law (Divine Will) imposed on ourselves to keep order during life and gain respect (moral worth) for ourselves.
Through meditation (prayer) Nature (The Creator) can help overcome difficult negative (evil) inclinations to make good choices. At the end of our mortal lives the actions we choose will be weighed and judged upon. Those that have controlled their negative (evil) inclinations and followed the law during their lives will be remembered as good and helped by friends (Creator) during times of need. For those of faith and pure mind (spirit) believe the righteous have the opportunity live with the Creator for eternity. Those individuals that sought only to gratify their evil inclinations during life and not follow the law look foolish and are deserted by all in a time of greatest need. For those of faith and corrupt mind (spirit) will be separated from the Creator and suffer after death.
At this stage of my essay the question I ask you the reader to think carefully on whether Justice and Morality are to be considered divine, genetic, an invention of man, or all three? Thomas Law posed this question to President Jefferson.

Thomas Law to Thomas Jefferson, 3 May 1814


The phenomena of mind are influenced by a peculiar conformation of the brain, & also by its chemical composition, directly by the blood & indirectly by air, exercise & food”—this the physiologists acknowledge, but in my opinion, man is actuated very much by education which exercises the brain—Thus as printing disseminates moral sensations arising from novel circumstances, the human race is more & more spiritualised or operated upon by Divine Moral Laws as violations of right are more execrated
[Forgive?] me for th[us?] claiming your attention to a subject which many persons deem unimportant, but which I am convinced is deem’d by You worthy of attention

Jefferson's response was that man derives morality through instinct designed by a Creative Force Nature.  This was a slight variance  from Emmanuel Kant's view that respect is a rational concept that influences feelings.
Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Law, 13 June 1814


Some have made the love of God the foundation of morality. this too is but a branch of our moral duties, which are generally divided into duties to God, and duties to man. if we did a good act merely from the love of God, and a belief that it is pleasing to Him, whence arises the morality of the Atheist?

...nature has constituted utility to man the standard & test of virtue. men living in different countries, under different circumstances, different habits, and regimens, may have different utilities. the same act therefore may be useful, and consequently virtuous, in one country, which is injurious and vicious in another differently circumstanced. I sincerely then believe with you in the general existence of a moral instinct. I think it the brightest gem with which the human character is studded; and the want of it as more degrading than the most hideous of the bodily deformities.
Kaims, one of the ablest of our advocates, who goes so far as to say, in his Principles of Natural religion, that a man owes no duty to which he is not urged by some impulsive feeling. this is correct if referred to the standard of general feeling in the given case, and not to the feeling of a single individual. perhaps I may misquote him, it being fifty years since I read his book.

Jefferson's idea of Moral Instinct was understood by Lord Kames as Moral Sense to distinguish virtue (good) from evil (vice).
Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion
Source of the Laws of Nature
Lord Kames, Henry Home


In one sense, indeed, it is true, that morality depends on the will of God, who made us such as we are, with a moral sense to distinguish virtue from vice. But, this is saying no more but it is God's will, or that it is agreeable to Him we should virtuous. It is another thing to maintain, that He is under no obligation to the one more than the other, unless so far as He is determined by the arbitrary will of a superior, or sovereign. That a being may be so framed as to answer this description, may be yielded. But, taking man as he is, endued with a moral sense, 'tis a direct contradiction to hold, that he is under no obligation to virtue, other than the mere will of God. In this sense, morality no more depends upon the will of God, than upon our own will.

In Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural ReligionKames wrote that The God of Nature (Creative Force of Nature, Creator) has designed our appetites and passions, and the desires and adversions that accompany them to operate by impulse without reason and answer to what is called instinct in brute creatures.Solitary creatures are designed to live by brute instinct, On the other hand social creatures are designed with a different nature. Lord Kames defined the concept of 'moral sense' to be our instinctual ability to perceive the right and wrong in our actions. It is our moral sense that provides connection to each other and accumulates knowledge on actions that help or hinder our life.  It was Kames understanding that through accumulated knowledge the action of indulgence has been found to be a brute appetite for pleasure that favors lack of of restraint of which can hurt our mind and body. It is this reason that indulgence is condemned by the moral sense to be an attack on our life. Kames believed the God of Nature designed society to connect groups of individuals strongly together, by participation of the joys and miseries of fellow creatures. Through mutual trust and reliance, a society can create laws to provide a greater opportunity of prosperity and protection from mutual injuries to its members.  


Both Atheist and Theist believe that Moral sense preserves ourselves and society from harm and pain. The only difference is that Atheist believe that Moral sense originates from human evolution (nature) while Theist (Deist and Monotheist) believe it originates from a Creator. Atheist and some Deist believe the distinctions between morality and immorality are discovered by emotional responses to experience and cultural (nurture) teaching. Monotheist and some Deist believe that the distinctions of morality and immorality are designed and shared by the Creator to righteous (good and virtuous) individuals which instruct society (nurture). Monotheist (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) believe the Creator designed and gave the Prophet Moses Divine Laws (Mosaic Law) to provide a moral framework for Israelite society to follow. Christians believe the Mosaic Law was designed for a lower stage of civilization 
 During the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic Judaism aspired to combine Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture and philosophy. The philosopher Philo used philosophical allegory to attempt to fuse and harmonize Greek philosophy with Jewish philosophy. His work attempts to combine Plato and Moses into one philosophical system. He developed an allegoric approach of interpreting holy scriptures (the bible), in contrast to (old-fashioned) literally interpretation approaches. His allegorical exegesis was important for several Christian Church Fathers and some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology. Other scholars, however, deny direct influence but say both Philo and Early Christianity borrow from a common source.
America was born on the idea that all humans have the Natural Right of Liberty (Freedom of Conscious) over forced coercion of opinions by those in authority onto others.
Act for Establishing Religious Freedom,
January 16, 1786


Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; That all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incapacitations tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and therefore are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion, who being Lord, both of body and mind yet chose not to propagate it by coercion on either, as was in His Almighty power to do, That the impious presumption of legislators and rulers, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men have assumed dominion over the faith of otherssetting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world and through all timeThat to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinionswhich he disbelieves is sinful and tyrannicalThat even the forcing him to support this or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions to the particular pastorwhose morals he would make his pattern, and whose powers he feels most persuasive to righteousness, and is withdrawing from the Ministry those temporary rewards, which, proceeding from an approbation of their personal conduct are an additional incitement to earnest and unremitting labors for the instruction of mankind; That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry. That therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidenceby laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religious opinionis depriving him injuriously of those privileges and advantages, to which, in common with his fellow citizens, he has a natural right,

Most Diests and Monotheists believe  that any human and nonhuman creature incapable of understanding the concept of a Creator and/or Covenants, then are incapable of understanding unalienable rights (treated with respect and dignity) bestowed by the Will of the Creator. But, the incapability of a nonhuman or human creature does not mean it does not have right to Life and Happiness. Monotheist believe a good person of authority has the responsibility to take care of the well-being of both human and nonhuman living creatures (Genesis 1:26 - 28, 9:1 - 3, Proverbs 12:10, Psalms 8:6, Daniel 4:17, Romans 13:1 - 5 ).  Most Atheist and Agnostics would agree with Theists that all life should be valued and we should help those not to suffer during their time in the light of the sun.
Atheist and Theist both accept that it is our liberty (Free Will) to decide what shared moral ideas (morality) to follow or not follow that lead to happiness or misery. Jefferson came to his own conclusion that it is through reason that we can come to understand the limits of Free Will. Liberty is our Free Will through Reason to specifically recognize our right to choose with Prudence from ideas different course of actions that lead to a Life of Happiness and Prosperity without infringing on the rights others. It is the successful abstract ideas (moral senses) we find useful and just to be self evident.
Thomas Jefferson to I. Tiffany, 1819


Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others.

Both those that believe or not believe in a Creator understand can accept the meaning of a Right of Liberty to that of a Social Contract (Constitution) that is useful and beneficial to all involved parties. Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld was an American jurist and the author of Fundamental Legal Conceptions, As Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays  formed the modern understanding of the nature of rights, privilege, immunity an power. Holfeld's Right of Liberty denotes the privilege  one of one being not subject to the acts of another person. Modern law considers Right of Liberty to be a privilege of one's freedom (immunity) from claim of another. Liberty can also be considered a Disability to one that does not have power to alter the acts of another. As Divine Law through covenant bestowed power to control the ownership the Liberty of others, Civil Law through Social Contract appoints one legal power to control the ownership of The Right of Liberty of another.
The Just (law abiding) exercise virtues (brave, temperate, and of good temperament) that seek fair conditions for the greater good and happiness of others. The unjust (lawless) exercise vice (wickedness) that seek lesser evil unfair conditions that lead to self prosperity with the possibility of inflicting misery to others. 
In Civil Law defending the Civil governing power is called Law enforcement. All Americans enjoy the freedoms, protections, and legal rights which the Constitution promises. It is the duty of every American citizen to bear true faith, allegiance, support, and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic. To become a citizen of the United States of America a foreign applicant must take an  in a public ceremony. The language of the current Oath of Allegiance can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations Section 337.1 and is closely based upon the statutory elements in Section 337(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The Constitution provides Law enforcement describes the individuals and agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and public safety.
In Psychology, Behavioral Reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent (prior) stimulus (Ex. reward, punishment). It is now known that human behavior reinforcement with chimpanzees has resulted in their ability to learn and teach the abstract idea of human sign language to other members of their nonhuman community.  Loulis, a chimpanzee born at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center learned to communicate in American Sign Language from another chimpanzee.


Unlike the other chimpanzees at CHCI, Loulis was not cross-fostered. As Washoe's adopted son, he acquired his signs from Washoe and the other signing chimpanzees. He was the first non-human to learn a human language from other non-humans.

In Behavior Psychology, researchers study nonhuman primate behavior to better understand our own human species. Like humans, some of the explicit abstract ideas chimpanzees formulate are right and some are wrong. Acquired explicit ideas that are successful become more accepted by a limited use of reason are then communicated to other members of chimpanzee community.
Professor David Premack and Guy Woodruf introduced the influential concept Theory of Mind (naïve psychology) now used in developmental psychology. In his book, Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Chimpanzees minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events to better understand underlying goals, intentions, and knowledge of other creatures around them. Like humans, some of the explicit abstract ideas chimpanzees formulate are right and some are wrong. Acquired explicit ideas that are successful become more accepted by a limited use of reason are then communicated to other members of chimpanzee community. Chimpanzees have the ability to value their experiences tactically reason whether or not they should deceive and conceal or reveal and share their food source with other members of the community.
There is compelling evidence that chimpanzees feel happiness and misery. According to the Jane Goodall Institute of Canada, "Those who have worked closely with chimpanzees agree that they feel and express emotions such as sadness and happiness, fear and despair—and they know mental as well as physical pain." 
Jane Goodall Institute of Canada : Emotions


Dr. Goodall discovered that chimpanzees displayed a wide range of complex emotions that were once thought to be uniquely human. For instance, chimpanzees clearly exhibit emotions such as joy, sadness, fear and despair. Chimps have also been found to possess an almost human-like enjoyment of physical contact, laughter, and community.

To better understand nonhuman emotion watch Koko the Gorilla share a moment of laughter with Robin Williams.

It is now known that chimpanzees and apes are self-aware and have empathy towards other individuals.
Can We Learn About Gorilla Emotions via Sign Language?


Both Koko and Michael have communicated about their feelings in ways that indicate they are capable of extraordinary emotional depth, including empathy, and not just for each other, but also for their human caregivers.

Jefferson concept of Happiness has evolved over the years to implicit term of 'well-being' used by psychologist to define overall emotional satisfaction. Happiness has also evolved to an explicit term  'quality of life' used by economist that measures living conditions (housing, employment etc.). If we bring both terms together we are able to create a new maxim that Happiness is our emotional satisfaction with our living conditions. In United States Law, Jefferson's Happiness includes primates as well.  The 1985 Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act, was passed into law directing the Secretary of Agriculture to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.
While there are similarities in humans and chimpanzees, there are many emotional and intellectual differences as well.  According to researchers Joseph Call and Michael Tomasello, Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later, chimpanzees do not display human-like belief-desire psychology (folk psychology). Researchers have not found chimpanzees to reason, share, and accept ideas without familiar objects or life experienced events. It is true that chimpanzees can communicate both vocally and by gesture like humans, but  they do not have larynx muscles and vocal cords to speak verbally (talk) or the ability to ask questions through sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams.
According to Dr. Jane Goodall, chimpanzees cannot share knowledge of the past or plan for the future. Although, recent studies reveal that chimpanzees and other primates can plan for their future needs. In the paper, Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use  researchers Mathias and Helena Osvath would agree with Dr. Goodall on prior intentions, but do have a limited ability to plan future events, "great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally  pre-experiencing  an  upcoming  event." Mathias and Helena also state that there is no evidence anywhere that chimpanzees understand the beliefs of others. But, like humans chimpanzees and other primates do understand and communicate emotion.
Marcus Cicero 2000 year statement is still found correct that man alone retains the idea of the Divinity. Epicurus is statement is still found correct that man alone retains the idea of covenants that prevent parties from harming one another. Chimpanzees and mentally disabled human beings are for the moment not considered capable of formulating (define and question), understanding, accepting, and collaborating implicit (non experienced) maxims as true or false by assent or dissent.
Atheist and Theist would both agree that it is our ability to formulate and collaborate the emotions we share and reality of the world we live is what separates us from the rest of the known species. Theist would add that is our ability to collaborate ideas of the divine and the making contracts (covenants) in their name is congruent and influences the modern law we know today. Many Monotheist believe that transgressions against Divine covenants are offenses against the Creator rather than solely against society they harmed.
I propose that in this age of science and faith Jefferson's Declaration we find to be self evident has evolved to include both human and nonhuman beings created according to circumstance, that are endowed by covenant with certain unalienable rights, among these are Life and the pursuit Well Being. And those human citizens that understand the choice to follow a social contract of allegiance to our Nation are granted the privilege of the right of Liberty. When an appointed legal power takes unjust control of the Rights of another for the sake of one party then the social contract becomes no longer useful (Natural Justice) or successful to all parties then Liberty becomes no longer self evident.
Luke 18


18:1 ...Jesus told [his disciples] a parable to show them they should always pray and not lose heart.
18:2 He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor respected people. 
18:3 There was also a widow in that city who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.’
18:4 For a while he refused, but later on he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor have regard for people,
18:5 yet because this widow keeps on bothering me, I will give her justice, or in the end she will wear me out by her unending pleas.’”
18:6 And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unrighteous judge says!
18:7 Won’t God give justice to His chosen ones, who cry out to him day and night? Will He delay long to help them?
18:8 I tell you, He will give them justice speedily. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on earth?”

By substituting Creator with circumstance in Luke's passage, there can be no guarantee to the Respect or Well Being in the Life of each of Citizen. The only promise in a land without belief in a Creator is that a universal explicit sense of caring for the well being and circumstance of others will persuade those in authority to accept the implicit idea of treating citizens with dignity and respect in accordance to the Law legislated and enforced by man.
The first main difference that a Theist has from an Atheist is that if one seeks help and justice through the Creator, then there is hope in receiving help and justice from the Creator in this life and/or the next. The second main difference that a Theist has from an Atheist is that if one is righteous and shows kindness and mercy to others, then there is hope in receiving the grace of good fortune and mercy in this life and/or the next. To an Atheist justice and fortune are a matter of environmental circumstance; kindness and mercy are a matter of discretionary circumstance; hope is a matter of expecting a better future circumstance; and righteousness and grace are attitudes of circumstance.
 Now through reason we have a better understanding of what is explicit conscious Free Will and the privilege of implicit Liberty to better see the proverbial fork in the road where we must discern (recognize) what actions cause life and death.
The Didache - Chapter 1


1:1 There are two ways, one of life and one of death, and there is a great difference between the two ways.

The Didache's first lesson is for us to focus on the differences life and and death. The Didache is a Monotheist teaching that predicates it is the fear of death and darkness keeps us all all alive in the light. Atheist (no belief in a creator), Agnostics (not sure if creator exists), Theists (Polytheist, Diest,  and Monotheist) believe that our sun's light and our time with it is finite and will end. Theists, Agnostics, and Atheists would also agree that that pain and the fear of death is a factor that helps keep us alive. There is a general consensus that all living things have a sense of self preservation (behavior that ensures survival) to respond to a stressful event.
In the Summer of 1994, I was living in the woods of Northern Arizona during my Archaeology field school. I remember a forest ranger sharing basic wilderness survival instructions on where to get water, put refuge, and how to find help if I needed it. The ranger's best advice was that I see a bear or mountain lion not to run, but stay where I am. One night when I was in my tent a mountain lion came into my camp. I heard a deep gurgling growl as it emerged from the darkness closer to my tent. I distinctly remember the hair in my arms stood up. I felt like a deer that wanted to bolt, but my unconscious followed the ranger's advice and I remained calm staring at the dark silhouette of a large cat through a thin net screen. It was so close that I could hear it sniffing the air, then it turned away and left back into the woods. That was an experience I will never forget. Similar to understanding the ranger's advice that kept me alive, The Didache gives advice on how to recognize actions that help or hinder our life. Each chapter puts focus to actions that either impair or improve the proper workings of our rational mind.
Thomas Jefferson would have recognized the shared words, phrases, and motifs of The Didache with the Gospels. He would have understood the Apostles teachings on the differences between life and death to be a key to understanding the deeper meaning of Scripture and the struggle of  Righteous Liberty against Selfish Tyranny. Jefferson would have compared the accepted testimonies from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scripture for continuity and harmony of divine understanding. To use the cliche, 'Apostasy will stand out like a sore thumb.'  Jefferson would have found no heresy.
Jefferson never had the opportunity to read the The Didache of the 12 Apostles, the manuscript was found 47 years after America's 3rd president life ended. Jefferson would have admired the wisdom gained by reading The Didache as a Syllabus similar to his own book that gives perspective of seeing Free Will as our conscious choice to follow the Freedom of Liberty or the Subjugation of Tyranny. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom and the Declaration of Independence reveal that Jefferson foresaw the dangers of both religious and scientific opinions attempt to limit and deprive our Rights of Liberty that we find self evident.
Declaration of Independence




The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.



Court Rulings by our Judicial System have methodically redefined the Covenant ideals of America's Declaration of Independence understood by our nation's Founding Father. Although the Declaration of Independence clearly stated its grievances which caused separation from England, it did not define the limits of political bands obstructing this nation's ideal of Liberty.  Not giving equal station to Laws of Nature (Science) and Nature's God (Religion) has caused a Constitutional schism between citizens of our nation. In our nation's lifetime judicial opinions of constitutional case law has strengthened limits to religious opinions and weakened limits on scientific opinions.  The Declaration dictates Prudence (Good Judgement) to whether a greater reliance to explicit scientific reasoning will erode the balance it has with implicit religious spiritual thinking within our nation's Moral framework that may once again lead to one or a few with absolute authority (Despotism) over a suffering population. Jefferson would have understood that modern civility begins with understanding and accepting that implicit reasoning shapes and gives meaning to our place in the world and explicit reasoning helps maintain and control it. 

I have concluded presenting definitions on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery.  I still ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists an affects the outcome of our actions.
Diests, and Monotheist (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) believe that the Creator has given all living things the ability to sense and respond to our environment, but it is man that can place reason over instinct. The first teaching the Creator gave Adam (the father of mankind) was how to tend His orchard and eat it's fruit. The second instruction the Creator communicated to man was a warning that there was object in the middle of the orchard will cause death if any part is eaten. The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was the object's name.

Genesis 2


2:15 The Lord God took the man [Adam] and placed him in the orchard in Eden to care for it and to maintain
2:16 Then the Lord God commanded the man, “You may freely eat fruit from every tree of the orchard,
2:17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will surely die.

For an Atheist or Agnostic to make sense of Monotheist scripture (word of the Creator), one has to start at the beginning of theology and reason why the Creator generated an object that would test both Adam's and Eve's obedience to authority in their state of ignorance of pain or death before they fell from grace. In Chapter 6 of the Second Treatise of Civil Government John Locke wrote on the Creator's bestowing upon Adam the Law of Reason to help preserve and govern his actions and all of his posterity. (Chapter 6, Sec. 56). John Lock understood the Law of Reason to not be a limitation, but a useful direction in the Pursuit of Happiness (Chapter 6, Sec. 56) and I would add the implication on how to avoid Misery. Freedom is lost to those that cannot reason.
The nature of the minds of Adam and Eve is both like and unlike our own. Like all children of good upbringing, Adam and Eve experienced explicit happiness and prosperity of what appeared before them. Like Adam and Eve, as a child I was ignorant of  death until I actually experienced watched a love one die. Unlike Adam and Eve, I experienced pain and sickness prior to my parents warnings, so I could formulate and abstract idea by associating pain and sickness with flames and crossbones.  
The nature of the Creator is both like and unlike those us with the power of authority over others (i.e. parent, teacher, manager, police officer, judge etc... ). Like a parent, the Creator warned Adam and Eve about the danger touching or eating from the Tree of Knowledge. Like the Creator, those with the power of authority would ideally not put dangerous objects in harm's way. We know that both Adam and Eve did not directly die from their actions of touching the forbidden object. Therefore, the Tree of Knowledge was not an object that directly caused death to Adam and Eve. We can induce that the Creator has no need for objects that He has generated. Further, the Creator has no need to generate forbidden objects of power outside His own that will benefit the unknown. We can assume that an all knowing Creator generated the Tree of Knowledge strictly to test the obedience of Adam and Eve to following the authority of His warning.  Like the orchard (Eden), it is generally understood that to preserve one's Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness we must all use obey the warnings of those with the power of Authority. Further we must use Prudence in judging those that abuse it.
If we take scripture at its word, both Adam and Eve recognized the Authority of the Creator and  object that He warned not to eat, as the Tree of Knowledge (Genesis 3:2). This can be deduced from their understanding that they were both made by the Creator and taught by Him on how tend and eat the fruit from the orchard. Further, there is not mention of either Adam or Eve witnessing death, so we can deduce that both Adam and Eve knew the object of death in name only, and for a period of time accepted the authority of the Creator's warning to avoid tending or touching it. I reflect back to the time when I was a naive little child ignorant of the causes of pain and pleasure. I remember my parents warning me not touch a flame. Another time they pointed to labels on bottles with a skull and crossbones and told me never to touch them or I would get very sick.
Genesis (Séfer haYashar “Book of the Straight”) teaches us that there our actions that can interfere, overpower and suppress our sense of reason and judgment. The nature of the persuasive serpent (Hebrew word Nachash) living in the orchard is like a true Anarchist to effectively oppose obedience to the Creator's authority. Like Adam and Eve, the serpent was generated by the Creator and cannot sneak around or hide from Him. But, unlike Adam and Eve, the serpent was not taught how to tend the orchard or warned by the Creator not to touch the Tree of Knowledge. The serpent's power is his own knowledge and he wants to share it as an authority for his own glory (John 7:18).
To get Eve's attention the serpent asks her a direct question on whether or not she was allowed to eat any of the fruits from the trees. Eve can deduce from the serpent's question that it witnessed, but misunderstood the Creator's warning. Eve corrected the serpent, and referenced the single tree in the middle of the orchard that she and Adam should never to touch. From Eve's correction and expansion of an incorrect idea we can conclude that she fully understood the location of the named object of the Creator's warning and that she could die from touching it. Like a well seasoned lawyer the serpent objects to Eve response with a subjective statement of his own apparent opposing authority in understanding of the divinity of the Creator and the consequences from touching the object named The Tree of Knowledge.
Genesis 3


3:4 The serpent said to the woman, “Surely you will not die,
3:5 for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will open and you will be like divine beings who know good and evil.

The serpent established a counterfactual association (contraposition) of eating from Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil as an object of death to an object that causes one to be divine like the Creator with wisdom of what is good and what is evil. Eve understood and accepted the serpent's opposing implicit idea to eat of the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge would give her wisdom like the Creator and understand what is good and what is evil. As stated previously, there is no mention Eve witnessing or understanding death, so we can deduce Eve knew the name of the object of death in name in warning only and would not associate it with divinity. Eve only experienced living, she would not associate eating or touching the Tree of Knowledge with eternal life. There is no mention that the Creator revealed the Tree of Life that was also in the middle of the garden and whether or not Adam or Eve tended and ate from it. We can only deduce that at that point there was no desire for Adam or Eve to need or desire to eat from the Tree of Life since they already had it. We can conclude that Eve desired to eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil to be wise with knowledge like the Creator. In addition, Eve had experience of eating fruit that was pleasing to the eye. Eve accepted the serpent's contraposition and formed her own implicit idea by that by eating this pleasing fruit she would gain divine wisdom.
Since Eve had no experience of pain or death, she was ignorant of fear or understanding of the consequences from touching the object named The Tree of Knowledge. Physical Science teaches that our fear pain memories are acquired through strengthening synapse connections of life experience by what is called long-term potentiation (LTP). The opposite of LTP is the weakening of synapse connections, which is called long-term depression (LDP). LTP and LDP are the underlying basis of what is called neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain).
Eve payed attention to and accepted the authority of the serpent's wisdom of the benefits of eating the fruit and tuned out the Creator's authority in warning not to eat the fruit or face the consequence of death. Eve made the wrong choice to follow the advice of the serpent over the Creator and ate the fruit.  The biological process that adjusts the strength of synapse connections between neurons in the brain is called Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). What we pay attention to becomes finely tuned and what we do not pay attention to gets tuned out.
From Genesis 3:6 can deduce that Adam was with Eve when she took and ate the fruit. Adam understood the communication between Eve and Serpent and did not have Prudence to rebuke (criticize) the serpent's contraposition of the Creator's authority or stop Eve from touching and eating the Tree of Knowledge. It can be induced that when nothing immediately happened to Eve when she ate of the fruit the LDP of the Creator's warning of death had weakened to Adam and the LTP of the serpent's authority of the consequences of eating the food became stronger. Most Atheist and Theist would agree that the ability to choose between the STDP of different possible courses of action from LTP and LDP is called Free Will.
As stated previous some Atheist and Agnostics consider the idea of human free will to be an illusion.  The experience of choice is not an instantaneous moment-by-moment construction, but rather is formed by integrating information presented within short temporal windows, so that new information which is obtained can influence the immediate past in our conscious awareness. This segmented time concept has been well known to the Christian faith. Saint Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis) autobiographical work, "The Confessions (Book XI Chapters 13 through 21)" stress that with respect to temporal perception (life time) under a phenomenological (philosophical study of the constructs of experience and consciousness) point of view there is only ‘presence’, past and future being mental constructions out of such a 'window of presence.' From this circumstantial point of view Eve integrated the explicit past experience of taste of fruit as food, Creator's past warning of touching the tree brings death in name only, and the serpent's present idea of eating the forbidden fruit and being like the Creator in the future. Questioning what is forbidden is of little to no consequence to those that oppose or do not recognize the power of authority.
When both Eve and Adam had eaten of the fruit their eyes opened like the serpent said, but not divine as the Creator, but objectifying themselves and the differences in features evoked attention between each other. When Adam and Eve became self aware, they reacted by choosing to cover themselves to further prohibit their objectifying their differences and the creatures around them. Adam and Eve's modesty in how they presented themselves began their separation of innocence with life that surrounded them. Atheist and Agnostics would acknowledge the sexual objectification of Adam and Eve and their modesty to cover themselves enacted by the change social circumstances.
The second consequence of Adam and Eve's eating the forbidden fruit was the stress that was fear of getting caught being unclothed. Just like plants and animals, we humans have both reactive and proactive responses to resist competition and predatory attacks that threaten our limited time to enjoy the light of the sun.  Deep within our temporal lobe is the amygdala (Greek word for an almond shape set of neurons), an interpretive alarm center that recognizes and stores threat image patterns around us (fear memory) as well as pain patterns (pain memory) and stress (anxiety) patterns (stress memory). When a threat is recognized the amygdala works with our nervous system regulating many of our body functions in ways to help us be more adaptive to our environment. Adam and Eve's first LTP experience of fear response was to hide from the Creator.
The third consequence happens when the Creator confronts Adam on whether or not he ate from the fruit. Adam admits he did eat from the fruit, but did not take responsibility for his own misbehavior. Instead, Adam justifies his action as a victim by projecting the first guilty blame on Eve for giving him the fruit to eat. Adam judging of Eve as the guilty party was an attempt to escape the Creator's judgement against him. (Romans 2:1 - 3) even though he was with Eve and the serpent during her transgression against the Creator's authority. By not revealing his inaction to defend the Creator's authority or prevent Eve from touching and eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Adam furthered his misconduct and was the first to Fall from the Creator's Grace (Leviticus 5:1).
The fourth consequence happens when the Creator confronts Eve on whether or not she ate from the fruit. Like Adam, Eve admits she did eat from the fruit, but did not take responsibility for her own misbehavior. Instead, like Adam, Eve defended her action as a victim by projecting the second guilty blame on the serpent for tricking her to eat the fruit. Eve's experience with the serpent helped her acquire the idea of trickery that has been shared, understood and accepted by both Jews and Christians has as an undoubted implicit truth.
The fifth consequence was the Creator confronting the serpent for his use of shrewd trickery as adversary (Satan) to His Divine authority. As stated previously the serpent's contraposition removed the warning of eating from Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil as an object of death to a desire to know divinity like the Creator. The serpent put his own glory before the Creator.
The first punishment was when Creator cursed the serpent to crawl on its belly and his food to be dirt, and caused an eternal enmity between himself and man.  The second punishment was towards Eve to carry the painful burden of child birth and living in a male dominated world. The third punishment was towards Adam to work for a living and eventually face death.
The first explicit lesson the story of Adam and Eve is the Creator teaches is that He is the Master of His Creation. The second explicit lesson he teaches the knowledge on how to be good. The third explicit lesson the Creator teaches is obeying His Will leads to life and happiness and not following His warnings leads to death and misery. The fourth explicit lesson is that the snake is an adversary to both the Creator and Mankind. The fifth implicit lesson is that the snake used the fruit to teach the knowledge of evil  The sixth implicit lesson the Creator teaches is projecting blame and iniquity on another for causing your offense does no good for He is all knowing. And the seventh implicit lesson is that each one of us is accountable for our actions alone in His judgement.
 As stated previously Reason is the ability to recognize right and wrong ideas. Liberty is our Free Will through Reason to specifically recognize and choose from ideas different course of actions that lead to a Life of Happiness and Prosperity or Misery and Destruction. The story of Adam and Eve teaches us that like the serpent there are adversaries to authority that interfere, overpower and suppress both explicit and implicit warnings by imitating the truth. An adversary like the serpent may use an object like the fruit and/or and idea that appeals to our appetites (desire) to formulate opinions and actions that go against good reason and judgement. The Greeks used the term Akraisia (lack of self control or weakness of will) that drags one's rational conscious from a positive state of enlightenment (equanimity) to discern right from wrong to negative irrational thoughts of fear pain, and stress (anxiety).
longer-lasting behavioral responses may persist after a perceived irrational thought terminates. Long term potentiation of Anxiety memory can be a destructive side effect of environmental stress. In many studies, including one published in Biological Psychiatry in 2003, it was shown that individuals with Emotional Dysregulation had an amygdala that overreacted to visual stimulation.  Specifically, individuals were shown pictures of faces.  The people with Emotional Dysregulation found neutral expressions to be threatening or hostile, and the amygdala was overly active in these people compared to those in the control group who had a normal response. A study done by the Stanford University Medical Center concluded that the larger the amygdala is, the greater the amount of anxiety one has. Evidence suggests that people with anxiety disorders are at greater risk for developing a number of chronic medical conditions. People with anxiety may also have more severe symptoms and a greater risk of death when they become ill. New understanding of Emotional Dysregulation has opened up insights into unwarranted fear pain, and stress that interferes with daily life that have traditionally viewed as difficult to treat. I propose the cure to fear, pain, and stress is to learn the truth on how to be prosperous in life.
For an Atheist or Agnostic to make sense of Jewish and Christian Monotheist views on prosperity one has start with the Prophet Moses teaching the Liberty of choice each Israelite had to make.
Deuteronomy 30


30:15 “Look! I have set before you today life and prosperity on the one hand, and death and disaster on the other.

All monotheist faiths believe that the light of knowledge on life and prosperity dwells within a Higher Power known as the Creator. Monotheist believe that if your are open to finding a Higher Power and willing to follow the teachings of the righteous, the loyal love our Creator has for you will answer every need, challenge, concern, problem, and worry. 'Atheist and Agnostics' (NonBelievers) would replace the implicit belief in a Creator with an explicit Higher Power group of loving people that are willing share their experiences with you. The main difference of a High Power between a believer and a nonbeliever is the Creator is all knowing, while a Loving Group can only understand what you truly reveal to them and their answers are limited to their own individual experiences and understanding. But, the similarity is Love.
The relationship between quality of life and material prosperity has been subject to rigorous empirical analysis. The World Happiness Report surveyed individual on their happiness and subjective well-being in 156 countries around the planet as a measurement of social progress. The authors of the report make the claim that happiness is tied to civil institutions providing a consistent framework of understanding of the common good to enable people to live happier lives. the European Social Survey (ESS) asked the same respondents “satisfaction with life” and “happy with life” questions, wisely using the same 0 to 10 response scales.  The study found that household income is generally positively correlated with all dimensions of well-being though more so for some dimensions (evaluative well-being) than others (vitality). However, However, a significant negative association was found between income and personal and community well being. Income is related to social inclusion or social exclusion depending on whether or not people or communities are dependent on their prosperity to fully participate in society.  Atheist and Theist would agree that prosperity is one one variable of the of the solution to happiness. I propose the learning how better your quality of life not dependent solely on income is solution to happiness. Atheist and Theist would agree that the enjoyment of events, material goods, sex, food, drink, and accomplishment of task brings momentary happiness. But, the wisdom of loyal love is better than life itself.
I previously asked you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery. Based on new understanding that I have share with you I would like the amend my statement. That it is through a cause of Love that a Higher Power gives us understanding on how to choose our our course of actions that lead to a Life of Happiness and Prosperity or Misery and Destruction. Further we must use Prudence in judging those that are adverse to authority on whether or not their reasoning supports our Pursit of good and happiness or irrationally imitates it.
In Psychology Today, Steve Taylor Ph.D, defines 'Good' as the lack of self-centeredness with the ability to empathize and feel compassion for other people. A 'Good' person is able to sacrifice personal well being for the sake of the needs of others. Further, Dr. Taylor defines 'Evil' as self centered and unable to empathize and feel compassion for other people. An 'Evil' person is selfish, self-absorbed, narcissistic and looks to take advantage of others. It is also understood there is a ‘fluidity’ of moving toward good or evil. Dr. Taylor writes, "we practice meditation or mindfulness, and as we become less attached to materialism and status-seeking, we become more open and more connected, and so more selfless and altruistic."
Most Atheists, Agnostics, and Theists would agree that every one of us has been given knowledge (conscience) free will (liberty) to make a right (positive or good) or wrong (negative or evil) life choice to every difficult decision (moral dilemma) we make concerning the welfare of our happiness or misery. Monotheist agree that mankind has been given liberty to obey or disobey the commands of the Creator.
Inducing on my previous maxim, opening yourself to the infinite love (Higher Power) leads to learning how better your quality of life with answers to every need, challenge, concern, problem, and worry. 
Psalms 139


139:1 For the music director, a psalm of David.
O Lord, you examine me and know.

139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;
even from far away you understand my motives.

139:3 You carefully observe me when I travel or when I lie down to rest;
you are aware of everything I do.

139:4 Certainly my tongue does not frame a word
without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it.

139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;
you place your hand on me.

139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;
it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it.

139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?
Where can I flee to escape your presence?

139:8 If I were to ascend to heaven, you would be there.
If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be.

139:9 If I were to fly away on the wings of the dawn,
and settle down on the other side of the sea,

139:10 even there your hand would guide me,
your right hand would grab hold of me.

139:11 If I were to say, “Certainly the darkness will cover me,
and the light will turn to night all around me,”

139:12 even the darkness is not too dark for you to see,
and the night is as bright as day;
darkness and light are the same to you.

139:13 Certainly you made my mind and heart;
you wove me together in my mother’s womb.

139:14 I will give you thanks because your deeds are awesome and amazing.
You knew me thoroughly;

139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,
when I was made in secret
and sewed together in the depths of the earth.

139:16 Your eyes saw me when I was inside the womb.
All the days ordained for me
were recorded in your scroll
before one of them came into existence.

139:17 How difficult it is for me to fathom your thoughts about me, O God!
How vast is their sum total!

139:18 If I tried to count them,
they would outnumber
the grains of sand.
Even if I finished counting them,
I would still have to contend with you.

It is my opinion that reading and practicing the Didache influence our postdictive processes (neuronal interactions of past experiences stored within our brain) to transcend to a higher-level event perception (sensory cues from hearing, vision, touching, tasting, and smelling objects create involuntary, prerational inferences) and decision making (a course of action based framework for quantifying variables involved) that would not normally occur without it. Prerational (unconscious) inferences are developed to complete a thought or vision.  It is the wisdom of inference we gain by reading The Didache on how to take notice and avert dangers that may cease our time to enjoy the light of the sun and make sense of following ideas for the right reasons.
To those in the Physical Sciences both light and the darkness are an explicit representation of physical states that we recognize.  One sense of human self preservation comes from our gift of sight.  Our eyes are able to focus on visible light wave patterns reflected from objects in our field of view into neuronal signals (neurons connect and receive impulses from other neurons). that are transmitted to our brain's temporal lobe to processes sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of Visual memory, language comprehension, and emotion association.
To Jews, Christians, and Muslims light and dark are spiritual states of being. Light (wisdom) and dark (folly) are a means of closeness (reward, presence) to or separation (punishment, absence) from our Creator. The path of the righteous (good inclination, yetzer hatov) gets brighter as the wisdom of our Creator will becomes better understood. There is no path for the wicked to follow that folly in the darkness of what they desire (evil inclination, yetzer hara).
Proverbs 4


4:18 ...the path of the righteous is like the bright morning light,
growing brighter and brighter until full day.

4:19 The way of the wicked is like gloomy darkness;
they do not know what causes them to stumble.

4:20 My child, pay attention to my words;

listen attentively to my sayings.

4:21 Do not let them depart from your sight,

guard them within your heart;

4:22 for they are life to those who find them

and healing to one’s entire body.

4:23 Guard your heart with all vigilance,

for from it are the sources of life.

4:24 Remove perverse speech from your mouth;

keep devious talk far from your lips.

4:25 Let your eyes look directly in front of you

and let your gaze look straight before you.

4:26 Make the path for your feet level,

so that all your ways may be established.

4:27 Do not turn to the right or to the left;

turn yourself away from evil.

Chapters 13 through 21)" stress that with respect to temporal perception (life time) under a phenomenological (philosophical study of the constructs of experience and consciousness) point of view there is only ‘presence’, past and future being mental constructions out of such a 'window of presence'.
All monotheist faiths believe that the light of knowledge on life and prosperity dwells within a Higher Power known as the Creator. According to scripture, our Creator favors (blesses) those that follow the path of the righteous. And evil comes to the wicked lost in the darkness of their folly.
Proverbs 11


11:27 The one who diligently seeks good seeks favor, but the one who searches for evil – it will come to him.

Monotheist believe those who see evil and think it is good or see good and think it is evil are under the influence of darkness and are subject to the rule of evil inclination. When one is in the grip of an evil inclination (desire), it can be difficult to discern that which appears to be sweet (flattering) and smooth (delightful), but inside is truly bitter (mocking) and crass (detestable). As desire grows, evil comes to the wicked, sin becomes no longer unnatural or unusual, but rather natural and expected. A machine that cannot define itself.  In An Essay Concerning Understanding (Chapter 11) John Locke defined a 'Madman' as on that has not lost the faculty of reasoning, but has made the mistake of joining together ideas incorrectly and fashioned them for truths; and they err as men do that argue right from wrong principles. This is why it is important for me to seek a Higher Power of both a group of individuals with understanding of this subject, related media, life experiences, and most importantly implicit faith in a Creator.
"Is this how you live with yourself?"
In the political drama, 'House of Cards' (Season 3, Episode 4, Chapter 30) United States Solicitor General, Heather Dunbar (Elizabeth Marvel) is outraged at President Francis "Frank" Underwood (Kevin Spacey) ruse to sideline her as the 2016 Democratic candidate by indirectly leak that the Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Justice Robert Jacobs (Jonathan Hogan) mental incompetence (Alzheimer's) to the press and appoint her to the position. Solicitor General questions President Underwood's attempt to twist words of threat (evil) and re-packaging them to saving (good) the reputation of Dunbar as,  "Rationalizing the obscene into the palatable." The politics of this ruse is is an example of one who plots evil and calls it good and then ensnared by the transgression of his speech (Proverbs 12:21)
Isaiah 5


5:20 Those who call evil good and good evil are as good as dead,
who turn darkness into light and light into darkness,
who turn bitter into sweet and sweet into bitter.

Daniel 2


Let the name of God be praised forever and ever,
for wisdom and power belong to Him.

2:21 He changes times and seasons,
deposing some kings
and establishing others.
He gives wisdom to the wise;
he imparts knowledge to those with understanding;

[Exodus 20:18 All the people were seeing the thundering and the lightning, and heard the sound of the horn, and saw the mountain smoking – and when the people saw it they trembled with fear and kept their distance. 20:19 They said to Moses, “You speak to us and we will listen, but do not let God speak with us, lest we die. 20:20 Moses said to the people, Do not fear, for God has come to test you, that the fear of Him may be before you so that you do not sin.”]
[Proverbs 9:9 Give instruction to a wise person, and he will become wiser still; teach a righteous person and he will add to his learning. Proverbs 9:10 The beginning of wisdom is to fear the Lord, and acknowledging the Holy One is understanding.]
[Proverbs 24:16 Although a righteous person may fall seven times, he gets up again, but the wicked will be brought down by calamity.]
2:22 He reveals deep and hidden things.
He knows what is in the darkness,
and light resides with him.

Ecclesiasticus / Sirach
Chapter 15


13 The Lord hates all that is foul, and no one who fears Him will love it either.
14 He himself made human beings in the beginning, and then left them free to make their own decisions.
15 If you choose, you will keep the commandments and so be faithful to His will.
16 He has set fire and water before you; put out your hand to whichever you prefer.
17 A human being has life and death before him; whichever he prefers will be given him.
18 For vast is the wisdom of the Lord; He is almighty and all-seeing.
19 His eyes are on those who fear him, He notes every human action.
20 He never commanded anyone to be godless, he has given no one permission to sin.


The War Scroll (also known as The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, War Rule, and Rule of War) in Cave I of Qumrān in 1947 is made up of various scrolls and fragments including 1QM, and 4Q491-497 and part of the well known Dead Sea Scrolls. The War Scroll gives a vivid apocalyptic prophecy into how some Jews conceived of Armageddon (Ezekiel 38:1 - 39:29 ; Daniel 7:1  - 12:12)  from the Maccabean Revolt up into the time of Jesus. The scroll depicts the forces of light and darkness fighting one last last war.
The Sons of Light, consisting of the sons of Levi, the sons of Judah, and the sons of Benjamin, and the exiled of the desert, against Edom, Moab, the sons of Ammon, the Amalekites, and Philistia and their allies the Kittim of Asshur (referred to collectively as the army of Belial), and [those who assist them from among the wicked] who "violate the covenant". Both sides win 3 battles against each other. The 7th and final battle the Creator intervenes by giving his soldiers the strength to win victory and the forces of evil are destroyed forever.
Many scholars believe the forces of light represent Israel and the forces of darkness represent Rome. Some modern scholars and archaeologists have argued that Essenes inhabited the settlement at Qumran, a plateau in the Judean Desert along the Dead Sea, citing Pliny the Elder in support, and giving credence that the Dead Sea Scrolls are the product of the Essenes. This theory, though not yet conclusively proven, has come to dominate the scholarly discussion and public perception of the Essenes.

The War Scroll


The Sons of Light and the forces of Darkness shall fight together to show the strength of God with the roar of a great multitude and the shout of gods and men; a day of disaster.
It is a time of distress for all the people who are redeemed by God. In all their afflictions none exists that is like it, hastening to its completion as an eternal redemption.
On the day of their battle against the Kittim, they shall go forth for carnage in battle.
In three lots the Sons of Light shall stand firm so as to strike a blow at wickedness, and in three the army of Belial shall strengthen themselves so as to force the retreat of the forces of Light.
And when the banners of the infantry cause their hearts to melt, then
the strength of God will strengthen the hearts of the Sons of Light. In the seventh lot : the great hand of God shall overcome Belial and al the angels of his dominion, and all the men of his forces shall be destroyed forever.

Jesus taught the choice of eternal life is difficult and few are able to find it. But, the path of destruction is easy for all to see.
Matthew 7


7:13 “Enter through the narrow gate, because the gate is wide and the way is spacious that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it.
7:14 But the gate is narrow and the way is difficult that leads to life, and there are few who find it.

Like the prophet Daniel said of our Creator, the light of Jesus penetrates even the darkest of places and the blackest of hearts.
Mark 4


4:21 Jesus said to His disciples, “A lamp isn’t brought to be put under a basket or under a bed, is it? Isn’t it to be placed on a lamp stand?
4:22 For nothing is hidden except to be revealed, and nothing concealed except to be brought to light.

John the Baptist Father, Zechariah the priest of the God's temple,declared that his son John to be a prophet of the Most High. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, John the Baptist, cast light on path to the righteous teacher, Jesus Christ, who brought the Creator's mercy, peace, and salvation to those lost in death and darkness of their selfish desires.
Luke 1


1:76 ..."You, child, will be called the Prophet of the Most High.

For you will go before the Lord to prepare His ways,

1:77 to give His people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins.

1:78 Because of our God’s tender mercy the dawn will break upon us from on high

1:79 to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death,

to guide our feet into the way of peace."


 Jesus taught that our deeds (actions, works) will either bring us closer or farther away from the Creator's light (mercy, peace, and salvation).
John 3



3:19 Now this is the basis for judging:  that the light has come into the world and people loved the darkness rather than the light, because their deeds were evil.
3:20 For everyone who does evil deeds hates the light and does not come to the light, so that their deeds will not be exposed.
3:21 But the one who practices the truth comes to the light, so that it may be plainly evident that his deeds have been done in God.

The Apostolic Age
After the Ascension of Jesus Christ, the Apostles graced with the Holy Spirit understood how sweet it is to be loved by a Creator who keeps His promises. Through the power of the Creator's Holy Spirit the Apostles began teaching instructions (Didache) on how to understand God's word translated in their own native tongue.
Acts 2


2:1 Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place.
2:2 Suddenly a sound like a violent wind blowing came from heaven and filled the entire house where they were sitting.
2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them.
2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages as the Spirit enabled them.
2:5 Now there were devout Jews from every nation under Heaven residing in Jerusalem.
2:6 When this sound occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, because each one heard them speaking in his own language.
2:7 Completely baffled, they said, “Aren’t all these who are speaking Galileans?
2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them in our own native language? 
2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia,
2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, 
2:11 both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!
2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?”
2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, saying, “They are drunk on new wine!”
2:14 But Peter stood up with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea and all you who live in Jerusalem, know this and listen carefully to what I say.
2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.
2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel:
2:17 ‘And in the last days it will be,’ God says,
‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people,
and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,
and your young men will see visions,
and your old men will dream dreams.
2:18 Even on my servants, both men and women,
I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.
2:19 And I will perform wonders in the sky above
and miraculous signs on the earth below,
blood and fire and clouds of smoke.
2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes.
2:21 And then everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’
[Joel 2:27 You will be convinced that I am in the midst of Israel. I am the Lord your God; there is no other.
My people will never again be put to shame. An Outpouring of the Spirit
2:28 76  After all of this I will pour out my Spirit on all kinds of people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy. Your elderly will have revelatory dreams; your young men will see prophetic visions. 2:29 Even on male and female servants I will pour out my Spirit in those days. 2:30 I will produce portents both in the sky and on the earth – blood, fire, and columns of smoke. 2:31 The sunlight will be turned to darkness and the moon to the color of blood, before the day of the Lord comes – that great and terrible day! 2:32 It will so happen that everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be delivered. For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be those who survive, just as the Lord has promised; the remnant will be those whom the Lord will call.]
[isaiah 59:19 In the west, people respect the Lord’s reputation; in the east they recognize his splendor. For he comes like a rushing stream driven on by wind sent from the Lord. 59:20 “A protector comes to Zion, to those in Jacob who repent of their rebellious deeds,” says the Lord. 59:21 “As for me, this is my promise to them,” says the Lord. “My spirit, who is upon you, and my words, which I have placed in your mouth, will not depart from your mouth or from the mouths of your children and descendants from this time forward,” says the Lord.

Saint Peter and the other Apostles of Jesus Christ began spreading the Good News and the Didache (The Teaching) on our choice of eternal life or death and destruction to Jewish Christians.

Acts 2


2:42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching [Didache] and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.
2:43 Reverential awe came over everyone, and many wonders and miraculous signs came about by the apostles.
2:44 All who believed were together and held everything in common,
2:45 and they began selling their property and possessions and distributing the proceeds to everyone, as anyone had need.
2:46 Every day they continued to gather together by common consent in the temple courts,  breaking bread from house to house, sharing their food with glad and humble hearts,
2:47 praising God and having the good will of all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number every day those who were being saved.

As the rock of the Church, Peter testified the way to understand to understand the Creator is to follow His instructions on building your faith through excellence, knowledge, self-control, perseverance, godliness, brotherly affection, and unselfish love.
2 Peter 1


1:2 May grace and peace be lavished on you as you grow in the rich knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord!
1:3 I can pray this because his divine power has bestowed on us everything necessary for life and godliness through the rich knowledge of the one who called us by his own glory and excellence.
1:4 Through these things he has bestowed on us his precious and most magnificent promises, so that by means of what was promised you may become partakers of the divine nature, after escaping the worldly corruption that is produced by evil desire.
1:5 For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith excellence, to excellence, knowledge;
1:6 to knowledge, self-control; to self-control, perseverance; to perseverance, godliness;
1:7 to godliness, brotherly affection; to brotherly affection, unselfish love.
1:8 For if these things are really yours and are continually increasing, they will keep you from becoming ineffective and unproductive in your pursuit of knowing our Lord Jesus Christ more intimately.
1:9 But concerning the one who lacks such things – he is blind. That is to say, he is nearsighted, since he has forgotten about the cleansing of his past sins.
1:10 Therefore, brothers and sisters, make every effort to be sure of your calling and election. For by doing this you will never stumble into sin.
1:11 For thus an entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, will be richly provided for you.

According to Saint Paul, James the Just (Also known as the step brother of Jesus, Matthew 13:54 - 58, Matthew 12:46 -12:50, Mark 6:3 - 7, Mark 3:31 - 3:35, John 7:5) witnessed Jesus had truly risen from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:7) and testified that Christ was our glorious Lord (James 2:1).
Church Historian, Eusebius, James was the first Bishop to govern Jesus Christ's Church with the Apostles in Jerusalem. I am compelled to give a detailed background of James, because his story is not clearly given in Scripture. And James motif is also questioned by those that do not understand his mission on earth was to convert the Jews coming into Jerusalem.

The Church History of Eusebius

Book II.

Chapter I.—The Course pursued by the Apostles after the Ascension of Christ.



2. Then James, whom the ancients surnamed the Just on account of the excellence of his virtue, is recorded to have been the first to be made bishop of the church of Jerusalem. This James was called the brother of the Lord because he was known as a son of Joseph, and Joseph was supposed to be the father of Christ, because the Virgin, being betrothed to him, “was found with child by the Holy Ghost before they came together,” as the account of the holy Gospels shows.

3. But Clement in the sixth book of his Hypotyposes writes thus: “For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Savior, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem.”

4. But the same writer, in the seventh book of the same work, relates also the following things concerning him: The Lord after his resurrection imparted knowledge to James the Just and to John and Peter, and they imparted it to the rest of the apostles, and the rest of the apostles to the seventy, of whom Barnabas was one. But there were two James: one called the Just, who was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple and was beaten to death with a club by a fuller, and another who was beheaded.Paul also makes mention of the same James the Just, where he writes, “Other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother.


Like Peter, James also preached about the trial by fire each person would face by accepting and following the will of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit into their lives.  The hardship would not only come the followers of the dark one, but also ones personal desires. Like Peter, James reminded the new disciples of how unbearable the fate eternal death would be of those who have who live a life of sin. But. for those that endure testing their love of God will receive the greatest reward, eternal life.
James 1



1:9 Now the believer of humble means should take pride in his high position.

1:10 But the rich person’s pride should be in his humiliation, because he will pass away like a wildflower in the meadow.

1:11 For the sun rises with its heat and dries up the meadow; the petal of the flower falls off and its beauty is lost forever. So also the rich person in the midst of his pursuits will wither away.

1:12 Happy is the one who endures testing, because when he has proven to be genuine, he will receive the crown of life that God promised to those who love him.

1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, and He Himself tempts no one.

1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires.

1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death.

1:16 Do not be led astray, my dear brothers and sisters.

1:17 All generous giving and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or the slightest hint of change.

1:18 By His sovereign plan He gave us birth through the message of truth, that we would be a kind of firstfruits of all he created.

The Apostles and Saints testify Jesus Christ atoned for the sins of our ancestors that caused death. And If we accept Jesus as our Savior, He will atone for all sins before we knew Him that cause death. The Apostle John states that if one acknowledges a love for God and constantly rejects both the Creator and Jesus commands to love God and one another, scripture states that person is a false Christian.
1 John 1


2:3 Now by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep His commandments.
2:4 The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep His commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person.
2:5 But whoever obeys His word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in Him.
2:6 The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk just as Jesus walked.
2:7 Dear friends, I am not writing a new commandment to you, but an old commandment which you have had from the beginning. The old commandment is the word that you have already heard.
2:8 On the other hand, I am writing a new commandment to you which is true in Him and in you, because the darkness is passing away and the true light is already shining.
2:9 The one who says he is in the light but still hates his fellow Christian is still in the darkness.
2:10 The one who loves his fellow Christian resides in the light, and there is no cause for stumbling in him.
2:11 But the one who hates his fellow Christian is in the darkness, walks in the darkness, and does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded his eyes.

In both science and morality humans have been able to achieve a higher level of knowledge which does not depend on our animal nature through experience  and reason. Biologist and Primatologist, Dr. Frans de Waal book, The Bonobo and the Atheist, argues that morality is built into natural instincts (brain chemistry) of our species and does not necessarily derive from religion. He believes that religion was added to codify, enforce, and steer morality which we already had. Saint Paul would agree that by nature our human conscience has a basic understanding of what is right and what is wrong (Romans 2:14). 
In the experiment, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay” Sarah F. Brosnan & Frans B. M. de Waal used five female capuchin monkeys and had a human experimenter give them an unequal distribution of rewards. The females were much less likely to complete a trade with the human experimenter when their corresponding partner received a food item of higher value item (a grape; the lower item was a cucumber), and when that partner received the higher food item with no exchange of work of any kind, the likelihood of not completing a trade intensified. All of these refusals of exchange included both passive and active rejections ranging from refusing to take the awards to throwing the reward, respectively. These negative responses of situation made with the monkeys support the early evolutionary origin of social inequity aversion is: the tendency to reject or avoid situations in which there is social inequality, unfairness, or injustice. Saint Paul wrote a good example of spiritual inequity aversion, "if food causes my brother to sin, I will never eat meat again, so that I may not cause my brother to sin. (1 Corinthians 8:13)."
By nature we are servants to the folly of our own selfish desires. Likewise, our Creator has given us another choice, the path of wisdom to understand what we need to love and serve Him. One reward for following the path of the righteous is that we build an intimate spiritual relationship with the Creator, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Prophets and the Saints.
Romans 6


6:15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Absolutely not!
6:16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or obedience resulting in righteousness?
6:17 But thanks be to God that though you were slaves to sin, you obeyed from the heart that pattern of teaching you were entrusted to,
6:18 and having been freed from sin, you became enslaved to righteousness.
6:19 (I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.) For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification.
[Micah 6:8 He has told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord really wants from you:
He wants you to promote justice, to be faithful, and to live obediently before your God.]
[Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is my brother and sister and mother.
6:20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with regard to righteousness.
6:21 So what benefit did you then reap from those things that you are now ashamed of? For the end of those things is death.
6:22 But now, freed from sin and enslaved to God, you have your benefit leading to sanctification, and the end is eternal life.
6:23 For the payoff of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

A dutiful servant to our Creator gains confidence of salvation by practicing righteous actions learned from Scripture and disciplining ourselves to turn away from sinful desires. But, our righteous actions and turning from sin does not guarantee salvation. Jesus states that our righteous duty to the Creator is the prerequisite (prior condition) to receiving faith in His Love for us.
Galatians 5


5:1 For freedom Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not be subject again to the yoke of slavery. 5:2 Listen! I, Paul, tell you that if you let yourselves be circumcised, Christ will be of no benefit to you at all! 5:3 And I testify again to every man who lets himself be circumcised that he is obligated to obey the whole law. 5:4 You who are trying to be declared righteous by the law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace!
5:5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait expectantly for the hope of righteousness.
[Luke 17:7 “Would any one of you say to your slave who comes in from the field after plowing or shepherding sheep, ‘Come at once and sit down for a meal’? 17:8 Won’t the master instead say to him, ‘Get my dinner ready, and make yourself ready to serve me while I eat and drink. Then you may eat and drink’? 17:9 He won’t thank the slave because he did what he was told, will he? 17:10 So you too, when you have done everything you were commanded to do, should say, ‘We are slaves undeserving of special praise; we have only done what was our duty.’”]
[Peter 2:28 And now, little children, remain in him, so that when he appears we may have confidence and not shrink away from him in shame when he comes back. 2:29 If you know that he is righteous, you also know that everyone who practices righteousness has been fathered by him.]
[2 Timothy 3:16 Every scripture is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 3:17 that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work.]
5:6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision carries any weight – the only thing that matters is faith working through love.
1:5 But now I ask you, lady (not as if I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one we have had from the beginning), that we love one another. 1:6 (Now this is love: that we walk according to His commandments.) This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning; thus you should walk in it.
1 John 3:18 Little children, let us not love with word or with tongue but in deed and truth. 3:19 And by this we will know that we are of the truth and will convince our conscience in His presence, 3:20 that if our conscience condemns us, that God is greater than our conscience and knows all things. 3:21 Dear friends, if our conscience does not condemn us, we have confidence in the presence of God, 3:22 and whatever we ask we receive from him, because we keep his commandments and do the things that are pleasing to him. 3:23 Now this is his commandment:
that we believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he gave us the commandment. 3:24 And the person who keeps his commandments resides in God, and God in him. Now by this we know that God resides in us: by the Spirit he has given us.

I asked a little boy named Andrew what he thought was love. I was amazed at his response. "The other night my babysitter told me that I had to go to bed. I was not tired, but I loved her, so I marched upstairs and went to sleep." Like Andrew, there are many times in life when we have to do actions out of love that we may not ordinarily do on our own.
God is Love
Life Without Faith is Dead.
Faith Without Works is Dead.
Works Without Love is Dead.
Faith Working in Love is Life.
Faith in the Creator is found doing actions of Love. We must actively work and pray to convince our conscience that happiness can be achieved through works of Love. According to Ali Reza Rajaei work, Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy, that our choice to change behavior to works of Love is part of the human development "toward the transcendence, and reaching to an acceptation and comfort feeling with self, world, and God." Rajaei explains that within Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy (RCET) there are three levels of understanding psychopathology (soul suffering): cognitive (thought patterns), physiological (brain structure) and spiritual (will power). It was Jesus who told his disciple Peter, "Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." (Matthew 26:41). 
The first teaching of the Didache helps understand what it is to accept or reject the wisdom and power of love that our Creator freely gives each of us. If you do decide to accept our Creator then start by staying mentally alert practicing His Wisdom by doing works of love and avoiding evil inclinations of selfish desires. To use the cliche, 'practice pays off'.
In time you will notice a change in your thinking and conscious perception (discernment) of what are truly selfish and selfless actions.  I believe that reading and practicing the Didache can rewire your brain to make better choices Those in the behavior sciences may consider reading and practicing the teachings of the Didache a form of Operant conditioning (behavior modification by learning the reward or punishment of ones actions) that is a catalyst for positive neuroplasticity. As the physical changes to the brain become more crystalized (intellectually wise) to the teachings, the size of the anterior hippocampus (area of brain that processes and stores new memories) will grow, leading to improvements in spatial memory (wisdom), event perception, and decision making.
Others around you will notice this change in you as well.
Research by UC Davis psychologist Robert Emmons, author of Thanks!: How the New Science of Gratitude Can Make You Happier, shows that simply keeping a gratitude journal—regularly writing brief reflections on moments for which we’re thankful—can significantly increase well-being and life satisfaction.
Saint Jude stated that there will be those who are adverse to the love of God that will mock the righteous who live for Him. The righteous will not retaliate, but silently pray to the Lord to have mercy on them.
Jude 1


1:17 ...recall the predictions foretold by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.
1:18 For they said to you, “In the end time there will come scoffers, propelled by their own ungodly desires.”

1:19 These people are divisive, worldly, devoid of the Spirit.
1:20 But you, dear friends, by building yourselves up in your most holy faith, by praying in the Holy Spirit,
1:21 maintain yourselves in the love of God, while anticipating the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that brings eternal life.
1:22 And have mercy on those who waver;
1:23 save others by snatching them out of the fire; have mercy on others, coupled with a fear of God, hating even the clothes stained by the flesh.

A white robe represents the sacrifice the saint (righteous) made in giving their lives working in love for the Creator.  These saints have been admitted to holy fellowship with our creator.
Revelation 22


22:14 Blessed are those who wash their robes so they can have access to the tree of life and can enter into the city by the gates.

[Genesis 2:8 The Lord God planted an orchard in the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man He had formed. 2:9 The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow from the soil, every tree that was pleasing to look at and good for food. (Now the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil were in the middle of the orchard.)]
[Genesis 3:22 And the Lord God said, “Now that the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil, he must not be allowed to stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” 3:23 So the Lord God expelled him from the orchard in Eden to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken. 3:24 When he drove the man out, He placed on the eastern side of the orchard in Eden angelic sentries who used the flame of a whirling sword to guard the way to the tree of life.]
1 John 2:13 I am writing to you, fathers, that you have known him who has been from the beginning. I am writing to you, young people, that you have conquered the evil one.
1 John 5:4 ...everyone who has been fathered by God conquers the world.This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?
Revelation 2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, I will permit him to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.’
Revelation 3:5 The one who conquers will be dressed like them in white clothing, and I will never erase his name from the book of life, but will declare his name before my Father and before his angels.
6:9 Now when the Lamb opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been violently killed because of the word of God and because of the testimony they had given. 6:10 They cried out with a loud voice, “How long, Sovereign Master, holy and true, before you judge those who live on the earth and avenge our blood?” 6:11 Each of them was given a long white robe and they were told to rest for a little longer, until the full number was reached of both their fellow servants and their brothers who were going to be killed just as they had been.
7:13 Then one of the elders asked me, “These dressed in long white robes – who are they and where have they come from?” 7:14 So I said to him, “My lord, you know the answer.” Then he said to me, “These are the ones who have come out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb! 7:15 For this reason they are before the throne of God, and they serve him day and night in his temple, and the one seated on the throne will shelter them. 7:16 They will never go hungry or be thirsty again, and the sun will not beat down on them, nor any burning heat, 7:17 because the Lamb in the middle of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.
Revelation 22:1 Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life – water as clear as crystal – pouring out from the throne of God and of the Lamb, flowing down the middle of the city’s main street. On each side of the river is the tree of life producing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month of the year. Its leaves are for the healing of the nations.]

22:15 Outside are the dogs and the sorcerers and the sexually immoral, and the murderers, and the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood!.

The Didache adapted new precepts of proper Christian fellowship and morality for converted Christian (modern day Messianic) Jews to follow. The first teaching was how the royal law to Love All outweighs all others. When we show prejudice toward our neighbors how can we know the love of our Creator. If we cannot give mercy to others, how can we expect our Creator to give mercy to us.

The big difference from the Torah and the Didache was faith in Jesus Christ as the Messiah. which was not accepted by many Jews.  In the following years the split widened when Christians proclaimed that Jesus Christ was more than just the Jewish messiah. Jesus was God made flesh, who died for the sins of humanity, and that faith in Jesus Christ offered everlasting life.
Baptism through the Holy Spirit, and The Eucharist (literal meaning is Thanksgiving, also known as Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, Eucharistic Celebration), and the Royal command to Love all.

With each new church formed the Apostles trained new initiates and left the Didache (Teaching) and their personal testimony (Gospels) to Christian Jewish leaders in the Church to follow. After a period of time both the Didache and the Gospels were translated used by congregations across the globe.
The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. It is traditionally ascribed to Barnabas who is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, although some ascribe it to another Apostolic Father of the same name, Barnabas of Alexandria (also known as Pseudo-Barnabas) that wrote the Epistle sometime in between the destruction of the Second Temple in AD 70 and the Bar Kochba Revolt of AD 132. In the second part of the Epistle Barnabas makes reference to the two paths, Light and Darkness, which are open for humankind to follow, and it is widely believed that this part of the Epistle was based upon the Didache and used by Jewish Christians residing in Alexandria, Egypt.
Epistle of Barnabas (William Wake translation)


12 Let us become spiritually a perfect temple to God. As much as in us lies let us meditate upon the fear of God; and strive to the utmost of our power to keep His commandments; that we may rejoice in His righteous judgments.

13 For God will judge the world without respect of persons and everyone shall receive according to his works.

14 If a man shall be good, his righteousness shall go before him
[Psalm 85:8 I will listen to what God the Lord says. For He will make peace with His people, His faithful followers. Yet they must not return to their foolish ways. 85:9 Certainly His loyal followers will soon experience His deliverance; then His splendor will again appear in our land. 85:10 Loyal love and faithfulness meet; deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. 85:11 Faithfulness grows from the ground, and deliverance looks down from the sky. 85:12 Yes, the Lord will bestow his good blessings, and our land will yield its crops. 85:13 Deliverance goes before him, and prepares a pathway for him.]
if wicked, the reward of his wickedness shall follow him.
Peter stood up among the believers (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty people) and said, 1:16 “Brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled that the Holy Spirit foretold through David concerning Judas – who became the guide for those who arrested Jesus – 1:17 for he was counted as one of us and received a share in this ministry.” 1:18 (Now this man Judas acquired a field with the reward of his unjust deed, and falling headfirst he burst open in the middle and all his intestines gushed out. 1:19 This became known to all who lived in Jerusalem, so that in their own language  they called that field Hakeldama, that is, “Field of Blood.”) 1:20 “For it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his house become deserted, and let there be no one to live in it,’ and ‘Let another take his position of responsibility.’
15 Take heed therefore lest sitting still now, that when we are called, we fall asleep in our sins; and the wicked one getting the dominion over us, stir us up, and shut us out of the kingdom of the Lord.

16 Consider this also: although you have seen so great signs and wonders done among the people of the Jews, yet this notwithstanding the Lord hath forsaken them.

17 Beware, therefore, lest it happen to us; as it is written There may be many called, but few chosen.
22:1 Jesus spoke to them again in parables, saying: 22:2 “The kingdom of heaven can be compared to a king who gave a wedding banquet for his son. 22:3 He sent his slaves to summon those who had been invited to the banquet, but they would not come. 22:4 Again he sent other slaves, saying, ‘Tell those who have been invited, “Look! The feast I have prepared for you is ready. My oxen and fattened cattle have been slaughtered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.”’ 22:5 But they were indifferent and went away, one to his farm, another to his business. 22:6 The rest seized his slaves, insolently mistreated them, and killed them. 22:7 The  king was furious! He sent his soldiers, and they put those murderers to death and set their city on fire. 22:8 Then he said to his slaves, ‘The wedding is ready, but the ones who had been invited were not worthy. 22:9 So go into the main streets and invite everyone you find to the wedding banquet.’ 22:10 And those slaves went out into the streets and gathered all they found, both bad and good, and the wedding hall was filled with guests. 22:11 But when the king came in to see the wedding guests, he saw a man there who was not wearing wedding clothes. 22:12 And he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you get in here without wedding clothes?’ But he had nothing to say.  22:13 Then the king said to his attendants, ‘Tie him up hand and foot and throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth!’ 22:14 For many are called, but few are chosen.”

In 64 AD,  the Great Fire of Rome was blamed by Nero on the Christian community living in the city.
The Annals
By Tacitus
Written 109 A.C.E.
Book XV
But all human efforts, all the lavish gifts of the emperor, and the propitiation of the gods, did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christ, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilate, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.
Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car. Hence, even for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good, but to glut one man's cruelty, that they were being destroyed.
 The Second Epistle of Clement (2 Clement) preserved in the Codex Alexandrinus (late 4th century) and the later Jerusalem Codex (1056) which includes the Didache, as well as in the Syriac version. It is traditionally ascribed to Saint Clement of Rome (Pope Clement I) who traditionally believed that Saint Peter appointed him as his successor. Clement is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion,  Lutheran, and Orthodox Churches. 
The Second Epistle of Clement
Chapter 4. True Confession of Christ


Let us, then, not only call Him Lord, for that will not save us. For He says, "Not every one that says to me, Lord, Lord, shall be saved, but he that works righteousness."
[Matthew 7:21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the kingdom of heaven – only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven. 7:22 On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do many powerful deeds?7:23 Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!’]
Wherefore, brethren, let us confess Him by our works, by loving one another, by not committing adultery, or speaking evil of one another, or cherishing envy; but by being continent, compassionate, and good. We ought also to sympathize with one another, and not be avaricious. By such works let us confess Him, and not by those that are of an opposite kind. And it is not fitting that we should fear men, but rather God. For this reason, if we should do such wicked things, the Lord has said, "Even though you were gathered together to me in my very bosom, yet if you were not to keep my commandments, I would cast you off, and say unto you, Depart from me; I know you not whence you are, you workers of iniquity."
Leviticus 26:39 “‘As for the ones who remain among you, they will rot away because of their iniquity in the lands of your enemies, and they will also rot away because of their ancestors’ iniquities which are with them. 26:40 However, when they confess their iniquity and their ancestors’ iniquity which they committed by trespassing against me,  by which they also walked in hostility against me  26:41 (and I myself will walk in hostility against them and bring them into the land of their enemies), and then their uncircumcised hearts become humbled and they make up for their iniquity, 26:42 I will remember my covenant with Jacob and also my covenant with Isaac and also my covenant with Abraham, and I will remember the land. 26:43 The land will be abandoned by them in order that it may make up for its Sabbaths while it is made desolate without them, and they will make up for their iniquity because they have rejected my regulations and have abhorred my statutes. 26:44 In spite of this, however, when they are in the land of their enemies I will not reject them and abhor them to make a complete end of them, to break my covenant with them, for I am the Lord their God. 26:45 I will remember for them the covenant with their ancestors whom I brought out from the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations to be their God. I am the Lord.’”
Psalms 5:4 Certainly you are not a God who approves of evil; evil people cannot dwell with you. 5:5 Arrogant people cannot stand in your presence; you hate all who behave wickedly. 5:6 You destroy liars; the Lord despises violent and deceitful people. 5:7 But as for me, because of your great faithfulness I will enter your house; I will bow down toward your holy temple as I worship you.
[Luke 13:23 Someone asked him, “Lord, will only a few be saved?” So He said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once the Head of the House gets up and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, let us in!’  But He will answer you,  ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 13:27 But He will reply, ‘I don’t know where you come from! Go away from me, all you evildoers!13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you yourselves thrown out. 13:29 Then  people will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table in the kingdom of God. 13:30 But indeed, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”]

Bishop Ignatius (also known as Ignatius Theophorus) of Antioch (modern day Antakya, Turkey) was an Apostolic Father and disciple of the Apostle John. He is venerated as a Saint in the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christianity, Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, and Lutheran Church.
In the year 107 AD, Emperor Trajan visited Antioch and forced the Christians living there the choice to follow Roman gods or be condemned to death. Like the Apostles before him, Ignatius would not deny the Word of Christ and thus was martyred in Rome. In his Chronicle, Eusebius gives the date of Ignatius's death as 2124 AA (2124 years after Abraham), which would amount to the 11th year of Trajan's reign; i.e., 108 AD. During his stay in Smyrna (present day Izmir, Turkey) Ignatius wrote to the Magnesian congregation about the way of life and death.
The Letter of Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch to the Magnesians


Yes, everything is coming to an end, and we stand before this choice—death or life—and everyone will go "to his own place." One might say similarly, there are two coinages, one God's, the other the world's. Each bears its own stampunbelievers that of this world; believers, who are spurred by love, the stamp of God the Father through Jesus Christ. And if we do not willingly die in union with His Passion, we do not have His life in us.

Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna (modern day İzmir, Turkey) was a companion of Bishop Papias of Hierapolis (modern day Pamukkale, Turkey), disciple of the Apostle John, and a correspondent of Ignatius of Antioch. Polycarp was also martyred for teaching Jesus was our Lord and Savior.
The Letter of Saint Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, to the Philippians


I rejoice with you greatly in our Lord Jesus Christ, in that you have welcomed the models of true Love, and have helped on their way, as opportunity was given you, those men who are bound in fetters [chains or manacles] which become the saints, which are indeed the diadems [crown jewels] of the true elect of God and of our Lord. And I also rejoice because the firm root of your faith, famous from the earliest times, still abides and bears fruit for our Lord Jesus Christ, who endured for our sins even to face death, "whom God raised up, having loosed the pangs of Hades." In Him, "though you have not seen Him, you believe with inexpressible and exalted joy" — joy that many have longed to experience— knowing that "you are saved by grace, not because of works," namely, by the will of God through Jesus Christ.
"Therefore, girding your loins, serve God in fear" and in truth, forsaking empty talkativeness and the erroneous teaching of the crowd, "believing on Him who raised our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead and gave him glory" and a throne on his right hand; "to whom he subjected all things, whether in heaven or on earth," whom "everything that breathes" serves, who will come as "judge of the living and the dead," whose blood God will require from those who disobey him. For "He who raised Him from the dead will raise us also," if we do His will and follow His commandments, and love what He loved, refraining from all wrongdoing, avarice, love of money, slander, and false witness; "not returning evil for evil or abuse for abuse," or blow for blow, or curse for curse; but rather remembering what the Lord said when he taught: "Judge not, that you be not judged; forgive, and you will be forgiven; be merciful, that you may be shown mercy; the measure you give will be the measure you get" and "blessed are the poor and those persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the Kingdom of God."

In the second half of the third century "The Didascalia" expanded on the Didache, by forming a corpus of canon law providing disciplinary measures as well as spiritual and moral precepts for the clergy and the laity. The Didascalia also contains regulations relating to liturgical questions, such as the canonical hours and the periods of fasting. The Didascalia claims to be written by the Apostles, Paul and James in Jerusalem without mentioning the Didache, its earlier predecessor from the first century. The only surviving text is written in Syriac. Fragments of the Didascalia in Latin have been found that are consistent to the Syriac text as well. So the story ties in 
Chapter 1


We, then, twelve Apostles of the only Son, the Everlasting Word of God, our Lord and God and Savior Jesus the Christ, being assembled with one accord in Jerusalem the city of the great King, and with our brother Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, and James the Bishop of the above-mentioned city, have established the Didascalia, in which are included the Confession and the Creed, and we have named all the Ordinances, as the ordinances of Heavenly Bodies, and thus again the Ordinances of the Holy Church. We assert that every one shall stand and confess and believe in what has been allotted to him by God; that is to say, the Bishop as a Shepard; the Elders as teachers; the Deacons as ministers; the Subdeacons as helpers; the Lectors as readers; the Singers as psalmists with intelligence and constancy; and the rest of the populace should be hearers of the words of the Gospel according to discipline. When we had completed and confirmed these Cannons, we established them in the Church. And now we have written this other Book of doctrine which will enlighten all habitable earth. and we sent it by hands of Clement our comrade; This which ye hear, O Christian Nazarenes, who are beneath the sun [is] that you may learn with diligence and care. He who hears and keeps these commandments which are written in this Didascalia, will have everlasting life, and boldness before the judgement-seat of our Lord Jesus the Christ the Son of God, who taught us about His great mystery. And he who is contentious, and does not keep them, they shall put him out as an opposer and quarreler, as it is written that who do evil things shall go to everlasting torment, and those who do good things shall inherit everlasting life in the Kingdom of Heaven.

The Didascalia was superseded by the Apostolic Constitutions whose author is not known.
The Apostolic Constitutions or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (Latin: Constitutiones Apostolorum, Constitutions of Clemens) is a Christian collection of eight treatises which belongs to genre of the Church Orders dated from 375 to 380 AD, but present themselves as being from an Apostolic Council at Antioch.  In antiquity, the Apostolic Constitutions were mistakenly supposed to be gathered and handed down by Clement of Rome.
The Apostolic Constitutions were held generally in high esteem during late 4th century and served as the basis for much ecclesiastical legislation.  Four manuscripts of it are now extant, the oldest an early twelfth-century text in St. Petersburg, an allied fourteenth-century text in Vienna, and two kindred sixteenth-century texts, one in Vienna, the other in Paris. The provenance is usually regarded as Syria, probably Antioch.  Books 1 to 6 are a free re-wording of the Didascalia Apostolorum. Book 7 of the Apostolic Constitutions is partially based on the Didache.
Constitutions of the Holy Apostles
Book VII.
Concerning the Christian Life, and the Eucharist, and the Initiation into Christ.
Sec. I.—On the Two Ways,—The Way of Life and the Way of Death.
That There are Two Ways,—The One Natural, of Life, and the Other Introduced Afterwards, of Death; And that the Former is from God, and the Latter of Error, from the Snares of the Adversary.


I. The lawgiver Moses said to the Israelites, “Behold, I have set before your face the way of life and the way of death;” and added, “Choose life, that thou mayest live.” Elijah the prophet also said to the people: “How long will you halt with both your legs? If the Lord be God, follow Him.” The Lord Jesus also said justly: “No one can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other.” We also, following our teacher Christ, “who is the Savior of all men, especially of those that believe,” are obliged to say that there are two ways—the one of life, the other of death; which have no comparison one with another, for they are very different, or rather entirely separate; and the way of life is that of nature, but that of death was afterwards introduced,—it not being according to the mind of God, but from the snares of the adversary.


I in no way consider myself a prophet, but I do feel compelled to write and share my fear and love of our Creator. Before facing great humility, my pride and ignorance had me condone what our Creator condemns. By the grace of the Holy Spirit, I now know the importance of my decisions and actions. Media will accompany my testimony to further explain what has been revealed to me. I hope that someday my two children, Lyra and Luke, will read and gain this wisdom of morality quicker than I.
I dedicate this writing to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. I also wish to thank both my mother and father, who have always been there for me with love and encouragement. So many people have experienced the warmth they felt flowing from my parents hearts. My father gave me valuable advice as a young man. He told me that if I look for the good, I will find it. If I look for the bad, I will find it. The Didache is the guide to discern the good and bad.
If the moral Teaching of the Apostles interest you, please feel free to contribute by any means. Ask your priest, pastor, or minister about the the Didache and spread the good news. I am also looking for financial support to cover editing and publishing my research.
We are not so different.
Praise God and may He Bless your life,


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1:2 {The way of life} is this.


1:3 First of all, {thou shalt love the God} that made thee;


Note. I will place a passage from the Didache on the top of each post I make. Scripture, quotes, media and my testimony will be in context to the passage. I will also incorporate music, video, and imagery to amplify feelings to the words of my personal testimony. I have also chosen to use the term Creator in order to respect the beliefs of the religious faiths and religions I mention.


Chapter 2 - Finding a Force to Love


I previously asked you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists. During this journey a discovery was made that

every one of us has been given knowledge (conscience) free will (liberty) to make a right (positive or good) or wrong (negative or evil) life choice to every difficult decision (moral dilemma) we make concerning the welfare of our happiness or misery. Inducing on my previous maxim, you the reader and I the writer have opened ourselves to learning how to better our quality of life through reason by doing good and exploring the possibility that a Force of Nature designed and governs everything in the known Universe with a purpose in mind.


I propose that all Religious and Nonreligious individuals attempt to perceive a connection with the fundamental nature of the Universe. It is this very perception that structures what is reality for each of one of us. In the Declaration of Independence the United States Founding Fathers understood that we have a connection to a Force of Nature we call the Creator and rejected the maxims of Agnosticism and Atheism. Instead, our principal leaders framed our government under a philosophy of Deism honored both the Creator and Natural Law of binding rules of moral behavior.


"Son, either God is the greatest hoax of mankind or He is real. I choose to believe God is real and my life is better for it." This was the second teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy.


Learning the truth of whether there is an active generative force greater than the physical world that surrounds us develops over time with our unique experiences and the persuasiveness of communicated testimonies passed to down to us by our ancestors from through recorded history.

As a parent of two beautiful children I am able to glimpse an understanding of a creative force that connects all living things is powerful. When my son questioned me on what is the Creator, I used a metaphor that a Jewish rabbi gave me to help him understand.


“Son, If I give you a pencil and paper, can you draw me a picture for the refrigerator?” “Yes, I would love to Dad,” he answered. “What, if I give you no pencil or paper, can you draw me a picture?" Then could you still make me something?” “Can I use crayons and a board?" he questioned. "No son, I will give you no pens, pencils, crayons, markers or paper or board?" My boy pondered, "Can I use the earth and a stick or rock?" I responded, "No, you cannot use a rock or stick or any object.” "Can I at least use my hands?" he asked. "No, you cannot use your hands or any part of your body." My boy appeared frustrated. "Then, then there is no way I can draw you a picture?"I smiled "Our Creator can."


At some point saying 'our Creator can do things we cannot' may not fully quench my children's thirst for understanding and connection of a explicit idea of a 'Being' with 'Infinite Power.' Thus, I quest to find the best reasonable explanation of a Creator before they ask. President Thomas Jefferson encouraged one to explore a connection with Creator..


From Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr, with Enclosure, 10 August 1787

Do not be frightened from this inquiry by any fear of it’s consequences. If it ends in a belief that there is no god, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in it’s exercise, and the love of others which it will procure you. If you find reason to believe there is a god, a consciousness that you are acting under his eye, and that he approves you, will be a vast additional incitement. If that there be a future state, the hope of a happy existence in that increases the appetite to deserve it...


Thomas Jefferson believed that in order to find our connection to this this Force of Nature that Deist universally call the Creator we must review what the Sages have discovered on divinity.

Then understand the Jewish view of Deism and its later reformation.


From Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Priestley, 9 April 1803


While on a short visit lately to Monticello, I received from you a copy of your comparative view of Socrates & Jesus, and I avail myself of the first moment of leisure after my return to acknowledge the pleasure I had in the perusal of it, and the desire it excited to see you take up the subject on a more extensive scale. in consequence of some conversations with Dr. Rush in the years 1798.99. I had promised some day to write him a letter giving him my view of the Christian system. I have reflected often on it since, & even sketched the outlines in my own mind. I should first take a general view of the moral doctrines of the most remarkable of the ancient philosophers, of whose ethics we have sufficient information to make an estimate: say of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Epictetus, Socrates, Cicero, Seneca, Antoninus. I should do justice to the branches of morality they have treated well but point out the importance of those in which they are deficient. I should then take a view of the deism, and ethics of the Jews, and show in what a degraded state they were, and the necessity they presented of a reformation.


In Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates is stated to believed that while man could not see the gods, their power in nature could be observed. The gods signified their will through oracles whom they were disposed to favor by divination. He thought the gods in general conceal knowledge of the future and the structure of the Universe from most men, but revealed glimpses of it to the oracles to serve their will. Whenever man could not attain future knowledge for themselves, Socrates believed oracles could gain this type of information for him.


Priestly writes that both Jesus and Socrates shared a calm and even temperament.But, unlike Socrates the Gospels reveal Jesus restraint towards sexual desire. Also unlike Socrates, Both taught the Golden rule to be good to others and honor a higher power. Jesus always spoke of his ascension to an afterlife with the Creator that prepared for him since the beginning of time. Both, Further Jesus stated that the Creator gives no preference to the philosophers or any class of men.


From Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Priestley, 24 April 1803


In my letter of Apr. 9. I gave you the substance of a view I had taken of the morality taught by the ancient philosophers & by Jesus. the subject being in my mind, I committed to writing a syllabus of it, as I would treat it had I time or information sufficient, and sent it to Dr. Rush in performance of the promise I had formerly made him. tho’ this differs no otherwise from my letter to you than in being more full & formal, yet I send you a copy of it. there is a point or two in which you & I probably differ. but the wonder would be that any two persons should see in the same point of view all the parts of an extensive subject. I did not know that any comparative view of these schemes of morality had been taken till I saw your tract on Socrates & Jesus, & learnt from that that a Mr Toulmin had written a dissertation in the same way.


John Locke wrote that there is an instinctual relationship between the implicit ideas of duty and law with the ideas of a Creator, punishment, and afterlife that preserves us. John Locke then wrote the idea of the Creator comes through thought, meditation, and right use of mental faculties (reason).


An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

John Locke


Chapter III

No Innate Practical Principles



It is the duty of parents to preserve their children.” But what duty is, cannot be understood without a law; nor a law be known or supposed without a lawmaker, or without reward and punishment; so that it is impossible that this, or any other, practical principle should be innate, i.e. be imprinted on the mind as a duty, without supposing the ideas of God, of law, of obligation, of punishment, of a life after this, innate: for that punishment follows not in this life the breach of this rule, and consequently that it has not the force of a law in countries where the generally allowed practice runs counter to it, is in itself evident.


Chapter IV

Other considerations concerning Innate Principles, both Speculative and Practical


it seems to me plainly to prove, that the truest and best notions men have of God were not imprinted, but acquired by thought and meditation, and a right use of their faculties: since the wise and considerate men of the world, by a right and careful employment of their thoughts and reason, attained true notions in this as well as other things; whilst the lazy and inconsiderate part of men, making far the greater number, took up their notions by chance, from common tradition and vulgar conceptions, without much beating their heads about them. And if it be a reason to think the notion of God innate, because all wise men had it, virtue too must be thought innate; for that also wise men have always had.


Chapter XXVII


Of Identity and Diversity



2. Identity of substances. We have the ideas but of three sorts of substances:


1. God.

2. Finite intelligences.

3. Bodies.



First, God is without beginning, eternal, unalterable, and everywhere, and therefore concerning his identity there can be no doubt.


Secondly, Finite spirits having had each its determinate time and place of beginning to exist, the relation to that time and place will always determine to each of them its identity, as long as it exists.


Thirdly, The same will hold of every particle of matter, to which no addition or subtraction of matter being made, it is the same. For, though these three sorts of substances, as we term them, do not exclude one another out of the same place, yet we cannot conceive but that they must necessarily each of them exclude any of the same kind out of the same place: or else the notions and names of identity and diversity would be in vain, and there could be no such distinctions of substances, or anything else one from another.


16. Consciousness alone unites actions into the same person. But though the same immaterial substance or soul does not alone, wherever it be, and in whatsoever state, make the same man; yet it is plain, consciousness, as far as ever it can be extended — should it be to ages past — unites existences and actions very remote in time into the same person, as well as it does the existences and actions of the immediately preceding moment: so that whatever has the consciousness of present and past actions, is the same person to whom they both belong.


19. Which shows wherein personal identity consists. This may show us wherein personal identity consists: not in the identity of substance, but, as I have said, in the identity of consciousness


25. Consciousness unites substances, material or spiritual, with the same personality. I agree, the more probable opinion is, that this consciousness is annexed to, and the affection of, one individual immaterial substance.


Papyrus Prisse


41 (column 15, line 8 to column 16, line 2)

The wise man nourishes his soul
by establishing his goodness with it on earth.
The wise man is famed for what he has learned


The Jews believe the Creator has given mankind authority over the two inclinations (spirits) to be good (righteous, love) or evil (sin,hate). The Creator will punish individuals who follow evil inclinations that dominate their life and reward those who good inclinations with long life, prosperity, and honor.


Proverbs 21:21


Whoever pursues righteousness and love finds life, prosperity and honor.



Psalms 119


119:33 Teach me, O Lord, the lifestyle prescribed by your statutes,
so that I might observe it continually.
119:34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,
and keep it with all my heart.
119:35 Guide me in the path of your commands,
for I delight to walk in it.
119:36 Give me a desire for your rules,
rather than for wealth gained unjustly.
119:37 Turn my eyes away from what is worthless!
Revive me with your word!
119:38 Confirm to your servant your promise,
which you made to the one who honors you.
119:39 Take away the insults that I dread!
Indeed, your regulations are good.
119:40 Look, I long for your precepts.
Revive me with your deliverance!




During the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic Judaism aspired to combine Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture and philosophy. The philosopher Philo used philosophical allegory to attempt to fuse and harmonize Greek philosophy with Jewish philosophy. His work attempts to combine Plato and Moses into one philosophical system. He developed an allegoric approach of interpreting holy scriptures (the bible), in contrast to (old-fashioned) literally interpretation approaches. His allegorical exegesis was important for several Christian Church Fathers and some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology. Other scholars, however, deny direct influence but say both Philo and Early Christianity borrow from a common source.


America was born on the idea that all humans have the Natural Right of Liberty (Freedom of Conscious) over forced coercion of opinions by those in authority onto others.


Act for Establishing Religious Freedom,


January 16, 1786


Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; That all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incapacitations tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and therefore are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion, who being Lord, both of body and mind yet chose not to propagate it by coercion on either, as was in His Almighty power to do, That the impious presumption of legislators and rulers, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world and through all time; That to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions, which he disbelieves is sinful and tyrannical; That even the forcing him to support this or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions to the particular pastor, whose morals he would make his pattern, and whose powers he feels most persuasive to righteousness, and is withdrawing from the Ministry those temporary rewards, which, proceeding from an approbation of their personal conduct are an additional incitement to earnest and unremitting labors for the instruction of mankind; That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry. That therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence, by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religious opinion, is depriving him injuriously of those privileges and advantages, to which, in common with his fellow citizens, he has a natural right,


Most Diests and Monotheists believe that any human and nonhuman creature incapable of understanding the concept of a Creator and/or Covenants, then are incapable of understanding unalienable rights (treated with respect and dignity) bestowed by the Will of the Creator. But, the incapability of a nonhuman or human creature does not mean it does not have right to Life and Happiness. Monotheist believe a good person of authority has the responsibility to take care of the well-being of both human and nonhuman living creatures (Genesis 1:26 - 28, 9:1 - 3, Proverbs 12:10, Psalms 8:6, Daniel 4:17, Romans 13:1 - 5 ). Most Atheist and Agnostics would agree with Theists that all life should be valued and we should help those not to suffer during their time in the light of the sun.




The Creator responded to Isaiah that He had been gracious in allowing a nation to call on Him and to obtain responses from Him since that nation did not normally pray to Him.

The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, The Great Isaiah Scroll
Chapter 65 : Verse 1
I let myself be sought out by those who did not ask me, be found by those who did not seek me. I said, 'Here I am, here I am,' to a nation that did not call on my name.



Psalms 39


39:4 O Lord, help me understand my mortality
and the brevity of life!
Let me realize how quickly my life will pass!
39:5 Look, you make my days short-lived,
and my life span is nothing from your perspective.
Surely all people, even those who seem secure, are nothing but vapor.
39:6 Surely people go through life as mere ghosts.
Surely they accumulate worthless wealth
without knowing who will eventually haul it away.


Matthew 5



5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.


Jefferson believed that a rational Supreme Intelligent Being mentioned in the Torah and Gospels designed the Universe. He also understood that Jesus stated the Creator to be a Spirit, but did not define what Spirit is.



From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 11 April 1823


in every hypothesis of Cosmogony you must admit an eternal pre-existence of something; and according to the rule of sound philosophy...

... I hold (without appeal to revelation) that when we take a view of the Universe, in it’s parts general or particular, it is impossible for the human mind not to perceive and feel a conviction of design, consummate skill, and indefinite power in every atom of it’s composition. the movements of the heavenly bodies, so exactly held in their course by the balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces, the structure of our earth itself, with it’s distribution of lands, waters and atmosphere, animal and vegetable bodies, examined in all their minutest particles, insects mere atoms of life, yet as perfectly organised as man or mammoth, the mineral substances, their generation and uses, it is impossible, I say, for the human mind not to believe that there is , in all this, design, cause and effect, up to an ultimate cause, a fabricator of all things from matter and motion, their preserver and regulator while permitted to exist in their present forms, and their regenerator into new and other forms. we see, too, evident proofs of the necessity of a superintending power to maintain the Universe in it’s course and order. stars, well known, have disappeared, new ones have come into view, comets, in their incalculable courses, may run foul of suns and planets and require renovation under other laws; certain races of animals are become extinct; and were there no restoring power, all existences might extinguish successively, one by one, until all should be reduced to a shapeless chaos. so irresistible are these evidences of an intelligent and powerful Agent that, of the infinite numbers of men who have existed through all time, they have believed, in the proportion of a million at least to Unit, in the hypothesis of an eternal pre-existence of a creator, rather than in that of a self-existent Universe. surely this unanimous sentiment renders this more probable than that of the few in the other hypothesis some early Christians indeed have believed in the co eternal preexistence of both the Creator and the world, without changing their relation of cause & effect.


Of the nature of this being we know nothing. Jesus tells us that ‘God is a Spirit.’ John 24. but without defining what a spirit is...

the Cosmogony of the world is very clearly laid down in the 3 first verses of the 1st chapter of John, in these words..... which truly translated means in the beginning God existed, and reason [or mind] was with God, and that mind was God. this was in the beginning with God. all things were created by it, and without it was made not one thing which was made.’ yet this text, so plainly declaring the doctrine of Jesus that the world was created by the supreme, intelligent being, the word λογος. one of it’s legitimate meanings indeed is ‘a word.’... meaning ‘reason,’ equally legitimate, explains rationally the eternal preexistence of God, and his creation of the world. knowing how incomprehensible it was that ‘a word,’ the mere action or articulation of the voice and organs of speech could create a world,


The Spirit and the wind operate sovereignly. Man does not and cannot control either one. Second, we perceive the presence of both by their effects. Third, we cannot explain their actions since they arise from unseen and partially unknowable factors.


The person born of the Spirit is similar to both the Spirit and the wind in that it is impossible for unregenerate people to understand or control him or her. They do not understand his or her origin or final destiny.


John 3

3:1 Now a certain man, a Pharisee named Nicodemus, who was a member of the Jewish ruling council,
3:2 came to Jesus at night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the miraculous signs that you do unless God is with him.”
3:3 Jesus replied, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless a person is born from above, he cannot see the kingdom of God.”
3:4 Nicodemus said to him, “How can a man be born when he is old? He cannot enter his mother’s womb and be born a second time, can he?”
3:5 Jesus answered, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless a person is born of water and spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.
3:6 What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit.
3:7 Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all be born from above.’
3:8 The wind blows wherever it will, and you hear the sound it makes, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.


According to Jewish belief the "Hand of the Lord” in a prophecy is an expression of compulsion, meaning that the Holy Spirit compelled Ezekiel go like a madman into the Valley of Dura to resurrect the dead tribe of Ephraim and the People of Gath (Sanhedrin 92b). The Creator gave Ezekial the authority to command roaming souls to return to bones where they had died. The dead began regenerating and as a one who blows on a charcoal fire the Holy Spirit entered them and they became alive once again.


Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 37


1 The hand of the Lord came upon me, and carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of the valley, and that was full of bones.


2 And He made me pass by them round about, and lo! they were exceedingly many on the surface of the valley, and lo! they were exceedingly dry.


3 Then He said to me; "Son of man, can these bones become alive?" And I answered, "O Lord God, You [alone] know."


4 And He said to me, "Prophesy over these bones, and say to them, 'O dry bones, hear the word of the Lord.'


5 So says the Lord God to these bones; Behold, I will cause spirit to enter into you, and you shall live!


6 And I will lay sinews upon you, and I will make flesh grow over you and cover you with skin and put breath into you, and you will live, and you will then know that I am the Lord."


7 So I prophesied as I was commanded, and there arose a noise when I prophesied, and behold a commotion, and the bones came together, bone to its bone!


8And I looked, and lo! sinews were upon them, and flesh came upon them, and skin covered them from above, but there was still no spirit in them.


9Then He said to me, "Prophesy to the spirit, prophesy, O son of man, and say to the spirit, 'So says the Lord God: From four sides come, O spirit, and breathe into these slain ones that they may live.' "


10And I prophesied as He had commanded me, and the spirit came into them, and they lived and stood on their feet, a very great army, exceedingly so.


12Therefore, prophesy and say to them, So says the Lord God: Lo! I open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves as My people, and bring you home to the land of Israel.


13Then you shall know that I am the Lord, when I open your graves and lead you up out of your graves as My people.


14And I will put My spirit into you, and you shall live, and I will set you on your land, and you shall know that I, the Lord, have spoken it and have performed it," says the Lord.



In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) the soul of person has both a good spirit (impulse, instinct) and a evil spirit (impulse, instinct) battling for control.


Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 1


1:2 Now the earth was astonishingly empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the water.



Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 6
3 And the Lord said, "Let My spirit not quarrel forever concerning man, because he is also flesh, and his days shall be a hundred and twenty years."




82. A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, 18 June 1779


Well aware that the opinions and belief of men depend not on their own will, but follow involuntarily the evidence proposed to their minds; that Almighty God hath created the mind free, and manifested his supreme will that free it shall remain by making it altogether insusceptible of restraint; that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or burthens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the Holy author of our religion, who being Lord both of body and mind, yet chose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in His Almighty power to do, but to extend it by its influence on reason alone.

10 years later, 1789 the United States Congress simplified and enforced our Freedom to Choose and not be coerced (forced) to follow any particular belief or connection to the Creator.


The U.S. Bill of Rights


Amendment I



Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

It is through our Freedom of Religion, Speech, and Press that you the reader and I the writer are able learn and personally connect with this force of Nature called the Creator. Together we have learned that Natural Deists would Universally agree with the maxim that there is one is one Supreme Creator (Architect) that generated all that exists and keeps the natural order (General Providence). But, Natural Deists perceive a reality with and Architect does not interfere with all life experiences that take place in creation. The only connection we have with the Architect is that we exist with him. While other Natural Deists object to the belief that this the Prime Mover is one consciously aware being (Architect), but perceive a reality where everything (All) are part of one Mental Universe.


Religious Monotheists (Jews, Christians and Muslims) and some Polytheist believe perceive reality through a connection with one Supreme consciously aware Prime Mover (Creator) that generated everything that exists and keeps the natural order of our Universe (General Providence) and the spiritual world beyond it.


In humble admiration to the Founders of the United States I will at this point separate the the Divinity of Jesus Christ and apply Jefferson's view of Jesus the' Jewish Reformer' of Deism and contrast it with doctrines of philosophers, theorists,.and other belief systems.


In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, the polytheist philosopher Socrates believed in a Divine Creator and Preserver of the world, gods, man, and animals. The gods the Creator designed consisted of sun, moon, and other celestial objects that to had generated offspring of lesser gods and demigods (both god and man). The gods knew every thought, words and action made by man, were present in all places, and knew the future. The demigods had limited power and were mortal.


Priestly writes the Polytheist Philosopher Socrates, believed Man owes obedience to the divine power and providence of the gods. The Prophet Moses taught that Man owes obedience to the Creator (Exodus 19:5) Priestly mentions Socrates teaching that it was the divine power and providence of the gods gave man the ability to reason. The Prophet Isaiah taught the Creator wants us to review our options (Isaiah 1:18). Priestly also mentions that Socrates teaches that Man should pray to the gods and ask them to grant what was good and pleasurable without specifying what was wished for. Jesus the Jewish Reformer taught that the Creator already knows before you ask (Mathew 6:8) Priestly writes that the gods to Socrates were gracious with gifts of water, fire, change of seasons, and our sense to adapt. The Disciple Paul teaches that our Creator gives us everything we need and we should be grateful His kindness (2 Thessalonians 1:2)


Socrates taught there was a universal maxim for mortals to worship and sacrifice according to the faculty of the gods ruling their country. Further, it was a citizen's obligation obey the specific codes of morality laws given to them by the or suffer the consequences and possible death. Socrates believed that that which is agreeable to the laws given by the gods to be 'just" and "lawful." The greater the a god's power in a particular region the more they were to be honored. Thus man should comply with the institutional laws residing within a particular region.


President John Adams rebutted Priestly's remarks.


From John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 25 December 1813



To return to Priestley. You could make a more luminous Book than his upon “the Doctrines of Heathen Philosophers compared with those of Revelation.” Why has he not given Us a more Satisfactory Account of the Pythagorean Philosophy and Theology? He barely names Ocellus, who lived long before Plato. His Treatise of Kings and Monarchy has been destroyed, I conjecture by Platonic Philosophers, Platonic Jews or Christians, or by fraudulent Republicans or Despots. His Treatise of The Universe has been preserved. He labours to prove the Eternity of the World. The Marquiss D’Argens translated it, in all its noble Simplicity. The Abby Batteux has since given another translation. D’Argens not only explains the Text, but sheds more light upon the ancient Systems. His remarks are so many Treatises, which develop the concatenation of ancient opinions. The most essential Ideas of the Theology, of the Physics and of the Morality of the ancients are clearly explained: and their different Doctrines, compared with one another, and with the modern discoveries. I wish I owned this Book and 100,000 more than I want every day, now when I am almost incapable of making any Use of them. No doubt he informs Us that Pythagoras was a great Traveler.


Priestley barely mentions Timæus: but it does not appear that he had read him. Why has he not given Us an Account of him and his Book? He was before Plato and gave him the Idea of his Timæus, and much more of his Philosophy. After his Master he maintained the existence of Matter: that Matter was capable of receiving all Sorts of forms: that a moving Power agitated all the Parts of it: and that an Intelligence directed the moving Power; that this Intelligence produced a regular and harmonious World. This Intelligence has seen a Plan, an Idea (Logos) in conformity to which, it wrought, and without which it would not have known what it was about, nor what it wanted to do. This Plan was the Idea; Image or Model, which had represented, to the Supreme Intelligence, the World before it existed, which had directed it, in his Action upon the moving Power, and which it contemplated in forming the Elements the Bodies and the World. This Model was distinguished from The Intelligence which produced the World as the Architect is from his plans. He divided, The productive Cause of the World, into a Spirit, which directed the moving Force, and into an Image, which determined it in the choice of the directions which it gave to the moving Force, and the forms which it gave to matter.

Some Atheist would agree with the maxim of a Prime Mover, but would object to perceiving reality through connection with a mythical Creator, Architect, or Mental Universe survival maxim imagined beyond reason by man to cope with the melancholy of death. The Prime Mover was the catalyst that originated our sense of the known universe, but the Prime Mover cannot be seen to be believed as a Creator. Atheist perception is that we exist by chance on a planet within a vast expanding, but finite universe. While other Atheist would object to the belief of just one Prime Mover or a Prime Mover at all. Perception is that we exist by circumstance in one of an infinite number of universes.


John Adams expressed his view that Atheism considers Spirit and Liberty to be mere words devoid of sense and meaning. Conscience and Morality are just necessary motions and actions of fate within the eternal Universe. Further, he stated the Atheist Creed is to perfect human Nature and convert the Earth into a Paradise of Pleasure.


John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 2 March 1816


Atheism; pure unadulterated Atheism. Diderot, D’Alembert, Frederick, De Lalande and Grimm were indubitable Atheists. The Universe was Matter only and eternal; Spirit was a word without a meaning; Liberty was a word without a Meaning. There was no Liberty in the Universe; Liberty was a word void of Sense. Every thought word Passion Sentiment Feeling, all Motion and Action was necessary. All Beings and Attributes were of eternal Necessity


Conscience, Morality were all nothing but Fate.


This was their Creed and this was to perfect human Nature and convert the Earth into a Paradise of Pleasure,


Who, and what is this Fate? He must be a Sensible Fellow. He must be a Master of Science. He must be Master of Spherical Trigonometry and Great Circle Sailing. He must calculate Eclipses in his head by Intuition. He must be Master of the Science of Infinitesimal “Le Science des infiniment petits,” He must involve and extract all the Roots by Intuition and be familiar with all possible or imaginable Sections of the Cone. He must be a Master of Arts Mechanical and imitative. He must have more Eloquence than Demosthenes, more Wit than Swift or Voltaire, more humor than Butler or Trumbull. And what is more comfortable than all the rest, he must be good matured, for this is upon the whole a good World. There is ten times as much pleasure as pain in it.


Why then Should We abhor the Word God, and fall in Love with the Word Fate? We know there exists Energy and Intellect enough to produce Such a World as this, which is a Sublime and beautiful one, and a very benevolent one, notwithstanding all our Snarling, and a happy one, if it is not made otherwise by our own fault.


Ask a Mite, in the Center of your Mammoth Cheese, what he thinks of the “το παν.”

I Should prefer the Philosophy of Tymæus of Locris, before that of Grimm and Diderot, Frederick and D’Alembert, I Should even prefer the Shastra of Indostan, or the Chaldean Egyptian, Indian, Greek, Christian Mahometan Tubonic or Celtic Theology.


Timæus and Ocellus taught that three Principles were eternal. God, Matter and Form. God was good, and had Ideas. Matter was Necessity, Fate, dead, without Ideas, without form without Feeling, perverse, untractible. capable however of being cutt into Forms of Spheres Circles, Triangles, Squares cubes Cones &c. The Ideas of the good God labored upon matter to bring it into Form: but Matter was Fate Necessity, Dullness obstinacy and would not always conform to the Ideas of the good God who desired to make the best of all possible Worlds but Matter, Fate Necessity resisted and would not let him complete his Idea. Hence all the Evil and disorder, Paine Misery and Imperfection of the Universe.


We all curse Robespierre and Bonaparte; but were they not both Such restless vain extravagant Animals as Diderot and Voltaire? Voltaire was the greatest Literary Character and Bona the greatest Millitary Character of the 18 Century. There is all the difference between them. Both equally Heros and equally Cowards.

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was one of the best-known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. He established Cult of the Supreme Being to replace religion with a rational devotion to the Godhead and immortality of the soul based upon the Enlightenment Deist belief philosophies of Rousseau and Montesquieu, The Cult of the Supreme Being was officially banned by Napoleon Bonaparte on 8 April 1802. Here Maximillien proclaims that the French people are free from the yoke of corrupt Priests collaborating with tyrant Kings.


The Festival of the Supreme Being

Maximilien Robespierre

First Speech 1793


Of Maximilien Robespierre, president of the national convention, to the people gathered for the festival of the Supreme Being, Décadi 20 Prairial, the year 2 of the French Republic, one and indivisible.


It has finally arrived, the forever fortunate day that the French people consecrate to the Supreme Being. The world that he created has never offered a spectacle so worthy of his regard. He has seen tyranny, crime and imposture reign on earth: at this moment he sees an entire nation that is combating all the oppressors of humankind suspend the course of its heroic labors in order to raise its thoughts and its vows towards the great being who gave it the mission to undertake and the strength to execute it.


Is it not he whose immortal hand, by engraving in the heart of man the code of justice and equality, traced there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not he who, from the beginning of time, decreed the republic and placed on the order of the day, for all centuries and all peoples, liberty, good faith, and justice?


He did not create kings to devour humankind, he didn’t create priests to harness us like vile animals to the chariot of kings and to give an example of baseness, selfish pride, perfidy, avarice, debauch, and falsehood. He created the universe to make known his might. He created men to mutually assist and love each other, and to arrive at happiness by the path of virtue.


Raynal, abbé (Guillaume-Thomas-François) was educated at the Jesuit school of Pézenas, and received priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the parish of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. In his book, A philosophical and political history of the settlements and trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, Raynal examines religion with a perspective from the French Enlightenment. Its introduction into France was forbidden in 1779; the book was burned by the public executioner, and an order was given for the arrest of the author, whose name had not appeared in the first edition, but was printed on the title page of the Geneva edition of 1780. It is known that Raynal attended a breakfast and tea in Philadelphia hosted by the the American Philosophical Society on February 2, 1779 and that an invitation was send to Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. But, it appears from the a letter from Raynal to Franklin dated April 5, 1790 that Franklin did not attend. But, the letter does reveal Raynal's interest in the United States and that both Adams and Franklin being members of the Philosophical Society were aware of writing and his influence in both the French and West Indies revolutions. Raynal associates the Greek and Roman Prime Mover Creator with the Christian view of God the Father. Further Raynal refuses to believe in being a slave to a Judaic Christian belief of God as a Provident Master.


A philosophical and political history of the settlements and trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies

Raynal, abbé (Guillaume-Thomas-François),

1713-1796; Justamond, John Obadiah, d. 1786, tr


Page 117


If there is not any power under the heavens, which can change my nature and reduce me to a state of brutes, there is none which can dispose of my liberty. God is my father, and not my master; I am his child and not his slave. How is it possible that should grant to political power, what I refuse to divine omnipotence.


Will these eternal and immutable truths, the foundation of all morality, the basis of all rational government be contested?


Page 121


No man has the right of selling himself; because he hath no right to accede to every thing which an unjust, violent, and depraved matter might require of him. He is the property of God, who is his first master, and from whole authority he is never released.


Page 164


Glory is a sentiment which raises us up in our own eyes, and which increases our consideration among enlightened men... Glory, at least according to the ideas I formed of it, is not the reward of the greatest success in the sciences. A man may be the honor of his corps, without being the glory of his country. A private man may aspire to reputation, fame, and immortality; but where there are none but rare circumstances, and a fortunate





Translated from the Originals

by Thomas Taylor


The Universe is without a beginning, and without an end; nor is it possible that it can have an other mode of substance.


To which may be added, that everything which has received a beginning of generation, and which ought also to participate of dissolution, receives two mutations; one of which, indeed, proceeds from the less to the greater, and from the worse to the better; and that from which it begins to change is denominated generation, but that at which it at length arrives, is called acme. The other mutation, however proceeds from the greater to the less, and from the better to the worse: but the termination of this mutation is denominated corruption and dissolution.


If therefore, the whole and the universe were generated, and are corruptible, they must, when generated, have been changed from the less to the greater, and from worse to the better; but when corrupted, they must be changed from the greater to the less, and from the better to the worse. Hence if the world was generated, it would receive an increase, and would arrive at its acme; and again, it would afterwards receive a decrease and an end. For every nature which has progression, possesses three boundaries, therefore, are generation, acme, and end; the intervals are, the progression from generation to acme, and end; but the intervals are, the progression from generation to acme, and from acme to the end.




By Plato


What is that which always is and has no becoming; and what is that which is always becoming and never is? That which is apprehended by intelligence and reason is always in the same state; but that which is conceived by opinion with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of becoming and perishing and never really is. Now everything that becomes or is created must of necessity be created by some cause, for without a cause nothing can be created. The work of the creator, whenever he looks to the unchangeable and fashions the form and nature of his work after an unchangeable pattern, must necessarily be made fair and perfect; but when he looks to the created only, and uses a created pattern, it is not fair or perfect. Was the heaven then or the world, whether called by this or by any other more appropriate name-assuming the name, I am asking a question which has to be asked at the beginning of an inquiry about anything-was the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created, and had it a beginning? Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and having a body, and therefore sensible; and all sensible things are apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and created. Now that which is created must, as we affirm, of necessity be created by a cause. But the father and maker of all this universe is past finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be impossible. And there is still a question to be asked about him: Which of the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world-the pattern of the unchangeable, or of that which is created? If the world be indeed fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to that which is eternal; but if what cannot be said without blasphemy is true, then to the created pattern. Every one will see that he must have looked to, the eternal; for the world is the fairest of creations and he is the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind and is unchangeable, and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted, be a copy of something. Now it is all-important that the beginning of everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and the original we may assume that words are akin to the matter which they describe; when they relate to the lasting and permanent and intelligible, they ought to be lasting and unalterable, and, as far as their nature allows, irrefutable and immovable-nothing less. But when they express only the copy or likeness and not the eternal things themselves, they need only be likely and analogous to the real words. As being is to becoming, so is truth to belief.


In Proclus Commentary on the Timaes of Plato states demonstrates how Plato was wrong in ascribing two powers instead of three to each of the elements.


Thomas Jefferson shared his idea of an Intelligent Creator to John Adams.


From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 11 April 1823



I hold (without appeal to revelation) that when we take a view of the Universe, in it’s parts general or particular, it is impossible for the human mind not to perceive and feel a conviction of design, consummate skill, and indefinite power in every atom of it’s composition. the movements of the heavenly bodies, so exactly held in their course by the balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces, the structure of our earth itself, with it’s distribution of lands, waters and atmosphere, animal and vegetable bodies, examined in all their minutest particles, insects mere atoms of life, yet as perfectly organised as man or mammoth, the mineral substances, their generation and uses, it is impossible, I say, for the human mind not to believe that there is , in all this, design, cause and effect, up to an ultimate cause, a fabricator of all things from matter and motion, their preserver and regulator while permitted to exist in their present forms, and their regenerator into new and other forms. we see, too, evident proofs of the necessity of a superintending power to maintain the Universe in it’s course and order. stars, well known, have disappeared, new ones have come into view, comets, in their incalculable courses, may run foul of suns and planets and require renovation under other laws; certain races of animals are become extinct; and were there no restoring power, all existences might extinguish successively, one by one, until all should be reduced to a shapeless chaos. so irresistible are these evidences of an intelligent and powerful Agent that, of the infinite numbers of men who have existed thro’ all time, they have believed, in the proportion of a million at least to Unit, in the hypothesis of an eternal pre-existence of a creator, rather than in that of a self-existent Universe.

The Egyptians believed in the existence of One Great Creator (Neter, the unknown, god of the sun), self-produced, self-existent, almighty and eternal. There are three aspects of Neter; Khepri the morning sun, Ra the midday sun, and Atum was the sun in the evening. It was Neter who created the "gods," the heavens and the sun, moon and stars in them, and the earth and everything on it to serve his will. The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550–1298 BC) defined the how one should pray to Neter in private without too much speaking.


The word neter and its meaning.

Views held in the XVIIIth dynasty.


1. Pa neter er seaaaua ren-f
The God is for magnifying his name.
2. xennu en neter betu-tuf pu sehebu senemehu-nek
The house of God what it hates is much speaking. Pray thou
em ab mert au metet-f nebt amennu ari-f
with a loving heart the petitions of which all are in secret. He will do
xeru-tuk setemu-f a t'et-tuk sesep utennu tu-k
thy business, he will hear that which you say and will accept thine offerings.
3. au tau neter-kua unnu
Give your God existence.
4. Pa neter aput pa maa
The God will judge the right.
5. utennu neter-ku sau-tu er na betau-tuf
In offering to your God guard yourself against the things which He abominates.


According to Jewish tradition the author of Kings was the Prophet Jeremiah, who would have been alive during the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. Like the Egyptians, Jeremiah taught that the prophet Elisha prayed to the Creator in private.


2 Kings 4


4:32 When Elisha arrived at the house, there was the child lying dead on his bed.


4:33 He went in by himself and closed the door. Then he prayed to the Lord.


4:34 He got up on the bed and spread his body out over the boy; he put his mouth on the boy’s mouth, his eyes over the boy’s eyes, and the palms of his hands against the boy’s palms. He bent down over him, and the boy’s skin grew warm.


4:35 Elisha went back and walked around in the house. Then he got up on the bed again and bent down over him. The child sneezed seven times and opened his eyes.


Jesus teaching on how to pray to the Creator was also similar to the Egyptian form.


Matthew 6


6:5 “Whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, because they love to pray while standing in synagogues and on street corners so that people can see them. Truly I say to you, they have their reward.


6:6 But whenever you pray, go into your room, close the door, and pray to your Father in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.


6:7 When you pray, do not babble repetitiously like the Gentiles, because they think that by their many words they will be heard.


Mohammed also taught that one should pray in humility, privately, and not too loudly similar to the Egyptian form.
The Heights
Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.
The Night Journey




Say, "Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Merciful. Whichever [name] you call - to Him belong the best names." And do not recite [too] loudly in your prayer or [too] quietly but seek between that an [intermediate] way."


Egyptians believed that the Creator's Will is carried out in heaven, earth, and the Other World by a number of "great gods " who formed His Council, and who were in turn served by lesser "gods" and spirits. The two eldest of the great gods, Shu (god of air) and Tefnut (goddess of water), were produced by the Creator from His own Person, and with Him they formed the first Egyptian Trinity.


Monotheists perceive that Holy Scripture and testimony of its believers reveal that connection to reality starts by loving our Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) who does intervene with creation (Special Providence). Monotheist believe that Creator has given instructions on how to peacefully coexist through love and transcend to eternal life.


There an estimate 3.8 billion religious monotheist that believe in Divine Providence. The Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary estimated 2.2 billion plus Christians are practicing in 45,000 different denominations. 1.6 billion Muslims are practicing in 90 different groups (my own count), and 14 million Jews are practicing in 74 groups (my own count).

According to the Pew Research Center there are 1 billion plus practicing Hindus in 30 groups (my own count).


The wisdom of a prosperous life is to love, revere, testify to the light and truth that comes from our Creator's Spirit.


Deuteronomy 6


6:13 You must revere the Lord your God, serve Him, and take oaths using only His name.


Deuteronomy 8


8:2 Remember the whole way by which He has brought you these forty years through the desert so that he might, by humbling you, test you to see if you have it within you to keep his commandments or not.


8:3 So He humbled you by making you hungry and then feeding you with unfamiliar manna. He did this to teach you that humankind cannot live by bread alone, but also by everything that comes from the Lord’s mouth.


Sirach 4


11 Wisdom teaches her children

and admonishes all who can understand her.


12 Those who love her love life;

those who seek her out win the LORD’s favor.


13 Those who hold her fast will attain glory,

and they shall abide in the blessing of the LORD.


14 Those who serve her serve the Holy One;

those who love her the Lord loves.


15 “Whoever obeys me will judge nations;

whoever listens to me will dwell in my inmost chambers.


16 If they remain faithful, they will possess me;

their descendants too will inherit me.


17 “I will walk with them in disguise,

and at first I will test them with trials.

Fear and dread I will bring upon them

and I will discipline them with my constraints.

When their hearts are fully with me,


18 then I will set them again on the straight path

and reveal my secrets to them.


Isaiah 44



44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

“Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

Jeshurun, whom I have chosen!


44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground

and cause streams to flow on the dry land.

I will pour my spirit on your offspring

and my blessing on your children.


44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass,

like poplars beside channels of water.

44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’


and another will use the name ‘Jacob.’

One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

and use the name ‘Israel.’”


Zechariah 13



13:7 “Awake, sword, against my shepherd,

against the man who is my associate,”

says the Lord who rules over all.

Strike the shepherd that the flock may be scattered;

I will turn my hand against the insignificant ones.


13:8 It will happen in all the land, says the Lord,

that two-thirds of the people in it will be cut off and die,

but one-third will be left in it.


13:9 Then I will bring the remaining third into the fire;

I will refine them like silver is refined

and will test them like gold is tested.

They will call on my name and I will answer;

I will say, ‘These are my people,’

and they will say, ‘The Lord is my God.’”



John 4


4:22 You people worship what you do not know. We worship what we know, because salvation is from the Jews.


4:23 But a time is coming – and now is here – when the true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and Truth, for the Father seeks such people to be his worshipers.


4:24 God is Spirit, and the people who worship Him must worship in Spirit and Truth.


John 6


6:43 Jesus replied, “Do not complain about me to one another.


6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day.


6:45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who hears and learns from the Father comes to me.


6:46 (Not that anyone has seen the Father except the one who is from God – he has seen the Father.)


6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, the one who believes has eternal life.


6:48 I am the bread of life.


6:49 Your ancestors ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died.


6:50 This is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person may eat from it and not die.


6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.


1 John 5



5:6 Jesus Christ is the one who came by water and blood – not by the water only, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth.





Agnostics would agree that we exist on a planet within a known universe, have no opinion and are not inclined to focus on whether a Prime Mover, Creator, or Mental Universe exists or not when there is no compelling evidence to prove or disprove these any of these maxims. Only in death will we find out which maxim is correct. Reality for Agnostics is that we exist for the moment and are connected to family, friends, pets on a planet in a wondrous universe.


In the 21st century, 'Scientific Reasoning' has come to dominate the way we interpret the natural world. In the realm of Scientific reasoning, the maxims of both Faith and Natural Philosophy carry little to no weight for debate if every detail cannot be subjected to a logical, consistent, systematic method of investigation, information (data) collection, data analysis (hypothesis), testing (experiment), and refinement known as the 'Scientific Method.' The Pew Research study found that (51%) believe in some form of deity or higher power; specifically, 33% of scientists say they believe in God, while 18% believe in a universal spirit or higher power. 7% of scientist say they are agnostic. 42% are Atheist.


For those in the physical sciences differentiating the conscience over unconscious mental processes that motivates one to believe in a implicit maxim that there is creator of nature and natural laws have been fiercely debated throughout recorded history. Scientific Atheist consider both the Prime Mover and Creator maxims to be an evolving process of our organism to herd together with other organisms in order to better defend against outside aggression and death. Scientific Theist believe that a Creator set the Universe and Evolution in motion according to a plan.


Scientist have used both inductive and deductive reasoning to make a guess or draw a conclusion about the facts possibilities of whether a Creator of nature exists by manipulating, adding or subtracting implicit and explicit maxims known to them. An example of implicit maxim is that throughout recorded history man has reasoned and accepted that an unmeasured Creator exists. An example of an explicit maxim is all space, time, and matter had a measured beginning. Current best estimates are that the universe began approximately 13.7 billion years ago.


James Clerk Maxwell wrote that “The similarity is a similarity between relations, not a similarity between the things related.” When two pairs of words have a high degree of relational similarity, we say that their relations are analogous. For example, the word pair 'watchmaker:watch' is analogous to the word pair 'creator:creation.' (Maxwell 1881). Using inductive reasoning, if we take Maxwell's similarity maxim we can use a scientific analogy to bring together both an implicit maxim (theory) of an unmeasured creator exists by mapping an explicit maxim of the effect that the creator had on all space, time, and matter measured from the beginning to present.


Causality is considered to be a cornerstone to all natural science, especially physics. Scottish philosopher David Hume, in the Treatise on Human Nature, wrote "The same cause always produces the same effect, and the same effect never arises but from the same cause." (Rule 4 of the “Rules by which to judge of causes and effects”). Continuing our inductive reasoning, if we take Maxwell's similarity maxim and Hume's causality maxim then we induce a theory that an unmeasured Creator exists and was the cause to a measured beginning of all creation (space, time, and matter).


I propose that all Religious and NonReligous individuals can perceive a connection of love with the fundamental nature of the Universe and all living things. It is this very perception of love that structures what is reality for each of us. It is the interaction of love that connects our known nature to the nature of the Creator. While I will not undertake mathematical analysis on the connection of love, I will intensely occupy my time to describe my sense of the subject.


In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. If we superpose two waves with the same frequency traveling in the same direction, we end up with a new (resultant) wave that looks pretty much like the original waves, but its amplitude is larger. This situation, where the resultant wave is bigger than either of the two original, is called constructive interference (in-phase waves). Now if we superpose the unconditional love I have for my children with the love my children have for me, the amplitude (extent) of our love grows larger is analogous to the maxim of constructive interference.


Other species understand attraction, courtship, affection. In the center of the brain sits the reward pathway, which is responsible for driving our feelings of motivation, reward and behavior. The reward pathway makes us feel good when we engage in attraction and affection behaviors that are necessary for our survival. In Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice, researchers Helen E Fisher, Arthur Aron, and Lucy L Brown propose that Attraction is the mechanism that brings about emotional union of one individual with another.


<begin scattered thought>



Continuing our inductive reasoning if we take the maxim of constructive interference and the maxim of positive reinforcement we can induce a theory that through positive reinforcement the extent of love in all living beings grows larger.


that directs reproduction. Reinforcement of affection in mammals result in feelings of closeness, passion, and security with others. Gestures and sounds are used by all mammals to reinforce an affective intention of positive feeling toward familiar organism or object that support survival.


sounds are use to reinforce the affective intention that


Deep within our temporal lobe is the amygdala (Greek word for an almond shape set of neurons), an interpretive alarm center that recognizes and stores threat image patterns around us (fear memory)




if we take Maxwell's similarity maxim and Hume's causality maxim then we induce a theory that an unmeasured Creator exists and was the cause to a measured beginning of all creation (space, time, and matter).


Now if we superpose the unconditional love I have for my children with the love my children have for me, the amplitude (extent) of our love grows larger is analogous to the maxim of constructive interference.


Does love transcend reason?


Unconditional love is known as affection without any limitations or love without conditions.


Limbic resonance is the theory that the capacity for sharing deep emotional states arises from the limbic system of the brain.[1] These states include the dopamine circuit-promoted feelings of empathic harmony



This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior. Using inductive reasoning If we


The Cosmic Wave (Cosmic microwave background) is the oldest light in the universe. The Cosmic wave is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object and can be detected in every direction. Scientist propose the Cosmic Wave had its origin approximately 378,000 years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of z = 1100).



and spreads out to new family members and friends that I might never personally know. As I grow older members of my family and friends die, but the love I shared with them carries on within me and the stories I share with others. It can be difficult to grasp how many shared love stories we cab find in recorded history. It is even more difficult to imagine how many unrecorded love stories since we became aware of the world around us.


o arrive at a well-tested, well-documented, explanation that is well-supported by evidence.


German theoretical physicist, Werner Heisenberg, in his paper, Sources of Quantum Mechanics,


Quantum mechanics holds that any given particle has a chance of being in a whole range of locations and, in a sense, occupies all those places at once. , is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities[1] asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.


<end scattered thoughts on subject.



For nonBelievers in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist I propose that the knowledge of a Creative Force of Love can be understood through the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic principles of life that are founded within the Didache. I hope to demonstrate that reading the Didache as a process to understanding and accepting the maxim that a creative force of love exists in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faith. And the use of the Didache forms both a positive neuroplasticity and socioplasticity of hope and belonging that directly benefits both our human and societal condition.


For many nonBelievers the new truth without a Creator is that the truth of Love is reduced to a biological expressive result of a flooding oxytocin and opioids in our limbic brain.The new truth according to nonBelievers is that We are on our own without hope of an external force to justify loving a neighbor or enemy or sacrifice our existence for the sake of one's honor. For many nonBelievers the new truth without a Creator is the acceptance of a Life of self preservation, the Liberty of Conscious, and the Happiness of self gratification is now self evident.


But, the use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to government without a king.


Using Maxwell's similarity maxim, if the Republic of the United States ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king was the cause that made the Declaration of Independence necessary. Then if our citizens follow the belief of Atheist ascension of citizen no longer believing in a Creator would be a cause for a new Declaration of Rejection. The truths of our Rights to 'Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness' that are endowed by a 'Creator', are only self-evident to those that believe in a Creator. I propose that without the 'Creative Force of Love,' 'We the People' eventually erodes to 'Me the Person.' The question is whether a 'Liberty of Conscious' will be applicable without a Creator that sets our moral framework. Who is to judge whether my idea of what is right is better than your idea of what is wrong when every one self oriented. Without a Creator there are no moral limits on those that govern over its citizens. nonBelievers do not teach Mosiac, Christian, or Islamic values to contain our instinctual desires, rather if the Creator does not exist or participate in our lives, then everything is possible, even if it does harm or offend others. The guilty conscience of eternal damnation is replaced with only the punishments attached by human authority.











Scripture tells us that by following our Creator's instructions and commands we will not offend His Holy Spirit and be given grace to understand the way to peace and eternal life. Scripture states that those seeking our Creator start by praying to Him to help turn away from the darkness of sin and death to the truth of living righteously in His light.











Desire and Love of Honour

In time the State



an enforceable limit on the state’s power over its citizens. Without a Creator, Without a Creator there is no justification to love one's neighbor or enemy,









Jews and Christians believe that the Israelites became aware and developed a relationship with a conscious creative force known as Elohim (force of forces). Most Jews and Christians believe that on Mount Horeb, Elohim revealed His name (YHWH) consisting of four letters (Greek tetragrammaton) to Moses.


The Book of Shemot (Exodus):

Chapter 3







Religiously observant Jews and those who follow conservative Jewish traditions do not pronounce the name of Elohim aloud or in silence. Instead Jews substitutions for Hebrew forms are hakadosh baruch hu (The Holy One, Blessed Be He), Adonai (The Lord), or HaShem (The Name). In addition, Jews do not write any of Elohim's names or titles on media that be discarded or erased. Jews also treat the English word 'G - o - d' with reverence by writing it as 'G ‑ d'. Understanding the proper way to address Hashem was learned in the Covenant He made with them.


The Book of Shemot (Exodus)

Chapter 20



1 Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the farthest end of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of G-d, unto Horeb.


2 And the angel of HaShem appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.


3 And Moses said: 'I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.'


4 And when HaShem saw that he turned aside to see, G-d called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said:


'Moses, Moses.' And he said:


'Here am I.'


5 And He said:


'Come no closer; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon you stand is holy ground.'


6 Moreover He said:


'I am the G-d of thy father, the G-d of Abraham, the G-d of Isaac, and the G-d of Jacob.' And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon G-d.


7 And HaShem said:


'I have surely seen the affliction of My people that are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their pains;


8 and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.


9 And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto Me; moreover I have seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.


10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou may bring forth My people the children of Israel out of Egypt.' And Moses said unto G-d:


'Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?'


12 And He said:


'Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve G-d upon this mountain.'

13 And Moses said unto G-d:


'Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them:


The G-d of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me: What is His name? what shall I say unto them?'


14 And G-d said unto Moses: 'I AM THAT I AM'; and He said: 'Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel:


I AM has sent me unto you.'


15 And G-d said moreover unto Moses: 'Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: HaShem, the G-d of your fathers, the G-d of Abraham, the G-d of Isaac, and the G-d of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations.


16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them: HaShem, the G-d of your fathers, the G-d of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, hath appeared unto me, saying: I have surely remembered you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt.


17 And I have said: I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.


18 And they shall hearken to thy voice. And thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him: HaShem, the G-d of the Hebrews, hath met with us. And now let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to HaShem our G-d.


19 And I know that the king of Egypt will not give you leave to go, except by a mighty hand.


20 And I will put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders which I will do in the midst thereof. And after that he will let you go.


By witnessing the actual presence of Hashem and and learning the Torah revealed to them, the Israelites accepted the maxim that Hashem is the eternal creative force of love (Ahavat Olam) in the universe. It is through Hashem's love that all living things and laws were created, so that they could share His reality. The Israelites understood that Hashem covenant with them was a way He could share His love with them, similar to how a husband shares love with his bride. Hashem's chosen people understood their duty is to love Him and each other.



Former practicing Jew and one of the patriarchs of the Humanist moment, Sigmund Freud, in his book, Moses and Monotheism, rejected the notion that Moses was an ancestor of Abraham. Rather, a Semitic tribe that had immigrated to Egypt adopted Moses and his Levite servants as Jews and incorporated their Egyptian religion of Aton (The Lord who manifests itself as the Sun) and rejected ceremonial magic. Freud believed that there were two men with the same name of Moses. He considered the Catholic Church to be enemy of all freedom of thought and suppressors of the advancement of truth. Freud believed that through the struggle of intellectual reasoning the Ego, we are able to overcome the 'highly treasured convictions' we may have for a Mosaic god and accept the Darwin doctrine of evolution. Freud accepted Robertson Smith notion of the Totem Feast were all the family members would cannibalize their father as a a symbol of triumph. Through Sigmund Freud's study and practice of psycho-analysis, he determined the consequences of religion bear a strong resemblance to Neurosis (manifestations of anxiety producing unconscious material that is too difficult to think about consciously, but must still find a means of expression) that can develop into a egotistical, despotic, and brutal personality.


The development from the Oedipus complex to the myth of the father of Totem and Taboo and later of Moses and Monotheism is very striking indeed. At the outset the father’s function is clearly to pacify, regulate, and sublimate the omnipotence of the figure of the mother, called by Freud "the obscure power of the feminine sex." But by the end the father himself has assumed the power, obscurity, and cruelty of the omnipotence his function was supposed to dissipate in the first place. The ego ideal is that "precipitate" of the internalization of the law that Freud describes in Totem and

Taboo. On the other hand, the superego is closely related to guilt and transgression of the law.

In L’Ethique de la psychoa nalyse Lacan discusses Freud’s famous paradox of conscience.


This is his claim that "[t]he more virtuous a man is, the more severe and distrustful is [the superego’s]

behavior, so that ultimately it is precisely those people who have carried saintliness furthest who

reproach themselves with the worst sinfulness.


Lacan says, “Love relates to the father by virtue of the father’s being the vehicle of castration. This is what Freud proposes in Totem and Taboo. It is insofar as the sons are deprived of women that they love the father

— a bewildering remark that is sanctioned by the insight of a Freud."

Leséminaire, 23 (1975 -76); Le sinthome, published in Ornicar? 11 (1977)


It is a profound reversal in the way of functioning of the psyche of people, which may explain many of the phenomena that is underway.









The first Moses was trained in Pharoah Ikhnaton's (Effective for Aton) school of On. When the belief of Aton was abolished, Moses incorporated its belief in one ethical god and its teaching of Maat (truth and justice) without the sun (solar disc). Around 1350, Moses convinced the Semitic tribe that he was possibly governing, to accept his beliefs and leave Egypt and unite with a tribe of Arabian Medianites at a place called Meribat-Qades where the volcano god (demon) Jahve was worshiped. Freud accepted E. Meyer's account that the event where the Creator encountered the Israelites was not at the foot of the Mount Horeb in the Sinai peninsula, but east near the mountains of Arabia. The Creator is not the one we know in the bible, rather Meyer describes that Moses became the priest to a bloodthirsty demon the Midianites worshiped similar to Baalim (Lord) of a neighboring tribe. The difference was before Moses the Midianites viewed Jahve as one of many gods. Moses introduced the idea that there was only one God, and his name was Jahve. Freud accepted E. Sellin's account that the united tribes (Jews) rebelled against the new Jahve hybrid religion and killed Moses. After his death the Levite servants of Moses continued the ethical teachings of their deceased Patriarch and the one God named Jahve.


The second Moses was the son-in-law of the Midianite Jethro. It was 1215 the second Moses who actually founded the Jewish religion. Freud proposed that over time the Levites transformed their violent Jahve into a god similar to Aton. Between two generations and century later relatives of the Jews that still lived in Egypt met with the descendants still living in Meribat-Qades. The Egyptians began accept the Levite religion of Jahve with its circumcision and convinced the Levites to change the name of the god from Jahve to Adonai (The Lord). The newly migrated Egyptians brought with them "the art of writing and the fondness of writing history." Freud also stated in his book that the Jewish Adonai (The Lord), is the same as the Syrian Adonis (The Lord), is the same as the Egyptian Aton. Freud reasoned that Adonai divine character evolved from one of many gods to a 'universal ruler of the world' was a response to the negative experiences the Jews had by being conquered and subjected to the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires who all had their own national god.


Freud then explains his two Moses theory by referencing the two distinct sources of the Torahm, J (Jahve) and E (Elohim). He states the J source was written by the Jahve priest Ebjatar during the reign of King David. E source was written by the Northern kingdom of Israel. Freud wrote after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. In the 7th century a third source JE (most likely a priest) combined J and E sources and added some of his own content. During the Babylonian exile and return (586 - 538 B.C. )the book of Deuteronomy was added by a fourth source known as the D Code.


Moses and Monotheism

Part II

If Moses was an Egyptian



Moses And Monotheism

Part III



page 29...IN Part I of this book I have tried to strengthen by a new argument the suggestion that the man Moses, the liberator and law-giver of the Jewish people, was not a Jew, but an Egyptian. That his name derived from the Egyptian vocabulary had long been observed, though not duly appreciated. I added to this consideration the further one that the interpretation of the exposure myth attaching to Moses necessitated the conclusion that he was an Egyptian whom a people needed to make into a Jew. At the end of my essay I said that important and far-reaching conclusions could be drawn from the suggestion that Moses was an Egyptian; but I was not prepared to uphold them publicly, since they were based only on psychological probabilities and lacked objective proof.


page 38...Everything rather goes to show that during Amenhotep's reign it was strengthened so as to attain greater clarity, consistency, harshness and intolerance. Probably this development took place under the influence of the violent opposition among the priests of Amon that raised its head against the reforms of the king. In the sixth year of Amenhotep's reign this enmity had grown to such an extent that the king changed his name, of which the now proscribed name of the god Amon was a part. Instead of Amenhotep he called himself Ikhnaton.But not only from his name did he eliminate that of the hated God, but also from all inscriptions and even where he found it in his father's name Amenhotep III. Soon after his change of name Ikhnaton left Thebes, which was under Amon's rule, and built a new capital lower down the river which he called Akhetaton (Horizon of Aton).


page 42...The Jewish creed, as is well known, says: " Schema Jisroel Adonai Elohenu Adonai Echod." If the similarity of the name of the Egyptian Aton (or Atum) to the Hebrew word Adonai and the Syrian divine name Adonis is not a mere accident, but is the result of a primaeval unity in language and meaning, then one could translate the Jewish formula: Hear, oh Israel, our god Aton (Adonai) is the only God.



page 78....The question who was Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus appears to me an idle one. There was no Pharaoh at that time, because the Exodus happened during the interregnum. But the Merneptah stele does not throw any light on the possible date of the fusion and the acceptance of the new religion in Qades. All we can say with certainty is that they took place some time between 1350 and 1215. Within this century we assume the Exodus to have been very near to the first date, the events in Qades not far from the second. The greater part of the period we would reserve for the interval between the two events. A fairly long time would be necessary for the passions of the returning tribes to cool down after the murder of Moses and for the influence of the Moses people, the Levites, to have become so strong as the compromise in Qades presupposes. Two generations, sixty years, might suffice, but only just. The date inferred from the stele of Merneptah falls too early, and as we know that in our hypothesis one assumption only rests on another we have to admit that this discussion shows a weak spot in the construction. Unfortunately everything connected with the settling of the Jewish people in Canaan is highly obscure and confused. We might, of course, use the expedient of supposing that the name in the Israel stele does not refer to the tribes whose fate we are trying to follow and who later on were united in the people of Israel. After all, the name of the Habiru (= Hebrews) from the Amarna time was also passed on to this people.


page 79....Moses, trained in Ikhnaton's school, employed the same methods as the king; he gave commands and forced his religion on the people. Perhaps Moses doctrine was still more uncompromising than that of his Master; he had no need to retain any connection with the religion of the Sun God since the school of On would have no importance for his alien people. Moses met with the same fate as Ikhnaton, that fate which awaits all enlightened despots. The Jewish people of Moses was quite as unable to bear such a highly spiritualized religion, to find in what it offered satisfaction for their needs, as were the Egyptians of the Eighteenth Dynasty. In both cases the same thing happened: those who felt themselves kept in tutelage, or who felt dispossessed, revolted and threw off the burden of the religion that had been forced upon them.

We venture now to draw the following conclusion: if Moses was an Egyptian and if he transmitted to the Jews his own religion then it was that of Ikhnaton, the Aton religion.


...The kernel of our thesis, the dependence of Jewish monotheism on the monotheistic episode in Egyptian history, has been guessed and hinted at by several workers. I need not cite them here, since none of them has been able to say by what means this influence was exerted. Even if, as I suggest, it is bound up with the individuality of Moses, we shall have to weigh other possibilities than the one here preferred. It is not to be supposed that the overthrow of the official Aton religion completely put an end to the monotheistic trend in Egypt. The School of Priests at On, from which it emanated, survived the catastrophe and might have drawn whole generations after Ikhnaton into the orbit of their religious thought. That Moses performed the deed is quite thinkable, therefore, even if he did not live in Ikhnaton's time and had not come under his personal influence, even if he were simply an adherent or merely a member of the school of On. This conjecture would postpone the date of the Exodus and bring it nearer to the time usually assumed, the thirteenth century; otherwise it has nothing to recommend it. We should have to relinquish the insight we had gained into Moses motives and to dispense with the idea of the Exodus being facilitated by the anarchy prevailing in Egypt. The kings of the Nineteenth Dynasty following Ikhnaton ruled the country with a strong hand. All conditions, internal and external, favoring the Exodus coincide only in the period immediately after the death of the heretic king.


The God of the Sun was merged with a blood thirsty volcano fire demon.




Jahve was certainly a volcano god. As we know, however, Egypt has no volcanoes and the mountains of the Sinai peninsula have never been volcanic; on the other hand, volcanoes which may have been active up to a late period are found along the western border of Arabia. One of these mountains must have been the Sinai -Horeb which was believed to be Jahve J s abode. In spite of all the transformations the Biblical text has suffered, we are able to reconstruct according to E. Meyer the original character of the god: he is an uncanny, bloodthirsty demon who walks by night and shuns the light of day.


In common claim is that pheromones in human (that can be emulated through the air) attractive, appearance or character similar to that of the person himself or of his parents - are the main factors affecting the infatuation between two people . Chemicals in the brain of the human responsible for falling in love. The hormones estrogen and testosterone are responsible for the continued sexual ; dopamine is responsible for " butterflies in the stomach "; norepinephrine is responsible for the beating of the heart accelerated and excitement; Low levels of the hormone serotonin after apparently falling in love lead to addiction spouse. The joint effect of these chemicals, plus the impact of changes in the circular of the brain - causes euphoria , lust, obsessive , excessive energy, sleeplessness, loss of appetite and focused attention lovable person.

The hormone oxytocin is secreted during sexual intercourse and is responsible for increasing the emotional connection. Endorphins and hormone vasopressin responsible languish first signs of love and the establishment of long-term relationships.

The effect of the chemicals mentioned dims after a certain time period (after this phase usually occurs infidelity), and when that happens the couple look at each other in a rational way.

At this point the relationship or strong enough to continue, or is it just crumbles. If it persists, then endorphins, the hormone oxytocin and Hozofrsin - take care to preserve the relationship.


that encourage to explore both natural and moral law boundaries of what we are allowed to do.


I encourage my children's' liberty to explore and question the world around them and at the same time set boundaries to what they are allowed to do.


You have taught us the laws of life.





that expresses a conscious creative design to all the nature you experience, then you can begin to attain what true enlightenment is and how to achieve peace living as caretakers in a creation that this conscious creative force owns.


To prove the value of loving a creator, I will compare accepted Scripture testified by the mentioned faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths and philosophy, and natural science in context to loving a creator.





There are some religious Monotheist that the Creator that has generated manifestations of itself (Trinitarian Christians and possibly Hindus and Kabbalist Jews) that share the power of both General and Special Providence.

Some religious Polytheists believe that there is a Supreme Creator that has generated other divine beings (gods) that share the power of both General and Special Providence. Other religious Polytheists believe the Supreme Creator wields General Providence and has generated other divine beings (gods) with the power of Special Providence. Then there are Polytheists that believe that the generated divine beings destroyed or imprisoned the Supreme Creator and they now hold General and Special Providence.

maintain the natural order of the Universe (General Providence) and intervene with Creation (Special Providence).




I also believe that the maxim that a Creator exists is more beneficial to us than the pessimism and alienation produced from the acceptance of the maxim of Nature exists without a Creator. I hope to demonstrate how our postdictive processes of loving a creator can influence higher-level event perception and decision making. Loving a creator can also promote a sense of personal control and a sense of social justice when threatened.


Our Creator is like gravity, you cannot physically sense Him. But, our Creator's presence is known throughout world from the actions He has taken and the clues He makes available. Moses testimony that our Creator formed man from the soil of our earth (Genesis 2:7) is a theme that recurs in Sumerian, Egyptian, Chinese, Laotian, Inca, Greek, Jew, Christian, Muslim, and Native American belief systems. In the article, 'Clay May Have Been Birthplace of Life, New Study Suggests,' Scientists now theorize that clay hydro-gels provided a platform for chemicals to come together and form complex bio-molecules. "“We propose that in early geological history a clay hydrogel provided a confinement function for bio-molecules and biochemical reactions,” said Dan Luo, professor of biological and environmental engineering and a member of the Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science. You have to ask yourself whether all these creation stories line now line up with science is is random coincidence or life really came from the Creator. If you come to believe the latter, then take the next step on take the path of the righteous (selfless love) and acknowledge the wisdom and power of our Creator. When you do sin, the Didache teaches you to get back up again, repent, and try again.




In 1844 "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" was published anonymously, but in the 12th edition published in 1884 revealed the book's was Robert Chambers, a Scottish journalist, who had written the book in St Andrews between 1841 and 1844 while recovering from a psychiatric illness. "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" had a profound impact on Charles Darwin in his writing the "Origin of Species." Charles Darwin did not argue that species not originate from a Creator and avoided discussions against it. But, Darwin did argue was that the progress of a species was not done under the Providence (directing all things) of our Creator.


The Origin of Species



Of the Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species



Darwin's theory ended in chapter fourteen of 'The Origin of Species' with Darwin's account of how the whole story began. It began with a creature capable of reproduction with occasional errors


Putting God as your first love in your life is a consistent teaching from Moses to Jesus, to the Prophets and Saints. The Didache of the 12 Apostles appropriately places this as the first teaching.


The Didache - Chapter 1 - The Teaching



Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 1



The Creator assists created natural agents who recognize Him beyond a force of nature.


Genesis 14



1: 26 And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and they shall rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the heaven and over the animals and over all the earth and over all the creeping things that creep upon the earth."


1: 27 And God created man in His image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.


1:28 And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the sky and over all the beasts that tread upon the earth. "


1:29 ] And God said, "Behold, I have given you every seed bearing herb, which is upon the surface of the entire earth, and every tree that has seed bearing fruit; it will be yours for food.


1:30 And to all the beasts of the earth and to all the fowl of the heavens, and to everything that moves upon the earth, in which there is a living spirit, every green herb to eat," and it was so.


The Creator also uses created supernatural agents to assist created natural agents who recognize Him beyond a force of nature and prostrate themselves to His Will. The Creator uses created supernatural agents to punishes created agents who recognize Him beyond a force of nature, but rebel against His Will.


Exodus 23



14:17 After Abram returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram in the Valley of Shaveh (known as the Kings Valley).


14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. (Now he was the priest of the Most High God.)


14:19 He blessed Abram, saying,


Blessed be Abram by the Most High God,

Creator of heaven and earth.


14:20 Worthy of praise is the Most High God,

who delivered your enemies into your hand.

20 Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.


21 Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him.


22 But if thou shalt indeed hearken unto his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.


Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe the Creator does reveal His presence to created natural agents that do His Will. In Scripture, the Creator reveals both His appearance and character to His servant Moses. The Creator declares Himself to be a God of compassion, grace, patience, and abounding in loyal love for mankind. Yet at the same time, the Creator states that He executes justice on the guilty who rebel against His Will. Justice is continued through four generations until one seeks forgiveness.


Exodus 34


34:5 The Lord descended in the cloud and stood with Him there and proclaimed the Lord by name.


34:6 The Lord passed by before him and proclaimed:


The Lord, the Lord, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, and abounding in loyal love and faithfulness,


34:7 keeping loyal love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin. But He by no means leaves the guilty unpunished, responding to the transgression of fathers by dealing with children and children's children, to the third and fourth generation.


The Creator shares His Divine Spirit (Force, Advocate, Support) of love to His created agents that do His will.


Numbers 11


11:25 And the Lord came down in the cloud and spoke to them, and He took some of the Spirit that was on Moses and put it on the seventy elders. When the Spirit rested on them, they prophesied, but did not do so again.


The is only one Creator. Moses commanded the Israelites to love the Creator with all their heart (self-conscious) and soul (blood).


Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 6


6:4 Hear, O Israel:


The Lord is our God; the Lord is one.


6:5 And you shall love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul, and with all thy might.


6:6 And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart.


Deuteronomy 12:23 states that our blood is life. Leviticus 17:11 the life of every living thing is in the blood. Science has verified that our life depends upon the existence and circulation of blood. But 6 you must not eat meat 7 with its life (that is, 8 its blood) in it.



Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 7


7:9 So realize that the Lord your God is the true God, the faithful God who keeps covenant faithfully with those who love Him and keep His commandments, to a thousand generations,


7:10 but who pays back those who hate Him as they deserve and destroys them. He will not ignore those who hate him but will repay them as they deserve!


7:11 So keep the commandments, statutes, and ordinances that I today am commanding you to do.


Joshua 22


22:4 Now the Lord your God has made your fellow Israelites secure, just as he promised them. So now you may turn around and go to your homes in your own land which Moses the Lords servant assigned to you east of the Jordan.


22:5 But carefully obey the commands and instructions Moses the Lords servant gave you. Love the Lord your God, follow all His instructions, obey His commands, be loyal to Him, and serve Him with all your heart and being!


1 Samuel 2


2:6 The Lord both kills and gives life;

He brings down to the grave and raises up.

2:7 The Lord impoverishes and makes wealthy;

He humbles and He exalts.

2:8 He lifts the weak from the dust;

He raises the poor from the ash heap

to seat them with princes

and to bestow on them an honored position.

The foundations of the earth belong to the Lord,

and He has placed the world on them.

2:9 He watches over His holy ones,

but the wicked are made speechless in the darkness,

for it is not by ones own strength that one prevails.

2:10 The Lord shatters His adversaries;

He thunders against them from the heavens.

The Lord executes judgment to the ends of the earth.

He will strengthen His king

and exalt the power of His anointed one.


2 Samuel 7


7:8 So now, say this to my servant David: This is what the Lord of hosts says: I took you from the pasture and from your work as a shepherd to make you leader of my people Israel.


7:9 I was with you wherever you went, and I defeated all your enemies before you. Now I will make you as famous as the great men of the earth.


7:10 I will establish a place for my people Israel and settle them there; they will live there and not be disturbed any more. Violent men will not oppress them again, as they did in the beginning


7:11 and during the time when I appointed judges to lead my people Israel. Instead, I will give you relief from all your enemies. The Lord declares to you that He himself will build a dynastic house for you.


7:12 When the time comes for you to die, I will raise up your descendant, one of your own sons, to succeed you, and I will establish his kingdom.


7:13 He will build a house for my name, and I will make his dynasty permanent.


7:14 I will become his father and he will become my son. When he sins, I will correct him with the rod of men and with wounds inflicted by human beings.


7:15 But my loyal love will not be removed from him as I removed it from Saul, whom I removed from before you.


7:16 Your house and your kingdom will stand before me permanently; your dynasty will be permanent.


7:17 Nathan told David all these words that were revealed to him


Psalms 18


18:1 For the music director; by the Lords servant David, who sang to the Lord the words of this song when the Lord rescued him from the power of all his enemies, including Saul.

He said:


I love you, Lord, my source of strength!


18:2 The Lord is my high ridge, my stronghold, my deliverer.

My God is my rocky summit where I take shelter,

my shield, the horn that saves me, and my refuge.


18:3 I called to the Lord, who is worthy of praise,

and I was delivered from my enemies.

18:4 The waves of death engulfed me,

the currents of chaos overwhelmed me.


18:5 The ropes of Sheol tightened around me,

the snares of death trapped me.


18:6 In my distress I called to the Lord;

I cried out to my God.

From His heavenly temple He heard my voice;

He listened to my cry for help.


18:7 The earth heaved and shook;

the roots of the mountains trembled;

they heaved because He was angry.


18:8 Smoke ascended from His nose;

fire devoured as it came from his mouth;

He hurled down fiery coals.


18:9 He made the sky sink as He descended;

a thick cloud was under his feet.


18:10 He mounted a winged angel and flew;

he glided on the wings of the wind.


18:11 He shrouded himself in darkness,

in thick rain clouds.


18:12 From the brightness in front of him came

hail and fiery coals.


18:13 The Lord thundered in the sky;

the sovereign One shouted.


18:14 He shot his arrows and scattered them,

many lightning bolts and routed them.


18:15 The depths of the sea were exposed;

the inner regions of the world were uncovered

by your battle cry, Lord,

by the powerful breath from your nose.


18:16 He reached down from above and took hold of me;

he pulled me from the surging water.


18:17 He rescued me from my strong enemy,

from those who hate me,

for they were too strong for me.


18:18 They confronted me in my day of calamity,

but the Lord helped me.


18:19 He brought me out into a wide open place;

he delivered me because He was pleased with me.


18:20 The Lord repaid me for my godly deeds;

He rewarded my blameless behavior.


18:21 For I have obeyed the Lords commands;

I have not rebelled against my God.


18:22 For I am aware of all His regulations,

and I do not reject His rules.


18:23 I was innocent before Him,

and kept myself from sinning.


18:24 The Lord rewarded me for my godly deeds;

he took notice of my blameless behavior.


18:25 You prove to be loyal to one who is faithful;

you prove to be trustworthy to one who is innocent.


18:26 You prove to be reliable to one who is blameless,

but you prove to be deceptive to one who is perverse.


18:27 For you deliver oppressed people,

but you bring down those who have a proud look.


18:28 Indeed, you are my lamp, Lord.

My God illuminates the darkness around me.


18:29 Indeed, with your help I can charge against an army;

by my Gods power I can jump over a wall.


18:30 The one true God acts in a faithful manner;

the Lords promise is reliable;

He is a shield to all who take shelter in him.


18:31 Indeed, who is God besides the Lord?

Who is a protector besides our God?


18:32 The one true God gives me strength;

He removes the obstacles in my way.


18:33 He gives me the agility of a deer;

He enables me to negotiate the rugged terrain.


18:34 He trains my hands for battle;

my arms can bend even the strongest bow.


18:35 You give me your protective shield;

Your right hand supports me;

Your willingness to help enables me to prevail.


18:36 You widen my path;

my feet do not slip.


18:37 I chase my enemies and catch them;

I do not turn back until I wipe them out.


18:38 I beat them to death;

they fall at my feet.


18:39 You give me strength for battle;

you make my foes kneel before me.


18:40 You make my enemies retreat;

I destroy those who hate me.


18:41 They cry out, but there is no one to help them;

they cry out to the Lord, but He does not answer them.


18:42 I grind them as fine windblown dust;

I beat them underfoot like clay in the streets.


18:43 You rescue me from a hostile army;

you make me a leader of nations;

people over whom I had no authority are now my subjects.


18:44 When they hear of my exploits, they submit to me.

Foreigners are powerless before me;


18:45 foreigners lose their courage;

they shake with fear as they leave their strongholds.


18:46 The Lord is alive!

My protector is praiseworthy!

The God who delivers me is exalted as king!


18:47 The one true God completely vindicates me;

He makes nations submit to me.


18:48 He delivers me from my enemies;

You snatch me away from those who attack me;

You rescue me from violent men.


18:49 So I will give You thanks before the nations, O Lord!

I will sing praises to You!


18:50 He gives His chosen king magnificent victories;

He is faithful to His chosen ruler,

to David and His descendants forever.


Moses explained the difference of time for man and the Creator.


Book of Tehillim (Psalms) 90


90:1 Lord, thou has been our dwelling place in all generations.


90:2 Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.


90:3 Thou turn man to dust; and say, Return, ye children of men.


90:4 For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.


90:5 Thou carries them away as with a flood; they are as a sleep: in the morning they are like grass which grows up.


90:6 In the morning it flourishes, and grows up; in the evening it is cut down, and withers.


90:7 For we are consumed by your anger, and by your wrath are we troubled.


90:8 Thou has set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy countenance.


90:9 For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told.


90:10 The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.


90:11 Who knows the power of your anger? even according to thy fear, so is thy wrath.


90:12 So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.


90:13 Return, O LORD, how long? and let it repent thee concerning thy servants.


90:14 O satisfy us early with thy mercy; that we may rejoice and be glad all our days.


90:15 Make us glad according to the days wherein thou hast afflicted us, and the years wherein we have seen evil.


90:16 Let thy work appear unto thy servants, and thy glory unto their children.


90:17 And let the beauty of the LORD our God be upon us: and establish thou the work of our hands upon us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it.


'There is a God: How the World's Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind' Antony Garrard Newton Flew was an English philosopher well known throughout his life as a champion debator of atheism. In 2004, at the age of 80, Flew changed his mind to that of a Jeffersonian Deist (Creator without Providence) His change of mind shows the persuasive argument modern theists that challenge atheistic naturalism. In Flew’s words, he simply “had to go where the evidence leads.” Flew was very impressed with Orthodox Jewish physicist, Gerald Lawrence Schroeder’s reconciing Genesis 1 with the scientific evidence that the world is billions of years old using the idea that the perceived flow of time for a given event in an expanding universe varies with the observer’s perspective of that event. According to Einstein's equations of the 'stretching factor', time dilates by a factor of roughly 1,000,000,000,000, meaning one trillion days on earth would appear to pass as one day from that point, due to the stretching of space. When applied to the estimated age of the universe at 13.8 billion years, from the perspective of the point of origin, the universe today would appear to have just begun its sixth day of existence, or if the universe is 15 billion years old from the perspective of earth, it would appear to have just completed its sixth day.


Each day of creation is numbered. Yet Nahmanides points out that there is discontinuity in the way the days are numbered. The verse says: "There is evening and morning, Day One." But the second day doesn't say "evening and morning, Day Two." Rather, it says "evening and morning, a second day." And the Torah continues with this pattern: "Evening and morning, a third day... a fourth day... a fifth day... the sixth day." Only on the first day does the text use a different form: not "first day," but "Day One" ("Yom Echad"). Many English translations that make the mistake of writing "a first day." That's because editors want things to be nice and consistent. But they throw out the cosmic message in the text! That message, as Nahmanides points out, is that there is a qualitative difference between "one" and "first." One is absolute; first is comparative. The Torah could not write “a first day” on the first day because there had not yet been a second day relative to it. Had the perspective of the Bible for the first six days been from Sinai looking back, the Torah would have written a first day. By the time the Torah was given on Sinai there had been hundreds of thousands of "second days." The perspective of the Bible for the six days of Genesis is from the only time in the history of time when there had not been a second day. And that is the first day. From the creation of the universe to the creation of the soul of Adam, the Torah views time from near the beginning looking forward. At the creation of Adam and Eve, the soul of humanity, the Bible perspective switches to earth based time. And therefore the biblical description of time changed.



By putting your faith in God, he will help guide you to to make the right choice and work in His name.


2 Chronicles 20


20:20 Early the next morning they marched out to the Desert of Tekoa. When they were ready to march, Jehoshaphat stood up and said:


Listen to me, you people of Judah and residents of Jerusalem! Trust in the Lord your God and you will be safe! Trust in the message of His prophets and you will win.


20:21 He met with the people and appointed musicians to play before the Lord and praise his majestic splendor. As they marched ahead of the warriors they said:


Give thanks to the Lord, for His loyal love endures.


20:22 When they began to shout and praise, the Lord suddenly attacked the Ammonites, Moabites, and men from Mount Seir who were invading Judah, and they were defeated.


Isaiah 63


63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,

of the Lords praiseworthy deeds.

I will tell about all the Lord did for us,

the many good things He did for the family of Israel,

because of his compassion and great faithfulness.

63:8 He said, Certainly they will be my people,

children who are not disloyal.

He became their deliverer.

63:9 Through all that they suffered, He suffered too.

The messenger sent from His very presence delivered them.

In His love and mercy he protected them;

He lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times.

63:10 But they rebelled and offended His Holy Spirit,

so He turned into an enemy

and fought against them.

63:11 His people remembered the ancient times.

Where is the One who brought them up out of the sea,

along with the shepherd of his flock?

Where is the One who placed His Holy Spirit among them,


63:12 the One who made His majestic power available to Moses,

who divided the water before them,

gaining for Himself a lasting reputation,


63:13 who led them through the deep water?

Like a horse running on flat land they did not stumble.


63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze,

so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.

In this way you guided your people,

gaining for yourself an honored reputation.


63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice,

from Your holy, majestic palace!

Where are Your zeal and power?

Do not hold back Your tender compassion!


63:16 For You are our Father,

though Abraham does not know us

and Israel does not recognize us.

You, Lord, are our Father;

you have been called our protector from ancient times.


Trusting God is simply believing that He loves you, Hes good, He has the power to help you, He wants to help you.


At certain points of time, the Lord intervenes in the affairs of his loyal followers, to fulfill His promise to them.


Jeremiah 29


29:11 For I know what I have planned for you, says the Lord. I have plans to prosper you, not to harm you. I have plans to give you a future filled with hope.


29:12 When you call out to me and come to me in prayer, I will hear your prayers.


29:13 When you seek Me in prayer and worship, you will find Me available to you. If you seek Me with all your heart and soul,


29:14 I will make myself available to you, says the Lord. Then I will reverse your plight and will regather you from all the nations and all the places where I have exiled you, says the Lord. I will bring you back to the place from which I exiled you.


Luke 1


1:46 And Mary said,

My soul exalts the Lord,


1:47 and my spirit has begun to rejoice in God my Savior,


1:48 because He has looked upon the humble state of His servant.

For from now on all generations will call me blessed,


1:49 because He who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is His name;


1:50 from generation to generation He is merciful to those who fear Him.


1:51 He has demonstrated power with His arm; He has scattered those whose pride wells up from the sheer arrogance of their hearts.


1:52 He has brought down the mighty from their thrones, and has lifted up those of lowly position;


1:53 He has filled the hungry with good things, and has sent the rich away empty.


1:54 He has helped his servant Israel, remembering His mercy,


1:55 as He promised to our ancestors, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.


Luke 1


1:67 ...Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied,


1:68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel,

because He has come to help and has redeemed His people.


1:69 For He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David,


1:70 as He spoke through the mouth of His holy prophets from long ago,


1:71 that we should be saved from our enemies,

and from the hand of all who hate us.


1:72 He has done this to show mercy to our ancestors,

and to remember His holy covenant


1:73 the oath that He swore to our ancestor Abraham.

This oath grants


1:74 that we, being rescued from the hand of our enemies,

may serve Him without fear,


1:75 in holiness and righteousness before Him for as long as we live.


1:76 And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High.

For you will go before the Lord to prepare His ways,


1:77 to give His people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins.


1:78 Because of our Gods tender mercy

the dawn will break upon us from on high


1:79 to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death,

to guide our feet into the way of peace.



Jefferson viewed Jesus as a great reformer of the faith like Martin Luther.


From Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Priestley, 9 April 1803


I should then take a view of the deism, and ethics of the Jews, and shew in what a degraded state they were, and the necessity they presented of a reformation. I should proceed to a view of the life, character, & doctrines of Jesus, who sensible of the incorrectness of their ideas of the deity, and of morality, endeavored to bring them to the principles of a pure deism, and juster notions of the attributes of god, to reform their moral doctrines to the standard of reason, justice, & philanthropy, and to inculcate the belief of a future state. This view would purposely omit the question of his divinity & even of his inspiration. to do him justice it would be necessary to remark the disadvantages his doctrines have to encounter, not having been committed to writing by himself, but by the most unlettered of men, by memory, long after they had heard them from him; when much was forgotten, much misunderstood, & presented in very paradoxical shapes. yet such are the fragments remaining as to shew a master workman, and that his system of morality was the most benevolent & sublime probably that has been ever taught; and eminently more perfect than those of any of the ancient philosophers.



Mark 12


12:28 Now one of the experts in the law came and heard them debating. When he saw that Jesus answered them well, he asked him, Which commandment is the most important of all?


12:29 Jesus answered, The most important is: Listen, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.


12:30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.


12:31 The second is: Love your neighbor as yourself. There is no other commandment greater than these.


12:32 The expert in the law said to him, That is true, Teacher; you are right to say that He is one, and there is no one else besides Him.


12:33 And to love Him with all your heart, with all your mind, and with all your strength and to love your neighbor as yourself is more important than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.


12:34 When Jesus saw that he had answered thoughtfully, he said to him, You are not far from the kingdom of God. Then no one dared any longer to question him

Our Creator is light, as is His only begotten son, Jesus Christ.


John 14


14:15 If you love me, you will obey my commandments.


14:16 Then I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Advocate to be with you forever


14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, because it does not see Him or know Him. But you know Him, because He resides with you and will be in you.


14:18 I will not abandon you as orphans, I will come to you.


14:19 In a little while the world will not see me any longer, but you will see me; because I live, you will live too.


14:20 You will know at that time that I am in my Father and you are in me and I am in you.


14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.


14:22 Lord, Judas (not Judas Iscariot) said, what has happened that You are going to reveal Yourself to us and not to the world?


14:23 Jesus replied, If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and We will come to him and take up residence with him.


14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Fathers who sent me.


14:25 I have spoken these things while staying with you.


14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.


14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you; I do not give it to you as the world does. Do not let your hearts be distressed or lacking in courage.


14:28 You heard me say to you, I am going away and I am coming back to you. If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, because the Father is greater than I am.


14:29 I have told you now before it happens, so that when it happens you may believe. \


14:30 I will not speak with you much longer, for the ruler of this world is coming. He has no power over me,


14:31 but I am doing just what the Father commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father.

Jesus Prays for Believers Everywhere


John 17


17:6 I have revealed Your name to the men You gave me out of the world. They belonged to you, and you gave them to me, and they have obeyed your word.


17:7 Now they understand that everything You have given me comes from You,


17:8 because I have given them the words you have given me. They accepted them and really understand that I came from you, and they believed that you sent me.


17:9 I am praying on behalf of them. I am not praying on behalf of the world, but on behalf of those you have given me, because they belong to you.


17:10 Everything I have belongs to you, and everything You have belongs to me, and I have been glorified by them.


17:11 I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to You. Holy Father, keep them safe in Your name that You have given me, so that they may be one just as We are one.


17:12 When I was with them I kept them safe and watched over them in Your name that You have given me. Not one of them was lost except the one destined for destruction, so that the scripture could be fulfilled.


17:13 But now I am coming to you, and I am saying these things in the world, so they may experience my joy completed in themselves.


17:14 I have given them your word, and the world has hated them, because they do not belong to the world, just as I do not belong to the world.


17:15 I am not asking You to take them out of the world, but that You keep them safe from the evil one.


17:16 They do not belong to the world just as I do not belong to the world.


17:17 Set them apart in the truth; Your word is truth.


17:18 Just as you sent me into the world, so I sent them into the world.


17:19 And I set myself apart on their behalf, so that they too may be truly set apart.


17:20 I am not praying only on their behalf, but also on behalf of those who believe in me through their testimony,


17:21 that they will all be one, just as You, Father, are in me and I am in You. I pray that they will be in Us, so that the world will believe that You sent me.


17:22 The glory you gave to me I have given to them, that they may be one just as we are one


17:23 I in them and you in me that they may be completely one, so that the world will know that You sent me, and You have loved them just as You have loved me.


17:24 Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, so that they can see my glory that You gave me because You loved me before the creation of the world.


17:25 Righteous Father, even if the world does not know You, I know you, and these men know that You sent me.


17:26 I made known your name to them, and I will continue to make it known, so that the love You have loved me with may be in them, and I may be in them.

John 21


21:15 Then when they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these do? He replied, Yes, Lord, you know I love you. Jesus told him, Feed my lambs.


21:16 Jesus said a second time, Simon, son of John, do you love me? He replied, Yes, Lord, you know I love you. Jesus told him, Shepherd my sheep.


21:17 Jesus said a third time, Simon, son of John, do you love me? Peter was distressed that Jesus asked Him a third time, Do you love me? and said, Lord, you know everything. You know that I love you. Jesus replied, Feed my sheep.


21:18 I tell you the solemn truth, when you were young, you tied your clothes around you 46 and went wherever you wanted, but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and others will tie you up and bring you where you do not want to go.


21:19 (Now Jesus said this to indicate clearly by what kind of death Peter was going to glorify God.) After he said this, Jesus told Peter, Follow me.


Christians believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father,

God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation, he came down from heaven.


Acts 2


2:22 Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, wonders, and miraculous signs that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know


2:23 this Man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed by nailing Him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles.


2:24 But God raised him up, having released Him from the pains of death, because it was not possible for Him to be held in its power.


2:25 For David says about Him,


I saw the Lord always in front of me,


for He is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.


2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;

my body also will live in hope,


2:27 because you will not leave my soul in Hades,

nor permit your Holy One to experience decay.


2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;

you will make me full of joy with your presence.


2:29 Brothers, I can speak confidently to you about our forefather David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.


2:30 So then, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne,


2:31 David by foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that He was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did His body experience decay.


2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it.


2:33 So then, exalted to the right hand of God, and having received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father, he has poured out what you both see and hear.


2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

The Lord said to my lord,

Sit at my right hand


2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.


2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified both Lord and Christ.


2:37 Now when they heard this, they were acutely distressed and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, What should we do, brothers?


2:38 Peter said to them, Repent, and each one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.


2:39 For the promise is for you and your children, and for all who are far away, as many as the Lord our God will call to Himself.


2:40 With many other words he testified and exhorted them saying, Save yourselves from this perverse generation!


2:41 So those who accepted his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand people were added.


Christians love God the Father and our Savior, Jesus the Christ.


1 Peter 1


1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he gave us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,


1:4 that is, into an inheritance imperishable, undefiled, and unfading. It is reserved in heaven for you,


1:5 who by Gods power are protected through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.


1:6 This brings you great joy, although you may have to suffer for a short time in various trials.


1:7 Such trials show the proven character of your faith, which is much more valuable than gold gold that is tested by fire, even though it is passing away and will bring praise and glory and honor when Jesus Christ is revealed.


1:8 You have not seen Him, but you love Him. You do not see Him now but you believe in Him, and so you rejoice with an indescribable and glorious joy,


1:9 because you are attaining the goal of your faith the salvation of your souls.


1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully.


1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when He testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and His subsequent glory.


1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from Heaven things angels long to catch a glimpse of.


2 Peter


3:9 The Lord is not slow to fulfill His promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance.

Saint Paul wrote that even our Messiah, Jesus Christ, is subject to our Creator (Our Father). In the end through Jesus we all will receive a similar divine gift of becoming a Child of God.


1 Corinthians 15


15:1 Now I want to make clear for you, brothers and sisters, the gospel that I preached to you, that you received and on which you stand,


15:2 and by which you are being saved, if you hold firmly to the message I preached to you unless you believed in vain.


15:3 For I passed on to you as of first importance what I also received that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures,


15:4 and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the scriptures,


15:5 and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.


15:6 Then He appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.


15:7 Then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles.


15:8 Last of all, as though to one born at the wrong time, He appeared to me also.


15:9 For I am the least of the apostles, unworthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God.


15:10 But by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace to me has not been in vain. In fact, I worked harder than all of them yet not I, but the grace of God with me.


15:11 Whether then it was I or they, this is the way we preach and this is the way you believed.


15:12 Now if Christ is being preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead?


15:13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised.


15:14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is futile and your faith is empty.


15:15 Also, we are found to be false witnesses about God, because we have testified against God that He raised Christ from the dead, when in reality He did not raise Him, if indeed the dead are not raised.


15:16 For if the dead are not raised, then not even Christ has been raised.


15:17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is useless; you are still in your sins.


15:18 Furthermore, those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished.


15:19 For if only in this life we have hope in Christ, we should be pitied more than anyone.


15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.


15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man.


15:22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.


15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to Him.


15:24 Then comes the end, when He [Jesus] hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when He [Jesus] has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power.


15:25 For He [Jesus] must reign until He [Jesus] has put all His enemies under His [Jesus] feet.


15:26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death.


15:27 For He [Jesus] has put everything in subjection under His feet [Jesus]. But when it says everything has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the One [Father] who put everything in subjection to Him [Jesus].

15:28 And when all things are subjected to Him [Jesus], then the Son Himself will be subjected to the One [Father] who subjected everything to Him [Jesus], so that God may be all in all.

1 Corinthians 50


15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters:


Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.


15:51 Listen, I will tell you a mystery:


We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed


15:52 in a moment, in the blinking of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.


15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality.


15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen,


Death has been swallowed up in victory.


15:55 Where, O death, is your victory?

Where, O death, is your sting?


15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.


15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ!


15:58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.



Clement initially intended to write the Didasculus, a revision of the Didache that would complement his first book, 'The Paedagogus' (tutor or instructor) on training souls to become a children of God. Clement wrote that flesh is created by the Holy Spirit, the Lord giver of life. In the beginning the Word was with God in God. Through Moses and the prophets, the Word of God was given to the mankind to fear God and follow His Law. The Word of God was infused into living flesh by the Holy Spirit. The Word of God is our Lord Jesus Christ, the living bread from Heaven that gives eternal life to all that believe in the eternal grace and truth to understanding the Law given to Him by the will of our Father Almighty. Our salvation depends on our Father's grace and truth and that His will is purely good. Through mutual love our Father and Jesus have given us life, truth, and example to why we live it. Through the Power of our Father almighty the living Word has now been infused back into the Holy Spirit and given a greater body to all those that are given grace to receive It.


Clement is definitive in calling Jesus God in the form of man. And that we must try with all our might to follow His sinless life. Further, if we do transgress against God and our fellow man or woman, that renew our battle against the sin of death.


The Paedagogus (Book I)


Chapter 2. Our Instructor's Treatment of Our Sins


We, however, as soon as He conceived the thought, became His children, having had assigned us the best and most secure rank by His orderly arrangement, which first circles about the world, the heavens, and the sun's circuits, and occupies itself with the motions of the rest of the stars for man's behalf, and then busies itself with man himself, on whom all its care is concentrated; and regarding him as its greatest work, regulated his soul by wisdom and temperance, and tempered the body with beauty and proportion. And whatever in human actions is right and regular, is the result of the inspiration of its rectitude and order.


Muslims too believe that one must love God in order to receive His mercy.




Surat 'Āli `Imrān (Family of Imran)


3:31 Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah , then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."


The translation of the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ maíaḥ as Χριστός (Khristós, whence the term Christ comes) in the Greek Septuagint became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth. Christians believe that messianic prophecies in the Christian Old Testament (especially Isaiah) refer to a spiritual savior and believe that Jesus is the Christian Messiah.





On earth as the divine Son, Jesus did only whatever our Creator (Our Father) commanded him to do. When Jesus rose from the dead he became fully divine.


As a Christian, I believe our Father has bestowed Jesus the power to resurrect the dead from their tombs at the last day and the authority to give eternal life to whomever he chooses. I pray though the power of the Holy Spirit that Jesus accepts me into Our Father's kingdom and I receive the gift of eternal joy.


Arianism is a nontrinitarian belief that asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, created by God the Father, distinct from the Father and therefore subordinate to the Father




Watch "Mother Teresa: How to Love God." Like Jesus, Moses, and the saints before her, Mother Teresa lived with the poor and taught the ways to properly love God.



From John Adams to Benjamin Rush, 21 January 1810


The Christian Religion as I understand it, is the Brightness of the Glory and the express Portrait of the Character of the eternal, self existent independant benevolent all powerful and all mercifull Creator, Preserver, and Father of the Universe: the first good, first perfect and first fair. It will last as long as the World. Neither Savage nor civilized Man without a Revelation could ever have discovered or invented it. Ask me not then whether I am a Catholic or Protestant, Calvinist or Arminian? As far as they are Christians, I wish to be a Fellow Disciple with them all.

Natural Deists would Universally agree with the maxim that there is one is one Supreme Creator (Architect) that generated all that exists and keeps the natural order (General Providence). But, Natural Deists perceive a reality with and Architect does not interfere with all life experiences that take place in creation. The only connection we have with the Architect is that we exist with him. While other Natural Deists object to the belief that this the Prime Mover is one consciously aware being (Architect), but perceive a reality where everything (All) are part of one Mental Universe.


Religious Monotheists (Jews, Christians and Muslims) and some Polytheist believe perceive reality through a connection with one Supreme consciously aware Prime Mover (Creator) that generated everything that exists and keeps the natural order of our Universe (General Providence) and the spiritual world beyond it.

1:2 {The way of life} is this.


1:3 First of all, {thou shalt love the God} that made thee;

Note. I will place a passage from the Didache on the top of each post I make. Scripture, quotes, media and my testimony will be in context to the passage. I will also incorporate music, video, and imagery to amplify feelings to the words of my personal testimony. I have also chosen to use the term Creator in order to respect the beliefs of the religious faiths and religions I mention.

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The Didache - Chapter 1 the Teaching

1:3 First of all, {thou shalt love the God} that made thee;

1:4 secondly, {thy neighbor as thyself.}



The Great Jewish Sage Hillel and Jesus the Christian Messiah simplified the righteous understanding of balance.

Babylonian Talmud:
Tractate Shabbath
Folio 31a

What is hateful to you, do not to your neighbor that is the whole Torah,


Both Hillel and Jesus understood that by not treating others with Hate is what the Creator desires most from mankind.


Matthew 7

7:12 In everything, treat others as you would want them to treat you, for this fulfills the law and the prophets.



In this age the Golden Rule has evolved to a faithless conservative would be "Don't let others disrespect you and they will learn to respect you." The Golden Rule for the faithless liberal would be "Treat others the way they want to be treated."


German philosopher, Samuel von Pufendorf stated in his treatise, The Two Books on the Duty of Man and Citizen According to the Natural Law "the foundation for Natural Law may be properly resolved into love of neighbor." Pufendorf termed loving one's neighbor the Law of Sociability, which in turn prohibits actions which are repugnant to love (Hateful). In my life mutual respect is a prerequisite for open communication and honest rational dialogue. Respect for our creator and fellow being is the key to maintaining balance (Selah, Ma'at) in one's life.


For the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim believer there is both a moral and social obligation to follow the second Great Commandment that was given to Moses from our Creator.

Leviticus 19 - The Law

19:17 You must not hate your brother in your heart. You must surely reprove your fellow citizen so that you do not incur sin on account of him.

19:18 You must not take vengeance or bear a grudge against the children of your people, but you must love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord.

Matthew 22 - The Greatest Commandments

22:34 Now when the Pharisees heard that He had silenced the Sadducees, they assembled together.

22:35 And one of them, an expert in religious law, asked him a question to test him:

22:36 “Teacher, which commandment in the law is the greatest?

22:37 Jesus said to him, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’

22:38 This is the first and greatest commandment.

22:39 The second is like it:

‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’

22:40 All the law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.”

Faith in God is not the only condition for answered prayer. One must also forgive his or her fellow human beings to obtain forgiveness from the Father. How many of us hold vengeance against our neighbor?

Mark 11

11:25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will also forgive you your sins.”

Just as forgiveness comes from the Father, so does the end of times of our world and the universe around it. Just like us, Jesus’ is dependent on and obedient to to the Divine Will of Our Father.

Matthew 24

24:32 “Learn this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near.

24:33 So also you, when you see all these things, know that He is near, right at the door.

24:34 I tell you the truth, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.

24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.

24:36 “But as for that day and hour no one knows it – not even the angels in heaven – except the Father alone.

Even during the darkest moment in Jesus life, he still had the power to forgive those that tormented him. Instead of facing the wrath of the Father, we were all spared by Jesus loving intercession.

Luke 23

23:33 So when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” they crucified Him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.

23:34 [but Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”] Then they threw dice to divide his clothes.


Just as Jesus interceded to the Father on the behalf of those persecuting him, the disciple Stephen interceded to Jesus to forgive those that tormented him.

Acts 7

7:51 “You stubborn people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears! You are always resisting the Holy Spirit, like your ancestors did!

7:52 Which of the prophets did your ancestors not persecute? They killed those who foretold long ago the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become!

7:53 You received the law by decrees given by angels, but you did not obey it.”

7:54 When they heard these things, they became furious and ground their teeth at him.

7:55 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked intently toward heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God.

7:56 “Look!” he said. “I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!

7:57 But they covered their ears, shouting out with a loud voice, and rushed at him with one intent.

7:58 When they had driven him out of the city, they began to stone him, and the witnesses laid their cloaks at the feet of a young man named Saul.

7:59 They continued to stone Stephen while he prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!”

7:60 Then he fell to his knees and cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them!” When he had said this, he died.

The young man named Saul was later converted and became the Great Saint Paul. Praise the Lord for His Divine Plan.


1 John 4


4:7 Dear friends, let us love one another, because 17 love is from God, and everyone who loves 18 has been fathered 19 by God and knows God. 4:8 The person who does not love does not know God, because God is love. 20 4:9 By this 21 the love of God 22 is revealed in us: 23 that God has sent his one and only 24 Son into the world so that we may live through him. 4:10 In this 25 is love: not that 26 we have loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the atoning sacrifice 27 for our sins.

Islam holds similar commands of worshiping Allah (God) and doing good to your family, neighbors, and foreigners.


Surat An-Nisā' (The Women)


Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful.

Luke 6

6:37 “Do not judge, and you will not be judged; do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven.

6:38 Give, and it will be given to you: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be poured into your lap. For the measure you use will be the measure you receive.”

6:39 He also told them a parable: “Someone who is blind cannot lead another who is blind, can he? Won’t they both fall into a pit?

6:40 A disciple is not greater than his teacher, but everyone when fully trained will be like his teacher.

6:41 Why do you see the speck in your brother’s eye, but fail to see the beam of wood in your own?

6:42 How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while you yourself don’t see the beam in your own? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.

6:43 “For no good tree bears bad fruit, nor again does a bad tree bear good fruit,

6:44 for each tree is known by its own fruit. For figs are not gathered from thorns, nor are grapes picked from brambles.

6:45 The good person out of the good treasury of his heart produces good, and the evil person out of his evil treasury produces evil, for his mouth speaks from what fills his heart.

6:46 “Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do what I tell you?


Christians, Jews, and Muslims all share the belief of helping your neighbor.

Watch "Give A Little Love" by Krizovatka

It is apparent that those who promote harming or persecuting your neighbor do not follow Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Even a nonbeliever can understand that.





We must remember that every human is made in the image of our Creator (Hashem, Allah).

Genesis 1

1:27 God created humankind in his own image,
in the image of God he created them,
male and female he created them.
1:28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply!

Watch "3 Million Reasons Why Your Heart Will Break In One Video."

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The Didache - Teaching

1:5 {And all things whatsoever thou wouldst not have befall thyself neither do thou unto another.}

How do you want to be treated? Do you want your neighbor to fear or love you?

Luke 6

6:31 Treat others in the same way that you would want them to treat you.

It is noteworthy that the "golden rule" is given in the "Didache" according to the Great Jewish Sage Hillel's negative interpretation. But, it was Hashem that stated the positive "Love your neighbor as yourself." Jesus reiterated this as the second greatest commandment.

Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath

Folio 31a

On another occasion it happened that a certain heathen came before Shammai and said to him, 'Make me a proselyte, on condition that you teach me the whole Torah while I stand on one foot.' Thereupon he repulsed him with the builder's cubit which was in his hand. When he went before Hillel, he said to him, 'What is hateful to you, do not to your neighbor: that is the whole Torah, while the rest is the commentary thereof; go and learn it.


The Letter of the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth,

Commonly Called Clement's First Letter


Each must be subject to his neighbor, according to his special gifts. The strong must take care of the weak; the weak must look up to the strong. The rich must provide for the poor; the poor must thank God for giving him someone to meet his needs. The wise man must show his wisdom not in words but in good deeds. The humble must not brag about his humility; but should give others occasion to mention it. He who is continent must not put on airs. He must recognize that his self-control is a gift from another. We must take to heart, brothers, from what stuff we were created, what kind of creatures we were when we entered the world, from what a dark grave He who fashioned and created us brought us into his world. And we must realize the preparations He so generously made before we were born.


The Letter of Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch


"Keep on praying" for others too, for there is a chance of their being converted and getting to God.


Surat An-Naĥl (The Bee)

16:90 Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.

Muslims believe that God orders us to treat people well with justice, have morals, and help the needy. Muslims faith states that no one has the power to compel a person to believe. Only our Creator has the power over our souls.


Yunus (Jonah)

10:99 And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed - all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?
10:100 And it is not for a soul to believe except by permission of Allah , and He will place defilement upon those who will not use reason.







Qadar is the concept of divine destiny in Islam. is one of the aspects of aqidah. Similar to the Christian Book of Life, some Muslims believe that the divine destiny is when God wrote down in the Preserved Tablet ("al-Lauḥ al-Maḥfūẓ") all that has happened and will happen, which will come to pass as written. According to this belief, a person's action is not caused by what is written in the preserved tablet, but rather the action is written in the tablet because God already knows all occurrences without the restrictions of time.


In Islam, "predestination" is the usual English language rendering of a belief that Muslims call al-qaḍāʾ wa al-qadr.


Al-Qada' (Fate) and Al-Qadr (Destiny) is even understood in Behavior Sciences.




Human actions on earth effect what's "Erased And Stated" in the Preserved Tablet ("Lauḥ al-Mahu w al-Ithbat"). The phrase reflects a Muslim doctrine that God has measured out the span of every person's life, their lot of good or ill fortune, and the fruits of their efforts. Again Allah does not need to force anyone to do good or evil by interfering with his will, and nobody will bear witness that Allah did so.


The belief in free will (Hebrew: bechirah chofshit בחירה חפשית, bechirah בחירה) is axiomatic (self-evident) in Jewish thought, and is closely linked with the concept of reward and punishment, based on the Torah itself: "I [God] have set before you life and death, blessing and curse: therefore choose life" ( Deuteronomy 30:19). Cleave to the students of Torah and to the chachamim (Sages), and Hashem will consider it on your behalf as if you cleaved to Him (Rashi).

The Catechism of the Catholic Church suggests that "Freedom is the power, rooted in reason and will". It goes on to say that "God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. God willed that man should be 'left in the hand of his own counsel,' so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him."" "By the working of grace the Holy Spirit educates us in spiritual freedom in order to make us free collaborators in his work in the Church and in the world.

The Orthodox Church holds to the teaching of synergy (συνεργός, meaning working together), which says that man has the freedom to, and must if he wants to be saved, choose to accept and work with the grace of God. Once baptized the experience of his salvation and relationship with God is called theosis. Mankind has free will to accept or reject the grace of God. Rejection of the gifts of God is called blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (gifts of grace, faith, eternal life).

Lutherans believe that although humans have free will concerning civil righteousness, they cannot work spiritual righteousness without the Holy Spirit, since righteousness in the heart cannot be wrought in the absence of the Holy Spirit. In other words, humanity is free to choose and act in every regard except for the choice of salvation.

Methodists, believe that while God is all-knowing and always knows what choices each person will make, he still gives them the ability to choose (or not choose) everything, regardless of whether there are any internal or external factors contributing to that choice.

The Anabaptist movement was characterized by the fundamental belief in the free will of man. Many earlier movements such as Waldensians and others likewise held this viewpoint. Denominations today representing this view include Old Order Mennonites, Amish, and Conservative Mennonites.

Mormons or Latter-day Saints, believe that God has given all humans the gift of moral agency. Moral agency includes free will and agency (to act with accountability and responsibility for our actions.). Proper exercise of unfettered choice leads to the ultimate goal of returning to God's presence. Having the choice to do right or wrong was important, because God wants a society of a certain type—those that comply with eternal laws. Before this Earth was created, this dispute over agency rose to the level that there was a "war in heaven." Lucifer (who favored no agency) and his followers were cast out of heaven for rebelling against God's will.

The New Church, or Swedenborgianism, teaches that every person has complete freedom to choose heaven or hell. Emanuel Swedenborg, upon whose writings the New Church is founded, argued that if God is love itself, people must have free will. If God is love itself, then He desires no harm to come to anyone: and so it is impossible that he would predestine anyone to hell. On the other hand, if God is love itself, then He must love things outside of Himself; and if people do not have the freedom to choose evil, they are simply extensions of God, and He cannot love them as something outside of Himself. In addition, Swedenborg argues that if a person does not have free will to choose goodness and faith, then all of the commandments in the Bible to love God and the neighbor are worthless, since no one can choose to do them - and it is impossible that a God who is love itself and wisdom itself would give impossible commandments.

For those that follow no particular religion or belief in a personal God, Albert Einstein has a thought to share. "The highest principles for our aspirations and judgements are given to us in the Jewish-Christian religious tradition. It is a very high goal which, with our weak powers, we can reach only very inadequately, but which gives a sure foundation to our aspirations and valuations. If one were to take that goal out of out of its religious form and look merely at its purely human side, one might state it perhaps thus: free and responsible development of the individual, so that he may place his powers freely and gladly in the service of all mankind. ... it is only to the individual that a soul is given. And the high destiny of the individual is to serve rather than to rule, or to impose himself in any other way. Einstein also came to a similar conclusion as Swedenborg "If this being is omnipotent then every occurrence, including every human action, every human thought, and every human feeling and aspiration is also His work; how is it possible to think of holding men responsible for their deeds and thoughts before such an almighty Being? In giving out punishment and rewards He would to a certain extent be passing judgment on Himself. How can this be combined with the goodness and righteousness ascribed to Him?"

Having people submit to faith out of fear of physical death is not reasonable and shows no power of free will. Why would our loving Creator put us on Earth and not make us servants from the beginning? Suffering and Hope have little meaning in a world of Tyrants. To me forced subjugation produces the negative verb of cleaving to God, it splits or cuts us apart apart by rejecting His eternal love. That is why I personally do not believe in forced subjection to any faith. Rather, I believe the power of the Holy Spirit produces a positive verb of cleaving to God, by embracing His eternal love. Through Jesus, the Prophets, the Saints, God's Holy Spirit has revealed moral lessons on how to collaborate with the will of His eternal love. I know it is difficult to surrender to something that can't be seen. But, once you believe that will change. The first step is accepting the power of love.


Watch "Huey Lewis - The Power of Love." This song gave the band their first number-one hit on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. Lewis was inspired by his beautiful wife and two kids.



Mercy can only be given if it is truly understood. The greatest form of mercy is forgiving one that has harmed you.

Romans - Revelation

2:1 Therefore you are without excuse, whoever you are, when you judge someone else. For on whatever grounds you judge another, you condemn yourself, because you who judge practice the same things.

2:2 Now we know that God’s judgment is in accordance with truth against those who practice such things.

2:3 And do you think, whoever you are, when you judge those who practice such things and yet do them yourself, that you will escape God’s judgment?

James 4 - The Revelation from the first Bishop of Jerusalem.

4:11 Do not speak against one another, brothers and sisters. He who speaks against a fellow believer or judges a fellow believer speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law but its judge.

4:12 But there is only one who is lawgiver and judge – the one who is able to save and destroy. On the other hand, who are you to judge your neighbor?

Judging others leads hostility. Do we see things for what they really are, or do we see things through the lens of our mind. Focus on the transgression and make sure you do not the same.

Proverbs 3

3:27 Do not withhold good from those who need it,

when you have the ability to help.

3:28 Do not say to your neighbor, “Go! Return tomorrow

and I will give it,” when you have it with you at the time.

3:29 Do not plot evil against your neighbor

when he dwells by you unsuspectingly.

3:30 Do not accuse anyone without legitimate cause,

if he has not treated you wrongly.

3:31 Do not envy a violent man,

and do not choose to imitate any of his ways;

3:32 for one who goes astray is an abomination to the Lord,

but He reveals his intimate counsel to the upright.

3:33 The Lord’s curse is on the household of the wicked,

but He blesses the home of the righteous.

3:34 Although He is scornful to arrogant scoffers,

yet he shows favor to the humble.

3:35 The wise inherit honor,

but He holds fools up to public contempt.





Yazidi Iraqis were forced to convert to Islam after they were taken hostage by the extremist group ISIS.

About 700 Christian women in Pakistan each year are kidnapped and forced to forced Islamic conversion.

In Palestine in 2012, Christians in Gaza protested over the “kidnappings and forced conversions of some former believers to Islam.”

Christian soldiers who were executed for refusing Islam during the 7th century Islamic invasion of Jerusalem.

During the Islamic invasion of Georgia, Christians refusing to convert were forced into their church and set on fire.

Forced conversions are not exclusive of Islam. History reveals that all the monotheistic religions applied forced conversion.

Forced conversions occurred under the Hasmonean Empire. The Idumaens were forced to convert to Judaism, either by threats of exile, or threats of death, depending on the source.

After Constantine I converted to Christianity, it became the dominant religion in the Roman Empire.
In 392 Emperor Theodosius I decreed that Christianity was the only legal religion of the Roman Empire, and forbidding pagan practices by law.

During the Saxon Wars, Charlemagne, King of the Franks, forcibly Roman Catholicized the Saxons from their native Germanic paganism by way of warfare and law upon conquest.

After the end of the Islamic control of Spain, Muslims and Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.After the Reconquista, so called "New Christians" were those inhabitants (Sephardic Jews or Mudéjar Muslims) during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era who were baptized under coercion and in the face of execution, becoming forced converts from Islam (Moriscos, Conversos and secret Moors) and forced converts from Judaism (Conversos, Crypto-Jews and Marranos). Then the Spanish Inquisition targeted primarily forced converts from Judaism who came under suspicion of either continuing to adhere to their old religion or of having fallen back into it. Jewish conversos still resided in Spain and often practiced Judaism cryptically and were suspected by the "Old Christians" of being Crypto-Jews.

Religious persecution took place by the Portuguese in Goa, India from 16th to the 17th century. The natives of Goa, most of them Hindus were subjected to severe torture and oppression by the zealous Portuguese rulers and missionaries and forcibly converted to Christianity.

Listen to "Killing in The Name" by American rap metal band Rage Against the Machine. One part alludes to cross-burning by the Ku Klux Klan. Many Christians consider it sacrilege to burn or otherwise destroy a cross. Klan Christians, however, state that it is not destroying the cross, but "lighting" it, as a symbol of the members' faith. Some Klan members & historians have claimed that the symbology behind the burning cross comes from Constantine the Great's vision of a burning cross, which then led to his conversion to Christianity. Many nonbelievers believe that cross burning is a sign of racial intimidation. In Virginia v. Black (2003), the United States Supreme Court deemed constitutional a statute outlawing the public burning of a cross with intent to intimidate.

Forced conversions are not just religious groups. the USSR became the first state to have, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion and its replacement with universal atheism.The communist regime confiscated religious property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in schools.The confiscation of religious assets was often based on accusations of illegal accumulation of wealth.


Accounts from the Korean war speak of harsh persecution of religion by Kim Il-sung in the areas he controlled. Prior to the war, the Christian population of the Korean peninsula was most heavily concentrated in the north; during the war, many of these Christians fled to the South. Some interpretations have considered that the Christian community was often of a higher socioeconomic class than the rest of the population, which may have prompted its departure for fear of persecution.The large-scale destruction caused by the massive air raids and the suffering experienced by North Koreans during the Korean War helped foster hatred of Christianity as being the American religion.


Religion was attacked in the ensuing years as an obstacle to the construction of communism, and many people abandoned their former religions in order to conform to the new reality. On the basis of accounts from the Korean war as well as information from defectors, an interpretation has held that the North Korea was the only state in the world to have completely eradicated religion by the 1960s. Buddhism was thought to have been eradicated, under this interpretation and its reappearance later was thought to be a show. The Federation of Korean Christians in North Korea (created in 1970), under this interpretation, has been considered a fake organization meant to present a favorable image to the outside world.

Offending Jews, Muslims, Agnostics, Atheists, and Pagans should be refrained upon. How does offending nonbelievers help them turn toward Christianity?

1 Corinthians 10

10:32 Do not give offense to Jews or Greeks or to the church of God,

10:33 just as I also try to please everyone in all things. I do not seek my own benefit, but the benefit of many, so that they may be saved.


Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

2:256 There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.


Sanctus Real - Whatever You're Doing (Something Heavenly)

Start reading the Teaching today:

The Didache
or, The teaching of the twelve apostles
translated with notes by G. C. Allen.
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The Didache - The Teaching

1:6 Now of these words the doctrine is this.
1:7 {Bless them that curse you, and pray for} your enemies and fast for {them that persecute you;
1:8 for what thank is it, if ye love them that love you? Do not even the Gentiles the same? But do ye love them that hate you,} and ye shall not have an enemy.


Be careful not do curse a Jew, Christian, or Muslim; for each believe their faith is descendant from Abraham. If you do curse a member of these faiths our Creator may curse you.

Genesis 12 - The Covenant

12:1 Now the Lord said to Abram,

“Go out from your country, your relatives, and your father’s household

to the land that I will show you.

12:2 Then I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you,

and I will make your name great,

so that you will exemplify divine blessing.

12:3 I will bless those who bless you,

but the one who treats you lightly I must curse,

and all the families of the earth will bless one another by your name.

It is important for me to show those that lack faith to connect behavior and neuroscience with the moral teachings of the Didache. Hating others can be destructive to both your mind and body.

In Psychology, the word "Schadenfreude" is term meaning taking pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others. This word is taken from German and literally means "harm-joy". It is the feeling of joy or pleasure when one sees another fail or suffer misfortune. It is also borrowed by some other languages. An English term of similar meaning (but with no noun equivalent) is "to gloat"; which means to feel, or express, great, often malicious, pleasure, or self-satisfaction, at another's failure. In Hebrew, there is a similar term to schadenfreude (“Simha La-aid”).


Repetitive thoughts of getting pleasure from your neighbor's pain can lead an inescapable passionate appetite in wanting to find more pleasure in watching and or participating in torture and sadism.


Modern Biology has begun to greater understand how humans gain and remember pleasure.

Dopamine receptors are implicated in many neurological processes, including motivation, pleasure, cognition, memory, learning, and fine motor control, as well as modulation of neuroendocrine (electrically excitable nerve cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical cell-to-cell communication) signaling.

Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, that are prominent in our human central nervous system (CNS) consisting of the brain and spinal cord.


The neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) dopamine is the primary endogenous ligand (a protein that attaches [binds] to another protein) for dopamine receptors (specific protein sites) like your house key that fits into your door lock. The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synapse (a structure that permits a neuron [or nerve cell] to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. The dopamine transporter pumps the dopamine protein back into cytosol (also known as cytoplasmic matrix, the liquid found inside cells). Dopamine is then separated into compartments by membranes from which other transporters sequester Dopamine and NE into vesicles for storage and later release.

As a consequence of this neurological process our nerve cells release message molecules (hormones) into our blood stream. In this way Dopamine receptors bring about an integration between our nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration.

The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract and adrenal glands.

The pituitary is an important gland in the body and it is often referred to as the 'master gland', because it controls several hormone glands. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland stores and secretes (but does not synthesize) a hormone known as Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, PVH, neuronal nucleus) in the hypothalamus. It is in the paraventricular nucleus where a cluster of densely packed magnocellular cell bodies of neurons store, synthesize and release the neurohormone Oxytocin which circulates into our blood stream.
Oxytocin is one of the few hormones to create a positive feedback loop. For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions. This positive feedback loop continues throughout labour.

Oxytocin neurons respond to stimulation of the nipples (resulting in milk let-down) and in response to uterine contractions and distension of the birth canal (the "Ferguson reflex"), but the pathways by which these stimuli reach the neurons are not fully known.

The drug oxytocin has been associated with acts of violence towards others. Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid synthesized from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. It is a narcotic analgesic generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain.

Effects of neonatal oxytocin treatment on aggression and neural activities in mandarin voles. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin (OT) has long-term effects on behavior and physiology. Here we test the hypothesis that neonatal OT treatment can affect the subsequent expression of intrasexual aggression partly by reprogramming the neural activities of relevant brain regions. To test this hypothesis, mandarin voles (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) received OT or isotonic saline treatment within 24 h of birth. At about 75 days of age, aggressive behaviors and Fos expression in different brain regions were tested. The results indicate that the (1) level of intrasexual aggression was higher and other social contact was lower in SAL-treated sexually naïve males than in females and; (2) OT-treated females showed a greater increase in aggressive behaviors and Fos expression only after exposure to a male than SAL-treated females, but there were no significant changes in aggressive behaviors in males. These results demonstrate a sexual difference in aggression, and that neonatal exposure to OT may increase aggression in female mandarin voles. These effects may be based on changes in neural activities of relevant brain regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), lateral septal nucleus (LS), medial preoptic area (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD), ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamic (VMH), the medial amygdala (MeA) and central amygdala (CeA).

Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases envy and schadenfreude (gloating).
Humans have a strong social tendency to compare themselves with others. We tend to feel envious when we receive less valuable rewards and may rejoice when our payoffs are more advantageous. Envy and schadenfreude (gloating over the other's misfortune) are social emotions widely agreed to be a symptom of the human social tendency to compare one's payoffs with those of others. Given the important social components of envy and gloating, we speculated that oxytocin may have a modulating effect on the intensity of these emotions.

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABA-ergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a structure located in the basal ganglia.[1] Medium spiny neurons have two primary phenotypes (i.e., characteristic types): D1-type MSNs of the "direct pathway" and D2-type MSNs of the "indirect pathway". Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. The D1 subtype is the most abundant dopamine receptor in the central nervous system. This G protein-coupled receptor stimulates adenylate cyclase and indirectly activates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. D1 receptors regulate neuronal growth and development, mediate some behavioral responses, and modulate dopamine receptor D2-mediated events.


Dopamine D1 Receptors, Regulation of Gene Expression in the Brain, and Neurodegeneration
The two members of D1-like DA receptors, D1 and D5 subtypes, are genetically distinct [16,18–20]. They share about 80% sequence homology within the highly conserved seven trans-membrane spanning domains but only 50% homology at the levels of amino acid content. They are also differentially distributed in the brain [21,22]. The present review will focus on the molecular neuropharmacology of DA D1 receptors which play major roles in dopaminergic signaling in several brain regions, participate in the control of gene expression, and appear to be important triggers of neurodegenerative effects caused by increased DA concentration in the striatum. DA D1 receptors play important roles in learning and memory, locomotor activity, reward mechanisms, and have been implicated in the signs and symptoms of some neuropsychiatric disorders.


Listen to "Greenskeeper - Lotion" . Greenskeepers are an alternative rock/indie rock band from Chicago. Their song "Lotion" is a tribute to the fictitious character Buffalo Bill, the fictitious serial killer featured in the 1991 film, The Silence of the Lambs "Lotion" also came in at #90 in the 2004 Triple J Hottest 100. Over 500,000 votes were tallied in the annual music listener poll hosted by national Australian radio station, Triple J.

For those of faith, putting your self interest of taking pleasure from your neighbor's pain goes directly against our Creator's will to love your neighbor.

Psalm 24

24:17 Do not rejoice when your enemy falls,

and when he stumbles do not let your heart rejoice,

24:18 lest the Lord see it, and be displeased,

and turn his wrath away from him.

24:19 Do not fret because of evil people

or be envious of wicked people,

24:20 for the evil person has no future,

and the lamp of the wicked will be extinguished.

Psalm 25

25:21 If your enemy is hungry, give him food to eat,

and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink,

25:22 for you will heap coals of fire on his head,

and the Lord will reward you.


As the rock of the Church, Peter knew that each person accepting and following the will of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit into their lives would face hardship from the followers of the dark one. Peter reminded the new disciples of how unbearable the fate would be of those who have turned away from the light.

1 Peter 4

4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you.

4:13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad.

4:14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.

4:15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker.

4:16 But if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but glorify God that you bear such a name.

4:17 For it is time for judgment to begin, starting with the house of God. And if it starts with us, what will be the fate of those who are disobedient to the gospel of God?

4:18 And if the righteous are barely saved, what will become of the ungodly and sinners?

4:19 So then let those who suffer according to the will of God entrust their souls to a faithful Creator as they do good.



Romans 12 - The Sermon

12:9 Love must be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil, cling to what is good.

12:10 Be devoted to one another with mutual love, showing eagerness in honoring one another.

12:11 Do not lag in zeal, be enthusiastic in spirit, serve the Lord.

12:12 Rejoice in hope, endure in suffering, persist in prayer.

12:13 Contribute to the needs of the saints, pursue hospitality.

12:14 Bless those who persecute you, bless and do not curse.

12:15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep.

12:16 Live in harmony with one another; do not be haughty but associate with the lowly. Do not be conceited.

12:17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil; consider what is good before all people.

12:18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all people.

12:19 Do not avenge yourselves, dear friends, but give place to God’s wrath, for it is written,Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” says the Lord.

12:20 Rather, if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in doing this you will be heaping burning coals on his head.

12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Scripture tells us to beware of pronouncing a curse on someone, for you may be in danger of bringing judgment down upon yourself

Luke 6 - The Revelation

6:22 Blessed are you when people hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil on account of the Son of Man!

6:23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because your reward is great in Heaven. For their ancestors did the same things to the prophets.


Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)


Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.



And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace,

Historically Christians, Jews and Muslims have been quite violent among themselves and others they consider enemies. Clearly the Torah, New Testament, Talmud, and Quran.

The question we have to answer is whether Jews, Christians, and Muslims can partner in their belief of one Creator? All three faiths believe in our Creator's justice and mercy. The main difference is that Christians believe in God in a Trinitarian way. Jews and Muslims consider this idolatry. Jews and Muslims believe God needs no partner.

Christians agree with Jews and Muslims that there was no physical union (sexual relationship) between our Creator and Mary. Christians and Muslims agree that Jesus was not born from a physical union between a man and Mary. Christians and Muslims agree that Jesus came to be from a word from our Creator's Spirit. Christians, Muslims and Jews can agree that Jesus was born the son of Mary.

Is it possible for Jews and Muslims to understand "son of God" as a term of honor meaning one who was loved, chosen and given authority and power through the Spirit of our Creator?


Three expressions of one Creator



Pope Francis invites Israeli, Palestinian leaders to Vatican peace talks

Take a break and watch the Sermon on the Mount.

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The Didache - The Teaching

Chapter 3

3:8 My child, be not a liar, since lying leads to theft, neither avaricious neither vainglorious;

3:9 for from all these things thefts are engendered.

It is my hope to find the path to heaven through the words of the righteous and share it with you. The first understanding is discerning truth from false truth. Pray to the Holy Spirit of Our Creator to guide us on this journey.

A crooked person lies for self interest over family and friends.
A crooked politician lies for self interest over the benefit of the constituents that elected him or her.
A crooked clergyman lies for self interest over the benefit of the Creator.

Leviticus 19

19:11 “‘You must not steal, you must not tell lies, and you must not deal falsely with your fellow citizen.

19:12 You must not swear falsely in my name, so that you do not profane the name of your God. I am the Lord.

19:13 You must not oppress your neighbor or commit robbery against him. You must not withhold the wages of the hired laborer overnight until morning.



Thomas Jefferson to Charles Thomson, 9 January 1816

I too have made a wee little book, from the same materials, which I call the Philosophy of Jesus. it is a paradigma of his doctrines, made by cutting the texts out of the book, and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject. a more beautiful or precious morsel of ethics I have never seen. it is a document in proof that I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus, very different from the Platonists, who call me infidel, and themselves Christians and preachers of the gospel, while they draw all their characteristic dogmas from what it’s Author never said nor saw. they have compounded from the heathen mysteries a system beyond the comprehension of man, of which the great reformer of the vicious ethics and deism of the Jews, were he to return on earth, would not recognize one feature. if I had time I would add to my little book the Greek, Latin and French texts, in columns side by side, and I wish I could subjoin a translation of Gassendi’s Syntagma of the doctrines of Epicurus, which, notwithstanding the calumnies of the Stoics, and caricatures of Cicero, is the most rational system remaining of the philosophy of the ancients, as frugal of vicious indulgence, and fruitful of virtue as the hyperbolical extravagancies of his rival sects.


Jefferson could not accept both the Jewish and Christian teachings of Modesty.


Your favor of Mar. 27. is received, and my granddaughter Ellen has undertaken to copy the Syllabus, which will therefore be inclosed. it was originally written to Dr Rush. on his death, fearing that the inquisition of the public might get hold of it, I asked the return of it from the family, which they kindly complied with. at the request of another friend, I had given him a copy. he lent it to his friend to read, who copied it, and in a few months it appeared in the theological magazine of London. happily that repository is scarcely known in this country; and the Syllabus therefore is still a secret, and in your hands I am sure it will continue so.
But while this Syllabus is meant to place the character of Jesus in it’s true and highlight, as no impostor himself, but a great Reformer of the Hebrew code of religion, it is not to be understood that I am with him in all his doctrines. I am a Materialist; he takes the side of spiritualism: he preaches the efficacy of repentance towards forgiveness , Start insertion,of sin, End,, I require a counterpoise of good works to redeem it Etc. Etc. it is the innocence of his character, the purity & sublimity of his moral precepts, the eloquence of his inculcations, the beauty of the apologues in which he conveys them, that I so much admire; sometimes indeed needing indulgence to Eastern hyperbolism.



Thomas Jefferson affirmed his belief on the teachings of Jesus Christ given to his Apostles to share with mankind, but rejected Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria defense of Trinitarianism (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as one God) against Arianism (Jesus and the Holy Spirit are subordinate the Creator). Jefferson also had distaste for Ignatius of Loyola, the founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious organization of the Catholic Church whose members are known as Jesuits. He also despised French theologian and pastor, John Calvin's influence on predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul that is firmly believed in the Congregational Protestant, Reformed Protestant and Presbyterian churches,


From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 13 April 1820


my eulogies too may be founded on a postulate which all may not be ready to grant. among the sayings & discourses imputed to him by his biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence: and others again of so much ignorance, so much absurdity, so much untruth; charlatanism, and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same being. I separate therefore the gold from the dross; restore to him the former, & leave the latter to the stupidity of some, and roguery of others of his disciples. of this band of dupes and impostors, Paul was the great Coryphaeus, and first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus. these palpable interpolations and falsifications of his doctrines led me to try to sift them apart. I found the work obvious and easy, and that his part composed the most beautiful morsel of morality which has been given to us by man. the Syllabus is therefore of his doctrines, not all of mine. I read them as I do those of other antient and modern moralists, with a mixture of approbation and dissent.



From Thomas Jefferson to Jared Sparks, 4 November 1820

I hold the precepts of Jesus, as delivered by himself, to be the most pure, benevolent, and sublime which have ever been preached to man. I adhere to the principles of the first age; and consider all subsequent innovations as corruptions of his religion, having no foundation in what came from him. the metaphysical insanity of Athanasius, of Loyola, & of Calvin, are to my understanding, mere relapses into polytheism, differing from paganism only by being more unintelligible. the religion of Jesus is founded on the Unity of God, and this principle chiefly, gave it triumph over the rabble of heathen gods then acknowledged. Thinking men of all nations rallied readily to the doctrine of one only god, and embraced it with the pure morals which Jesus inculcated. If the freedom of religion, guaranteed to us by law in theory, can ever rise in practice under the overbearing inquisition of public opinion, truth will prevail over fanaticism, and the genuine doctrines of Jesus, so long perverted by his pseudo-priests, will again be restored to their original purity. this reformation will advance with the other improvements of the human mind but too late for me to witness it.


Jefferson rejected Atheism, the Trinity, and the notion of self-existent Universe. He also understood that Jesus stated the Creator to be a Spirit, but did not define what Spirit is. Jefferson believed in rational Supreme Intelligent Spirit Being mentioned Torah and Gospels designed the Universe. He considered those that believe that a second being born of a virgin called the Creator's son was needed to create the Universe to be Atheist themselves and enemies of Jesus Christ. Jefferson reasoned that if a second being was needed then the Supreme Being is therefore useless. He blamed this blasphemy on a mistranslation of the word " λογος " identified in Christianity as meaning Jesus the living word or wisdom of the Creator. Rather, Jefferson professed it should be Jesus the living reason of the Creator.



From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 11 April 1823

I can never join Calvin in addressing his god. he was indeed an Atheist, which I can never be; or rather his religion was Dæmonism. if ever man worshiped a false god, he did. the being described in his points is not the God whom you and I acknowledge and adore, the Creator and benevolent governor of the world; but a dæmon of malignant spirit. it would be more pardonable to believe in no god at all, than to blaspheme him by the atrocious attributes of Calvin. indeed I think that every Christian sect gives a great handle to Atheism by their general dogma that, without a revelation, there would not be sufficient proof of the being of a god. now one sixth of mankind only are supposed to be Christians: the other five sixths then, who do not believe in the Jewish and Christian revelation, are without a knowledge of the existence of a god! this gives completely a gain de cause to the disciples of Ocellus, Timaeus, Spinosa, Diderot and D’Holbach. the argument which they rest on as triumphant and unanswerable is that, in every hypothesis of Cosmogony you must admit an eternal pre-existence of something; and according to the rule of sound philosophy...

... I hold (without appeal to revelation) that when we take a view of the Universe, in it’s parts general or particular, it is impossible for the human mind not to perceive and feel a conviction of design, consummate skill, and indefinite power in every atom of it’s composition. the movements of the heavenly bodies, so exactly held in their course by the balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces, the structure of our earth itself, with it’s distribution of lands, waters and atmosphere, animal and vegetable bodies, examined in all their minutest particles, insects mere atoms of life, yet as perfectly organised as man or mammoth, the mineral substances, their generation and uses, it is impossible, I say, for the human mind not to believe that there is , in all this, design, cause and effect, up to an ultimate cause, a fabricator of all things from matter and motion, their preserver and regulator while permitted to exist in their present forms, and their regenerator into new and other forms. we see, too, evident proofs of the necessity of a superintending power to maintain the Universe in it’s course and order. stars, well known, have disappeared, new ones have come into view, comets, in their incalculable courses, may run foul of suns and planets and require renovation under other laws; certain races of animals are become extinct; and were there no restoring power, all existences might extinguish successively, one by one, until all should be reduced to a shapeless chaos. so irresistible are these evidences of an intelligent and powerful Agent that, of the infinite numbers of men who have existed through all time, they have believed, in the proportion of a million at least to Unit, in the hypothesis of an eternal pre-existence of a creator, rather than in that of a self-existent Universe. surely this unanimous sentiment renders this more probable than that of the few in the other hypothesis some early Christians indeed have believed in the co eternal preexistence of both the Creator and the world, without changing their relation of cause & effect.


Of the nature of this being we know nothing. Jesus tells us that ‘God is a Spirit.’ John 24. but without defining what a spirit is...

the Cosmogony of the world is very clearly laid down in the 3 first verses of the 1st chapter of John, in these words..... which truly translated means in the beginning God existed, and reason [or mind] was with God, and that mind was God. this was in the beginning with God. all things were created by it, and without it was made not one thing which was made.’ yet this text, so plainly declaring the doctrine of Jesus that the world was created by the supreme, intelligent being, has been perverted by modern Christians to build up a second person of their tritheism by a mistranslation of the word λογος. one of it’s legitimate meanings indeed is ‘a word.’ but, in that sense, it makes an unmeaning jargon: while the other meaning ‘reason,’ equally legitimate, explains rationally the eternal preexistence of God, and his creation of the world. knowing how incomprehensible it was that ‘a word,’ the mere action or articulation of the voice and organs of speech could create a world, they undertake to make of this articulation a second preexisting being, and ascribe to him, and not to God, the creation of the universe. the Atheist here plumes himself on the uselessness of such a God, and the simpler hypothesis of a self-existent universe. the truth is that the greatest enemies to the doctrines of Jesus are those calling themselves the expositors of them, who have perverted them for the structure of a system of fancy absolutely incomprehensible, and without any foundation in his genuine words. and the day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the supreme being as his father in the womb of a virgin will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter. but we may hope that the dawn of reason and freedom of thought in these United States will do away all this artificial scaffolding, and restore to us the primitive and genuine doctrines of this the most venerated reformer of human errors.

This evidence depends on implicit and explicate evidence we have accepted through reason within our mind.


An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
John Locke
Chapter IX

4. The imperfection of words is the doubtfulness or ambiguity of their signification, which is caused by the sort of ideas they stand for. The chief end of language in communication being to be understood, words serve not well for that end, neither in civil nor philosophical discourse, when any word does not excite in the hearer the same idea which it stands for in the mind of the speaker. Now, since sounds have no natural connexion with our ideas, but have all their signification from the arbitrary imposition of men, the doubtfulness and uncertainty of their signification, which is the imperfection we here are speaking of, has its cause more in the ideas they stand for than in any incapacity there is in one sound more than in another to signify any idea: for in that regard they are all equally perfect.
That then which makes doubtfulness and uncertainty in the signification of some more than other words, is the difference of ideas they stand for.
5. Natural causes of their imperfection, especially in those that stand for mixed modes, and for our ideas of substances. Words having naturally no signification, the idea which each stands for must be learned and retained, by those who would exchange thoughts, and hold intelligible discourse with others, in any language. But this is the hardest to be done where,
First, The ideas they stand for are very complex, and made up of a great number of ideas put together.
Secondly, Where the ideas they stand for have no certain connexion in nature; and so no settled standard anywhere in nature existing, to rectify and adjust them by.
Thirdly, When the signification of the word is referred to a standard, which standard is not easy to be known.
Fourthly, Where the signification of the word and the real essence of the thing are not exactly the same.


Proverbs 14

14:25 A truthful witness rescues lives, but the one who breathes lies brings deception.

When writing about the the Lord one has to be careful not to take excerpts out of context and give them another meaning. Religious and political leaders should take heed to this warning.

Jeremiah 8

8:8 How can you say, “We are wise!

We have the law of the Lord”?

The truth is, those who teach it have used their writings

to make it say what it does not really mean.

Jesus says all sins can be forgiven, even those that refuse to believe that He is the Messiah.
There is only one eternal sin that is not forgivable, blasphemy against God's Holy Spirit.
Mark testifies the story on how the Pharisees blasphemed God's Holy Spirit, the source of Jesus power to remove a demon out of a man. The Pharisees publicly state the source power Jesus uses does not come from God, but rather from Satan. Jesus response is definitive, do not slander the source of power. The Pharisees would have understood Jesus rebuke far worse than disrespecting or falsely swearing our Creator's name. For God will not hold guiltless anyone who takes his name in vain. (Exodus 20:7) To publicly scorn an event where the Creator's power, the Holy Spirit, is present is unforgivable.

During his mission on earth, Jesus rebuked man's evil rationale to avoid following God's commands by corrupting His Law with a selfish interpretation of it. In time, man's law becomes a coerced tradition that is zealously enforced.

Mark 7 - King James Bible

1 Then came together unto Him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem.

2 And when they saw some of His Disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found fault.

3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders.

4 And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.

5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked Him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?

6 He answered and said unto them, Well has Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honor me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.

7 Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things you do.

9 And he said unto them, Full well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your own tradition.

10 For Moses said, Honor thy father and thy mother; and, Whosoever curses their father or mother, let him die the death:

11 But you say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban [material gift to God], that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever you might be profited by me; he shall be free.

12 And you suffer him no more to do what he should for his father or his mother;

13 Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which you have delivered: and many such like things do you.

14 And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand:

15 There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man.

16 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.

17 And when he was entered into the house from the people, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable.

18 And he said unto them, Are you so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without enter into the man, it cannot defile him;

19 Because it entered not into his heart, but into the belly, and goes out into the draught, purging all meats?

20 And he said, That which comes out of the man, that defiles the man.

21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,

22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:

23 All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.

Mark 12

12:22 Then they brought to Him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus healed him so that he could speak and see.

12:23 All the crowds were amazed and said, “Could this one be the Son of David?

12:24 But when the Pharisees heard this they said, “He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul, the ruler of demons!”

12:25 Now when Jesus realized what they were thinking, he said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, and no town or house divided against itself will stand.

12:26 So if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand?

12:27 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? For this reason they will be your judges.

12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has already overtaken you.

12:29 How else can someone enter a strong man’s house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house.

12:30 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.

12:31 For this reason I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemy, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven.

12:32 Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven. But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.

John 8


8:37 I know that you are Abraham’s descendants. But you want to kill me, because my teaching 80 makes no progress among you. 81 8:38 I am telling you the things I have seen while with the 82 Father; 83 as for you, 84 practice the things you have heard from the 85 Father!”

8:39 They answered him, 86 “Abraham is our father!” 87 Jesus replied, 88 “If you are 89 Abraham’s children, you would be doing 90 the deeds of Abraham. 8:40 But now you are trying 91 to kill me, a man who has told you 92 the truth I heard from God. Abraham did not do this! 93 8:41 You people 94 are doing the deeds of your father.”

Then 95 they said to Jesus, 96 “We were not born as a result of immorality! 97 We have only one Father, God himself.” 8:42 Jesus replied, 98 “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I have come from God and am now here. 99 I 100 have not come on my own initiative, 101 but he 102 sent me. 8:43 Why don’t you understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot accept 103 my teaching. 104 8:44 You people 105 are from 106 your father the devil, and you want to do what your father desires. 107 He 108 was a murderer from the beginning, and does not uphold the truth, 109 because there is no truth in him. Whenever he lies, 110 he speaks according to his own nature, 111 because he is a liar and the father of lies. 112 8:45 But because I am telling you 113 the truth, you do not believe me. 8:46 Who among you can prove me guilty 114 of any sin? 115 If I am telling you 116 the truth, why don’t you believe me? 8:47 The one who belongs to 117 God listens and responds 118 to God’s words. You don’t listen and respond, 119 because you don’t belong to God.” 120

8:48 The Judeans 121 replied, 122 “Aren’t we correct in saying 123 that you are a Samaritan and are possessed by a demon?” 124 8:49 Jesus answered, “I am not possessed by a demon, 125 but I honor my Father – and yet 126 you dishonor me. 8:50 I am not trying to get 127 praise for myself. 128 There is one who demands 129 it, and he also judges. 1


1 Timothy 4

4:3 ...there will be a time when people will not tolerate sound teaching. Instead, following their own desires, they will accumulate teachers for themselves, because they have an insatiable curiosity to hear new things.

4:4 And they will turn away from hearing the truth, but on the other hand they will turn aside to myths.

For Christians there are many people who can be considered the antichrist who deny the existence of Jesus and Our Creator.

1 John 2 - The Revelation

2:18 Children, it is the last hour, and just as you heard that the antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have appeared. We know from this that it is the last hour.

2:19 They went out from us, but they did not really belong to us, because if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us. But they went out from us to demonstrate that all of them do not belong to us.

2:20 Nevertheless you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you all know.

2:21 I have not written to you that you do not know the truth, but that you do know it, and that 48 no lie is of the truth.

2:22 Who is the liar but the person who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This one is the antichrist: the person who denies the Father and the Son.

2:23 Everyone who denies the Son does not have the Father either. The person who confesses the Son has the Father also.

2:24 As for you, what you have heard from the beginning must remain in you. If what you heard from the beginning remains in you, you also will remain in the Son and in the Father.

2:25 Now this is the promise that he himself made to us:

eternal life.

2:26 These things I have written to you about those who are trying to deceive you.

2:27 Now as for you, the anointing that you received from him resides in you, and you have no need for anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things, it is true and is not a lie. Just as it has taught you, you reside in him.

1 John 4

4:20 If anyone says “I love God” and yet 50 hates his fellow Christian, 51 he is a liar, because the one who does not love his fellow Christian 52 whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen. 53 4:21 And the commandment we have from him is this: that 54 the one who loves God should love his fellow Christian 55 too.
5:1 Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ 1 has been fathered 2 by God, and everyone who loves the father 3 loves the child fathered by him. 4 5:2 By this 5 we know that we love the children of God: whenever we love God and obey his commandments. 5:3 For 6 this is the love of God: 7 that we keep his commandments. 8 And his commandments do not weigh us down, 5:4 because 9 everyone 10 who has been fathered by God 11 conquers 12 the world. 13

While you should be peaceful and helpful to the nonbelievers, you should not partner with them in any way. How many partnerships are made between believers and unbelievers in marriage, business, politics, health. I have made this mistake on numerous occasions.

2 Corinthians 6

6:14 Do not become partners with those who do not believe, for what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship does light have with darkness?

6:15 And what agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share in common with an unbeliever?

6:16 And what mutual agreement does the temple of God have with idols? For we are the temple of the living God, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.”

6:17 Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you,

6:18 and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,” says the All-Powerful Lord.

If I am to believe the words of Paul are true and eternal, then I will have to rethink my partnerships in the future.

Bishop Ignatius of Antioch Letter to the Trallians

6 I urge you, therefore—not I, but Jesus Christ's love—use only Christian food. Keep off foreign fare, by which I mean heresy. For those people mingle Jesus Christ with their teachings just to gain your confidence under false pretenses. It is as if they were giving a deadly poison mixed with honey and wine, with the result that the unsuspecting victim gladly accepts it and drinks down death with fatal pleasure.

7 Be on your guard, then, against such people. This you will do by not being puffed up and by keeping very close to [our] God, Jesus Christ, and the bishop and the apostles’ precepts. Inside the sanctuary a man is pure; outside he is impure. That means: whoever does anything without bishop, presbytery, and deacons does not have a clear conscience.

8 It is not because I have heard of any such thing in your case that I write thus. No, in my love for you I am warning you ahead, since I foresee the devil's wiles. Recapture, then, your gentleness, and by faith (that's the Lord's flesh) and by love (that's Jesus Christ's blood) make yourselves new creatures. Let none of you hold anything against his neighbor. Do not give the heathen opportunities whereby God's people should be scoffed at through the stupidity of a few. For, "Woe to him by whose folly my name is scoffed at before any."

9 Be deaf, then, to any talk that ignores Jesus Christ, of David's lineage, of Mary; who was really born, ate; and drank; was really persecuted under Pontius Pilate; was really crucified and died, in the sight of heaven and earth and the underworld. He was really raised from the dead, for his Father raised him, just as his Father will raise us, who believe on him, through Christ Jesus, apart from whom we have no genuine life.

10 And if, as some atheists (I mean unbelievers) say, his suffering was a sham (it's really they who are a sham!), why, then, am I a prisoner? Why do I want to fight with wild beasts? In that case I shall die to no purpose. Yes, and I am maligning the Lord too!

11 Flee, then, these wicked offshoots which produce deadly fruit. If a man taste of it, he dies outright. They are none of the Father's planting. For had they been, they would have shown themselves as branches of the cross, and borne immortal fruit. It is through the cross, by his suffering, that he summons you who are his members. A head cannot be born without limbs, since God stands for unity. It is his nature.

The Church History of Eusebius

Book IV.

Chapter XXII.—Hegesippus and the Events which he mentions.

4. ... “And after James the Just had suffered martyrdom, as the Lord had also on the same account, Symeon, the son of the Lord’s uncle, Clopas, was appointed the next bishop. All proposed him as second bishop because he was a cousin of the Lord. “Therefore, they called the Church a virgin, for it was not yet corrupted by vain discourses.

5. But Thebuthis, because he was not made bishop, began to corrupt it. He also was sprung from the seven sects among the people, like Simon [simon Magus, the confronter of Peter, the source of all heresies, founder of Gnosticism], from whom came the Simonians, and Cleobius, from whom came the Cleobians, and Dositheus, from whom came the Dositheans, and Gorthæus, from whom came the Goratheni, and Masbotheus, from whom came the Masbothæans. From them sprang the Menandrianists, and Marcionists, and Carpocratians, and Valentinians, and Basilidians, and Saturnilians. Each introduced privately and separately his own peculiar opinion. From them came false Christs, false prophets, false apostles, who divided the unity of the Church by corrupt doctrines uttered against God and against his Christ.”

6. The same writer also records the ancient heresies which arose among the Jews, in the following words: “There were, moreover, various opinions in the circumcision, among the children of Israel. The following were those that were opposed to the tribe of Judah and the Christ: Essenes, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Masbothæans, Samaritans, Sadducees, Pharisees.”

Affirmation Through Logic

Titus Flavius Clemens (also known as Clement of Alexandria, and not to be confused with Clement of Rome who preceded him by 100 years) in The Stromata (Greek: Στρώματα) or Stromateis (Στρωματεῖς, "Patchwork"). The Stromata is the third in Titus Flavius Clemens trilogy of works on the Christian life. Clement titled this work Stromateis, "patchwork," because it deals with such a variety of matters. It goes further than its two predecessors and aims at the perfection of the Christian life by initiation into complete knowledge and distinction of Divine Truth from Hellenistic truth. Our Creator's reason will always triumph over man's reasoning against it. Titus further explains how false teaching leads to greater sin. "Son, be not a liar; for falsehood leads to theft." By speaking partial truth of words given by the Holy Spirit to those not graced with discernment can lead to greater heresy and separation from our Creator.

Clement of Alexandria

The Stromata, or Miscellanies

Book I

Chapter 20. In What Respect Philosophy Contributes to the Comprehension of Divine Truth

As many men drawing down the ship, cannot be called many causes, but one cause consisting of many; -- for each individual by himself is not the cause of the ship being drawn, but along with the rest; -- so also philosophy, being the search for truth, contributes to the comprehension of truth; not as being the cause of comprehension, but a cause along with other things, and co-operator; perhaps also a joint cause. And as the several virtues are causes of the happiness of one individual; and as both the sun, and the fire, and the bath, and clothing are of one getting warm: so while truth is one, many things contribute to its investigation. But its discovery is by the Son. If then we consider, virtue is, in power, one. But it is the case, that when exhibited in some things, it is called prudence, in others temperance, and in others manliness or righteousness. By the same analogy, while truth is one, in geometry there is the truth of geometry; in music, that of music; and in the right philosophy, there will be Hellenic truth. But that is the only authentic truth, unassailable, in which we are instructed by the Son of God. In the same way we say, that the drachma being one and the same, when given to the shipmaster, is called the fare; to the tax-gatherer, tax; to the landlord, rent; to the teacher, fees; to the seller, an earnest. And each, whether it be virtue or truth, called by the same name, is the cause of its own peculiar effect alone; and from the blending of them arises a happy life. For we are not made happy by names alone, when we say that a good life is happiness, and that the man who is adorned in his soul with virtue is happy. But if philosophy contributes remotely to the discovery of truth, by reaching, by diverse essays, after the knowledge which touches close on the truth, the knowledge possessed by us, it aids him who aims at grasping it, in accordance with the Word, to apprehend knowledge. But the Hellenic truth is distinct from that held by us (although it has got the same name), both in respect of extent of knowledge, certainly of demonstration, divine power, and the like. For we are taught of God, being instructed in the truly "sacred letters" by the Son of God. Whence those, to whom we refer, influence souls not in the way we do, but by different teaching. And if, for the sake of those who are fond of fault-finding, we must draw a distinction, by saying that philosophy is a concurrent and cooperating cause of true apprehension, being the search for truth, then we shall avow it to be a preparatory training for the enlightened man (tou gnwstikou); not assigning as the cause that which is but the joint-cause; nor as the upholding cause, what is merely co-operative; nor giving to philosophy the place of a sine qua non (condition). Since almost all of us, without training in arts and sciences, and the Hellenic philosophy, and some even without learning at all, through the influence of a philosophy divine and barbarous, and by power, have through faith received the word concerning God, trained by self-operating wisdom. But that which acts in conjunction with something else, being of itself incapable of operating by itself, we describe as co-operating and concausing, and say that it becomes a cause only in virtue of its being a joint-cause, and receives the name of cause only in respect of its concurring with something else, but that it cannot by itself produce the right effect.

Although at one time philosophy justified the Greeks, not conducting them to that entire righteousness to which it is ascertained to cooperate, as the first and second flight of steps help you in your ascent to the upper room, and the grammarian helps the philosopher. Not as if by its abstraction, the perfect Word would be rendered incomplete, or truth perish; since also sight, and hearing, and the voice contribute to truth, but it is the mind which is the appropriate faculty for knowing it. But of those things which co-operate, some contribute a greater amount of power; some, a less. Perspicuity accordingly aids in the communication of truth, and logic in preventing us from falling under the heresies by which we are assailed. But the teaching, which is according to the Savior, is complete in itself and without defect, being "the power and wisdom of God;" and the Hellenic philosophy does not, by its approach, make the truth more powerful; but rendering powerless the assault of sophistry against it, and frustrating the treacherous plots laid against the truth, is said to be the proper "fence and wall of the vineyard." And the truth which is according to faith is as necessary for life as bread; while the preparatory discipline is like sauce and sweetmeats. "At the end of the dinner, the dessert is pleasant," according to the Theban Pindar. And the Scripture has expressly said, "The innocent will become wiser by understanding, and the wise will receive knowledge." "And he that speaks of himself," say the Lord, "seeks his own glory; but He that seeks His glory that sent Him is true, and there is no unrighteousness in Him." On the other hand, therefore, he who appropriates what belongs to the barbarians, and vaunts it is his own, does wrong, increasing his own glory, and falsifying the truth. It is such an one that is by Scripture called a "thief." It is therefore said, "Son, be not a liar; for falsehood leads to theft."

Nevertheless the thief possesses really, what he has possessed himself of dishonestly, whether it be gold, or silver, or speech, or dogma. The ideas, then, which they have stolen, and which are partially true, they know by conjecture and necessary logical deduction: on becoming disciples, therefore, they will know them with intelligent apprehension.

Ali 'Imran (Family of Imran)

3:75 And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]. That is because they say, "There is no blame upon us concerning the unlearned." And they speak untruth about Allah [Creator] while they know [it].

Islam has the same view towards unbelievers.


Surat Al-Mumtaĥanah (She that is to be examined)


Perhaps Allah will put, between you and those to whom you have been enemies among them, affection. And Allah is competent, and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.


Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes - from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.


Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion - [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.

Uncle Sam Praying
Winsor McCay


Here we see Uncle Sam praying in a house of worship. The symbol of Uncle Sam represents the United States of America. His clothes represent the United States national flag. The bench is associated with furniture in a place of worship. Attached is a prayer that was not written by the artist, Windsor McCay, but is associated with the metaphor for our nation praying to the Creator for protection. Many practicing Jews take offense using the term God. Jews may use the spelling G-d or use the term Hashem. Muslims use the term Allah. By adding the prayer to the painting, the symbol goes from being universal to Christian. While most Americans would easily understand this image means, a foreigner may not be able to associate a man clothed in a stars and stripes costume kneeling over a bench.

A foreigner may have seen the symbol of Uncle Sam associated with the devil.
This associated imagery was done in "conspirit-cy fun" by Moe, of GnosticWarrior.com. The problem is that if taken out of context a foreigner may now view the symbol Uncle Sam as the devil.


Uncle Sam is a 1996 horror comedy film directed by William Lustig, and written by Larry Cohen.


What happens when a symbol evolves to a myth?


Lying is such a big issue in our world. Even atheists accept that Lying exists.

Say Goodbye to the Santa Claus Lie
Can lying to your children about Santa be excused in the name of imagination?

Parents often feel a twinge of guilt when they lie to their children about Santa Claus. But in her article, “The Santa Lie: Is the Christmas Con Hurting our Kids? (link is external)Slate author Melinda Wenner Moyer (link is external)but argues that the Santa lie “belongs in the ‘good lie’ pile.” There is no need for guilt, she says, “because parents invoke him for their kids’ sake.” I disagree. We need to pay attention to that twinge of guilt to steer us clear of immoral and potentially dangerous behavior.

I first argued this in 2009, in an op-ed for the Baltimore Sun, entitled “Sorry, Virginia (link is external),” I suggested the Santa Lie should be avoided for three reasons. (1) It’s an unjustified lie, (2) it risks damaging your parental trustworthiness and (3) it encourages credulity and ill-motivated behavior. One of the arguments people made in response—amidst an unbelievable amount of hate mail I recieved, which you can see here (link is external)—was essentially the argument that Moyerbut presents. The Santa lie promotes imagination, and imagination is good for kids. As Moyerbut puts it, “What Kris Kringle does…is feed the imagination” and a “type of imaginative play that sparks creativity, social understanding and even—strange as it may sound—scientific reasoning.” (And her same argument has been repeated by like minded fans of Santa in defense of the Santa Claus lie, again (link is external) and again (link is external) and again (link is external)…and again (link is external).)

Of course, Moyerbut is right about the benefits of imagination. What she (and the others who makes similar arguments) fail to recognize, however, is that the thing she is defending—The Santa Lie—does not actually promote imagination or imaginative play. Imagination involves pretending, and to pretend that something exists, one has to believe that thing doesn’t exist. Does the Christian “imagine” that Jesus rose from the dead? Does the Muslim “imagine” that Muhammad’s rode his horse Barack (Al Boraq) at lightening speed from Mecca to Jerusalem and then assended into heaven? Of course not; they believe these things are true. Tricking a child into literally believing that Santa exists doesn’t encourage imagination, it actually stifles it. If you really want to encourage imagination in your children, tell them that Santa doesn’t exist, but that you are going to pretend like he does anyway on Christmas morning.

Lots of children “play act” like they are Santa, and that does require imagination. But you don’t have to trick them into believing that Santa is real in order for them to play that way—just as you don’t have to trick them into thinking that Star Trek is real in order for them to pretend to explore alien planets in the back yard.
Moyerbut recognizes the worry that your children might develop trust issues when they realize that you have lied to them, but she argues that such worries are ill-founded. When they learn the truth, on average at around 8 she suggests, they know the difference between good and bad lies and will see it as a good lie. Consequently, they won’t resent you, think lying is always acceptable, or reject their religious beliefs.
While Moyerbut is right that many children suffer no ill effects from learning the truth, she is wrong that none do. In “Against the Santa-Claus Lie: The Truth We Should Tell our Children” (Chapter twelve in Scott Lowe’s Christmas and Philosophy (link is external)) I document some horrific stories about the “big moment”—stories that show discovering the truth about Santa is often not with consequences--everything from the erosion of parental authority and trust to turning a child into an atheist. For example, Jay defended Santa’s existence in front of his whole class on the mere basis that his “mother wouldn’t lie” to him, only to read the encyclopedia entry on Santa in front of the whole class and simultaneously discover that she indeed would. When little Tennille realized that the reason she didn’t always get what she asked Santa for was that he didn’t exist, she figured that God’s non-existence was the best explanation for why her prayers also went unanswered. I’m not saying that this happens to all kids; I am saying it’s a possibility. If you are religious, I doubt it's a possibility you would willingly invite. Of course, if you are an atheist, you might like that the Santa lie does this. But there are even more reasons for not liking the Santa lie--reasons that should resonate quite loundly with everyone (especially atheists).

Moyerbut suggests that Santa encourages “Fantasy play [that] forces kids to think through hypothetical or counterfactual scenarios, which bolsters their reasoning skills.” Again, it’s not Santa belief itself that does this; simply telling them the story but admitting it’s not really true would suffice—just like it does for all other fairy tales we tell our children. But any positive effect Santa belief had in this regard would be completely counteracted and outweighed by the negative effects of what is necessary to keep the belief going. Don’t get me wrong, children need to learn how to reason effectively and think critically, and I applaud Moyerbut for encouraging parents to promote this. But encouraging your children to literally believe the Santa lie is the last thing that encourages critical thinking and effective reasoning in children.

I remember watching Miracle on 34th Street when I was young. I was so happy that the court found Santa to exist.

I never thought of the implications of perpetuating a myth of Santa Claus would promote consumerism. The spirit of Christian giving has turned into the spirit of secular spending.

The economics of Christmas is significant because Christmas is the peak selling season for retailers in many nations around the world. Sales increase dramatically as consumers purchase gifts, decorations, and supplies to celebrate. In the U.S., the "Christmas shopping season" starts as early as October. In Canada, merchants begin advertising campaigns just before Halloween (October 31), and step up their marketing following Remembrance Day on November 11. In the UK and Ireland, the Christmas shopping season starts from mid November, around the time when high street Christmas lights are turned on. In the United States, it has been calculated that a quarter of all personal spending takes place during the Christmas/holiday shopping season. Figures from the U.S. Census Bureau reveal that expenditure in department stores nationwide rose from $20.8 billion in November 2004 to $31.9 billion in December 2004, an increase of 54 percent. In other sectors, the pre-Christmas increase in spending was even greater, there being a November–December buying surge of 100 percent in bookstores and 170 percent in jewelry stores. In the same year employment in American retail stores rose from 1.6 million to 1.8 million in the two months leading up to Christmas. Industries completely dependent on Christmas include Christmas cards, of which 1.9 billion are sent in the United States each year, and live Christmas Trees, of which 20.8 million were cut in the U.S. in 2002. In the UK in 2010, up to £8 billion was expected to be spent online at Christmas, approximately a quarter of total retail festive sales.

Buy Nothing Christmas is an ongoing protest and reaction to the commercialization of the North American Christmas season. It started unofficially in 1968, when Ellie Clark and her family decided to publicly disregard the commercial aspects of the Christmas holiday.[34] Contemporarily a movement was created to extend Adbusters' Buy Nothing Day into the entire Christmas season.[34] Buy Nothing Christmas first became official in 2001 when a small group of Canadian Mennonites created a website and gave the movement a name.

Watch "The Kinks - Father Christmas" A department store Santa Claus is beaten up by a gang of poor kids demanding money instead of toys, as toys are impractical; and asks that the toys be given "to the little rich boys." At one point, a child asks the narrator to give his/her father a job for Christmas—or, if he must deliver a toy, deliver a machine gun.

I wonder how many violent gangs and terrorist groups are the result of consumerism's holiday myth.


While filming the movie, "Bad Santa" Billy Bob Thorton chained smoked and got drunk to better perform the character.

Coca-Cola Helped Shape the Image of Santa

10 states where Black Friday is most likely to turn violent
By Anna Marum

The sales of Black Friday (and now Thanksgiving, aka Black Thursday) are notorious for bringing out the worst in shoppers: From a Walmart worker who was trampled to death in 2008 to shoppers wielding pepper spray to get their hands on a cheap Xbox, the day can turn violent.

But some states have seen more Black Friday violence than others. According to a study by real estate website Estately, which used Facebook user data and federal crime statistics to determine where people participate in Black Friday sales and where people are more likely to violently attack each other, shoppers are most likely to encounter a Black Friday fight in the following states:

West Virginia
South Carolina

The Holiday slogan of "Peace on Earth" is being replaced with "Are you thinking about Christmas shopping yet?"

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