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  1. My name is Luke Augustine Wilbur. It is nice to meet you.

  2. Born 551 BC Zou, Lu, Zhou Kingdom (present-day Nanxinzhen, Qufu, Shandong, China) Died 479 BC Confucius Zhu Xi stated that Analects is the records of Confucius's first- and second-generation pupils. The Analects (Selected Passages) of Confucius 雍也 - Yong Ye - 475 - 221 BC 子曰:“雍也可使南面。 Yong Ye: The Master said, "There is Yong (forever , permanence) "" - he might occupy the place of a prince." [6:11] The Master said: “Hui was indeed Worthy (Righteous, Sage)! With a single bamboo bowl of rice and gourd-cup of water he lived in a back alley. Others could not have endured his misery, but Hui never changed from his happy disposition. Hui was a worthy indeed!” Buddha taught spreading pure selfless thoughts of love without selfish want or hate to all living beings. [6-23] 子曰。知者樂水、仁者樂山。知者動、仁者靜。知者樂、仁者壽。 [6:23] The Master said: “The wise enjoy the sea, the Jen (humane, compassionate) enjoy the mountains. The wise are busy, Jen are tranquil (peaceful). The wise are happy, the Jen are eternal." 6:28 Tzu Kung asked: "Suppose there were a ruler who benefited the people far and wide and was capable of bringing salvation to the multitude, what would you think of him? Might he be called jen?" The Master said, "Why only jen? He would undoubtedly be a sage. Even Yao and Shun would have had to strive to achieve this. Now the jen man, wishing himself to be established, sees that others are established, and, wishing himself to be successful, sees that others are successful. To be able to take one's own feelings as a guide may be called the art of jen." 7:6 Confucius said: "Set your aspirations on the Tao, hold to virtue, rely on your jen, and relax in the study of the arts." 7:15 Confucius said: "I can live with coarse rice to eat, water for drink and my arm as a pillow and still be happy. Wealth and honors that one possesses in the midst of injustice are like floating clouds." 7:33 Confucius said: "I dare not claim to be a sage or a man of jen. But I strive for these without being disappointed, and I teach without becoming weary. This is what can be said of me." 9:28 Confucius said: "The wise are not confused, the jen are not anxious, the brave are not afraid. [12:1] Yan Yuan asked about the meaning of humaneness. The Master said, “To completely overcome selfishness and keep to propriety is humaneness. If for a full day you can overcome selfishness and keep to propriety, everyone in the world will return to humaneness. Does humaneness come from oneself, or from others?” 12:22 Fan Chih asked about the meaning of jen. Confucius said "love others." He asked about the meaning of "knowledge." The Master said, "Know others." Fan Chih couldn't get it. The Master said, "If you put the honest in positions of power and discard the dishonest, you will force the dishonest to become honest." Fan Chih left and seeing Tzu Hsia said, "A little while ago I saw the Master and asked him about 'knowledge,' and he told me, "Put the honest in positions of power and discard the dishonest, and you will force the dishonest to be honest." What did he mean?" 12:24 Tseng Tzu said: "The Superior Man uses his refinement to meet his friends, and through his friends develops his jen. 15:8 Confucius said: "The determined shih and the man of jen will not save their lives if it requires damaging their jen. They will even sacrifice themselves to consummate their jen." 15:32 Confucius said: "If your wisdom can grasp it, but your jen is incapable of maintaining it, even though you have grasped it, you will certainly lose it. If your wisdom grasps it and your jen is sufficient to maintain it, but you don't manifest it, the people will not revere you. If your wisdom grasps it, your jen is sufficient to maintain it, and you manifest it but don't act according to propriety, you are still not perfect." 15:33 Confucius said: "The Superior Man cannot act within the framework of lesser wisdom, but he can handle major affairs. The inferior man cannot handle major affairs, but he can act within the framework of lesser wisdom." 17:6 Tzu Chang asked Confucius about jen. Confucius said, "If you can practice these five things with all the people, you can be called jen." Tzu Chang asked what they were. Confucius said, "Courtesy, generosity, honesty, persistence, and kindness. If you are courteous, you will not be disrespected; if you are generous, you will gain everything. If you are honest, people will rely on you. If you are persistent you will get results. If you are kind, you can employ people." 19:19 Yang Fu, having been appointed Minister of Righteousness by the Meng clan, consulted with Tseng Tzu. Tseng said, "When those in power lose their sense of justice, the people will scatter from them, and it will be a long time before they return. When you are aware of their suffering, then you should be sorrowful, never joyful." 19:22 Kung Sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tzu Kung: "From whom did Confucius get his learning?" Tzu Kung said, "The Tao of King Wen and King Wu (the legendary sage-kings of antiquity) has not yet sunk into the ground. The Worthies have assimilated the major points, and the less-than-worthy have assimilated the minor points. There is no place where the Tao of Wen and Wu does not exist, so how could the Master not learn it? Why would he need to get it from a certain teacher?"
  3. 14:12 And why should we not rely upon Allah while He has guided us to our [good] ways. And we will surely be patient against whatever harm you should cause us. And upon Allah let those who would rely [indeed] rely." Hillel the Elder taught the way of life was to bring merit to oneself by building a relationship Creator and care your neighbors in this world before it is too late. Otherwise, one's soul will not be worthy of the world to come. Pirkei Avot 1:14 The Great Isaiah Scroll Chapter 11 : John 14 Al-Baqara (The Cow) Mohamed prayed to the Creator to show him the path of truth. He did not want to go want to go the false way given by those who have rejected the Creator and His teachings. Al-Fatiha (The Opening) Mohamed's revelation shows us two highways (paths), the good and the bad. and he choose is the one he wants and he will be asked about the one that he choose on the day of Judgment Quran Balad 90 Mohamed used the metaphor of two angels (demands, receivers) of his concious (nature) to explain intuitive and reflective reasoning. But, in the twilight of death comes the truth we avoid. Quran Qaf 50 Mohamed explained that the Creator has given humans free will to choose to follow (light) or reject (dark) what is good. The ones that do not seek the Creator can never be forced to believe that He exists and the truth He has given. Those that act to coerce a non believer go against the Freedom the Creator has given. But, those interested in finding the Creator can be guided to the path of truth through the power of prayer. Al-Baqara (The Cow)
  4. Macrobius says, a settled opinion among them all; and they held it to be the only true wisdom, for the soul, while united with the body, to look ever toward its source, and strive to return to the place whence it came. Among the fixed stars it dwelt, until, seduced by the desire of animating a body, it descended to be imprisoned in matter. Thenceforward it has no other resource than recollection, and is ever attracted toward its birth-place and home. The means of return are to be sought for in itself. To re-ascend to its source, it must do and suffer in the body. It was the serpent, which, personified as Ahriman, was the Evil Principle of the religion of Zoroaster. In the Gathas, which are the oldest texts of Zoroastrianism and are attributed to the prophet himself, angra mainyu is not yet a proper name.[n 1] In the one instance in these hymns where the two words appear together, the concept spoken of is that of a mainyu ("mind", "spirit" or otherwise an abstract energy etc.)[n 2] that is angra ("destructive", "chaotic", "disorderly", "inhibitive", "malign" etc, of which a manifestation can be anger). In this single instance—in Yasna 45.2—the "more bounteous of the spirits twain" declares angra mainyu to be its "absolute antithesis".[1] A similar statement occurs in Yasna 30.3, where the antithesis is however aka mainyu, aka being the Avestan language word for "evil". Hence, aka mainyu is the "evil spirit" or "evil mind" or "evil thought," as contrasted with spenta mainyu, the "bounteous spirit" with which Ahura Mazda conceived of creation, which then "was". The aka mainyu epithet recurs in Yasna 32.5, when the principle is identified with the daevas that deceive humankind and themselves. While in later Zoroastrianism, the daevas are demons, this is not yet evident in the Gathas: Zoroaster stated that the daevas are "wrong gods" or "false gods" that are to be rejected, but they are not yet demons.[2] Some have also proposed a connection between Angra Mainyu and the sage Angiras of the Rigveda.[3][4] If this is true, it could be understood as evidence of a religious schism between the deva-worshiping Vedic Indo-Aryans and early Zoroastrians. In Yasna 32.3, these daevas are identified as the offspring, not of Angra Mainyu, but of akem manah, "evil thinking". A few verses earlier it is however the daebaaman, "deceiver"—not otherwise identified but "probably Angra Mainyu"[1]—who induces the daevas to choose achistem manah—"worst thinking." In Yasna 32.13, the abode of the wicked is not the abode of Angra Mainyu, but the abode of the same "worst thinking". "One would have expected [Angra Mainyu] to reign in hell, since he had created 'death and how, at the end, the worst existence shall be for the deceitful' (Y. 30.4)
  5. The Breath of the Father (Holy Spirit) is an supernatural living force known by the movement by which he reveals the eternal Living Word to us and disposes us to welcome him in faith Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 3. On the Holy Spirit The Great Isaiah Scroll - Digital Dead Sea Scrolls Chapter 6 The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, volume 2 Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Work The Ascension of Isaiah The Septuagint In the midst of two living creatures you will be known The Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek, the common language in Egypt at the time, but not in Hebrew. Chavakuk - Habakkuk LXX - Chapter 3 Caesarious of Arles interpreted the two creatures t be the Old and New Testaments in the midst of which Christ is known spiritually. Roberts interpreted the two creatures to be the cherubim of the ark Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3 Seraphim Wings by Holicia Watch Digital Art / 3-Dimensional Art / Abstract Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3 Tractate Pesachim: Chapter 1 Regulations concerning the removal of leaven from the house on the eve of Passover and the exact time when this must be accomplished. Wisdom Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 29 1 Kings 3 By referring to Jonah the same way He referred to the Queen of the South, Jesus strongly supported the view that Jonah was a historical person. The Queen of the South was the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1-13). She came from the Arabian Peninsula that for the Jews was the end of the earth (cf. Jer. 6:20; Joel 3:8). She visited Jerusalem because of reports about Solomon’s great wisdom that had reached her ears. The something greater than Solomon was Messiah, the embodiment of divine wisdom. The queen would join the Ninevites in condemning the unbelievers of Jesus’ day because they failed to acknowledge one with greater wisdom than Solomon, as well as one with a greater message than Jonah. Jesus was greater than Solomon in His wisdom, wealth, and works. Matthew 12 Luke 10 John 14 John 16 The Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit, has become the Spirit of Jesus Acts 16 1 CORINTHIANS 2 2 Corinthians 3 17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is present, there is freedom. 18 And we all, with unveiled faces reflecting the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another, which is from the Lord, who is the Spirit. Galatians 4 Revelation 11 Catechism of the Catholic Church PART ONE THE PROFESSION OF FAITH SECTION TWO THE PROFESSION OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH CHAPTER THREE I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT ARTICLE 8 TEACHINGS OF PRESIDENTS OF THE CHURCH: GORDON B. HINCKLEY CHAPTER 7: THE WHISPERINGS OF THE SPIRIT The First Book of Nephi Chapter 10 The Book of Mosiah Chapter 3 Doctrine and Covenants Section 11 Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9 By personifying wisdom Solomon was able to illustrate two things about it in these verses, both of which concern the guidance that is available in wisdom (understanding, insight). Wisdom is available everywhere (vv. 2-3) and to anyone (v. 5). It does not take a superior intellect to be wise in the biblical sense. As Creator, God counted wisdom most important. Wisdom is older than the universe, and it was essential in its creation. Nothing came into existence without wisdom. Wisdom leads to joy because creation produces joy (vv. 30-31) both for the Creator and for the creature. God made and did nothing without wisdom. Therefore it is very important that we obtain it. That is the point. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 8 Matthew 12 Revelation 11 I remember in my youth thinking that God was this immense indestructible being of power with an incomprehensible plan. In the beginning God manifested Himself into a Spirit form that created all things in the Universe. At a point of time the Spirit of God created human life in His image with attributes to see, hear, communicate, an survive in the natural world. When God's Spirit wanted to be known to humans they feared His power, but understood the truth to His words. For a period of time the The Spirit of God choose to interact with humans who both feared and worshiped him. The Spirit of God would come in different forms. And for a period of time Through his Spirit God manifested himself into a human form into the womb of a Holy virgin woman known as Mary. It is testified that the child of God and man was named Jesus, who lived and interacted with mankind for 33 years. When the mortal Jesus was ready to begin His ministry as a teacher to humankind the Spirit of God came upon him in the form of a dove. From the Heavens, the Creator graced some human witnesses hear and bear testimony to His statement of pleasure with the righteous actions of Jesus, His human son. It was during this moment that In time some mortal zealots who associated themselves with the Creator, but did not know or hear Him speak, perceived His son Jesus as a threat to their power over the people. The mortal zealots condemned and put Jesus to death. To let humans witness and give testimony that Jesus human form truly died, Roman guards were placed in front of Jesus tomb to make sure no one stole his corpse. For three days the tomb was not disturbed. At that moment, the Spirit of God that creates life, resurrected Jesus dead mortal corpse to an imperishable living immortal Spirit. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 2. On Christ. Proverbs 25 Matthew 3
  6. Rulers established their legacy not only by building great structures, they also passed on Wisdom Sebayt (Teaching, Didache) to their offspring and future leaders on the concepts divinity and virtue. The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom literature in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty. James Henry Breasted credited Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health. Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life. The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. Sabayt Ptahhotep The Sebayt of Amenemope (Didache of Amenomope or Teaching of Amenemope) is pharonic wisdom literature thought to have been written by the Egyptian Pharoah Usermaatre Amenemope of the 21st Dynasty. This coincided during the time when the tribes of Israel first became a unified nation. In the prologue that Amenomope considered it extremely important for a ruler to know how to properly respond to his subjects and foreigners and follow the path of prosperity in life. Sabayt Amenemope Prologue It important that one seeking Sabayt pay strict attention to what is stated and learn how to control your tongue. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter I - The Sabayt The Chokhmah (Chinukh, Didache, Teaching) Meshlei (Proverbs) is Israelite wisdom literature thought to been written by King Solomon during his reign from 970 to 931 BCE. Solomon stressed wisdom begins with fearing our Creator. And understanding the teachings of the holy people brings insight on how to discern and respond to events around you. The knowledge you recieve it. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9 Similar to Amenemope, Solomon taught that a ruler should be on guard against seductive words of flattery that can influence unwanted actions. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 5 Solomon's father David taught that our Creator is the Shepherd of Creation like he was as a boy. It is our Creator's wisdom, not human that lead to a path of righteousness during our lives. If we stay on the Creator's path no evil shall fall upon us. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 23 In ancient Egyptian beliefs, serpents were considered both protectors and enemies of the people. The cobra is most often represented as the Uraeus, the fiercely protective serpent seen guarding the foreheads of Deities, kings, and queens. East of Alexandria, in the city of Dep the Uraeus was known as Wadjet, the serpent goddess often depicted as a cobra. The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. Wadjet is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a cobra's head, or as a woman wearing the Uraeus. The Uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus was the protector of the pharaoh and was believed to spit fire at enemies from its place on the forehead. Wadjet had a twin sister known as Nekhbet, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb) and later became the patron of Upper Egypt. She takes the form of woman with the head of a vulture, a woman with a vulture headdress or simply just white vulture symbolizing purity. Together, they represented the Uraeus – the two ladies (nebty) protecting the pharaoh and all of Egypt. When Egypt became one, these goddesses were believed to be present during the crowning of a pharaoh and their symbols were found the front of the crown itself. In this light, her role as a protector extended to common people as well. and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified. Apophis (Apep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter 8 : speak no evil The Literature Of Ancient Egypt The Story of Sinuhe Khnum was originally a water god who was thought to rule over all water, including the rivers and lakes of the underworld. He was associated with the source of the Nile, and ensured that the inundation deposited enough precious black silt onto the river banks to make them fertile. Khnum was similar to the the Creator's Holy Spirit as the Lord of Life of the body and the "ka" (spirit) of each newborn child. (52) his emotions & passions are constantly in a state of arousal ; Chapter 9 : avoid the heated CHAPTER 9 Chapter 10 : say what You think without injuring CHAPTER 10 Chapter 11 : abuse no poor Chapter 17 : do not corrupt the measure Chapter 21 : be reticent Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder), In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits. Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life. Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a Proverbs (especially the sentence literature of chs. 10ff. ) shows "a general parallelism of thought" with Egyptian and Babylonian Instruction. Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. The word literally means 'teachings' or 'instructions'[2] and refers to formally written ethical teachings focused on the "way of living truly". he book of Proverbs was principally written by King Solomon, David’s son, around 900 BC. Wisdom literature is one of the most important classes of texts from the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and sufficient examples survive to illustrate both the different national or cultural preferences and, at the same time, the underlying similarity of thought and expression Helck says, "that Proverbs 22:17-23:11 is largely dependent on the Teaching of Amenemope is now generally accepted".27 Erman demonstrated that the Teaching of Amenemope was closely parallel with the portion of Proverb sometimes subtitled "Words of the Wise" (22:17-24:22) the belly is the home of our passions, emotions, feelings and states of arousal & rest - our sage promotes tranquility ; He has mastered the "inner" conflict between his passions and his mind, namely between the icons of emotions and the symbols of proto-rational cognition, between "belly" and "heart". Egyptian Instructions (both pre-Demotic and Demotic) present collections of maxims and teachings on moral living, these max Amun is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400-2300) as a local god of Thebes along with his consort Amaunet. Amun as "The Obscure One" left room for people to define him according to their own understanding of what they needed him to be. A god who represented darkness could not also represent light, nor a god of water stand for dryness, etc. A god who personified the mysterious hidden nature of existence, however, could lend himself to any aspect of that existence; and this is precisely what happened with Amun. During the Twelfth dynasty, the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence. In the city of Thebes. Atum was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra. . In his role as Amun-Ra, the god combines his invisible aspect (symbolized by the wind which one cannot see but is aware of) and his visible aspect as the life-giving sun. In Amun, the most important aspects of both Ra and Atum were combined to establish an all-encompassing deity whose aspects were literally every facet of creation. Statue of the ram of Amun Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford This life-sized statue of a ram, the sacred animal of the god Amun, was one of a pair that flanked a threshold in Taharqa’s temple at Kawa c. 680 BC. The base is carved with a hieroglyphic inscription proclaiming the king to be the son of the god Amun. A small figure of Taharqa stands protected under the ram’s chin. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire Drusilla Dunjee Houston CHAPTER V. PREHISTORIC EGYPT, THE LAND OF WONDERS. Relief depicting the ram-headed Amun-ra on a shrine erected by Kushite King Taharqa in the court of the Temple of Amun built by him at Kawa in Nubia. Late Period, 25th Dynasty, 690-64 BC. NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS THE KINGDOM OF KUSH NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS p.16 Diodorus is an invaluable source on the history of Egypt and Ethiopia. What does he say about the Ethiopians? “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the fi rst of all men and proofs of the statement are manifest. For they did not come into their country as immigrants from abroad but were the natives of it and so justly bear the name of Autochone...Th ey that dwell beneath the noonday sun were in all likelihood the fi rst to be generated by the earth... it is reasonable to suppose that the region which was nearest was the fi rst to bring forth living creatures. And they say that they were taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifi ces and processions and festivals and other rites by which man honors the deity: and that in consequences their piety was published abroad among all men... they state by reason of their piety towards the deity they manifestly enjoy the favor of the gods, inasmuch as they have never experienced rule of an invader from; for from all time they have enjoyed a state of freedom abroad and peace with the other and though many powerful rulers have made war upon them, not one of them succeeded in this undertaking.” Th e fi rst Ethiopians who were mentioned in the bible were from the land of Kush (Cush), which according to the biblical tradition was a territory on the Upper Nile, south of Egypt; it was also later known as Nubia. Kush is the name of the eldest son of Noah and the territory inhabited by his descendants. Th e Kushites are the descendants of Noah who produced the sons: Shem, Ham, and Japhet, each with their own language, clan, and nation. According to Gen. 9:18, the three sons peopled the rest of the earth, which was indicative of the unity of humanity in the ancient mind. Ham’s son, Cush, went to Ethiopia; his son, Mizraim, went to Egypt; Canaan went to Canaan; Phut (Pwnt) went to Punt, which in Egyptian records, the fabulous land on the East coast of Africa, source of myrrh (which included present-day Somaliland, perhaps also Arabia. e Nag Hammadi Library is a collection of religious texts written by early Christians, known as Gnostics, who were excluded from the church as heretics. It is an invaluable source of Coptic lore, buried since 400AD in Nag Hammadi near Luxor in Egypt and discovered in 1945. Th e NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS 17 Apocalypse of Adam (v.5), one of the Nag Hammadi tracts cast a new light in the treatment of the fl ood biblical genealogy. “And God will say to Noah- whom all generations will call DeucalonBehold I have protected you in the ark. Th erefore I will give the earth to you and your son.” “Th en Noah will divide the whole earth among his sons Ham and Japhet and Shem. He will then say to them, “My sons listen to my words. I have divided the earth among you. But serve Him with all the days of your life. Let not your seed depart from the face of the Almighty.” “Th en others from the seed of Ham and Japhet will come Four thousand men, and enter another land and sojourn with those who come from the eternal knowledge. Th en the seed of Ham and Japhet will form twelve kingdoms of another people.”3 Th e strength of the Ethiopians or Kushites was detested to such a great degree, the prophet Isaiah, an agent of Yahweh (God), issued a proclamation to all: Disaster! Land of the whirring locust beyond the rivers of Cush, who send ambassadors by sea, in little reed- boats across the waters! NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 18 to a nation tall and bronzed, a mighty and masterful nation.33 We are told in the Old Testament when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the lord; she came to him with questions. Kings 10:11 Th e queen, who was a virgin and pure, learning about the history of the world, heard of Solomon’s wisdom and was curious to see what she had heard about, set on a long journey from Axum to Jerusalem, in those days when land and sea were not controlled by easy transportation. She proved his wisdom both material and spiritual. 4. And God gave her what she desired... and this gift was a conception of Menelik I, the son of Solomon who is from the tribe of Judah, the descendant of Abraham, and this Menelik was to rule after her, hence the motto “Th e conquering Lion of the Tribes of Judah” which motto is the basis of the country’s faith and key to their ancestry. I Kings 10:1-13 5. We are told in the New Testament that our Lord ...has praised her journey she made to hear the Wisdom of Solomon. Luke 11: 13. The Temple of Wadi es-Sebua “Es Sebua (“Th e Lions”) was the third temple built by Rameses II ninety- three moles from Aswan. Part of the temple is cut from rock. Rameses II dedicated the temple to Re- Harakhte and to Amun as he considered he was a god, by this time. He also worshiped in the temple. Th e entrance to the temple was formed by an avenue of Sphinxes (from which es-Sebua derives its name) that led up to the south pylon before which stood two colossal statues of Rameses II. At the far end of the sanctuary and above the solar bark on which the beetle-headed Re-Harakhte, the solar god is seated under a canopy while he is seated under a canopy while he is being adored on the left by the king and on the right by three baboons. Below is a niche that still shows traces of the three chiseled statues of the temples. Th ree principal gods are painted over the picture of St. Peter.92 Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1457) also campaigned in Nubia. Th utmose III, her youthful coregent and stepson supplanted her. Th e Queen ruled as a king with ceremonial beard and a fi rm hand for twenty years. Th e temple built at Deir el Bahri was the outstanding monument of her reign. Th e walls display her important trading expedition to Punt. However, it was Th utmose III who extended the Egyptian frontier to the foot of the Holy Mountain at Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract in his 47th regal year. His victory stele at Napata marked his triumph and the extent of the Egyptian frontier and in his temple of Amun-Re, he could boast of his satisfaction in both Egypt and Asia. Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten) (1352-1336) was a coregent with his father, Amenhotep the III, during his later reign. Amenhotep changed his name during his reign to Akhnaten, signifying his new devotion to the Sun god Aten, which was in confl ict with the Th eban god Amun, and the priesthood. Th e center of government remained at Th ebes while Akhnaten moved to Amarna with his beautiful wife Nefertari, and the adherents to the new religion that was a forerunner of Monotheism. Akhnaten built a temple at Karnak in honor of Aten. Th e gains made abroad were gradually diminished by lack of attention on the home front. Th e agreement of the factions of Aten and Amun seem to have begun under Semenekhara (1335-1332), who was coregent with Akhnaten for a short period. He was succeeded by Tutankhamon (1332-23) who was successful in returning the splintered worship of Amun to Th ebes. Th e death of Tutankhamon while still a youth made a place for an elderly noble named Ay (1323-1319) who legitimized his claim by marrying the widow of the deceased Alara’s prayer preserved in the Kawa VI relief refl ects his piety and his belief in the providence of the God Amun: O benefi cent god, swift, who calls upon him, look Upon my sister for me, a women born with me in one womb. Act for her (even) as you have acted for him [Alara] that acted For you , as a wonder, unpremeditated, and not disregarded by refl ective people. For you put a stop to him that plotted evil against me after you set me up as king A stela from Kawa, now located in the Ny Carlsberg Glypotek in Copenhagen, shows Alara making off erings to the god. Th e temple B at Kawa depicts the earliest post new Kingdom temple and affi rms that Alara was the fi rst signifi cant restorer of the Nubian Amun cult. Th e fi rst surviving sculptures of the dynasty are a series of ram sphinxes of heavy cut stone placed by Kashta by its pylon when he enlarged the mud-brick temple of Alara (B800) at Jebel Barkal. Kashta’s legitimacy as king was established through the installation of Alara’s sister as princess of Amun, which created the justifi cation for royal succession and facilitated the shared concepts of traditional Kushite practice with Egyptian concepts of kingship. Kashta was married to his sister Pebtatma indicated by her Abydos stela. Her roles are also given as Sistrum-player of Amen Re, King of the Gods, King’s sister, king’s daughter, mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Kashta was affi rmed king by the priests of Amun when he arrived in Th ebes. Adams posits that there was no suggestion of military activity connected with this visit. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. Pianhki’s genius as titular King of Egypt, liturgical wizard in the synthesis of Egyptian and Kushite concepts of order as priest, and military might as general is captured in his Great Triumphal Stela from the Gebel Barkal Temple of Amun in the year 727 B.C. which is now in Cairo. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the fi nest horses used in contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia. Th is splendid large stela of pink granite with a rounded top has a lunette relief which gives a pictorial summary of the event in the text that describes his wars fought under the protection of Amun bringing him the victory he envisioned. At the left of the lunette is Amun sitting on the throne with Mut the goddess standing behind Amun and Pianhki standing before him. King Namlot, of Hermopolis, is leading a horse in front of Pianhki shaking a sistrum in order to pacify him. Pianhki in the tradition of the pharaohs donated his tribute of war to the god NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 130 Amun which was vast: “a mass of copper or turquoise as large as yourself, fi nest horses, gold, silver, lapislazuli, property of all kinds, suits of apparel made of byssus of every quality, and couches and coverlets of linen, and anti perfume, vases of unguent, metal vessels or gold ornaments for the neck, crowns for your head, gold vases for ceremonies of purifi cation, precious inlaid stones...” At Kawa, Pianhki added a colonnaded forecourt where his stelae could be erected and pylons to the temple of Amun and built a paved processional road. On the walls of the temple, the ancient thirty-year Sed festival is depicted showing the king restoring his powers. At Kurru, he is entombed in a pyramid with subterranean chamber accessed by a stairway, and his wife Tabiry is buried nearby. Th e horses that he loved were buried as well at Kurru with elaborate trappings of silver and gold. Th e reign of the conqueror lasted 30 years. Pianhki is also remembered from the Sandstone Stela by his speech: ‘Th e Son of Re, lord of Diadems, “beloved of Amun, Pi(anh)ki says: Amun of Napata has granted me to be ruler of every foreign country. He to whom I say, you are chief, he is to be chief. He to whom I say ‘You are not king !’ he is not King . Amun in Dominion (Th ebes) has granted me to be ruler of Black-land. ...Gods make a king, men make a king, But it is Amun who has made me Th e earliest throne name of Pianhki, as Lord of Two Lands was indicative of his godship and kingship. Shabataka assumed the reign of the Kingdom of Kush and Egypt, following the death of his father. His attested wife was Arty, a daughter of Pianhki. Shabataka was enthroned at Th ebes in the great temple of Amun. His titulary included “Whose appearances -endure, Beloved of Ptah and Beloved of Amun. Th is ‘shadowy king’ falls through the cracks of history as so little has been found to affi rm his reign. Th e Karnak Nile level record, year three of Shabataka, records that he arrived at Th ebes, the compound of Amun on the fi fth day of the fi rst month of summer in his third regal year. ============================ Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I is presumed to be the Shishak (Shishak, Shishaq or Susac) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Sheshonq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3 All humans have been given the knowledge of good and evil. Our Creator bestowed Solomon the gift discerning whether the actions of others are good or evil. In return, the Creator had only the request that Solomon keep His statutes and My commandments. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 5 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 Ecclesiastes is presented as an autobiography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises Solomon's wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. One reason the Kohelet is identified as Solomon is that at one time Solomon was the king of Israel, and Ecclesiastes 1:1 identifies the Preacher as “king in Jerusalem.” Also in agreement with Ecclesiastes 1:1, Solomon was a “son of David.” Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 1 Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War President Abraham Lincoln Second Annual Message December 1, 1862 Egyptian influence on Israel was particularly strong in the reign of Solomon who became the son-in-law to an Egyptian Pharaoh. It has been suggested that Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between Israel and Egypt. Neterkheperre was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means 'son of Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen).' Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 King Solomon incorporated the teachings of Israel Egypt's Vizier Ptahhotep on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions. Ecclesiastes 10 Scripture presents Solomon had access to Egyptian and Babylonian literature. King Solomon's actions caused Israel to fall from the Creator's grace. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 11 Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 12 While Solomon did pay for his transgressions here on earth, his last word of wisdom does offer hope for his possible Salvation. Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: [ʃiʃaq], Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, translit. Sousakim) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I. Sheshonq I campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-12). According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE[2]), Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Kushites ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made;[3] Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones. According to Second Chronicles, Egyptian military conquests against Assyria and Israel, aided by Ethiopians are recorded in the Books of Kings, Acts, and the Chronicles. Mention is made of an Ethiopian army assisting Shishak ( Sheshonk) who ruled Egypt during the reign of Rehoboam, the King of Judah and the Son of Solomon. Shishak’s army swept across the land of Judah, with twelve hundred chariots and sixty thousand men, leaving in his wake fi re and destruction. Th e people of Lubim and Sukkim, and the Ethiopians are further described as a host with many horses and chariots. Subduing the Judeans in the south, Shishak continued north to Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the king which included all of the gold shields which Solomon had made.31 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 14 Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 12
  7. In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the colonies use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States. But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document to frame the Constitution to new Rules of Law. Thomas Jefferson to John Tyler, 17 June 1812 Locke, Bolingbroke, Blackstone, and Jefferson were well versed on Cicero, a Roman Philosopher that walked Earth 50 years before Jesus Christ. Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814 On the Spirit of Patriotism Henry St. John Bolingbroke Cicero theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator has enabled man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil). In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator as both an equitable distribution of goods and discrimination of good and evil. Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato. Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming. Epicurus Letter to Menoeceus Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law. Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates. Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree. 50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. Demosthenes Against Aristocrates Section 75 Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them. Demosthenes Olynthiac 1 Section 11 Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. 600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11 Proverbs 16 The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess that was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives. The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality. 300 hundred years before Solomon, the Egyptian Royal scribe, Hunefer made a copy of the funerary Egyptian Book of the Dead for Pharaoh Seti I. Like the Creator in Judaism, Thoth gives long life on earth and the promise of eternal life in the after world to those who are just. Book of the Dead of Hunefer Chapter CLXXXIII Papyrus of Un'neferu The relief portrait of Hammurabi can be found in the House Gallery in the United States Capitol Building. Hammurabi Code of Laws Stele. 500 hundred years before Hunefer, the Babylonian King ,Hammurabi (Khammurabi. Awil Kurda) inscribed his code of law on a stone stele. The Sky god Anu (An) is considered the Chief Justice of the seven gods ( Anunnaki) who reside in the underworld and judge the fate of mankind. It was It was Ea (Enki), the god of righteousness, who proposed to the council that a mortal man should be created to serve the gods. Anu and Ea assigned the Bel Marduk (Ea's son) to oversee the decrees of Anu on the fate of mankind with his Imhullu (divine wind storm weapon). The "Bel" title became associated with the Babylonian patron god Marduk, first as "Bel Marduk", but eventually being commonly used by itself, "Bel." Ea and his son, Lord (Bel) Marduk assigned lesser gods to oversee particular regions on earth and represent the mortals in the council of gods. Anu and Ea who bestowed on King Hammurabi the power to rule over the mortals with righteousness judgement over the wicked. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 1 Bêlit means lady or mistress in Akkadian language. Belet-Seri (also spelled Beletseri, Belit-Sheri, Belit-Tseri) in Babylonian and Akkadian mythology is an underworld goddess. The recorder of the dead entering the underworld, she is known as the "Scribe of the Earth". It is Belet-seri who keeps the records of human activities so she can advise the queen of the dead, Erishkigal, on their final judgement. Married to Amurru, the God of Nomads, she's known as 'Queen of the Desert. She is also known as Erua. She may be the same as Gamsu, Ishtar, Sarpanit May he lament the loss of his life-power, and may the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunaki, altogether inflict a curse and evil upon the confines of the temple, the walls of this E-barra (the Sun temple of Sippara), upon his dominion, his land, his warriors, his subjects, and his troops. May Bel curse him with the potent curses of his mouth that can not be altered, and may they come upon him forthwith. Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 50 Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 51 Daniel - Chapter 5 Nabonidus suffered from a mental disease and insulted the Babylonian clergy by his monotheistic ideas. 4Q242 Prayer of Nabonidus Daniel - Chapter 6 Darius gives homage to the god Ahuramazda for protecting him DSe, foundation tablet from Susa This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. When the excavation had been made, then rubble was packed down, some 40 cubits in depth, another part 20 cubits in depth. On that rubble the palace was constructed. In 539 B.C. the great Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylon. His government was a Zoroastrian theocracy. Cyrus had a history of pretending to adopt a religion and then subverting it. King Cyrus had become popular among the residents of Babylon by posing as the one who would restore Marduk to his rightful place in the city. In Babylon his first act was to worship Marduk, claiming Marduk had sought a righteous prince and Cyrus was he. As far as the Babylonians were concerned, and evidently Cyrus concurred, Marduk was Ahuramazda. Zoroastrianism was monotheistic. Ahuramazda was the only god, but there was nothing that proclaimed that Ahuramazda was the Creator's only name. Cyrus was happy to adapt all the “Great Lords” of his empire into the one Great Lord. Later Cyrus mocked Marduk and had his image carted off. Cyrus Cylinder The Tyranny of Nabonidus The separation of church and state and freedom of religion Cyrus’s rule caught Thomas Jefferson’s attention. To Thomas Jefferson From Anne Cary Randolph Edgehill Jan. 21 1804 Cyropaedia: Education of Cyrus I by Xenophon Translated by Walter Miller Book 3 Wrong choice has its evil consequences, but as soon as one becomes wise enough to realize the folly, it is over. One is thereafter safe to learn how to replace wrong with right. Ahunavaiti Gatha Song 3 Cyrus Cylinder The Prince of Peace Ezra 1 Ezra 7 King Hammurabi prayed at the temple of Siggil (Marduk) and asked his Lord (Bel) Marduk to increase the riches of Babylonia and the main temple of Sin (god of the moon and the one who created Hammurabi) called Gish-shir-gal ; reestablish the sacred city of Eridu dedicated Lord (Bel) Ea; and purify Apsu (a god encompasses all fresh drinking water) that eternally sleeps due to a spell Ea placed upon him. The weighing of souls method of divine determination was found in the religion of the Kingdom of Elam, which covered the present Iranian southeastern part of Kosu (Khūzestān) and Faros (Fārs). Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient near East around 2000 BC. The "Elamites" spread their empire to west under King Chedorlaomer. The Elamites had struggled with the Assyrians for domination of Babylon. The great Babylonian dynasty of UR was brought to an end about 1950 BC by the Elamites, who destroyed the city and took its king prisoner. Many scholars believe that the Elamites empire boundaries included present day Taxila and the areas of Baluchistan and Sindh. When an individual was living in the light and on the earth, that person was loyal to the sun god Nahhunte. As soon as a person died, the two gods, Ishine Karab (Isme-karab) and Logmal (Lakamar, Lakamal, Laḫmal, Lagamar) would meet the individual in the realm of the shadows, and bring forth the being before Inshushinak who executed judgment on the soul. Ninsusinak (Inshushinak) was the national god of the Elamite Emprire and judge of the dead. The Assyrians and other Akkadian-speaking people knew him as Susinak. Nahhunte and Inshushinak are referred to as the gods of light and darkness, in other words, the earth and the realm of the dead. In the texts of the tribunal that are left of Elam , witnesses are almost always introduced by two gods: the devotees who were the god of the sun Nahhunte and the god of shadows inshushinak. The word "devotee" means the creator of the day, which was also the god of the execution of sentences. Encyclopedia Iranica ELAM vi. Elamite religion The image below shows the god Lagamal holding the Disc and Rod Image source: Plate 6.5, p.185. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology) In the 1902 book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches, writes that the Akkadian King Kudur-laḫmal (Kutir-Lagamar, Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal), is a translation variant of the Bible's King Chedorlaomer of Elam. The Kingdom of Elam was located in present day Iran, Northeast of Babylon and Southwest of Ur. In the 2015 book Moses and the Exodus Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, author Gerard Gertoux states that Lagamar is an Elamite deity. The 1995 article, Theology and Worship in Elam and Achaemenid Iran, Heidemarie Koch concurs with Gertoux that the name Lagamar is found in middle Elamite texts is Akkadian in meaning the god that shows "No Mercy" that accompanies the god Ishme-karab meaning "He who grants the prayer." In the 1971 book, The Cambridge Ancient History by Geredigeerd Door, two goddesses Ishine Karab and Logmal supported the god of oaths In-Shushinak (Insusiank, Nin-Suvina(k), Su'inak) in his position as 'judge of the dead.' Lakamar appeared in the later Elam middle period. In a legal context Lagamal would be the Prosecution, Ishmekarub would the Defense, and In Insusiank would be the Judge. The inscription is a standard one that celebrates Untash-Napirisha, king of Elam, in what is now Southwest Iran, from ca. 1275–1240 BCE. As translated, it reads (following Dan Potts [1999]): Another temple in Chogha Zanbil complex would be a "temple of the grove" (Holy Garden, Husa. Siyan Husame) dedicated to either In-Shushinak, Lagamal, or other underworld deities. The temple of the dead would face east as the sun rises with a sculpture of In-Shushinak in the front of the gate adorned with with a copper-covered cedar bar (Potts, Archaeology of Elam). The temple of the grove would act as a transition passage of the dead spirit to separate from the body to the underworld through sacred grove of fragrant trees with edible fruits, flowering plants, sculptures, and tombs that would surround the Ziggurat. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. From the Foundations to the Crenellations Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible Page 56 A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries. Ashurbanipal dictates Assyrian retribution after his successful siege of Susa: Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal. death seems to have been the principal preoccupation of the Elamites. Most religious buildings were connected with the cult of the dead, and the principal gods were closely associated with the passage of the dead into the next world. The association of the grove with the funerary cult is certain from Aššurbanipal’s narration of the sack of Susa: (Aynard, 1957, pp. 56-57). https://www.ancient.eu/Ashurbanipal/ The Musée du Louvre Department of Near Eastern Antiquities: Mesopotamia A prism of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal recounting his campaigns against Elam and the sacking of Susa These holy gardens were also the location where the sacrificial feast was held. In Europe they were the Celts, Germans, and Saxons, also had holy groves where they performed their religious rituals. A stele of Šilḫak-Inšušinak mentions there were nineteen Holy gardens across the entire Elamite empire. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” Brick with an inscription by Šilḫak-Inšušinak dedicated to the goddess Kiririša “lady of life." (published in Grillot & Vallat 1984) Collection National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK Museum no. NSM A.1960.228 Catalogue: 20140524 wagensonner CDLI no. P464356 https://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/56-3/elamite-inscribed-brick.pdf National god of the Elamite Empire and consort of the mother goddess Pinikir. Inchushinak goddess: This temple, which is presented to the Goddess of Inchushinak, has 5 rooms, all of which are in a row. At the entrance to the temple, there is a crescent hinged of clay and mortar. Below the entrance to the gate of the temple, known as the "Gate Gate", there are bricks and windows that are located on either side of the gate. serpent deities Ninaza, Ningizzida, Tišpak, Ištaran and Inšušinak. http://www.livius.org/pictures/iran/susa/susa-museum-pieces/susa-dedication-to-insusinak/ https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q323897#/media/File:Sit-Shamski_bronze_model_from_Susa_0149.jpg hoghaznbil was built in the early 13th century by the Elamite king "Ontas Nepiriha" near the river Dez, and was called "Dorovanes". Choghazenbil Temple is the largest architectural work left over from the Elamite civilization ever known The meaning of Darwin is Castle Ontash. Of course, in some of the texts, the cuneiform of this city, called "Al-Ontas", means the city of Ontash. In the center of the city, a huge temple is built in a state of the art, which today has two floors. This temple is called Dhiquarat, donated to two great Elamite gods, "Inchshinak" and "Nepiriha" At first, Inshushinak was given the title of the father of the weak and the king of the gods, but in the 12th century BCE, he was named by the names of the great servant, the great city servant, the great temple's supporter, the patron and the nurse, and eventually in the 8th century BC The title of the protectors of the gods of heaven and earth is called. The same text that is seen on many of the bricks of Choghazanbil's writings is: "May God Almighty come near, wishing to forgive his gifts, He spoke his words." he Elamite (Elamite) was used by Elam people in the Elam kingdom (Between 3200 BC and 539 BC), , An agglutinative word whose language lineage is unknown. The Elam language, an isolated word, was written in three kinds of letters. The oldest one is Elam pictograms, it assite kings often married off their daughters to the pharaoh in Egypt. In Chapter2 we saw that messengers mediated such a contract and that the girl could beanointed in Babylon as a token of her betrothal. In far-off Armenia a curious car-nelian cylinder seal was found in a grave. We can implicitly conclude that Chedorlaomer the king of Elam was a Servant of the god Lagamar. Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence GŽrard GERTOUX last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). Ashurbanipal, after his conquest of Elam and Susa ransacking, exposed (in 646 BCE) the capture of the goddess Nanaya (in Uruk) by Kudur-Lagamar which occurred around 1300 years earlier (in 1968 BCE). Chedoloamer. most likely resided in the Elamite Ziggurat complex Chogha Zanbil (Dur Untash) approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa. Chogha Zanbil is one of the few existent Ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. A Ziggurat is the largest building in the center of town and part of a multi temple complex. The Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat originally measured 105.2 m on each side and about 53 m in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple Chedorlaomer’s vassal cities—Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboyim and Zoar—had become rebellious against him and it was time to exact vengeance. https://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdln/php/single.php?id=45 Kiten (Akkadian kidinnu) denotes a protective shielding power that radiates from all dieties. With legal matters the kiten of the god In-shushinak united with the ruler judge violations of the law were committed. Any Elamite breaking an agreement would forfeit the protection of In-Shushinak will be outlawed and 'he shall pass by the graven image of the god and of the king' to be executed. https://books.google.com/books?id=FF5-7JVj4jYC&lpg=PA276&ots=Gem9XdejaO&dq="kiten" (protection)&pg=PA275#v=onepage&q="kiten" (protection)&f=false Now, what was Abraham doing hanging out near the oaks of Mamre near Jerusalem when news arrived that Lot was taken captive (v. 13)? He was in the area because he was likely a nomadic vassal to Melchizedek, king of Jerusalem. http://geekychristian.com/biblical-insights-from-archaeology/Understanding of the Elamite religion requires isolation in the Susian documentation of elements that can be compared with what is otherwise known from the Persian plateau and adjacent areas. . Tidal is a Hittite name. The original name Tudhaliya also appears in the Ugarit archives, and in Kimron’s opinion Tidal was the same as Tudhaliya II who conquered Syria. Onkelos translated Goyim not as a specific city but as meaning various nations; Ibn Ezra wrote likewise in his second commentary. In other words, Tidal ruled over several peoples. Rabbi Hertz claims that Tidal is the same as Tadgula, king of the Kurdish tribes, and Goyim is Gutium in Kurdistan. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” (Grillot and Vallat, 1984, p. 22). The gods to whom these gateways were dedicated were those most closely associated with the netherworld: Inšušinak (König, nos. 35, 36, 40), Išnikarab (König, no. 37), Lagamal (König, no. 30), and Napiriša and Inšušinak together (König, no. 79). It was also at the gateway of Inšušinak that Puzur-Inšušinak ordered the sacrifice of a sheep accompanied by chants, morning and evening (Scheil, 1902, p. 5). Some gods, particularly Inšušinak (whose name in Sumerian means “lord of Susa”), seem to have been specifically attached to Susa or Susiana; they include Išnikarab (Išmekarab, a god, not a goddess; W. G. Lambert, 1976-80), Lagamal (Lagamar; for variant signs, see Hinz and Koch), and Manzat (W. G. Lambert, 1989). http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/elam-vi Around 1767 B.C.E, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak formed a coalition with Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. He led this coalition against Eshnunna, conquering it and imposed direct rule from his sukkal Kudu-zulush in Susa.[2] This coalition turned against him as he attempted to expand his power into Babylon. Hammurabi, allied with Zimri-Lim, expelled the Elamite's forces from Eshnunna[2] In a clay tablet, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak refers to himself as "Governor of Elam" and "Enlarger of the Empire". It is speculated that the tablet was made after Siwe-Palar-Khuppak's defeat by Hammurabi's coalition, and that the title "Enlarger of the Empire" refers to conquests made to west in modern Iran to offset his defeat.[ Siwe-Palar-Khuppak - universally respected father of Elam Traces have been found on the inscribed bricks in Chaldea of a king Kudur mapula, who bears also the title of “ravager of the West.” Even nearer to the name is that of Kedar-el-Ahmar, or the red, a great hero in Arabian tradition. He was king of Elam. He appears as a settled king of great power, able to make war 2000 miles from his country, and holding other kings, among whom is the king of Babylon, under his supremacy. Tidal king of Goiim Tidal has been considered to be a transliteration of Tudhaliya In the Book of Genesis it is recorded that King Hammurabi (Amraphel) joined coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan and, in the process, took Lot captive. Amraphel is aligned with King Arioch (Eri-Aku), King Chedorlaomer (Kudur-laḫmal) and King Tidal (Tudhaliya ). Like allied coalitions (ie. Desert Storm) today, it was common practice for allied tribes and city states to accompany a powerful king during their conquests. Below is an excerpt from King Zimri-Lim of Mari. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY THIRD EDITION VOLUME II PART 1 HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE AEGEAN REGION c. 1800-1380 B.C. EDITED BY I. E. S. EDWARDS F.B.A. Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA AND SYRIA page 10 Zimri-Lim was allied with Hammurabi in his wars against Elam, Eshnunna, and Larsa. Zimri-Lim lent troops to Hammurabi's campaigns, and although the two kept extensive diplomatic contacts, there are no records that ever met in person. After the defeat of Elam, there was no outside force to keep the precarious balance of power between the Kings of Mesopotamia. The alliance between Zimri-Lim and Hammurabi deteriorated after Babylon's conquest of Larsa. In 1762 BC, Hammurabi unified Babylonia, he conquered and sacked Mari (though it may be that the city had surrendered without a fight), despite the previous alliance. http://arabianprophets.com/?page_id=2158 The alliance of four states would have ruled over kingdoms that were spread over a wide area: from Elam at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent to Anatolia at the western edge of this region. Because of this, there is a limited range of time periods that match the Geopolitical context of Genesis 14. In this account, Chedorlaomer is described as the king to whom the cities of the plain pay tribute. Thus, Elam must be a dominant force in the region and the other three kings would therefore be vassals of Elam and/or trading partners. some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamiaaround 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C. Zimri-Lim's court were the communications from the gods. During his time. the variety of paths by which th e opinion of the gods was coaxed multiplied dramalically, and some exceptionally creative methods were launched in Zimri-Lim's own household. As a result of Charpin's insight, it became possible to imagine that when kings were predisposed for it, gods readily dispensed advice in channels other t han exti!\flicy. (Something similar occurred, for example, in the court of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal of Assyria and probably also in the court of Zakkur of Hamatll.) If so, then prophecy need not origina le in a single area or period and need not follow a linear development. hut it could burst spontaneously and periodically. whenever rulers had doubts about the stability of their rule and whenever courtiers and administrators felt encouraged to comment on them. Not linearity, but opportunity. In a paper for the Birot memorial volume [FM 2], I explored the interplay between a divine message and those who were asked to communicate it to Zimri-Lim: in the palace, in the province, and beyond Mari's border. When they are transmitted from the palace, mostly through his wife, his sister, and his aunt (perhaps his mother), there is a tendency to also comment on them, frequently betraying a heightened sense of imminent danger that must be deflected by the king. This sort of fervor seems to dissipate as we move to the provinces, where bureaucrats dutifully (and mostly lackadaisically for that matter) transmitted divine messages to t he king. Yet we have no reason to believe that Zimri-Lim, despite his drive to know the will of god from as many sources as possible. ever felt obligated to follow the god's directives as channeled by prophets, visionary and dreamers. In fact, there is no evidence t hat he received their messages directly, but seemed content to ask people in diverse regional centers to keep their ears open (A RM 26 196), or to dispatch a trusted llpilum to investigate for him (via extispicy) oracles by Dagan of Terqa (ARM 26 199:8-9). But when Zimri-Lim really needed to learn what god wanted of h im at any particular moment, he turned to his resident-scholars, the b~rll-divin ers.76 And here is where I need to take a detour. Durand's pages in 26/1 on Mari divin ation are rich in documents as in comments.1l When diviners inspected the innards of a sheep for signs, what they saw was no longer a cluster of bloodied orgllns, but a tapestry of divine signs. Their perspective, therefore, was closest to that of astrologers of later times who drew insights from the shifting correspondences of heavenly orbs. https://my.vanderbilt.edu/jacksasson/files/2014/06/Sasson-About-Mari-the-Bible-RA92-1998.pdf There were periods when Elam was allied with Mari through trade.[16] Mari also had connections to Syria and Anatolia, who, in turn, had political, cultural, linguistic and military connections to Canaan.[17] The earliest recorded empire was that of Sargon, which lasted until his grandson, Naram Sin.[ we must keep in mind the possibility, that if the Babylonian king considered that disaster had in any way overtaken his arms, he may not have recorded it at all. Then there is the fact, that the expedition was undertaken in conjunction with allies—Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch—for none of whom, in all probability, Ḫammurabi had any sympathy. The Elamite was a conqueror from a land over which the Babylonians of earlier ages had held sway, and Arioch had dominion over a neighbouring tract, to which Ḫammurabi himself laid claim, and over which, as the texts above translated show, he afterwards ruled. Ḫammurabi, moreover, claimed also the West-land—mât Amurrī, the land of Amurrū—as his hereditary possession, and he found himself obliged to aid Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch to subjugate it—indeed, it was Chedorlaomer whom the five kings had acknowledged for twelve years as their overlord, and against whom, in the thirteenth, they rebelled. It is, therefore, likely that Ḫammurabi regarded himself as having been forced by circumstances to aid Chedorlaomer to reconquer what really belonged to Babylonia, and the probability that he would cause it to be used as one of the events to date by, is on that account still less, even if the news of any success which he might have considered himself entitled to reached his own domain in time to be utilized for such a purpose. when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer [pg 223] was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion. spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian ERI.AKU, meaning "Servant of the god Aku," Aku being a variant of the name of Nannar/Sin. It is known from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name "Servant of Sin There's only one Hamor mentioned in the Bible and he was a Hivite ruler (נשיא, nasi') and father of Shechem (in Acts 7:16 Stephen equates Hamor with Ephron). When Jacob returned from Paddan-aram and wanted to settle in Canaan, he bought land from Hamor and built the altar named El-Elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19). At some point, Jacob's only daughter Dinah, the sister of the twelve tribal patriarchs of Israel, went to the nearby town of Shechem to visit the Hivite women. She was noticed by prince Shechem, who fell in love with her and decided to express his feelings by raping her (34:2). Still, Hamor went to Jacob to ask for Dinah as a wife for Shechem, but Jacob's sons told Hamor that he and his people would have to be circumcised for their two families to intermarry. I was curious about this expression, especially in light of the fact that it is in this city that we find the remains of the temple of Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the chief deity of Shechem during most of the Bronze Age. The name Hamor is the same as the noun חמור (hamor), meaning ass or donkey, or more literal: red-one, from the root חמר (hamar III), meaning to be red: It appears to us here at Abarim Publications that to the Hebrews the color red denoted the rudiments or principal beginnings of civilization (and see our article on the Red Sea for a discussion on how the ancients saw the color red), whereas muddy substances metaphorized the transitional phase between ignorance (water) and understanding (dry land). or a meaning of the name Hamor, both NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names read Ass and BDB Theological Dictionary has He-Ass. Most literally, however, the name Hamor means Red One. Note that the color red signified the first stage of human civilization, and is connected to both Israel's Hivite nemesis as to Israel's national brother Edom (from Esau, Jacob's brother). Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/, also spelled Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכָם‬ / שְׁכֶם‬ Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[1] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[2] it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank. Shechem first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which says that Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.[6] According to Genesis (12:6-7) Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" at Shechem. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant he had first made with Abraham in Harran, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. In Jewish tradition, the old name was understood in terms of the Hebrew word shékém — "shoulder, saddle", corresponding to the mountainous configuration of the place. On a later sojourn, two sons of Jacob, Simeon (Hebrew Bible) and Levi, avenged their sister Dinah's rape by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land" of Shechem. Shimon and Levi said to the Shechemites that, if “every male among you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to ourselves.”[7] Once the Shechemites agree to the mass circumcision, however, Jacob's sons repay them by killing all of the city's male inhabitants.[8] Following the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan after their Exodus from Egypt, according to the biblical narrative, Joshua assembled the Israelites at Shechem and asked them to choose between serving the god who had delivered them from Egypt, the gods which their ancestors had served on the other side of the Euphrates River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land they now lived. The people chose to serve the god of the Bible, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God, and he then erected a memorial stone "under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord" in Shechem.[9] The oak is associated with the Oak of Moreh where Abram had set up camp during his travels in this area.[10] Shechem and its surrounding lands were given as a Levitical city to the Kohathites.[11] Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph's tomb (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel.[citation needed] Jerubbaal (Gideon), whose home was at Ophrah, visited Shechem, and his concubine who lived there was mother of his son Abimelech (Judges 8:31). She came from one of the leading Shechemite families who were influential with the "Lords of Shechem" (Judges 9:1-3, wording of the New Revised Standard Version and New American Bible Revised Edition).[12] A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem. —In Rabbinical Literature: The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision. “Those who were bound under the covenant having participated in this ritual became ‘sons of Hamor’ (‘sons of the ass’). The covenant of Hamor ‘was almost certainly related to Baal-Berith, who was the chief god of the city’… Toorn, K. Van Der, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem Van Der Horst. 1999. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids: Brill ; Eerdmans. p.143 And given Shechem (שכם) means “shoulder”, the expression “Hamor, father of Shechem”(חמור אבי שכם), can also be read “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם). This expression therefore suggests that Shechem was the ally of Babylon when it formed a covenant with king Hammurabi. In fact, standing “shoulder to shoulder” is something one does in times of a deadly threat and against an enemy. And I do explain in the book how Hammurabi was motivated to make a covenant with Abraham in order to secure control over the remote Valley of Siddim. Finally, the name Dinah (דינה) is the feminine of “din” (דין), which means “law” in reference to the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah (i.e. the original five books of the Old Testament). Clearly, the Shechemites wanted to continue serving the family of “Hamor, Shechem’s father” or “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם), which presumably could be referring to the legitimate descendants of Abraham, Hammurabi’s ally, and still referred to as the “father” of the faith to this day. http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/jubilees/30.htm Jacob's acquisition of land at Shechem (Gen. 33:19; cf. 48:22) and the connubium between the sons of Jacob and the sons of Hamor (as the Shechemites were then called) imply certain covenant agreements. Moreover, the strange name, "sons of Hamor" ( benei hamor, "sons of the ass"), who is said to be the "father of Shechem" (Gen. 34:6), seems to have something to do with covenant making. From the *Tell-el-Amarna Letters (c. 1400 B.C.E.) it is known that there was a strong Hurrian element in Shechem. The Septuagint is therefore probably correct in reading hhry ("the Horite," i.e., the Hurrian) instead of hhwy ("the Hivite") of the Masoretic Text in describing the ethnic origin of "Shechem" (Gen. 34:2); moreover, the uncircumcised Shechemites (Gen. 34:14, 24) were most likely not Semitic Canaanites (see E. A. Speiser, op. cit., 267). It is also known that the slaughtering of an ass played a role among the Hurrians in the making of a covenant. Thus, Baal-Berith or El-Berith may have been regarded by the Shechemites as the divine protector of covenants. Did the early Israelites perhaps regard El-Berith as the God of the covenant made between YHWH and Israel? It is a noteworthy fact that Joshua, who had apparently been able to occupy the region of Shechem without force because Israelites who - many scholars believe - had never been in Egypt were already iiving there, renewed the Covenant of Sinai with all Israel precisely at Shcchem, the city sacred to El-Berith, " the God of the Covenant" (Josh. 8:30-35; 24:1-28). Therefore, even though the late Deuteronomist editor of the Book of Judges (it is conjectured by the adherents of the documentary hypothesis) considered Baal-Berith one of the pagan Canaanite Ba'alim, this term may well have been regarded in early Israel as one of the titles of YHWH. Other terms such as "killing an ass" sheds light on customs which prevailed in patriarchal times and later. The idiom "to kill an ass," khayaram qatalum, is not Akkadian at all, but both words occur in Hebrew and indicated the sacrifice which accompanied the oath of alliance. The connection between sacrificing as ass and concluding a covenant seems to have been preserved by the Shechemites, with whom Jacob and his sons had such unpleasant dealings (Gen. 33:19; 34:1-31). Called the Bene Hamor, "sons of the ass" (Josh. 24:32), their tribal deity was Baal-Berith, "Lord of the covenant" (Judg. 9:4). Later, at the time of Conquest the Bene Hamor of Shechem were, it seems, like the four towns of the Gibeonite confederacy (Josh 9:1ff.), added to Israel by treaty, to judge from various early references to them and their god Baal-Berith." Joseph Vicek Kozar, who reads the narrative as supporting the brothers’ actions, 485 suggests that the significance of interethnic relations is substantiated by symbolic imagery within the story. He points out that the homonym of Hamor’s name (rwmx) is donkey, an animal that “lives among the herd but is not one of them, lacking cloven hooves and not chewing the cud.” 486 This, coupled with the fact that “[a]t the time of Dinah’s rape, her brothers are out with the cattle (34:5),” 487 illumines the resultant confrontation: “The…clash of cultures (and slaughter) shows that the sons of herds and flocks cannot conduct social intercourse with the sons of the ass. This symbolism underlies the group or tribal nature of the events behind the story.” 488 Like Sternberg, Kozar also retrojects later narrative concerns of Israelite interethnic relations onto the clash between the ancestral family and the Hivites. He concludes that Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem represents the larger Canaanite culture, and that the story illustrates the danger of Israel’s “being absorbed by the larger Canaanite culture.” 489 Douglas Earl echoes this symbolic thinking in his own analysis, according to which “Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem the nations.” 490 The narrative, Earl suggests, “serves to evoke affectually the disastrous consequences of exogamy and mingling, and the zeal with which exogamy is to be avoided. Shechem’s act is evaluated as disgraceful and unacceptable. This transfer is presented as a pretext for the text to come.” 492 The narrator’s repeated use of )m+, furthermore, invokes a “cultic and ritual cognitive domain” 493 (again an Israelite domain) that suggests that Shechem and the Hivites threaten the ancestral family with their outsiders’ impurity. Finally, the continuation of the narrative in Gen 35, in which Jacob commands his household to rid itself of its foreign gods, strengthens the negative socioreligious associations of Shechem. Where Jacob goes next, Bethel, stands in stark contrast: “Bethel, the place where Jacob met his God, represents the ideal of one place, one people and one God. It is opposed to the other place, Shechem, with alien people and alien gods, who have to be buried.” 494 Thus the Dinah interlude is the “hinge” of the ideological reversal from the preceding narrative’s “context of peace and mutual understanding with the Canaanites” to “a mono-ethnic position embedded in a mono-religious position.” 495 Indeed, as van Wolde notes, in Gen 35 the ancestral blessing undergoes a notable revision, as “the blessing of other people is not mentioned any more,” implying that the ancestral family is now the exclusive inheritor of the land BAAL-BERITH (Baʹal-beʹrith) [Owner of a Covenant; once, at Jg 9:46, El-berith, God of a Covenant]. The Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites began worshiping after the death of Judge Gideon. (Jg 8:33) The designation “Baal-berith” may denote that this particular Baal was believed to watch the keeping of covenants. A kind of treasury was evidently attached to the house or temple of Baal-berith at Shechem. (Jg 9:4) In connection with the grape harvest, the Shechemites apparently held a festival in honor of Baal-berith, climaxed by a kind of sacrificial meal in the temple of their god. It was in the temple of Baal-berith on the occasion of their eating and drinking and cursing Abimelech, likely under the influence of wine, that Gaal incited the Shechemites to revolt against King Abimelech. (Jg 9:27-29) Later, when threatened by Abimelech, the landowners of the tower of Shechem (Migdal-Shechem, AT) sought refuge in the vault of the house of El-berith (Baal-berith), only to perish in the conflagration when Abimelech and his men set the vault on fire.—Jg 9:46-49. Solomon understood that being submissive to the Creator and generous to other will be blessed with long life. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22 Hammurabi ruled as king of Babylonia Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic - Religions of The Ancient Near East Sīn /ˈsiːn/ or Suen (Akkadian: ?? Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: ??? DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. - He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". Sīn was also called "He whose heart can not be read" and was told that "he could see farther than all the gods". It is said that every new moon, the gods gather together from him to make predictions about the future. - Nana - Babylonian Moon God. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr121.htm Utu[a] later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, . Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers, The local god was Zamama, the Tammuz-like deity, who, like Nin-Girsu of Lagash, was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylon. Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing. the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit By making a persuasive art-historical case for beginning their study with our earliest civilizations, they demonstrate the cross-cultural, cross-temporal universality of some persistently compelling themes, such as the image of the scales, a judicial motif attested in both ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt.2 Picked up as well in ancient Greece, the scales are hefted aloft in the hands of embodied goddesses, who in the seventeenth century C.E. acquired a blindfold, s Law Stele of Hammurabi, Literally thousands of clay tablets documenting legal transactions have survived from ancient Mesopotamia. from around 1792 to around 1750 B.C.E. His reign is distinguished for political consolidation of territories neighboring his city-state of Babylon, which he brought under control through a combination of successful military engagements and the calculated making and breaking of diplomatic treaties." The "laws" that are probably the best known are those that seem to offer strong parallels to the Biblical precepts of justice, and are held up as exemplifying the principle of retributive justice, for example: § 196 If a freeman has blinded the eye of another freeman, his eye shall be blinded. § 197 If he has broken the bone of another freeman, his bone shall be broken. § 198 If he has blinded the eye of a dependent or broken the bone of a dependent, he shall pay sixty shekels of silver. § 199 If he has blinded the eye of a slave of a freeman, or broken the bone of a slave of freeman, he shall pay one-half his value in silver.22 It is this section that generally receives the most attention from legal and Biblical scholarship interested in ancient legal codes and covenants.23 Compare the Book of Exodus, 21:22: "If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." C. The Relief Sculpture The sculpted relief depicts Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god, seated facing left, and king Hammurabi, who, standing, faces right.26 Shamash is identified as a divinity by the stylized horned crown he wears and as the sun god by the wavy-line "rays" emanating from his shoulders and the surface detail of his footstool evoking mountainous terrain-the eastern and western locales of his rising and setting. As sun god, Shamash is the Mesopotamian deity of light and illumination, and by logical extension, the god of justice who illuminates the true situation. In addition to "rays," his frequent attribute is a saw, with which he opens the mountains at daybreak and sunset and with which he separates truth from falsehood. Here, instead, he extends or displays to Hammurabi the so-called "Rod and Ring," which occupies the center of the visual field. Opposite the god, Hammurabi is marked by his hea In the voice of Hammurabi, the Epilogue summarizes Hammurabi's purpose in erecting the monument: In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways for the orphan and the widow, I have inscribed my precious pronouncements upon my stele and set [them] before my image, the just king, in the city of Babylon . . .. By the order of [the god] Marduk, my lord, may my engraved design not be confronted by someone who would remove it. May my name always be remembered faithfully in the Esagil temple which I love. 32 Let any man who has a lawsuit come before my image, the just king, and have my words read out loud; let him hear my precious words, let my monument reveal to him the case. Let him see his judgment, let his heart become soothed [reciting the following short prayer]: "Hammurabi, lord, who is like a father and begetter to his people, submitted himself to the command of (the god) Marduk, his lord, and achieved victory everywhere. He gladdened the heart of Marduk, his lord, and he secured the eternal well-being of the people and provided just ways for the land. "3 In one Akkadian period cylinder seal, Shamash sits enthroned before a set of scales, tipping the balance of justice (presumably) in accordance with the petitions of his worshippers, who bring an animal offering before the god (Black 1992: 182-4) throne. Shamash and his wife, Aya, had two important children. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was law. Every morning, the gates in the East open up, and Shamash appears. He travels across the sky, and enters the gate in the West. He travels through the Underworld at night in order to begin in the East the next day the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice". Holland 2009, p. 115. The Phoenician Sydyk was equated with Roman Jupiter, and hence it has been suggested that Sydyk was connected to the worship of the planet Jupiter as the manifestation of justice or righteousness. the Babylonian Shamash has two sons called respectively Kettu (which, like Sedeq, means "righteousness") and Misharu ("rectitude"). These two deities are mentioned also in the Sanchoniatho fragments of Philo Byblios under the names of Sydyk and Misor, as culture-heroes who have discovered the use of salt. Phoenician inscriptions have Sedeqyathan, "Sedeq gave," as a personal name, as well as combinations of Sedeq with Ramman and Melek. Fr. Jeremias thinks that Sydyk and Misor were respectively the spring and autumn sun in sun-worship and the waxing and waning moon in moon worship. translated as truth, equity, justice kittu as truth Shamas often had a special saw Shamash the judge of heaven and earth had a special saw, call the shasharu. Mesopotamian Scales circa 2350 O Sun, when though goes to rest in mid-heaven May the bars of bright heaven speak peace to thee, May the gateway of of heaven approach thee May Misharu, they loving herald, direct thy pathway Of course Babylonian and Assyrian words may not always have the same content as our words "righteousness" and "truth," but the words kittu and misharu, which we render by "righteousness" and "truth", are derived from kanu, "to be firm," and eshem, "to be straight," respectively; and judging from what was considered "right" and "true," or kittu and misharu, there is no reason for that the standard was very hight misharu, represented the law May Misharu, thy well-beloved servant, guide aright thy progress, so that ebarra The West Semitic name Ammi-Saduqa is translated into Akkadian as Kitum-kittum showing an equivalence of meaning between the West Semitic ṣ-d-q and the Akkadian kittu. Kittu was similarly paired with the god Misharu whose name is a cognate of Misor, meaning "justice". Shamash and the mother of Misharu (god of law and order) and Kittu (god of justice). Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been a local male sun god whose gender was changed when the worship of the major sun god, Shamash, took precedence, the minor god becoming the female consort of Shamash. Her attendants were Kittu (truth) and Misharu (righteousness). Misharu, ---, God of law. Son of Aa. instead he became the spokesman for the nation (kemit), heavily indebtedto fairness and truth (maat in Egypt, kittu and misharu in Mesopotamia) Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from the Akkadian root kanu. Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’). One or both of these deities was described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand.’ Depictions of Shamash show him holding a ring of coiled rope and a rod, objects ascribed to surveyors and therefore, when linked to rulership, denoting the act of setting things right. The Akkadian words kittu and misharu, translated into English as “truth,” “equity,” or “justice,” describe the “straightening out” of a situation whose equilibrium, put out of balance, had become “crooked.” 2 Shamash is associated with two divinities personifying justice and equity, Kittu and Misharu, which are in fact two deified conceptions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is debated. According to D. Charpin, Hammu-Rabi of Babylon , Paris, 2003, p. 206-207, kittum would be "justice as guardian of public order", and mišarum "justice as restoration of equity" mi-ish-ri-c(!) ish-ru-16%-6-shd. Mi-ish-ri-e I take as a plural of misharu = mishru (ef. cpiru, epru; gimiru, gimru; Delitesch, Gram., p. 105, $45), “righteousness" (hence not of meshril, "riches," H. B. W., p. F88a), and dumqi, on nceount of the pardlclism, in the sense 0 The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice was Maat, who represented “the order which rules the world through balance.” PATRICIA TURNER & CHARLES RUSSELL COULTER, DICTIONARY OF ANCIENT DEITIES 298 (Oxford Univ. Press 2001) (2000). The Sumerian god of truth was Kittu, but, interestingly, his job title did not include justice; that job was his brother’s, Misharu. See James W. Bell, Sumerian Gods, Demons & Immortals Whose Names Start with “K”, http://www.jameswbell.com/geog0050knames.html (last visited March 29, 2007). Addanari is the Hindu goddess of truth, nature, and religion. TURNER & COULTER, supra, at 14. Shiva, among her many other jobs, is also associated with truth. Id. at 427. They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means “Truth”, and the god Misharu, whose name means “Justice”. Utu’s charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period. n the Hebrew Bible, and Kittu in the Babylonian pantheon, who is often invoked with Misharu. 768 Both of these Babylonian deities are described as being seated before Shamash or the minister of Shamash’s right hand.769 M Shamash and his wife Sherida (Aya for Akkadians and Babylonians) had two important sons. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was the law. Its main sanctuary was in the city of Sippar. Every morning, the eastern doors opened, and Shamash appeared. He traveled around the sky, and entered the west gate Shamu / Kittu, Truth revealed (Shamu), Truth understood (Kittu) Misharu, Justice at work in view of truth, Dayyanu, Judgment that discerns truth Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from Akk root kânu, cf. Heb root KWN). Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’)… One or both of these deities were described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand’. . . it appears that the deity known as Kittu in Babylonia was known further to the West under the names Išar and Ṣidqu/ Zedek—all three names having essentially the same meaning but operative in different linguistic communities… West Semitic personal names containing the root SDQ are attested at m Fortress Press, 1998] 66-67). Also, the Babylonian gods Kittu “Righteousness” and Misharu “Justice” parallel to the West Semitic gods Sedheq and Misor In this function Shamash is associated with gods personifying justice and equality, and Kittu Misharu, who actually deifies two notions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is discussed and Dayyanu god. The Great Hymn to Shamash already explicitly mentioned the role of the god of justice, the guardian of good decisions and honest behavior and punishments of unjust and dishonest behavior: Great Hymn to Shamash, translation MJ Seux.
  8. Thomas Jefferson Letter to the Danbury Baptist association in the state of Connecticut 1 January 1802. Jefferson the “wall” metaphor to refer to expunging all references to God, the Bible, and Christianity from public life. He found respecting the moral authority but not necessarily the divinity of Jesus to be the way to separate establishing legal authority from executive authority of the citizens. And judicial authority to be used only when requested by the government or its citizens. Jesus read from the Torah and how to live in peace within a Republican form of government and still obey the Law given by Moses. Matthew 22 Exodus 18 Leviticus Deuteronomy Throughout history there has been a steady change on what We as a Body (People) believe as a nation. The Church as a body of all faiths has become more confederated, progressive and less moral condemning in succumbing to our human passions. Science has grown and intertwined with Church and Morality in our understanding of human Behavior that it too has become confederated by human passion. The Union of the States remains strong, but the Will of the People are bridled under one Federal Head under the Creator. The Church and Moralist are now Conservatives and Progressives with different ideas about Providence, Public Justice, Peace, Benevolence, and Harmony with their fellow man. Many scientific investigations have failed to to uproot and decompose Religion and Morality into theoretically grounded elements of pleasure, happiness, excellence, creativity, harmony, good fortune, and hope. I plan to further the noumenon (concept) known as human wisdom of discerning the truth to what is good and bad in accordance with my understanding of finding purpose to who, what, when, and where we are. Washington's Circular Letter of Farewell to the Army, June 8, 1783 Or are we about to Create a New Union where a pure Democracy controls our laws and customs. Or one guided by passion that rejects Divine Providence? A belief that there is no Pure Morality, only hope, ambition and fortune run by the chance of probability and fate. Will we discard a Country built by Americans that understood a Republican form of government where Providence and Morality are enjoined. Americans as a body President John Adams considered the State to be composed of Religious and Moral citizens. From John Adams to Massachusetts Militia, 11 October 1798 It is my hope to enjoin,"The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" with The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles, the 'first recognized catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church. The Didache is honored as a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. The historical tradition of the Church reveals that it was Jesus brother, James The Just who wrote and passed down a guidebook to Jews, Smaritans, Noahides, and Gentiles to understanding on the honor of being Civil to other Son's and Daughter's of the Creator of the world and the Heavens. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism, Unitarianism, and an evolving isms from a branch of knowledge of what is good and bad. During my research I have found many concepts of happiness to connected to religion, spirituality, philosophy, and science. The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. For nonChristians the The Didache of the 12 Apostles is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist I found the Didache to a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws given to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles (Messengers, Missionaries) that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians and gain happiness in life. All of those who with faith in a higher power will see the truth to happiness follows the same moral path of guidance. It is the degree of what is considered good and bad that is different between us all. I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition. It is my belief that our imperfect primal inclinations can subdued by striving on building virtuous habits based on reason without expectation of reward. The reality of happiness expands when one is able to see what is beneficial through another's eyes. My pursuit of happiness started when my Dad read me "Treasure Island" as a child. After each chapter he would tell me to close my eyes and follow my dreams. Since those moments I have traveled around this globe on many life adventures. And have been enlightened through the words of many great teachers, storytellers, grifters, false prophets, and those holy and euphoric beings whose selfless words benefit us all. Hindus believe that True Happiness (Supreme Bliss) can be found by a sinless follower of the Veda (Hindu Sacred Texts, Books of Knowledge) from ancient India. Vedas are also called śruti ("what is heard") literature that has been passed down by Rishi (enlightened ones, sages) after who receivedthe nature of Brahma and the instructions on the rules of conduct. this intense meditation. The Upanishads (Sanskrit Upaniṣad also known as the Vedānta) are the last chapters of the Veda texts known as 'object of the highest purpose.' Upanishad is composed of the terms upa (near) and shad (to sit), meaning “sitting down near” and connecting to a Rishi, an enlightened messenger of the Vedas that is unaffected by desire and wholly free from all cravings. The Rishi have taught that the intensity one is meditates on Vedas determines how close the spirit is to the happiness of the Creator. Christians and Jews would look at a Rishi similar to a Righteous (Tzadik), but not infallible spiritual masters who actively teach and perform Good Deeds (Mitzvah) found in sacred scriptures (Bible, Tanakh). The Taittiriya (Sanskrit Tittiri , Partridge) consist of three Adhyāya (Chapters, Lessons) of the Yajurveda (Worship) rituals taught by the Rishi that are done before the Yajna (Sacred Fire) on the Nature (Knowledge) of Brahma (Highest Universal Principle) and Atman (self, soul) that one can attain the eternal wisdom of joy by not being influenced by desire. The less one is exposed to desire the purer joy achieves. There are several titles given to the Creator that relate to Hinduism's spiritual manifestations : El as the general term for God (Allah); YHWH (Tetragrammaton) is the name of the Uncreated God (Spirit); the Ruach El as the Spirit of the God; Rauch Elohim as Lord of Spirits; (Elyon) as Lord of Most High; Ruach Chokhmah as the Spirit of Wisdom; and Hashem as a being beyond reality. And the meaning of the word Torah to be the mind of the Lord (cosmic conscious), Ha-Navi be a human heavenly messenger, but not infallible , Sandalphon mal’akh Upanishads - 800 BC - 500 BC Taittriya - The Partridge 2.8.1 – 2.8.4 We can see the seeds of understanding equity and justice through the leaders of the monotheistic faiths. Hillel the Elder Shabbat 31a Jesus taught that our Creator will bless us when we treat others they way we want to be treated. Matthew 7 The Apostle Paul taught Christians that all believers share the same universal privilege and position under the Creator. Galations 3 The Prophet Mohamed taught that the Creator wants us to put aside personal self interest and be fair and impartial when dealing with people. An-Nisa (The Women) It is my theory that one must know what it is to suffer to truly understand the aspects of happiness that are both agreeable and contrary to reason and or self interest. Lao Tzu (Laozi, Old Master) Tao Te Ching Tao Te Ching (The way of Righteousness) - 400 BC Chapter 58 America's Founding Fathers rightfully reasoned that all human beings are born equally regardless of differences in gender, skin color, wealth, health, and location. No mortal man can be compared to a God with infinite wisdom and power. The Spirit of Liberty, or more importantly the the Spirit of the Creator becomes unknown to Citizens who willingly submit their Freedom for Self-Interest. All 56 men who signed the Declaration of Independence clearly understood an individual profiting from the institution of owning another human being was morally wrong. Declaration of Independence Some of the Declaration Signers viewed Universal Liberty contrary to their self interest of personal prosperity and material happiness. Many of the Signers lived as Feudal Lords over large plantations involuntarily worked by human Chattel (tangible property), more commonly known as the Institution of Slavery. True Liberty would be a huge expense of Plantation owners relinquishing their Right over Slaves that could be involuntarily eugenically bred and put to work like Horse and Oxen. President and Commander in Chief of the United States George Washington had to live with fighting for the Liberty of Colonists while being Lord over 300 slaves living in his Mount Vernon Plantation. Washington was a Freemason gentleman that lived by law by elected legislative authority. He stated the first order would be to motion giving slaves the Right of Suffrage, meaning the right to vote for Representatives that create and amend the Constitution. From George Washington to Robert Morris, 12 April 1786 Public Notice Philip Dalby Alexandria Advertiser - March 30, 1786 The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) played a major role in the abolition movement against slavery. In 1775 Pennsylvania Abolition Society was formed by seven Quakers of the ten white members. To George Washington from Robert Morris, 26 April 1786 From John Adams to George Churchman, 24 January 1801 The primary author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson, owned over 600 African-American slaves that worked on his Monticello plantation. The retired President Thomas Jefferson foresaw the rising tension between those that considered American Liberty to be a Federal Human Right over State Regulation of Human Right according to designated types. The outcome would affect his and many Founders net working capital (NWC) and creditworthiness to money lenders. From Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes, 22 April 1820 Jefferson's letter to John Holmes was in response to the Democratic-Republican (now known as the Republican Party) Representative James Tallmadge Jr. amendment to a bill regarding the admission of the Territory of Missouri to the Union, which requested that Missouri be admitted as a free state and restrict slavery and involuntary servitude. The Tallmadge Amendment set off a fierce debate about the future of slavery and Congress's power to stem its expansion into new states. Annals of Congress, House of Representatives 15th Congress, 2nd Session - February 16, 1819 From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 13 April 1820 Washington and Jefferson both both were slave holders. existed in many cultures, dating back to early human civilizations. Since the beginning of civilation, predating written records, and has existed in many cultures. In Pre-Columbian America the most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners of war and debtors. Like European Colonist, Native North American tribes groups over time adopted chattel slave ownership North American indigenous groups over time adopted slave ownership Quakers increasingly became associated with antislavery activism and antislavery literature: not least through the work of abolitionist Quaker poet John Greenleaf Whittier. In 1833, Whittier published the antislavery pamphlet Justice and Expediency,[8] and from there dedicated the next twenty years of his life to the abolitionist cause. Our Countrymen in Chains John Greenleaf Whittier - 1833 Prior to public service, both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were surveyors. different areas of colonial and frontier territories of the Virginia Coastal Plains across the Western slopes of Appalachian Mountains to the Ohio river and its tributaries. Both gentlemen would have been aware and possibly interacted with the Algonquian (Powhatan), Eastern Siouan (Mannahoac) and Iroquoian (Cherokee) speaking Native Americans. It was the Powhatan people living in eastern Virginia that interacted with English colony of Jamestown in 1607. These hunter-gatherer communities composed of bands of people through kinship and marriage called a Confederation. Each village had a Council House where ceremonies and tribal meetings were held using a democratic process. These Native Virginians would hunt animals, gather fruits and nuts from trees/vines, and pull handfuls of seeds from wild plants to obtain protein, carbohydrates, lipids and nicotine according to the particular biome they lived in. In time seed gathering evolved to trading, and planting maize (corn), beans, squash, tobacco and other seed crops that would thrive in their environment. Eventually planting seed crops (farming )became more reliable food source and could feed more people than hunting or gathering could feed. Farming led to permanent settlements instead of small tribes that moved frequently. The Eurasian Steppe (Great Steppe), is the large area of flat unforested temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome of Euroasia. It stretches from Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova through Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, and Mongolia to Manchuria, with one major exclave, the Pannonian steppe or Puszta, located mostly in Hungary. The plains of North America (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A nomad (Middle French: nomade "people without fixed habitation")[1][dubious – discuss] is a member of a community of people without fixed habitation who regularly move to and from the same areas, including nomadic hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock), and tinker or trader nomads. In the grasslands and highlands of Eurasia, the dry climate and poorer soil made it hard to make a living from growing crops. The term Shepherd (Pastor) is frequently used as a metaphor to mean leader of the people. Homer Iliad Book 1, line 245 Shepherd of Hosts would be considered Commander (Chief) of military forces Homer Iliad Book 2, line 76 Sheep are among the first animals to have been domesticated by humans for meat, milk, skins somewhere between 11,000 and 9000 BC. Homer Iliad Book 5, line 121 Socrates points out that like a shepherd that cares for his sheep, a ruler's primary concern should be doing what is best for his people. The Republic 380 BC Book 1 Plato The Nicomachean Ethics , 340 BC Book VII - Chapter 11 Aristotle References to Shepherds and animal husbandry are found throughout sacred scriptures of the oldest faiths. Prophets, Priests, Rabbis, and Pastors are called Shepherds because they watch over and care for their congregation like those who care for livestock. The wisdom and visions the Shepherds share to those around them reflect the daily socioeconomic world of their time period in our world history. The life of a Shepard is tasked with all aspects of maintaining the health of domesticated animals. They keep a lookout for predators and rescue animals if they get lost or trapped. When a calf gets wounded or sick the Shepherd nurses it back to health. An enormous amount of time is spent guiding the herd to the places of nourishment and rest. The result is a bond of trust that keeps the herd following the shepherd. 'In the 29th chapter of the Yasna (reverence, veneration), known as the The Cow's Lament' found within the 17 Avestan (Zend, Scripture) Gatha (sacred hymns) the Prophet Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) creates an allegorical text on the importance of righteous Shepherding is to our survival. Zarathustra uses metaphor of the Cow soul (spirit, thought) and Ox soul to represent the female and male aspects of humanity. When a calf cries out in help its needs take priority. The Cow soul despairs over being abandoned without an adequate Shepherd to care for his and the cows protection. Their plight is our plight and the provider they seek is what we all seek; the virtuous Shepard (leader) who can lead the Creator's great herd in the pursuit happiness and prosperity. The Cow soul invokes invokes a Dyeumorphic (Deity Characteristic, aspect, manifestation) of Ahura (Lord) Mazda (Wisdom) eminating the unbegotton Amesha (Aməša, Immortal) Spentas (thoughts, spirits) of Armaiti (Devoted Creator and Guardian) and Asha (Truth and Righteousness). Through divine eminating Spentas (Armaiti and Asha) Ahura Mazda, identifies a proper protector, Zarathusthra as the only one fit for the job. The Ox spirit laments all the more, since he regards Zoroaster as a weakling. Ultimately he must make do with him. Zoroaster asks Ahura Mazda through his Holy Spirit Asha to bring peace and happiness to people through Vohu (Good, Loving) and Manah (Thought, Mind). Behavior Scientist and Religious Naturalist would respect one meditating on the wisdom of promoting the mental states of peace and happiness through reason and acting in accordance with the law of the land. Zoroastrians believe that Happiness can be found by a sinless follower of Truth and Good Thoughts. The Cow's Lament' is recited in Ahunuvaiti, the first part of the Zoroastrian Yasna liturgy in the pavi area (inner sanctum) of a fire temple to promote happines, good health and purify the connection between the spiritual and physical worlds. The complete Ahunuvaiti is taken from Chapter 28 to Chapter 34 of the Yasna Gathas. Ahunuvaiti Gatha, 1500 BC - 1000 BC Yasna 29 - the Cow's Lament Persians began breeding sheep for wool since 6000 BC. The wild sheep found in Iran are known to have the largest phenotype (size, color, shape, etc) and chromosome (DNA) variation in the world. The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis) is a subspecies of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) found in the Syro-Arabian desert (Kurdistan Region in the north of Iraq and Syria). This location corresponds to the zone of the initial domestication of sheep which includes many native breeds such as Hamdani, Karadi, and Awassi (the native breed of Israel) To Jews and Christians the dove is a symbol of God's peace following judgment. Genesis 8 The Priestly Blessing. Numbers 6 Psalm 34 The wing sun disc is a common symbol of the manifestation of the Creator in the ancient Near East Malachi 3 The dove symbolized the Creator's Holy Spirit. Doves were thought to be not bound to terrestrial existence and were mediators between this world and heaven; Mark https://www.ecatholic2000.com/athanasius/untitled-208.shtml https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_the_Black The Muslims believe that a dove whispered the word of God into Muhammad’s ear. Chapter 2. Concerning the Posterity of Adam, and the ten Generations from him to the Deluge. Abel...was a lover of righteousness; and believing that God was present at all his actions, he excelled in virtue: and his employment was that of a shepherd. G'd displayed favour to the person bringing the offering and to the offering itself. he brought from the “first,” is that before enjoying the fruits of his labour himself, he wished to express his gratitude to G’d. Only after that would he use the milk and the wool for his personal consumption. He also included in the gift the best quality, seeing that not all were of the same uniform quality. The word חלב is used in that sense on the author’s book Rabbi Joseph Kimchi explains the reason why G’d did not respond to Kayin’s gift as due to the fact that he first ate his fill before giving G’d the share we call bikkurim, the first ripe fruit we produce. Hevel, on the other hand, offered to G’d the very first of the wool his sheep had produced. Genesis 3 Genesis 4 Hebrews 11 The rewards of shepherding are well earned. Abraham rejected his family business of manufacturing idols. He chose a chose to earn his living as a nomadic Shepard. As we see in the book of Genesis raising and selling livestock was prosperious for him. Genesis 13 Genesis 18 Like Zoraster, and Moses, King David considered the Creator to be a faithful shepherd, will never forsake His precious flock (worshippers, followers, congregation, church). Psalms 23 General Washington's dictatated a letter to the The Delaware Nation (Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma, Western Delaware, Lenape, Lenni-Lenape ) Chief of Staff and Personal Secretary, Robert Hanson Harrison. on understanding how Happiness can be found by understanding the teachings of Jesus Christ. The Deleware people understood the Creator to be the Great Chief of Heaven and His Son, the Mighty Warrior Jesus Christ, to be the Rescuer of the people of all nations. Address to the Delaware Nation, 12 May 1779 George Washington Commander in chief of all the armies in the United States of America Robert Harrison wrote then crossed out the following additional text to the Deleware Nation: “Which will give you eternal life in the world to come.” This text does not appear on the copies. It is possible that Washington wanted the Deleware to learn the teachings of Jesus and compare them with their legendary Sakima (Chief) Tamanend (translated means affable), who was known to be a beloved peacemaker and friend to everyone. Chief Tamanend reputedly took part in a peace meeting between the leaders of the Lenni-Lenape nation, and the leaders of the Pennsylvania colony held under a large elm tree at Shakamaxon in the early 1680s. The people of Philadelphia began to call him "Saint Tammany" and the "Patron Saint of America." Just like King David, Christians believe the Good Shepard, Jesus taught that happiness results from being morally just in our daily actions and trusting that ultimate security rests with the Creator and secondarily with the righteous individuals that follow His commands. Religious Naturalist and Humanist can appreciate connecting to a determined individual who has compassion and is willing to give hist life for his community's salvation (deliverance) from harm, ruin, loss, and corruption. John 10 gives reason why Christians are conscientiously opposed to accepting services that are run outside their community. Religious Naturalist and Humanist can appreciate the concern of private and public services ethical obligations to a community they are not part of. There potential ignorance in thinking that public and private contractors have the ability handle a situation that spirals out of control and damages the community. In addition, Christians understand that Jesus has given his followers a goal of a salvation and its reward is never finished in this life. Behavior scientist can appreciate that once we complete a earthly goal, maintaining the level and starting over can be difficult. This is why the Good Shepard makes sure the sheep are genuine by listening to obeying his word. Jews and Muslims understand Jesus calling the Creator "Father" to signify an intimate trust that his revelations and actions while on Earth were in perfect harmony as one voice and will of the Most High. They believe the bond between the Father and His Son testified in John to be a moral relationship like Samuel reveals about the Creator favoring (loving) King David as human father would do (II Samuel 7:14 - 15, I Chronicles 22:10). From this type of reasoning of John it can be induced that to gain eternal life one must be in harmony with revelations and actions Jesus taught by authority of the Creator. John 10 Luke 14 Paul thanked the Creator for changing him from the worst of lawbreakers 1 Timothy Just like Christians and Jews, Muslims believe that true happiness (salvation) is a goal never finished in this life. And the ultimate reward is given in the next life. The Prophet Mohamed taught one will be rewarded with happiness by being virtious following good habits taught by the authority of the Creator. An-Nahl (The Bee) 16:97 Gathering data... The four Vedas (knowledge) are generally known by Hindus as the oldest hymns (scriptures) taught by the Creator to Aryan (Andronovo culture) Rishi (Sages) that decended South from Kazakhstan into India. According to Hindu tradition, the first vedas are the Rigvedic hymns taught by the Indra (Creator) to Rishi Vyāsa (Veda Vyāsa, Krishna Dwaipayana). The hymns were later written down by Paila, the disciple of Rishi Vyāsa and divided into ten Mandalas (Books, Volumes). The fortunes of these people have a direct co-relation of their possession of cattle. The cattle were sheltered in separate cow-pens and it was important that were cared for – “happy near us”. Their breeding in prolific numbers would have mattered as well, given that the cattle were the “wealth” of these people. When the Indo-Aryans entered India, they brought with them a religion in which the gods were chiefly personified powers of Nature, a few of them, such as Dyaus, going back to the Indo-European, others, such as Mitra, Varuṇa, Indra, to the Indo-Iranian period. They also brought with them the cult of fire and of Soma Rigvedic period, but, even if they did, the prevailingly loose boundaries of class allowed a man of nonpriestly parentage to become a priest. he Vedas are considered to be the oldest surviving literature of India. The oldest Veda is Rig Veda. Rig Veda The oldest and most important of the four Vedas. Among other features of Rigvedic religious life that were important for later generations were the munis, who were particularly associated with the god Rudra, a deity connected with mountains and storms and more feared than loved. Rudra developed into the Hindu god Shiva, and his prestige increased steadily. The same is true of Vishnu, a solar deity Indra Thunder god Rudra Storm God, part oftrinity in later Hinduism King of the Gods. The chief deity of the Rigveda, the god of weather and war as well as Lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. Indra, also known as Śakra in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism. He is the deva of rain and thunderstorms. Indra, Agni, Soma and Varuna are most worshipped Gods in Rig Veda books i-viii, which were the sphere of the Hotṛ or reciting priest his is concerned with the worship of gods that are largely personifications of the powers of nature. The hymns are mainly invocations of these gods, and are meant to accompany the oblation of Soma juice and the fire sacrifice of melted butter. Rudra is very often associated with the Maruts (i. 85). He is their father, and is said to have generated them from the shining udder of the cow Pṛśni. He is fierce and destructive like a terrible beast, and is called a bull, as well as the ruddy (aruṣá) boar of heaven. He is exalted, strongest of the strong, swift, unassailable, unsurpassed in might. He is young and unaging, a lord (í̄śāna) and father of the world. By his rule and univeral dominion he is aware of the doings of men and gods. He is bountiful (mīḍhvá̄ṃs), easily invoked and auspicious (śivá). But he is usually regarded as malevolent; for the hymns addressed to him chiefly express fear of his terrible shafts and deprecation of his wrath. He is implored not to slay or injure, in his anger, his worshippers and their belongings, but to avert his great malignity and his cow-slaying, man-slaying bolt from them, and to lay others low. He is, however, not purely maleficent like a demon. He not only preserves from calamity, but bestows blessings. His healing powers are especially often mentioned; he has a thousand remedies, and is the [57] greatest physician of physicians. In this connexion he has two exclusive epithets, jálāṣa, cooling, and jálāṣa-bheṣaja, possessing cooling remedies. Rudra, in glory, the mightiest of the mighty, O wielder of the bolt. f Rudra; in vii. 46, 1 he is described by the epithets sthirádhanvan having a strong bow, kṣipréṣu swift-arrowed, tigmá̄yudha having a sharp weapon, and in vii. 46, 3 his lightning shaft, didyút, is mentioned Rudra. They are described as ‘true’ and ‘not deceitful’, being friends and protectors of the honest and righteous, but punishing sin and guilt. s the Soma sacrifice formed the centre of the ritual of the RV., the god Soma is one of the most prominent deities. With rather more than 120 hymns (all those in Maṇḍala ix, and about half a dozen in others) [153] addressed to him, he comes next to Ágni (i. 1) in importance. The anthropomorphism of his character is less developed than that of Indra or Varuṇa because the plant and its juice are constantly present to the mind of the poet. Soma has terrible and sharp weapons, which he grasps in his hand; he wields a bow and a thousand-pointed shaft. He has a car which is heavenly, drawn by a team like Vāyu’s. He is also said to ride on the same car as Indra. He is the best of charioteers. In about half a dozen hymns he is associated with Indra, Agni, Pūṣan, and Rudra respectively as a dual divinity. he exhilarating power of Soma led to its being regarded as a divine drink bestowing immortal life. Hene it is called amṛ́ta draught of immortality. All the gods drink Soma; they drank it to gain immortality; it confers immortality not only on gods, but on men. It has, moreover, medicinal powers: Soma heals whatever is sick, making the blind to see and the lame to walk. Soma also stimulates the voice, and is called ‘lord of speech’. He awakens eager thought: he is a generator of hymns, a leader of poets, a seer among priests. Hence his wisdom is much dwelt upon; thus he is a wise seer, and he knows the races of the gods. Soma appears to be a real plant that has intoxicating properties, as well as being a god and a "life force" that permeates all animate beings. The Rig-Veda forms the great literary memorial of the early Aryan settlements in the Punjab. The earlier hymns exhibit the Aryans on the northwestern frontiers of India, just starting on their long journey. Whatever the original homeland of the Aryans may have been, the RigVeda makes no explicit mention of regions distant from the Indian subcontinent. The Rig Veda - 6,000 - 3000 BC Mandala (Book) 6 Hymn 28 - Cows Hindus believe that True Happiness (Supreme Bliss) can be found by a sinless follower of the Veda (Hindu Sacred Texts, Books of Knowledge) from ancient India. Vedas are also called śruti ("what is heard") literature that has been passed down by Rishi (enlightened ones, sages) after who receivedthe nature of Brahma and the instructions on the rules of conduct. this intense meditation. The Upanishads (Sanskrit Upaniṣad also known as the Vedānta) are the last chapters of the Veda texts known as 'object of the highest purpose.' Upanishad is composed of the terms upa (near) and shad (to sit), meaning “sitting down near” and connecting to a Rishi, an enlightened messenger of the Vedas that is unaffected by desire and wholly free from all cravings. The Rishi have taught that the intensity one is meditates on Vedas determines how close the spirit is to the happiness of the Creator. Christians and Jews would look at a Rishi similar to a Righteous (Tzadik), but not infallible spiritual masters who actively teach and perform Good Deeds (Mitzvah) found in sacred scriptures (Bible, Tanakh). The Taittiriya (Sanskrit Tittiri , Partridge) consist of three Adhyāya (Chapters, Lessons) of the Yajurveda (Worship) rituals taught by the Rishi that are done before the Yajna (Sacred Fire) on the Nature (Knowledge) of Brahma (Highest Universal Principle) and Atman (self, soul) that one can attain the eternal wisdom of joy by not being influenced by desire. The less one is exposed to desire the purer joy achieves. There are several titles given to the Creator that relate to Hinduism's spiritual manifistations : El as the general term for God (Allah); YHWH (Tetragrammaton) is the name of the Uncreated God (Spirit); the Ruach El as the Spirit of the God; Rauch Elohim as Lord of Spirits; (Elyon) as Lord of Most High; Ruach Chokhmah as the Spirit of Wisdom; and Hashem as a being beyond reality. And the meaning of the word Torah to be the mind of the Lord (cosmic conscious), Ha-Navi be a human heavenly messenger, but not infallible , Sandalphon mal’akh Upanishads - 800 BC - 500 BC Taittriya - The Partridge 2.8.1 – 2.8.4 KALAMA SUTTA The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry The Four Exalted Dwellings The Father of Western Philosophy The Nicomachean Ethics Book X - Chapter 9 Buddha taught to spread pure selfless thoughts of love without selfish want or hate KALAMA SUTTA The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry The Four Exalted Dwellings After reading the above I asked my son Luke how is it we find happiness? He responded, "Happiness to me is found within ourselves." My son, Luke reasoned that one should not be dependent on others to find happiness." At this point, do you the reader see happiness to be found in our love of self or love of others? Or is happiness found in a mixture of both? One should first correctly diagnose the cognitive ability of an audience to learn concepts. There are individuals with mental disabilities that suffer from the brain's ability to receive and process information to fully understand what Liberty really means. I am of the belief that the meaning of Liberty can be taught as long as the one teaching the concept correctly addresses what is needed to convey the idea so that it is not too overwhelming to gain interest. We all learn concepts through familiar knowledge and life experiences. If you share an idea an individual already understands and accepts; and then associate the known idea by contextual association to an unknown idea; new contexts and problems become linked. At times new contextual associations concur or conflict with the ideas we know. Contextual associations can solve problems or create new ones for us solve. In logic, when two ideas are compared that are mostly different from each other, but share one or more attributes (properties, components, traits) in common, an analogy can be formed to create a new idea. From my experience it is best to start with knowing the background of the audience you are communicating with. There are individuals with a cognitive Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with concentrating (focusing) on Ideas (topics) that they have little interest in learning. Autism is another mental condition characterized by impaired social interactions, limited communication and repetitive behaviors that impede concentration of new ideas. Dementia is also a condition that causes a gradual decrease of cognitive memory and the ability to connect ideas that are being communicated. In addition, there are individuals that have physical visual and auditory conditions that impede communication and sharing ideas. Traumatic brain injury (physical brain damage) located in the frontal or temporal lobes of the organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of individuals can result in confusion, memory loss, poor organizational skills, disinhibition, poor reasoning skills and judgment. Sometimes I find an individual's background through familiar life experiences. There are those that suffer from substance abuse (drug addiction) and mental disorders (or mental illnesses) are conditions that affect cognitive memory and concentration. Depression is a common mental disorder that causes people to experience a depressed mood that interferes with their interest in concentrating on ideas. Understanding the cognitive abilities of the audience your communicating, gives greater chance for acceptance of your idea. After reading the above passages I asked my son again how he plans to find happiness. Luke reasoned, that we are not dependent on others to find happiness or misery. But, our internal understanding of happiness and misery can be refined through observation of others. "If you only interact with yourself, then you will not understand how others define happy and sad. But, if others are good to you, then you feel happy. If others are bad to you, then you will feel sad." He then asked me a question, "How can I tell whether person is good or bad?" I told him to first, observe whether the individual appears to be honest or just acting in their own self interest. Second, does the individual's ideas resemble or differ from the ones he trusts to make him him happy. Third, do any part of these new ideas protect or endanger his happiness and those he trusts. Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion Henry Home, Lord Kames Solomon repeated his former counsel in view of this limited perspective (cf. 2:24). “Do good” (v. 12) should read “enjoy themselves.” We could translate verse 13, “If any man eats and drinks and finds satisfaction in all his toil, it is a gift of God.” Ecclesiastes 3 The Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi) explained the above passage of Ecclesiastes Solomon's the wisdom of choice and reward and punishment is found the compiled testimonies of many rather rather than one source. Individuals that fail to discern the truth of the wisdom of their deeds will not understand value to their choices. It is difficult to see the importance of repenting the evil actions committed in a material world. Those that do value their choice understand that they do not know the time and place of their demise and the importance of enjoying the gift of life each day and to do actions that are good. Rashi The Rabbi (teacher) Jesus washed the feet of his disciples. He reminded humankind that we are all equal under the Creator's eyes. We are all His Children. We must humble ourselves and cherish others before our own self interests. No truth is greater than God's Natural Law. We need to embrace this reality that our own reasoning and inclinations may not be beneficial to our Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. John 18 John 13 Philippians 2 Al-Baqarah (The Cow) Jews, Christians, and Muslims would agree with King David's teaching that People can become dependent upon their earthly leaders for guidance, and forget the Creator is the originator of all eternal wisdom and laws. Psalms 146 Matthew 20 Al-Baqara (The Cow) George Washington's first act as President of the United States was to thank the Creator for providing the citizens of the United States assistance in the Revolutionary War to gain its freedom from the power of England and its king. He considered this gratitude to be a universal sentiment of the Nation. He then asked for the Creator's blessing to make Liberty in the United States sacred. Note. I do add parentheses ( ) to add further explanation to words that are not frequently used. George Washington's Inaugural Address 1798 Scripture reveals that God owes man nothing. God is not unjust because He hides truth from some while revealing it to others. Hiding things from some is an evidence of God’s judgment, not His justice. That He extends mercy to any is amazing. That He extends it to those who are inadequate and totally dependent is even more incredible. Furthermore, because He hides truth from those who reject it He shows mercy to them because He will just all people by their response to the truth they have. Matthew 11 John 17 Saint Paul tells us after Jesus has conquered evil and death, he will relinquish his power to serve under the Creator and his Laws. The Creator will then have direct relations and share power with all of His righteous children throughout eternity. 1 Corinthians 15 Philippians 2 The Religious naturalist would accept understaning our environment and respecting Natural laws that govern is the key to understanding our Liberty and Happiness. Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of primal inclinations of happiness and misery that influence our actions. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes. Chapter III No Innate Practical Principles An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke Chapter 3 No Innate Practical Principles Chapter 28 Of Other Relations To understand how Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765. Blackstone considered the Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England Introduction Of the Nature of Laws in General. Locke, Blackstone, Adams and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them. In John Adams letter to Thomas Jefferson mentions Smithfield, London the location of executions of heretics and political rebels over the centuries. Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace, and Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants' Revolt, were among the many religious reformers and dissenters ended in Smithfield. It is probable that Adams, Jefferson, and the Founding Fathers of the United States may have feared they might be added to the list of martyrs. Rebellion against the failure of a monarch to properly rule by a destructive system of Colony Administration. It was Adam's hope that the Creator would support the injustice that caused the degradation of descendants of English Freemen to a state of servitude. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 9 August 1816 Benjamin Franklin delivered this Petition of the Continental Congress, dated October 26, 1774 and signed by fifty-one delegates to the Congress, to Britain's King George III. The petition, stated the grievances of the American provinces and asked for the King's help in seeking solutions to their new founded misery. That their actions would be considered just to the Creator who would be the final judge to every one of them. The Petition of the Grand American Continental Congress, to the King's Most Excellent Majesty Oct. 26 1774 letter of transmittal King George considered the Colonist message of loyalty and attachment to his kingdom to be a farce. The Creator had blessed in England with Freedom and Bounty. Many of King's subjects gave their lives so that that the citizens of England could enjoy the greatest freedom that one could desire. King George considered the words of the rebellious criminal leaders to misrepresenting the truth about the constitution of colonies to be subordinate to Great Britain. America's Continental Congress were unlawfully taking control of British legislative, executive and judicial powers through acts of acts of violence threatening the property and lives of people loyal to the crown. The happiness of England and her subjects depended on her defending the resources the Creator had blessed them with. King George III Speech to Parliament, October 27, 1775 King George was no hero. We will see that King George's greatest failure was that he did not cherish his Subjects as equal citizens, but rather let his emotions lead him to the ignorance of considering them to be indentured caretakers of his corporate empire. Reason would have shown him that the common rights, and interests, of mankind are what all leaders should see. It is clear that George III learned through his instruction that there are times when one must restrain their personal inclinations of the appetite (self interest) for the greater good of the nation. This becomes evident when George III intended to marry his true love to marry Lady Sarah Lenox, the sister of the Duke of Richmond. When the marriage was opposed by his adviser John Stuart, Earl of Bute. George immediately broke off the relationship and wrote in his journal “The interest of my country shall ever be my first care, my own inclinations shall ever submit to it; I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation and consequently must often act contrary to my passions.” Later, King George III asked Lady Sarah to be one of the ten bridesmaids at his wedding to Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It was John Stuart who designed the curriculum that shaped the future king's thoughts on history, law, and politics, relying heavily on works such as a manuscript version of William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and St. John Bolingbroke's The Idea of the Patriot King (1740). Like King George, Thomas Jefferson was very familiar with Bolingboke's work. Much of his commonplace book follows Bolingboke's method of critical reasoning and evidence. Jefferson may have looked at Boilingbroke's words on the human inventions of gods, on his own reasoning of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Further, Jefferson's was on the same opinion of the idolatry of revering the papacy and kings.Henry St. John Bolingbroke considered any leader that put the interests of People that support him befere to him to be a hero. A hero finds virtue through a natural progression of reason to self discipline emotions. Boilingbrook correctly understood deifying human heroes that help maintain order during their lifetime is a blasphamous deception of the higheset order. No leader has the Divine Right to put himself above others. Bolingbroke considered this type of self idol worship to be the cause to the effect of polytheism. These type of leaders deceive even themselves to be worshiped as Divine Judges. But, in the end all of these human idols gain no power from the Creator, unlesss His Divine Will to do so. Boilingbroke does make a good point that these divine clowns betray an imperfection of our nature, being our pride, vanity, and presumption? The notion of lawgivers or a leader deceiving subjects, to be ordained by the Creator, would be known by any simpleton as using His name for personal Vanity. Any lawgiver or leader that deceives Citizens to believing thier office to be Divine and sacred should be considered false idol worship. Jefferson most likely understood that Boilingbrook lead King George and his readers into a Sophist trap by inventing a false presumption that our happiness is dependent on good society and king. While Society does plays a significant role in a person's happiness, but is not the only factor. Monotheist would instantly point that the Prophet Abraham left the comfort of society fillled with false idol worship and found the Creator. Thomas Jefferson would have also rebuked any notion that we are always governed by laws that are always of interest to the People. Further, Jefferson would also have rebuked any duty or obligation of submission to laws that take or give away any person's right to Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness given by the Creator. It is my understanding that our third president would have argued that any laws enacted on personal self interest would not be ordained by the Creator in any way. It is true that Lawmaking and governing becomes more difficult, if the People do not share the same morality, grievances and common enemies as their leaders. A Patriot must protect Liberty, whether or not it is in his interest to do so. It is all our duty protect Liberty and promote happiness for all mankind. But a good Leader must hold the highest conduct, because it is his duty to do so; a duty that he owes to The Creator by one law, and to his people by another. Both Jefferson would support the implicit idea that the Creator has given power to no particular individual, because by nature all Men are Equal; therefore, by Natural Law Power is given to the People or Multitude. At this period of time Jews, Christians, and Muslims would most likely have objected Pure Democracy by pointing to the royal bloodline of King David of the Old Testament. Britains's Royal College of Arms believes Queen Elizabeth, to bee a direct descendant of King David. Queen Elizabeth is also head of the Anglican Church. The Idea of a Patriot King Henry St. John Bolingbroke Reading Boilingbroke, King George would have taken notice of Sir Robert Filmer, an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings. In his work, The Natural Power of Kings, Sir Robert considers Liberty to be the cause of action for the Fall of Adam. An example of Liberty, would be reformulating the first sentence in a contest that fits with today's culture. The Fall of the first archetype couple (Eve and Adam) was caused not following a command given the Creator. If we believe that the Creator is Nature, then Eve and Adam went against the Law of Nature with their given Liberty of Choice; called Reason. The Natural Power of Kings. By the Learned Sir Robert Filmer Baronet In the Book of Acts we see the body of Christ (Apostles) not follow a command given by the High Priest (Magistrate, Head of Sanhendrin, [Supreme Court]) that no Jew to mention the name of the Rabbi (Teacher), Jesus the Christ (Savior), who hung on a tree (Crucified, Cursed by the Creator). Council Member and Rabbi Gamaliel, of Hillel Pharisee of School of Law, stood up and suggested the possiblity that the Apostles may messengers of the Creator (Hashem, Allah). All Commands of the Creator should dutifully honored. If the Council was to punish the Apostles, the Creator may go against them like he did with King Saul. Acts 5 Hebrews and Christians believe and testify that the first recorded action In law, is a set of recorded events of disobeying the Creator and Master that led to their Fall. It is important to note that Muslims and Mormons and other faiths have different implicit accounts, which I plan to discuss. I also plan to define the fourth rational character known as the serpant, that testifies the implicit Liberty concept of Disobedience with the penalty of suffering mortal death. Other serpants have been known to Jews and Christians. In Scripture we read an account where the Isrealite nation complains and is ungrateful for the help the Creator has given to them during their time time in the wilderness. Their complaint was the implicit Liberty concept of vanity, which is considered a violation of a command the Creator previously had given to the Israelites. The penalty of death by fiery serpant was judged upon them. Those who did not die immediately die, took responsibility for the their actions and asked for forgiveness. The Creator choose to give mercy to the remaining Isrealites. He gives Moses a remedy for the plague: craft a snake snake of fiery copper on pole and was cured the poisen snake bites. Numbers Chapter 21 Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 8 1 Corinthians 12 Ephesions 4 In the the city of Jerusalem (Peace, Shalem, Salaam,) there once was a temple (tabernacle, palace) to the Creator (Hashem) of the Most High. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 76 We can imagine when the Creator appeared it was like a moving thunderstorm. 47:2 "Ner" is the Hebrew word for candle; the soul is the candle of God Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 50 In Jerusalem, King Machizedek High Priest at the tabernacle (temple) of God (Hashem) of the Most High. One of his duties was that a peacemaker of disputes. In this passage the reader is placed of scene of King Melchizedek shaing bread and wine to Abraham and his foe King Sodom to agree on terms of surrender and war reperation. King Melchizedek congratulates Abraham with blessing from the Creator of the most high who posseses (owns) everything. Note. I use the text color aquablue to represent the righteous and grey to represent the supernatural. Red denotes the adveraries (Satan) Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 14 Targum Jonathan on Genesis 14:18-24 Letter to the Hebrews Chapter 7 Divrei Hayamim I - I Chronicles - Chapter 1 Luke 3 Matthew 5 The Dead sea scroll proclaims Prince Melchizedek will return Isreali prisoners to their home and property. Prince Melchizedek will announce a special Day of Atonement where he will judge and release righteous Israelis from any debt of their sins. The Melchizedek Document (11Q13) Translated by James Scott Trimm God had foretold Abraham that his offspring would become kings of many nations. Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 17 God had made Abraham a powerful person, which his Hittite neighbors acknowledged Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 23 The Creator's initial purpose for the Citizen of Israel to be all princes and He to be their king. Shemot - Exodus - Chapter 19 Rabbi Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno (1470-1550) wrote an important commentary on Exodus 19:6 It had been G’d’s intention to make the Jewish people immortal at the time of the revelation at Mount Sinai, giving them the status that Adam had enjoyed before he sinned. Alas, just as Adam had sinned and had become mortal in the Garden (gan) Eden, the Jewish people sinned with the golden calf and suffered the same fate as the first man. The disaster is documented in Exodus 33,6 “the Children of Israel had to divest themselves of their jewelry which had been given them at Mount Chorev.” Mekhilta De-Rabbi Shimon Bar Yohai Tractate Bahodesh Chapter XLIX:IV Mekhilta De-Rabbi Shimon Bar Yohai Tractate Bahodesh Chapter XLIX: V 18. Vayikra - Leviticus - Chapter 19 The Creator made provision for kings to rule His people in his place. Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 17 The Torah relates that the Kohen is to perform the judicial duty to resolve conflict and to assist in purifying skin disease or mildew. Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 21 Rashi, in his commentary to Books of Chronicles, notes that while the priests and Levites were occupied with Torah instruction and teaching Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 24 Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 8 The am ha-arez in the Talmud refers to "the people of Land" to uneducated Jews, who were deemed likely to be negligent in their observance of the commandments due to their ignorance wanted a king like other nations around them. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin Folio 20a Quran Surah Al-Baqarah - The Cow Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi) from 11th century France defines the word “Cohen (Kohen)” as a prince, referencing 2nd Samuel, where it states that David’s sons were chief officers (Cohanim or Kohanim). Shmuel II - II Samuel - Chapter 8 Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 45 the ministers of the King where present to ascertain that the nation took their words with due respect and seriousness. Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 17 The "Mekhilta de-Rabbi Yishmael" has traditionally been ascribed to Rabbi Ishmael. The Mekhilta (Mekilta; a collection of rules of interpretation) is divided into nine treatises (massektot). The Massekta de-Bahodesh (quoted as "Baḥ.") Mekhilta d'Rabbi Yishmael 19:6 God purposed to bless all other nations through His theocratic reign over Israel. This was a rule that God chose to administer through divinely chosen mediators who spoke and acted for God in governing functions and who were personally responsible to Him for what they did. These vice-regents were people like Moses, Joshua, the judges (including Samuel), and the kings, but God remained the real sovereign down to the end of this kingdom in history (1 Chron. 29:25). The Shekinah cloud visibly represented God’s presence as the divine ruler. This glorious cloud entered and filled the tabernacle at the inception of the kingdom Mekhilta de - Rabbi Shimon Bar Yohai Bolingbroke wrote that on occasion, the Creator bestows His Holy Spirit on a few individuals born to do His Will through public service. These individuals have graced with superior talents (genius, knowledge, and experience) that make them distinct from the rest of society. These are individuals are endowed with a spirit of reason to cope with ambition, avarice, despair, and not let sensual pleasures run their life. During the American revolution there were capable Patriots on both sides considered to be blessed with superior talents. The difference was the British heroes were ignorant, or had prejudice against the colonies loss of Liberty. Their British failure of reason would cause a misapplication talents that would be considered a crime in its nature and consequence of going against the Designs of Providence. Jefferson would have concluded to tip the balance in America's favor, it new leaders must use their God given talents and reason the good and welfare of the colonies, then Divine vengeance would surely fall upon Britain. Following Bolingbroke's Spirit of Patriotism, the Declaration of Independence taught that America's citizens can hope to achieve the happiness attributed to the Creator by employing the greater good at the expense of lesser evil. It is up to government leaders to guard our people with the use of reason. It is up to our citizen patriots to understand that the common happiness of Liberty depends on the importance of individual duty in submitting to law and government, which firmly opposes evil corruption and is grateful for the blessings of the Creator. Is Virtue real? Or is the appearance of it good enough? Monotheist have a much deeper implicit viewpoint than the Natural Diest Bolingbroke writes. On the Spirit of Patriotism Henry St. John Bolingbroke George Wythe was the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, and a Virginia judge. The first of the seven Virginia signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence, Wythe served as one of Virginia's representatives to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention. Jefferson studied Bolingbroke's Works during his time as George Wythe's legal apprentice. Wythe remained particularly close to Jefferson, and left Jefferson his substantial book collection in his will. We can see Jefferson was agreement with Bolingbroke on the talents and moral character of appointed Judges. From Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, June1776 By 1771, when he advised young Robert Skipwith on his book buying, Jefferson included Bolingbroke’s Political Works in his suggested of catalogue of 30 books. From Thomas Jefferson to Robert Skipwith, with a List of Books for a Private Library 3 August 1771 Here is a partial list of literary works that Jefferson recommended that apply to our journey of discovering the Creative Force of Nature designs for Life and Happiness or Death and Misery If we are to believe that the Will of Our Creator is Natural law. INTRODUCTION. Of the Study, Nature, and Extent of the Laws of England. SECTION I. ON THE STUDY OF THE LAW. The science thus committed to his charge, to be cultivated, methodized, and explained in a course of academical lectures, is that of the laws and constitution of our own country: a species of knowledge, in which the gentlemen of England have been more remarkably deficient than those of all Europe besides. In most of the nations of the continent, where the civil or imperial law, under different modifications, is closely interwoven with the municipal laws of the land, no gentleman, or at least no scholar, thinks his education is completed, till he has attended a course or two of lectures, both upon the institutes of Justinian and the local constitutions of his native soil, under the very eminent professors that abound in their several universities. And in the northern parts of our own island, where also the municipal laws are frequently connected with the civil, it is difficult to meet with a person of liberal education, who is destitute of a competent knowledge in that science which is to be the guardian of his natural rights and the rule of his civil conduct. ...Far be it from me to derogate from the study of the civil law, considered (apart from any binding authority) as a collection of written reason. No man is more thoroughly persuaded of the general excellence of its rules, and the usual equity of its decisions, nor is better convinced of its use as well as ornament to the scholar, the divine, the statesman, and even the common lawyer. But we must not carry our veneration so far as to sacrifice our Alfred and Edward to the manes of Theodosius and Justinian; we must not prefer the edict of the prætor, or the rescript of the Roman emperor, to our own immemorial customs, or the sanctions of an English parliament; unless we can also prefer the despotic monarchy of Rome and Byzantium, for whose meridians the former were calculated, to the free constitution of Britain, which the latter are adapted to perpetuate. Without detracting, therefore, from the real merits which abound in the imperial law, I hope I may have leave to assert, that if an Englishman must be ignorant of either the one or the other, he had better be a stranger to the Roman than the English institutions. For I think it an undeniable position, that a competent knowledge of the laws of that society in which we live, is the proper accomplishment of every gentleman and scholar; an highly useful, I had almost said essential, part of liberal and polite education. And in this I am warranted by the example of ancient Rome; where, as Cicero informs us,(a) the very boys were obliged to learn the twelve tables by heart, as a carmen necessarium or indispensable lesson, to imprint on their tender minds an early knowledge of the laws and constitution of their country. And, first, to demonstrate the utility of some acquaintance with the laws of the land, let us only reflect a moment on the singular frame and polity of that land which is governed by this system of laws. A land, perhaps, the only one in the universe, in which political or civil liberty is the very end and scope of the constitution. This liberty, rightly understood, consists in the power of doing whatever the laws permit, which is only to be effected by a general conformity of all orders and degrees to those equitable rules of action by which the meanest individual is protected from the insults and oppression of the greatest. As therefore every subject is interested in the preservation of the laws, it is incumbent upon every man to be acquainted with those at least with which he is immediately concerned; lest he incur the censure, as well as inconvenience, of living in society without knowing the obligations which it lays him under. And thus much may suffice for persons of inferior condition, who have neither time nor capacity to enlarge their views beyond that contracted sphere in which they are appointed to move. But those, on whom nature and fortune have bestowed more abilities and greater leisure, cannot be so easily excused. These advantages are given them, not for the benefit of themselves only, but also of the public: and yet they cannot, in any scene of life, discharge properly their duty either to the public or themselves, without some degree of knowledge in the laws. All gentlemen of fortune are, in consequence of their property, liable to be called upon to establish the rights, to estimate the injuries, to weigh the accusations and sometimes to dispose of the lives of their fellow-subjects, by serving upon juries. In this situation they have frequently a right to decide, and that upon their oaths, questions of nice importance, in the solution of which some legal skill is requisite; especially where the law and the fact, as it often happens, are intimately blended together. And the general incapacity, even of our best juries, to do this with any tolerable propriety, has greatly debased their authority; and has unavoidably thrown more power into the hands of the judges, to direct, control, and even reverse their verdicts, than perhaps the constitution intended. Yet farther; most gentlemen of considerable property, at some period or other in their lives, are ambitious of representing their country in parliament: and those, who are ambitious of receiving so high a trust, would also do well to remember its nature and importance. They are not thus honorably distinguished from the rest of their fellow-subjects, merely that they may privilege their persons, their estates, or their domestics; that they may list under party banners; may grant or withhold supplies; may vote with or vote against a popular or unpopular administration; but upon considerations far more interesting and important. They are the guardians of the English constitution; the makers, repealers, and interpreters of the English laws; delegated to watch, to check, and to avert every dangerous innovation, to propose, to adopt, and to cherish any solid and well-weighed improvement; bound by every tie of nature, of honor, and of religion, to transmit that constitution and those laws to posterity, amended if possible, at least without any derogation. And how unbecoming must it appear in a member of the legislature to vote for a new law, who is utterly ignorant of the old! ...the science of legislation, the noblest and most difficult of any. Apprenticeships are held necessary to almost every art, commercial or mechanical: a long course of reading and study must form the divine, the physician, and the practical professor of the laws; but every man of superior fortune thinks himself born a legislator. Yet Tully was of a different opinion: “It is necessary,” says he,“for a senator to be thoroughly acquainted with the constitution; and this,” he declares, “is a knowledge of the most extensive nature; a matter of science, of diligence, of reflection; without which no senator can possibly be fit for his office.” ...where the imperial law is much cultivated, and its decisions pretty generally followed, we are informed by Van Leeuwen that “it receives its force from custom and the consent of the people, either tacitly or expressly given; for otherwise,” he adds, “we should no more be bound by this law, than by that of the Almains, the Franks, the Saxons, the Goths, the Vandals, and other of the ancient nations.” Wherefore, in all points in which the different systems depart from each other, the law of the land takes place of the law of Rome, whether ancient or modern, imperial or pontifical. ...A copy of Justinian’s pandects, being newly discovered at Amalfi, soon brought the civil law into vogue all over the west of Europe, where before it was quite laid aside, and in a manner forgotten, though some traces of its authority remained in Italy and the eastern provinces of the empire.This now became in a particular manner the favorite of the popish clergy, who borrowed the method and many of the maxims of their canon law from this original. The study of it was introduced into several universities abroad, particularly that of Bologna, where exercises were performed, lectures read, and degrees conferred in this faculty, as in other branches of science; and many nations on the continent, just then beginning to recover from the convulsions consequent upon the overthrow of the Roman empire, and settling by degrees into peaceable forms of government, adopted the civil law, (being the best written system then extant,) as the basis of their several constitutions; blending and interweaving it among their own feudal customs, in some places with a more extensive, in others a more confined authority. a Norman abbot, being elected to the see of Canterbury, and extremely addicted to this new study, brought over with him in his retinue many learned proficients therein; and, among the rest, Roger, surnamed Vacarius, whom he placed in the university of Oxford to teach it to the people of this country. But it did not meet with the same easy reception in England, where a mild and rational system of laws had been long established, as it did upon the continent; and though the monkish clergy, devoted to the will of a foreign primate, received it with eagerness and zeal, yet the laity, who were more interested to preserve the old constitution, and had already severely felt the effect of many Norman innovations, continued wedded to the use of the common law: King Stephen immediately published a proclamation, forbidding the study of the laws, then newly imported from Italy, which was treated by the monks as a piece of impiety; and, though it might prevent the introduction of the civil law process into our courts of justice, yet did not hinder the clergy from reading and teaching it in their own schools and monasteries. From this time the nation seems to have been divided into two parties, the bishops and clergy, many of them foreigners, who applied themselves wholly to the study of the civil and canon laws, which now came to be inseparably interwoven with each other, and the nobility and laity, who adhered with equal pertinacity to the old common laws; both of them reciprocally jealous of what they were unacquainted with, and neither of them, perhaps, allowing the opposite system that real merit which is abundantly to be found in each. But wherever they retired, and wherever their authority extended, they carried with them the same zeal to introduce the rules of the civil, in exclusion of the municipal law. This appears in a particular manner from the spiritual courts of all denominations, from the chancellor’s courts in both our universities, and from the high court of chancery before mentioned; in all of which the proceedings are to this day in a course much conformed to the civil law: for which no tolerable reason can be assigned, unless that these courts were all under the immediate direction of the popish ecclesiastics (clergy), among whom it was a point of religion to exclude the municipal (governing) law; Pope Innocent the Fourth having forbidden(l) the very reading of it by the clergy, because its decisions were not founded on the imperial constitutions, but merely on the customs of the laity. ...a science, which distinguishes the criterions of right and wrong; which teaches to establish the one, and prevent, punish, or redress the other; which employs in its theory the noblest faculties of the soul, and exerts in its practice the cardinal virtues of the heart; a science, which is universal in its use and extent, accommodated to each individual, yet comprehending the whole community; that a science like this should ever have been deemed unnecessary to be studied in an university, is matter of astonishment and concern. Aristotle himself has said, speaking of the laws of his own country, that jurisprudence, or the knowledge of those laws, is the principal and most perfect branch of ethics. experience may teach us to foretell that a lawyer, thus educated to the bar, in subservience to attorneys and solicitors,(n) will find he has begun at the wrong end. If practice be the whole he is taught, practice must also be the whole he will ever know: if he be not instructed in the elements and first principles upon which the rule of practice is founded, the least variation from established precedents will totally distract and bewilder him: ita lex scripta est(o) is the utmost his knowledge will arrive at; he must never aspire to form, and seldom expect to comprehend, any arguments drawn, a priori, from the spirit of the laws and the natural foundations of justice. The inconveniences here pointed out can never be effectually prevented, but by making academical education a previous step to the profession of the common law, and at the same time making the rudiments of the law a part of academical education. For sciences are of a sociable disposition, and flourish best in the neighborhood of each other; nor is there any branch of learning but may be helped and improved by assistances drawn from other arts. If, therefore, the student in our laws hath formed both his sentiments and style by perusal and imitation of the purest classical writers, among whom the historians and orators will best deserve his regard; if he can reason with precision, and separate argument from fallacy, by the clear simple rules of pure unsophisticated logic; if he can fix his attention, and steadily pursue truth through any the most intricate deduction, by the use of mathematical demonstrations; if he has enlarged his conceptions of nature and art, by a view of the several branches of genuine experimental philosophy; if he has impressed on his mind the sound maxims of the law of nature, the best and most authentic foundation of human laws; if, lastly, he has contemplated those maxims reduced to a practical system in the laws of imperial Rome; if he has done this, or any part of it, (though all may be easily done under as able instructors as ever graced any seats of learning,) a student thus qualified may enter upon the study of the law with incredible advantage and reputation.
  9. The Didache - Introduction "Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy. Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of increasing hostility between Science and Faith it can be difficult discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of Man. The above introduction gives you a point in my road map to understanding and accepting the Truth to what is happiness is and its importance to critical thinking. To understand my reasoning it is important to that I give you the reader background on what has been deemed as good and bad conduct , and the concepts of truth and happiness. I will be introducing and organizing relevant subject material (data) that establishes a frame of reference relating to systematic chains of thought that accurately explain the noumenon (concept) known as human wisdom of discerning the truth to what is good and bad. On my life path to happiness I have had the pleasure and honor of encountering happy individuals that have the ability to dissipate any negative feelings with their welcoming presence and positive influence. These happy individuals have trained (neuro hacked) their minds to consciously Discern (Judge) what is negative and be in harmony with the positive. Through Force of Will (Will Force, Thought Force) they are able to induce good actions (vibrations, energy) of love and joy to the environment (people, animals, plants) around them. I have also met seductive individuals who can confidently look me in the eyes while asking me my interests and what will truly bring happiness to my life happy. Through experience I have witnessed the keen ability of these to predict a likely outcome based on my given response. Some predictions are so powerful that they can be perceived as true and like grace or magic initiate a self-fulfilling prophecy to change us. Their consulting can become persuasive and become an important activity for vulnerable people going through life transitions (new job, relocating, ending relationships, children leaving home, medical condition, death). Through Force of Will these individuals suggest actions that make sense in a particular moment of uncertainty. Then there are those authoritarians in the world that have the power to dictate and control decisions and actions of individuals. Through emotional force conditioning (fear, punishment) that totally break down individuality and bias experienced everyday in mainstream culture. One becomes inculcated (remolded) to unhesitatingly obey and not discuss (question) desired behavior (manner). In humility, I hope my essay to be an addendum to Jefferson's "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) and George Washington's "Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior" to best present the moral truth found in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. In hope of sharing my personal Happiness, I claim the right to poetic license and layout design when it comes to the Emphasis of my thoughts and feelings in defining this idea. I will cite all my work with hyper text links to support a maxim (theory). Like Washington's Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior it is my premise is that there is a fraternal order of a true beliefs and customs that are self-evident (obvious) to finding Happiness and like-minded people. We can understand the fragility of life to be self-evident. But, understanding a worthy purpose and value is unclear for many. My second premise is the path (mechanism) to finding Happiness is to understand, accept and develop a Cognitive Behavior (Conduct) Appetite (Desire) to being Good (Virtuous). I find optimizing Behavior to be similar to understanding the human body by developing a healthy lifestyle. Through repetition one habits will change to clear Vision (Memory, thought) of what past actions and testimonies (teachings) by others brought a true or false Sense (Cognitive Awareness) of Happiness. My third premise is to understand and distinguish the balance of our desire and memory of Pleasure (Release) and Serenity (Tranquility, Peace) with a clear vision of Virtue in our pursuit of Joy. It is Virtue (Honor) that provides us the ability to be aware of a higher form of happiness than a temporary pleasurable moments to our physical Appetites (Cravings). By being Mindful (focusing) on knowledge learned on how to optimize our natural Moral Instinct (Sense, Personality Trait) to love others will bring greater happiness over our Desire (Passion, Inclination, Physical Instinct) of of temporary sensual pleasures. Nature has given our brain the ability to express any form of Virtue or Vice Survival (Necessity) requires. My fourth premise that to obtain this Virtue one must learn to develop the ability to discern (reason) what actions (decisions, paths) are deemed good that bring Happiness and the bad actions that bring Misery. It is up each one of us to choose the right path to take and face the outcome of our decision. The achievements and failures we make in life teach us the contrast of Happiness to Misery. For me, Happiness like being comfortably cool with a slight breeze brushing on my body. And Misery is experiencing the agony of sweat boiling on your skin from stagnant heat. In time, the repetition of Good (Virtuous) actions that have brought us happiness will develop into automatic habits that are done without intentional thinking. Through practice one can develop a moral sense of Joy by developing a Habit (force of will) doing virtuous acts without the expectation or need to constrain the reward of pleasure. To pursue the Truth of Happiness we must aspire to find those unique individuals we universally respect as role models (mentor) and take seriously their wisdom given. It is of equal importance adjust our internal understandings of Happiness to a position that connects to a particular role model's moral foundation. As you become familiar with a mentor's idea on how to find Happiness you will be able to better formulate your own method to attain it. The Father of the United States taught the Nation that Enlightenment (Understanding) was found through the etiquette of proper manners (behavior). I do my best to follow his advice in all my communication. After explaining this to my 13 year old son Luke, he responded that understanding happiness takes practice doing what you believe to be good. A young thirteen year old George Washington wrote a maxim of conduct that one must respect all in Company and Conversation. George Washington's Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior It is my hope to give the same Civil (Reasonable) courtesy and respect all the individuals that I mention in this discourse. In my experience Civility leads to rich human conversations, smiles, and laughter. The importance of Respect for others was taught to me early on through televised communication. In the 1970s millions of American parents sat their girls and boys in front of the television to watch Mr. Rogers Neighborhood on Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Fred Rogers was an ordained Presbyterian minister. But, I did not know that when I was a kid. I just remember Mr. Rogers, as a kind gentleman that always wore a warm cardigan sweater and blue sneakers (boat shoes). Mr. Rogers was my first television neighbor who always welcomed me every morning with, "I'm glad we're together again." He taught children like myself to love everyone. Fred Rogers understood the importance of Civility when meeting with other Neighbors, Associates, and any anyone we come in contact with; regardless of race, nationality, religion or other distinctions. The World According to Mister Rogers: Important Things to Remember We are All Neighbors - Page 61 It is my belief that we all have to focus on Righteous individuals like Mr. Rogers that have an instinctive desire to preserve and improve all life. The value of Collective (Sharing) Wisdom from Righteous individuals is enormous; it inspires us; it warns us; it furnishes us with names, facts and scenes from collaborative storehouse of memory. It directs our thoughts, tastes, and accomplishes tasks so intricate that individually we do not have the capacity to obtain. No one can be coerced to search for Happiness. But, through mutual respect and Social Contract (Declaration and Constitution) Society can advocate its Citizens to be healthy and do good in their Independent Pursuit (Liberty) of obtaining the Grace (Gift) of personal Joy. Mr. Rogers did not force me to be mindful of others, rather he gently encouraged me to focus on my Ideal of Happiness and learn to understand its opposite. Fred Rogers masterfully taught me to idealize myself as a special person that had the power to influence the lives of everyone I meet with either happiness or misery. This ideal (fixed purpose) led me to begin visualizing what Happiness and Misery really is. The Pursuit of Happiness In our pursuit for the Truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence adopted by The Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. Behavior Science has taught me that learning comes through observation, imitation, and modelling individuals that appear happy and successful. Every time we learn something new our mirror neuron system (network of neurons located in frontal lobe of brain) becomes active and stores that episodic information, so in the future we can act accordingly. The first advice of of achieving happiness comes from a distinguished American gentleman that exemplified leadership, vision and civil (virtuous) conduct throughout his life. Our nation's first President, George Washington writes a letter to his elderly mother, giving practical advice on what is really important in life. Washington's belief that implicit happiness is not a quantifiable object or equation lost in the world. Rather, America's first President regarded happiness to be found if understood as an internal framework mechanism (attitude) within our conscious that controls the outcome of our thoughts. Any man that can convince and train battle weary soldiers to fight for the ideal of happiness gets a seat in my campfire as guest I value and trust. From George Washington to Mary Ball Washington, 15 February 1787 A Neuroscientist (neurobiologist) at this point may interject and state that Happiness is just an illusion of the mind, due to a decrease in flooding of the limbic reward regions (biocircuitry) with dopamine, a feel good neurotransmitter chemical that causes a decrease in frontal cortex regulation. When when we eat food that we crave or while we have sex our dopamine system is activated, we are more positive, excited and eager to go after goals or rewards, such as food, sex, money, education, professional, and family achievements. This frontal cortex limitation (illusion) also involves higher-order executive functions that maintain; our self-control, emotions, behavioral regulation, awareness, attention, memory, bias, associative learning, which results in a suspension (interception) in judgement (reason) that distorts our perception and future actions with memories that remind us what to seek out and will be rewarded. I remember in school as a student my teacher posed the question on which came first, the chicken or the egg? I see a similar case, on which comes first, Happiness or Desire? It is not clear which metaphoric adjective is the cause or effect to these stimuli. Is it Spiritual (Supernatural) or Biochemical perception and response to external (surrounding) world (environment, stimuli)? Or is it a mixture of both? Is our Conscience result of Universal thought manifestations (Spirits) from a Cosmic Creator (Hashem, Allah, God) operating on a dimensional plane outside known Creation? Is the neural activity patterns of Conscience designed (developed)to be intentionally influenced by supernatural manipulation of both space and time affecting our cognitive beliefs, attitudes, behavior involving faith practices, including prayer(meditation, contemplation) and nurtured learning. Science theorizes our conscience to result of a neurochemical identification filtering process that involves not only the evolution of perception through Natural Selection, but through a Bioalgorithm underlying our sociocognitive beliefs, attitudes, or behavior involving intentional and unintentional influence of nature including meditation and nurtured learning. If it is the latter, then we are the product of random chance design that has evolved over time to create an organism with stereotypic burst-firing neurons that involve voluntary (deliberate) and involuntary (unintentional) influence to internal memory, perception, understanding and imagination? If our conscious a result chance of Natural Selection (Biological Determinism) , that our body creates awareness, then awareness is governed by physical laws and sociocognitive learning dies (ceases to exist) along with the body in one final dream. If our consciousness created by a supernatural Spirit, then whether our body is governed physical laws and our consciousness (awareness) experiences death is not clear. Further, I would our Conscious (Mind) is a experiential bridge between our measurable biochemical powered brain perception and our undetectable (unmeasurable) Spirit (soul, light) from an unknown system outside time and space. This experiential bridge has unique design synaptic (brain) thought pattern (configuration) of encoded neurons and synapses memories that are incompatible with biological determinism. The concept of Happiness gives us hope beyond explicit reason. Testimonies of happiness have been shared in wisdom storytelling and spiritual writings (symbology) in cultures since the beginning of recorded time. Through the use of metaphors (symbols) and allegories (parables, tales) our mind can grasp invisible realities (imagination) of the unmeasurable Spirit by association with experiences we have encountered in our physical environment and nurtured learning of reality throughout our lifetime. As our physical and cultural sense grow, our Personal Story (Identity) our Point of View (Frame of Reference) of this world becomes more defined. Monotheists and Polytheists profess (believe) that the Frame of Reference to our physical and Spiritual existence is a result of the Glory and Wonder of the Great Spirit (Creator, God, Hashem, Allah, Brahma ). The Conscious Mind of the Creator emanates (radiates) waves of light, energy and sound similar the Sun we see every day. The Creator emanates Thoughts (Angels, Pure Spirits, Constructs, Messengers) manifest themselves throughout our ever expanding Universe. One thought manifestation is known by Christians to be the Spirit of Love. It is believed that the Fruit of the Spirit of Love (Happiness, Joy, Peace, Gentleness, Goodness) is bestowed (Graced) to individuals that Pursuit (Seek, Desire) as a result virtuous deeds to frame their mind to understand and accepting Wisdom (Truth) of this Eternal construct. Galatians 5 Thomas Jefferson believed this it can be quite difficult to see distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior with just one self. Morality is to found by observing our duty to the rules agreed upon by a social contract made with fellow citizens. The imperfection of ego allows one to share false implicit ideas of what is good is a life of self gratification. Self love leads to putting ourselves over our duty to being civil with and at times endanger others. For this reason Jefferson considered that self love should not be defined as being either moral or virtuous. Our late president went further and affirmed that through instruction and discipline one could attain virtue. Jefferson believed the primal emotional pleasure of happiness originates from the realization that that is a natural instinct to love of others. And it is my premise that this love drives our instinct to help others escape the primal emotional pain of misery. But, it is our imperfection of senses that limit our ability to understand this instinct to love with temporary rewarding and pleasurable experiences our brains are wired to seek and enjoy that with excess can impede our pursuit of happiness. Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Law, 13 June 1814 A Social Disposition can be a desirable or undesirable intentional pattern of behavior (character) that can include an intentional stance (belief) and/or action that may impact other individuals or the environment around them for the better or worse. Examples of desirable dispositions; resourcefulness, curiosity, persistence, honesty, empathy, leadership, integrity, and respect. Examples of undesirable dispositions, such as selfishness, impatience, and intolerance. It is my belief that these dispositions are developed through a habit of mind under both by conscious and unconscious suggestions observed from intentional and accidental events. Jefferson wrote to his friend, the principal author of the United States Constitution, James Madison, on his view of proper education playing a key role in safeguarding National Liberty. All Americans should take the time to study the concept of Human Rights and illuminate problems encountered in protecting them. ALL PEOPLE should learn the religious, philosophical and social customs that have evolved and enabled the Framing a Social Contract that is significant to our lives. To James Madison from Thomas Jefferson, 20 December 1787 Before you start reading further, please take the time make yourself comfortable. Relaxation will open your mind to understanding the knowledge being shared to you. Reflect on a cherished memory of people you trust and love. I have many fond memories of vacationing around the country with my parents. One reoccurring memory I have is vacationing at Big Meadows Campground secluded in the rolling hills of Shenandoah National Park. In my memory I am roasting the perfect marshmallow over the glowing coals of our campfire. Dad tells Mom what a good time he was having and how much he loves us. I like to now imagine a new memory of my father camping with the grandchildren he never got to meet during his time here on earth. I can clearly imagine my parents and family ancestors sitting around a campfire with sharing their thoughts of love in a safe bliss of peace. Every time you recall any given moment that brings you happiness, it becomes a catalyst (stimulus) to cause a biochemical synthesis (chemical reaction) that produces extra receptors (signal-receiving neurons) that are stored to the amygdala in a unique emotion long term memory (ELTM). The amygdala is functionally connected to the fusiform face area (FFA) and stimulates a visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM). The amygdala also is connected to the hippocampus and stimulates a unique spatial long term memory (SLTM). Like physical exercise, one must intend to consistently practice thinking about a Happy moment even when it is uncomfortable. Through conditioning neutral and negative stimuli can become connected to that specific long term happy memory (LTHM). I can imagine the Greek Empiricist (Passive Sensualist), Epicurus sitting around our campfire teaching us how to frame our intellect to seek the wisdom of what brings happiness, long life, and good fortune. Their wisdom has taught me to focus on Just (Good, Righteous) social relations. With like minded Good People I have been able to discover further path's to a peace of mind. Some of these good individuals lived at a different point of time, but their words endured the test of time. I now point the torch of wisdom to the Greek Philosopher Epicurus warning one to avoid the unhealthy risks and consequences of engaging with Corrupt (Bad, Wicked) minds in constant unrested conflict. Principal Doctrines, 310 BC – 270 BC Epicurus Epicurus shared good wisdom. We need to guard our conscious against the suggestion of fear, hatred, selfishness, greed, self-depreciation and other negative forces, derived from surrounding ourselves chronically distressed persons or focusing on unfortunate circumstances to be the social norm. We need to train our minds gather accurate Inferences (Conclusions based on evidence and reasoning) from sources that are Just with peace of mind. Let us imagine Aristotle's talks of reason in Lyceum (Peripatetic School, public teaching space outside the city wall of Athens) to the ears of every male citizen taking an active part in the running of the Democratic Athenian government, his method to advance the Western Civilization (Civilized Society, Refined Culture, Advanced Education). Plato's student, Aristotle understood that knowledge of what happiness is comes first through distinguishing and storing the memories of the pains and pleasures that come from our senses every waking moment. Through our memory we are to frame our thoughts to recall and contemplate (meditate) the pleasurable moments to override the painful ones that transpire. Try meditating on the cherished happy memory you choose earlier to relax when you are in pain, stressed, or depressed. Metaphysics , 340 BC Book 1, section 980a Aristotle Aristotle believed virtue (good habits) to be the supporting structure for our internal framework our minds to think above our established visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile pathways to the brain. It is virtue that provides us the ability to be aware of a higher form of happiness than a temporary pleasure moments to our physical appetites (cravings). To obtain this wisdom one must learn to develop the ability to discern (reason) what actions are deemed virtues. In time, the repetition of virtuous actions will develop into automatic habits that are done without intentional thinking. One will gain wisdom (greater understanding) to the benefits and risks of following principles (ideas) that may or may not lead to happiness. A behavior scientist would state this neuronal override is accomplished through Pavlova conditioning of amygdala neutral and negative stimuli can become connected to that specific Long Term Happy Memory (LTHM). The Nicomachean Ethics , 340 BC Book X - Chapter 7 Aristotle In this passage, the Greek philosopher Plato shares the meaning of happiness through conversational exchange between Plato's teacher, Socrates persuading his fellow Athenian, Cleinias to love and share wisdom. It is through this dialogue that Plato frames happiness and good fortune being found through wisdom (knowledge) of the right use of things in life. The Greek philosopher shared his truth to our reality through the Socratic Method (Prose Dialogue) of constructing social exchanges that reason (harmonize) with our independent intellect (mirror neuron system). Euthydemus 380 BC By Plato At this point it is important to do a comparative analysis of Western European thoughts to those a continent away forming different traditions of obtaining happiness. Let us begin in the state Lu (Tengzhou, Shandong Province) just east of the green misted Taihang mountain range, known for its ancient religious worship and schools of Eastern philosophy. Mohist innovation culture, which is the outstanding tradition and important spiritual trait of the Chinese nation the ancients of Chinese mythology, but he criticized the Confucian belief that modern life should be patterned on the ways of the ancients. After all, he pointed out, what we think of as "ancient" was actually innovative in its time, and thus should not be used to hinder present-day innovation Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius the Hundred Schools of Thought. Mozi (Mo Di, Mo-tze) was a Chinese philosopher who founded the school of Mohism philosophy of logic, rational thought and science. Mozi taught that a Righteous (Superior) Being has a unique ability to frame the mind to sacrifice self-interest and focus on respectful actions of altruism towards others. Superior beings are free from corruption and humble with their fortune. One must respect and love and mourn all that have passed through all stages of life and death. By being mindful (focusing) on knowledge learned on how altruism brings happiness over temporary pleasures. Like Aristole, Mozi aimed at the development of morality and reason. Mozi developed the concept of Universal Love (兼愛; pinyin: jiān ài) arguing that there should be no degree or conditionality in love. Ancient Greeks had at least four different types of love, among which agape was unconditional, spiritual or divine love. in representing the world in their paintings. Moral Relativism to a particular Aristotle provided observational arguments supporting the idea of a spherical Earth, namely that different stars are visible in different locations, travelers going south see southern constellations rise higher above the horizon, and the shadow of Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is round, and spheres cast circular shadows while discs generally do not. Aristotelian physics include the structuring of the cosmos into concentric spheres, with the Earth at the centre (center) and celestial spheres around it. The terrestrial sphere was made of four elements, namely earth, air, fire, and water, subject to change and decay. The celestial spheres were made of a fifth element, an unchangeable aether (ether). Objects made of these elements have natural motions: those of earth and water tend to fall; those of air and fire, to rise. The speed of such motion depends on their weights and the density of the medium. Aristotle argued that a vacuum could not exist as speeds would become infinite. This understanding was accompanied by models of the Universe that depicted the Sun, Moon, stars, and unclothed eye planets circling the spherical Earth, including the noteworthy models of Aristotle (see Aristotelian physics) and Ptolemy. Mozi 470 - 391 BC Book 1 Self-cultivation Mozi was originally a follower of the teachings of Confucius, until he became convinced that Confucianism's dutiful love for the nobles, and the family patriarch, should be replaced with a wider dutiful love and respect for all. Mozi teachings became embraced by the lower classes of society. Mozi Book 4 Universal Love III Confucius is known in China as "Master Kong" (Chinese: Kongzi) a Chinese thinker from Qufu City in the Shandong Province of Eastern China. Confucius is the first professional teacher, writer and scholar of moral education. He believed that human beings were naturally good and that selfish interests could be controlled by adherence to virtue. His influence upon East Asian intellectual and social history is immeasurable. The Analects (Selected Passages) of Confucius recorded by his students. In the Analects of Confucius teaches that outcome is related to one's thoughts and actions. Happiness is having a positive attitude during every moment of your life under any circumstance. Wealth and honors are outside who you are What others say about you is only a guide to how you present yourself. All of these material things fade away. The Analects of Confucius 7. 述而 Shu er - Transmitting - 475 - 221 BC It is said Kunlun became identified with Mount Sumeru (Meru, मेरु), Sineru or Mahāmeru) as the axis mundi in the 5th century. Mount Sumeru is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes. On the top of Mt. Meru is the symbolic home of Buddha and the 33 gods. Around Mt. Meru are the four continents in the four directions. Each of the four heavenly kings protect one direction, one continent: Vaishravana (North), Dhritarashtra (East), Virudhaka (South), Virupaksha (West). These four kings represent the first Indian gods incorporated into the Buddhist narrative. The Four Guardian Kings came before Shakyamuni Buddha just after the Buddha achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree. The four offered, each individually, a black bowl made of sapphire or lapis lazuli to the Buddha. The Buddha accepted the offer and the four bowls miraculously became one bowl. This is the black bowl that is typically seen in the lap of Shakyamuni in painting and sculpture. Although we often speak of "the Buddha," there are many Buddhas with different names, forms that play multiple roles. The word "Buddha" means one who woke up," and in Buddhist doctrine, any such enlightened individual is technically a Buddha. Shakyamuni Buddha is a name given to the historical Buddha, especially in Mahayana Buddhism. So it's nearly always the case that when someone is talking about Shakyamuni, he or she is speaking of the historical figure who was born Prince Siddhartha Gautama, son of King Suddhodana and Queen Maya of the Shakya Clan. In later life, Siddhartha renounced his royal title, became known as Shakyamuni (Sage of the Shakyas). After fighting off Mara, an evil spirit who tempted him with worldly comforts and desires, Siddhartha reached enlightenment, becoming a Buddha (Shakyamuni Budha, Gautama Buddha) at the age of 35 Buddha framed happiness to be found in all beings free of hate or violence. One should have a solid attitude of gladness. Life is a chrysalis (transformation) of existence recorded in many thoughts. Those that are beneficial have a chance to be immutable (unalterable, eternal). But, many thoughts get altered through malice and hate. Shakyamuni Buddha KALAMA SUTTA 563 - 400 BC The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry The Four Exalted Dwellings It is a natural desire to want and hope for happiness, long life, and good fortune. Daoist (Taoists) believe emotions and Yi (desires, wishes, intentions, thoughts) are the natural meaning of Xuè (blood) and Qi (Chi, Ki, Gi, Vital Energy, Spirit, Prana, Force). Qi moves through the earth and manifests into an uncountable variation of material forms each with unique conditions. Scientist would define Qi as a type of quantum thermal (kinetic) energy of particles, atoms and molecules. Yang and Qi are believed by Daoism to be the driving forces of biological activities in the human body. Blood is said to be is a denser form of Qi, and more Yin (feminine, nourishing, moistening) in nature. Qi is more Yang (masculine, vital, active, energetic, etheric) in nature. The Shén residing in heart and named Shén and is said to be above others and representing human spirit and in a way the Self. Taoist (Daoist) believe that the universe is a great conduit of Qi that flows through all things. This energy is known as Dan, (Dan Tien, Elixir, Sea of Qi, Cosmic Energy). Like Cosmic Rays, Dan is the force that pervades and nourishes all things in our expanding universe. There is a maxim where Xīn (intention, mind, heart, center, core) goes, Qi follows. At times Qi is attracted to water and gives life to a myriad things. Qi proliferates into the offspring of these new creations. A biologist would define water as a unique medium (substratum) on which living organisms can be made to grow. Shen (Spirit, Mind) implies our consciousness, mental functions, mental health, vitality, and our "presence." We derive our Shen Qi from the Tao, or eternal aspect of the universe and the underlying nature of everything. Shen can be centered (balanced) or uncentered (imbalanced). Daoist believe when someone has centered Shen, they can easily flow with the laws of nature and universal rhythms, and feel plenty of joy. When someone has uncentered Shen, they might experience uncontrollable emotions like sadness, depression, anxiety, or over-thinking. Ancient Chinese people saw the Yellow River (Huang He) as "the Mother River" and a point of convergence (joining) the essences of Qi and Shen (Divine or Inner Human Spirit, life, oneself) that produce Jing (vitality, fertility, DNA). The Yellow River originates from Bayan Har Mountains, a southern branch of the Kunlun Mountains, in the Qinghai province of Western China. It is said that this region is the Axis Mundi (navel, center of the world, cosmic axis) connection between Heaven and Earth" or the "higher and lower realms. In ancient times, it was believed that the Yellow River flowed from Heaven as a continuation of the Milky Way. The Kunlun Mountains are said to be the dwelling place of the gods, fabled plants and mythical creatures. It is in these Mountains that have long been seen as the origin of the Chinese civilization. The name China means Middle Nation" (中国 pinyin, Zhōngguó) is often interpreted as an expression of an ancient perception that the Chinese polity (or group of polities) occupied the center of the world, with other lands lying in various directions relative to it. The ancient Chinese saw Kunlun as a microcosm of order because it was known and settled. Taoist belief, the sacred landscape of Kunlun is also considered to be a medium through which people communicate with the immortals and the primeval powers of the earth. Outside the boundaries of the Kunlun lied foreign realms that, because they were unfamiliar and not ordered, represented chaos, death, or night. But from this center, people ventured in the four cardinal directions, making discoveries, and establishing new centers as the realms became known and settled. Throughout this discourse we will see similar spiritual traditions have a similar view to the Chinese way of orienting our world (human realm) through a sacred landscape (mountain, cave, tree, pillar, gate, ladder) Axis Mundi (hub, navel, center) earth portal (vortex) to something that transcends it (heaven, other worlds) that either brings happiness (prosperity) or misery (destruction). Lao Tzu (Laozi, Lao-Tze, Old Master) was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching (Book of the Way), the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. Tàishàng Lǎojūn (Laozi, Lord Lao of Grand Supreme, Lǐ Ěr, Boyang Li Dan) 601 - 531 BC Nèiguānjīng (Classic of Internal Contemplation) In Daoist literature happiness in life cannot be attained by forcing one's own destiny; instead, one must be receptive to the path laid for them by tiān lǐ (Heaven's law, natural order) and yuán (destiny). Daoist meditation focuses heavily on "developing the mind of intent." All of the more advanced practices are based on developing skill and clarity of this "mind of intent." Tàishàng Lǎojūn (Laozi, Lord Lao of Grand Supreme, Lǐ Ěr, Boyang Li Dan) 601 - 531 BC Nèiguānjīng (Classic of Internal Contemplation) Just as this energy exists in the universe, Daoist believe it exists in people, too in special areas called Dantians (energy flow centers). There are 7 main Dantian elixir-of-life fields where "essence" and "spirit" are stored within the body. These energy centers are known as Chakras and are responsible for delivering energy into the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual bodies. Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on balancing and enhancing Qi to bring the body into a state of health and vitality to maintain long life. Qi Gong (mastery) is an ancient Chinese health care system that integrates physical postures, breathing techniques and focused intention to open vital energy blockages in the body that can manifest as disease. There are a variety of physical and emotional conditions that are thought to diminish your Qi. Among the most common causes are chronic stress and sleep deprivation. The three Dantians are each associated with one energy, collectively known as the three treasures. They are: The Lower Dantian: (Jing) located two inches below the navel, it is the source of energy which builds the physical body and allows us to develop and use Qi and Shen. The Middle Dantian: (QI) located at the heart, it is energy created from food and air and relates to our emotions and thoughts. The Upper Dantian: (Shen) located at a center point just higher than the eye brows, it is related to our spirit and/or consciousness. Shi Tian shi Celestial Master, Heavenly Teacher is title bestowed upon Zhang Daoling and his descendants; the first Taoist religious community Qi gong translates from Chinese to mean, roughly, to cultivate or enhance the inherent functional (energetic) essence of the human being. It can be described as a mind-body-spirit practice that improves one's mental and physical health by integrating posture, movement, breathing technique, self-massage, sound, and focused intent. Chi Kung is the exercise to build Chi and store it in the body. Teachers often compare this to “saving money in the bank for a rainy day.” Qiqong is like saving and investing money. Everyday you put a little Qi in the bank, so when you’re old or sick you have a nice big savings stored up and you can use it to stay healthy, active and vibrant. Li” (etiquette and ceremony). Lao Tzu (Laozi, Old Master) taught his students that how to frame one's mind to seek happiness by learning from individuals with a good attitude towards life and calm actions that are open and respectful towards others free from malice or hate. Tao Te Ching (Daodejing) Classic of the Way and Virtue Chapter 20 Buddha Tönpa Shenrap Miwo (ston pa gshen rab) 1917 BC - 23,000 BC Shenrap is the founder of the yungdrung (eternal) Bön (chant, religion of Tibet). Bön developed their beliefs through folk customs and practices stretching back into Tibet's prehistory Bonpos (believer in Bon) in the existence of energetic channels in the human body, where meditation deities dwell. The tantra is based on the belief that an adept can be transformed into a specific meditation deity thanks to appropriate visualizations and energy manipulation prophecy, reveal truths, give advice, heal the sick people and livestock, exorcise evil spirits, bring good fortune. The Nine Ways of Bon The Ways of the Fruit (Result) The 5th Way of the Virtuous Lay Practitioners (gen nyen, dge, bsnyen theg pa) Ten and the ten far- reaching attitudes (perfections) Zarathushtra 6184 BC - 551 BC Zarathushtra composed the Ahuna Vairya (Yatha Ahu Vairyo) a sacred prayer and wisdom that if understood and implemented into daily life will provide the key to receiving blessing from the Creator and defeat evil, by doing virtuous acts such as protecting the poor with a loving mind. Buddhists would accept happiness to found in all beings free of hate and protecting those in need with love. Epicureans would accept turning away from selfish hate for altruistic love to be a higher frame of mind. Ahuna Vairya, 1500 BC - 1000 BC The Great Prophet Moses taught the just (virtuous) will prosper under the Creator's protective care. Devarim - Deuteronomy - Second Law - Chapter 12, 1300 BC - 609 BC Unlike Zoroaster, the Prophet Moses taught no Dyeumorphic manifestation of abstract concepts such as Truth and Righteousness that emanate from the Creator's thoughts. However, like Zoraster, Moses reveals the Torah (Teaching, Laws) as way for one to connect to the Creator thoughts and receive His blessings of prosperity and offspring. Devarim - Deuteronomy - Second Law - Chapter 12, 1300 BC - 609 BC The Israelite King David made a declaration that the pursuit of happiness is not to be found in ideas given by corrupt minds. Happiness can be found by understanding the laws given by a Just Creator. The Israelite King believes one needs to follow the instructions revealed to Moses to connect to the Creator and receive His blessings of prosperity and offspring. David uses an analogy that like trees that need an adequate water supply to thrive and set fruit, we need to be adequately connected to the Torah given by the Creator to help us be happy, thrive, and be fruitful in all of our endeavors. Psalms, 1407 BC - 586 BC Chapter 1 Peshitta Holy Bible In this passage John write's a letter to a Senior, lady member and her Christian family. John simply states that the Truth to Happiness is the Commandment Yeshua (Jesus) gave to Love. 2 John 1 Christian Church Concious Reason Before he became the Architect of American Government, A young Harvard graduate, John Adams wrote to a school friend, Richard Cranch his plan to study law with James Putnam the leading lawyer of Worcester. In this letter, Adams shared his exploration of understanding the gifts of sense, intelligence, and reason the Creator (Nature) has bestowed upon us. He found acts of kindness to be of lesser value in understanding the purpose to the design of life. From John Adams to Richard Cranch, 29 August 1756 Conscious Liberty for All Washington believed that when the people learn the light of truth they would discard the darkness of an concealed falsity (lie, untruth). From George Washington to Charles Mynn Thruston, 10 August 1794 Bolingbroke taught that History's greatest heroes individuals are endowed with a spirit of reason to restrain to bad inclinations and habits they are addicted to the most, then focus on following the will of the Creator. Henry St John, Lord Viscount Bolingbroke Letters on the Study and the Use of History Letter III Claude Adrien Helvétius defined physical sensibility as an instinctual function of the mind to perceive then remember resemblance and differences in objects. This instinctual function also allows us to distinguish agreements or disagreements of ideas and show compassion for others in their time of need. Ideas that we take notice originate from individuals we trust and have acted to benefit our self interest. It is testimony of these trusted individuals that communicate impressions of pleasure and pain that give a basis of judging the truth of personal and public morality. It is the formation of these accepted ideas that gives us respect of others. Helvétius believed that we praise individuals that promote, support, and defend our self interest. At times the testimony individuals share with us give the illusion of honesty, but in reality stem from their personal self interest and not for our benefit. It is through our intellect that we must reason whether these testifiers are good or bad. If the the individual appears genuinely to believe that his testimony is to our benefit, then we must look to the general interest of the people where the idea the originated. Helvétius explained that the concept of Liberty is the attainment of wisdom of knowledge on how to train our physical pleasure and pain instincts to remember and discern the truth to ideas and actions that make us happy or sad. Further, he was of the opinion that the knowledge of Liberty can only be achieved by an individual with no mental disability, paying close attention and connecting ideas that are being communicated about the subject. The more an individual discusses Liberty the greater one gains Wisdom to genuinely understand the concept of it. Helvétius was of the position the problem of misunderstanding Liberty was not only found in with individuals with mental conditions. Intelligent people with physical sensibility can process and adopt false ideas given by those who they trust and admire. Contextual associations can be linked to deliberative or unintentional false truths (misleading ideas) to agreed upon code (rules) of conduct made with fellow citizens by social contract. A false truth given by those that we have an instinct to love and admire can initiate a duty preserve and propagate the error. De L'esprit, Or, Essays on the Mind, and Its Several Faculties by Helvétius If we are to implicitly believe that the Will of Our Creator is Natural law. Then we can implicitly believe it was the Will of the Creator to give mankind reason to decide what actions in life will bring us happiness or misery. It is the testimony of both prophets and philosophers that the path of happiness is making the choice to follow the greater good at the expense of lesser evil. It is up to government and religious leaders to properly guard Citizens with the use of reason over personal inclinations and be happy with the blessing our Creator has given. It is up to our citizen patriots to understand that the common happiness of Civil Liberty depends on the importance of individual duty in submitting to what the law and government permits, which firmly opposes evil corruption and promotes the common good. Jefferson considered supreme happiness to not come from nobility or priests, but rather from having faith that Nature (Creator) has given us a sense of justice through the cherishment of others. It is also my opinion, that Jefferson also also reasoned against selfish false teachings that man bestowed aristocracy the hereditary right to govern and judge one's fate. It will be through the false teaching of fearing others without sound reason that can as a consequence destroy established law and order built by free men. From Thomas Jefferson to William Johnson, 12 June 1823 The Call of Duty Trust is an essential elixir for maintaining National Unity. Our Founders understood that elected leaders must be held to the highest standards in their service to protect America's Independence and Liberty. Otherwise, leaders may lose public trust that their actions are for the common good. The Federalist Papers : No. 57 The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 19, 1788. Author: Alexander Hamilton or James Madison Liberty: A Path To Its Recovery by F.A. Harper Page 44 Jefferson and Washington taught the honor in focusing on the welfare of the People of all nations and religions. And to be on guard against those that pursue their own self interest and personal advantage over Civility of accepted conduct. Notes on the State of Virginia: Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 QUERY XVII As a pastor and evangelist, Elder John Leland believed it was of the utmost importance to safeguard their individual civil rights, religious freedom. Elder John Leland preached to the Citizens of Connecticut his observations of influence and power American Citizens bestow upon their Representatives. The Rights of Conscience Inalienable, by John Leland (1791) Congress gives Washington the Power to Command the Military George Washington to the Executive Committee of the Continental Congress, 1 January 1777 President George Washington believed that Love and Humility (Subordination) were necessary factors in achieving Happiness. When a group of Continental Army soldiers overtook Independence Hall, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, President Washington wrote a letter to Congress to be Public Notice to all Citizens of the United States. The notice was written in response to soldiers demanded back pay for their services to the federal government. President Washington understood the importance of calming the soldiers. He reminded them of the obedience to their oath. George Washington's National responsibilities and experiences as Commander-in-chief bestowed upon him the wisdom of the broader view of the proper communication to the United States institutions and more importantly, its Citizens. From George Washington to The States, 8 June 1783 During the Revolutionary War, oaths of allegiance were administered to officers of the Continental Army under General Washington. These officers swore to defend the Free, Independent and Sovereign States against King George. Extract from the minutes, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary. Four resolutions of the Continental Congress concerning the loyalty oath. Signed: Extract from the minutes, Charles Thomson, secretary. Journals of the Continental Congress, 197 In Congress, February 3, 1778 After the Revolutionary war, General Washington relinquished his power to serve under the Creator and the Charter of the United States Constitution. It was President Washington's hope that the Creator would bless America with Liberty and Happiness. George Washington, December 23, 1783, Resignation Address In Washington's farewell address our Nation's Founding Father stressed that WE THE PEOPLE must always be on the lookout for those individuals, organizations, and outside nations that desire to weaken our Unity of tranquility, peace, and prosperity. Furthermore, there will be always a cost (expense, debt) of gratitude to share in safeguarding a Social contract that promotes the Happiness of ALL its Citizens (WE THE PEOPLE). More importantly, we must have Respect and Admiration (Love) for All PEOPLE, Foreign and Domestic. Transcript of President George Washington's Farewell Address (1796) Like Bolingbroke, Blackstone wrote that it is the duty of those who Nature (Creator) and Fortune (Grace) have bestowed abilities and time to serve their country and master their understanding of its Civil Laws. It is the power of these Civil Laws that protects all Citizens from physical and mental injury by fellow countryman and foreigners. It is the power of these Civil laws which Civil Liberty is derived. Liberty is what is that which those that govern the land permits. INTRODUCTION. Of the Study, Nature, and Extent of the Laws of England. SECTION I. ON THE STUDY OF THE LAW. The Free Exercise Clause of the United States Constitution gives Citizens and legal foreign guests Liberty to reach, hold, practice and change beliefs freely according to our individual rights of conscience. The United States government may not penalize or discriminate against an individual or a group of individuals because of their religious views, nor may it compel persons to affirm any particular beliefs. United States Supreme Court EPPERSON ET AL. V. ARKANSAS. APPEAL FROM THE SUPREME COURT OF ARKANSAS. No. 7. Argued October 16, 1968.-Decided November 12, 1968. Benjamin Franklin was 81 years old and nearing the end of his life when the Constitutional Convention, also known as the Philadelphia Convention, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from May 25 to September 17, 1787. Franklin’s voice was too weak to speak, so he put a paper into James Wilson's hand to read aloud containing his reasons for assenting to the Constitution. Considering all the different points of view of Representatives at the convention, Franklin thought it was remarkable that the Constitution was a superior document of collective wisdom. Benjamin Franklin's Final Speech MR. JUSTICE BLACK delivered the opinion of the Court. United States Supreme Court EVERSON v. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE TOWNSHIP OF EWING ET AL. APPEAL FROM THE COURT OF ERRORS AND APPEALS OF NEW JERSEY. No. 52. Argued November 20, 1946.-Decided February 10, 1947. From George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, 18 August 1790 As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.' History shows that people evolve both physically, mentally, spiritually, and culturally. Individuals, groups, educational institutions, political parties, religions, and even nation states may resistant to change. They find comfort living in an environment they grew up in. And when the environment changes due to a human modification or disregard of a particular custom, individuals may become agitated and possibly hostile. That is why civility of clear and concise communication is important to better understand a proposed change. Jefferson knew through experience, Activist and Politicians like himself become hypersensitive to any proposal of change. Proposals to Revise the Virginia Constitution: Thomas Jefferson to “Henry Tompkinson” (Samuel Kercheval), 12 July 1816 Like Thomas Jefferson, George Washington understood that Civility of Law and Order depends on the cherishment of people in all stations of life that mutually desire Happiness and understand their duty to follow the agreed upon rules to enjoy it. George Washington to Joshua Holmes, 2 December 1783 The Writings of the Late Elder John Leland Including Some Events in His Life. by John Leland, L. F . Greene December 12, 1826 Elder Leland taught the difference between Civil and Divine government. The Function of Civil government is to protect the lives, liberty, and property of the community. The Baptist Elder believed Divine government begins the moment after death. The Christ the King honors those that based their early life on simplicity, humility and their love toward others. The Writings of the Late Elder John Leland Including Some Events in His Life. by John Leland, L. F . Greene The Government of Christ a Christocracy Published 1804 As a devout abolitionist, John Leland believed slavery to be against the Liberty of the individual pursuit (self interest) of Happiness. His Christian Faith (Belief) taught him to understand that Freedom of Liberty in the Bible meant: Freedom for All. The Founders profound respect for our right of conscience is well-documented. From Thomas Jefferson to Samuel Miller, 23 January 1808 James Madison's message is clear to stay away on all matters of liberty of religious conscience that are unessential to government authority. James Madison to Jasper Adams, September 1833 In McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, 545 U.S. 844, it was the Supreme Court opinion that the United States was founded on a secular principle of neutrality in regards to all sincere conscious religious and atheist beliefs. MCCREARY COUNTY v. AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION OF KY. The Free Exercise Clause is the part of the First Amendment that reads: Washington urged Americans to always place the interests of the nation over their political and regional affiliations. MCCREARY COUNTY v. AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION OF KY. President George Washington's Farewell address emphasized that Religion and Moralism share the same objective platform in framing a civil society. Both concepts share faith (trust) in others and belief that justice and benevolence (goodwill, virtue) should be universal (equal) truth. Washington's Farewell Address 1796 Having just overthrown the King of England during the American Revolution, Jefferson and his political Democratic-Republican party feared Federalist desire for a strong national government would threaten the Liberty of a young Nation with a growing Federal control of power. The American Colonist revoked their allegiance to the British Crown and the Social Contract (Laws, Rules) that bound them to it. Declaration of Independence General Washington believed that it was through Divine Intervention his Continental Army was able to survive the entire Revolutionary War despite great odds favoring the enemy. He believed that the key to maintaining Divine Purpose was by following a proper code of conduct. From George Washington to Samuel Langdon, 28 September 1789 Washington clearly thought the United States to be similar to the Israelite Nation in gaining freedom from the bondage of a Tyrant through a union of friendship and greatness to be under the Providence of Creator to be self-evident. From George Washington to Landon Carter, 27 October 1777 Both Adams and Cranch were influenced by George Whitefield, a famous Oxford Graduate and Methodist preacher. In his time, he was noted to be a Christian hero of British citizens and American Colonist. Here are some selected quotes Whitefield on how our conscience becomes aware of a greater Divine Being through the selfless love of others. Sermons By George Whitefield Thomas Jefferson himself thought that through reason one can observe a perfect design in nature organized by the power of an Ultimate Creator that was the Initial Cause that set everything into motion. This is the key tenet underlying the Declaration of Independence. From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 11 April 1823 Being a staunch defender of Conscious Liberty, Thomas Jefferson was reluctant to talk about his personal beliefs in public. His private letters reveal a man of deep moral conviction who spent a considerable amount of time thinking about the Providence and Justice of the Creator. Jefferson's writings do reveal his acceptance of a Creator and Divine Justice. Notes on the State of Virginia: Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 QUERY XVIII Thomas Jefferson firmly believed that Judgment is made on the Works in one's life or lack thereof. He also could not deny Jesus works of mercy, compassion and love pointed to the something beyond the works themselves. Jefferson admired the purity of innocence of Jesus unblemished character and hoped everyone follow the virtue to his moral teachings. stripped away the supernatural and left only wisdom he accepted as a materialist Unitarian thinker. From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 13 April 1820 I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) as a starting point to best present the truth to what is good and bad. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural attention to showcase a well reasoned path to happiness in the world we live in and the hereafter. Thomas Jefferson to Charles Thomson, 9 January 1816 President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work to be separating Jesus from the Divine to Jesus the Philosopher. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813 I will follow Jefferson's same syllabus method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to critically research a particular Apostolic teaching. Thomas Jefferson admired, but did not accept Jesus as the being begotten of the Creator. He considered the Christian Trinity to be analogous to Cerberus, the three headed hound of Hades guarding the gates of the Underworld. Jefferson was greatly influenced by Joseph Priestley, a British Unitarian who rejected the Trinity and asserted the perfectibility of man through reason. In my limited understanding I find the Trinity to be analogous to the three main parts of our brain: the cerebrum (Father with higher sensory functions), cerebellum (Son that receives and carries out instruction) and brainstem (Holy Spirit that connects the Father to the Son and everyone). It is through this system of communication our conscious is made aware. A Behavior Scientist would understand the Holy Spirit, to be a of synonym of Wisdom, a method of integrating the accumulation of knowledge, experience, and deep understanding in daily life. Like Jefferson, Athanasius has been slandered by the followers of Arius, a North African priest who taught that Christ was the Jewish Messiah, but not the Creator. From Thomas Jefferson to James Smith, 8 December 1822 In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality. To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not. SOCRATES AND JESUS COMPARED BY JOSEPH PRIESTLY page 22 Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost. Thomas Jefferson letters and essays reveal an American leader with a strong Unitarian sympathy, but a free spirited man that did not formally belong to any Unitarian congregation and regularly attended Sunday Baptist Services at the United States Capitol. Jefferson passed away one year after the founding of the American Unitarian Association (AUA) in 1825. The Sage of Monticello (Jefferson) prior letter to Doctor Benjamin Waterhouse, co-founder and professor of the Harvard Medical School and Unitarian minister at Cambridge, Massachusetts displays his affinity to the country following the moral teachings of Jesus in proper method to follow a Just Creator. From Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Waterhouse, 26 June 1822 The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth (The Jefferson Bible) by Thomas Jefferson XXXI. - To be Born Blind No Proof of Sin. Disclaimer Romans 1 Jefferson understood the idea where a man could be both physically and morally blind. But, he rejected the Spiritual (Supernatural) part of John's testimony where Jesus used the Creator's power to give a blind man the miracle of physical sight. John Chapter 9 Great Isaiah Scroll - Chapter 42 Titus Jefferson in the “Kingdom of Everlasting Glory.” Jefferson wrote back a little more than a month later. He thanked King for his letter “because I believe it was written with kind intentions, and a personal concern for my future happiness." Jefferson believed our Freedom Conscience to be a sacred part of our human nature to think for ourselves. Jefferson supported all religions that supported the Freedom of giving us a choice to speak and act honestly towards all members of our society. Thomas Jefferson to Miles King, 26 September 1814
  10. Spirits of the air that try to direct us. n Jewish mythology, a dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‎, from the Hebrew verb דָּבַק‬ dāḇaq meaning "adhere" or "cling") is a malicious possessing spirit believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person. It The Holy Spirit (Hebrew: ‬רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ‬, Modern ruach hakodesh, Tiberian ruaħ haqqodɛʃ) in Judaism, also termed "Divine Inspiration," Ibbur (Hebrew: עיבור‬, "pregnancy" or "impregnation" or "incubation"), is one of the transmigration forms of the soul and has similarities with Gilgul neshamot. Ibbur is always good or positive, while dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‬‎), is negative. Ibbur is the most positive form of possession, and the most complicated. It happens when a righteous soul decides to occupy a living person's body for a time, and joins, or spiritually "impregnates" the existing soul. Ibbur is always temporary, and the living person may or may not know that it has taken place. Often the living person has graciously given consent for the Ibbur. The reason for Ibbur is always benevolent—the departed soul wishes to complete an important task, to fulfil a promise, or to perform a mitzvah (a religious duty) that can only be accomplished in the flesh. In Lurianic Kabbalah, ibbur occurs when an incomplete soul which cannot achieve tikun is completed by the addition of the soul of a tzadik,[1] or spiritual master. Luria believed this to be possible even whilst the possessor was still alive. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/gilgul
  11. particles can be created from nothing but energy, certain features, such as electrical charge, cannot gravitational potential energy is negative. Because a negative amount of work is done to bring an object closer to the Earth, gravitational potential energy is always a negative number when using this reference point. The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Space is also filled with radiation (e.g. light and heat), magnetic fields and high energy particles (e.g. cosmic rays). In empty space, there is no air, and what we call "sound" is actually vibrations in the air. Now, like you've said, there are indeed light waves and radio waves in space, but these waves are not sound, but light. Light does not need air to travel, but then you don't hear it; you see it, or it is interpreted by your radio set and then translated into sound. You're right that there are gases in space, and it's true that these gasses can propagate sound waves just like Earth's air allows sound to travel. The difference is that interstellar gas clouds are much less dense than the Earth's atmosphere. (They have fewer atoms per cubic foot.) So if a sound wave was traveling through a big gas cloud in space and we were out there listening Space probably does go on forever, but the truth is we don’t know. The part of space we can see is called the observable universe. The observable universe can even be measured. It is 93 billion light years from one side to the other. Our part of space, or the observable universe, has a special shape: it is flat. The Universe simply expanded from a very small volume into a huge volume, and this expansion is occuring even today. something of the size of an atom expanded to the size of the solar system by the end of the inflationary epoch. The orbits of the planets and the shapes of spiral galaxies has to do with the way they form and conservation of angular momentum, and nothing to do with the geometry of the universe as a whole. As the solar system formed from a giant spherical gas cloud, the cloud started to rotate. That meant that it was easier for material to fall in along the poles than around the 'equator', because around the equator it had to battle against the centripetal acceleration trying to push it out again. The cloud therefore slowly collapsed into a disk like structure from which the planets formed. The same exact process explains the disks of spiral galaxies. Outer space' begins about 100 km above the Earth, where the shell of air around our planet disappears. With no air to scatter sunlight and produce a blue sky, space appears as a black blanket dotted with stars. Particles are tiny bits of matter that make up everything in the universe. The space your body takes up is different from the space other matter takes up that you perceive in nature. Experiencing visual space is a subtle act of the human body and mind. Wayfinding, orientation, direction, etc. all come from visual clues. The lens of our eye, with a 22mm focal length allows us to experience perspective space in a consistent and readable way. Our neck and eyes move, completing a spherical dome of information surrounding us at any point. But, when a slight change is introduced to this formula we start to question what exactly space is. The awareness of the position, size, form, distance, and direction of an object, or of oneself Space is usually regarded as being completely empty. But this is not true. The vast gaps between the stars and planets are filled with huge amounts of thinly spread gas and dust. Even the emptiest parts of space contain at least a few hundred atoms or molecules per cubic metre. Space is also filled with many forms of radiation that are dangerous to astronauts. Much of this infrared and ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun. High energy X-rays, gamma rays and cosmic rays – particles travelling close to the speed of light – arrive from distant star systems. Since there are no molecules in the vacuum of space there are neither atmosphere nor pressure. When there is no atmosphere, all of the molecules in the area want to spread out as much as possible. If you were on a space ship and stepped outside, you would not be crushed. Instead, you would blow up like a huge balloon as your molecules began to spread out. Eventually you would pop. Very messy. A total, or perfect, vacuum would be a space from which all matter has been removed. This includes solids, liquids, and gases (including air). It would be a space that contains “nothing.” Since there is no method or device that can remove all matter from an enclosed space, a perfect vacuum is unknown and has only theoretical meaning. You take the last drink out of an orange juice container. As you put the empty container in the recycling bin, you wonder if it's really empty. Guess what? It isn't! There are still air molecules that take up space inside that orange juice container. But, if you could suck out all of those air molecules, you would have a vacuum. In science, a vacuum is defined as space without matter or air. Egocentric distances are defined as the interval between the viewer and an environmental location of interest. Exocentric distances are defined as the interval between two environmental locations of interest, neither being the viewer. (The term depth perception is often implicitly taken to refer to judgments of egocentric distance.) This chapter focuses on absolute egocentric distance perception, which involves accurately scaled perceptual judgments of the distance of environmental locations from the viewer. Most of the work dealing with viewing from a fixed location has been concerned with the perception of egocentric (absolute) distance, exocentric (relative) distance or depth, and size. an observer has an internal representation of surrounding physical space, referred to as visual space or visually perceived space, and then to attempt to measure properties of visual space using a variety Space is everything in our surrounding environment or just simply everything around us. Our spatial perception is how we see the world and understand it. As a child the physical proportions and dimensions of space for us are small. As we grow and become more active we begin to orient ourselves to the space around us. Our eyes make thousands of subconscious computations to perceive positive space (objects) and negative space (empty areas). In time our mind becomes more familiar with the types of space around us that we are able to move more independently and our world begins to greatly expand. There are many that believe that our conscious mind gives us the ability to perceive Nature and understand Natural Law. Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews), Jesus (Christians), and Mohammed (Islam) believe and testify that through the Will of the Creator (God) has given human beings a conscious mind (living spirit) to understand the world around them. There are some quantum physicists that theorize that our conscious mind is actually a four dimensional radiant field outside our physical body connected to our nerves through Quantum entanglement. Put simply our conscious mind is comprised of both a quantifiable (measurable) Central and Peripheral nervous system connected to nonquantifiable (immeasurable) negative space. As we grow our young minds learn that much of what we perceive as negative space is not completely empty and quite measurable. Every so often we may hear and/or feel a gentle wind moving in the negative space even though our eyes cannot see it. We do see the effect this breeze has on other object around us. Watching the plants and trees sway we begin to understand there are invisible objects and active forces throughout our negative space. Every so often on a cold winter day we may see a cloud of vapor (moisture) coming from the air we exhale out from our lungs. When we look up to the sky we notice larger clouds of vapor moving across negative space. In time we learn this vapor is called moisture and it comes from the transformation of a liquid object we know as water we that we drink, swim, and bathe in to another object we know as gas that float through negative space. Every so often the clouds of vapor above us get larger and darker. Soon cool drops of liquid (water) we know as rain fall down and splashing on everything they land on. The sound rain makes can be heard when it lands on us or when it hits the ground. As we grow older we learn that sound is a disturbance (wave) that travels through objects and negative space. When enough rain lands on the ground a pool liquid forms what we call puddles that can be fun to play in. Every so often during the season when it is cold and our bodies shiver dark clouds pass over our heads. Soon crystal flakes called flurries gently fall from the clouds and land on the ground forming a white blanket we call snow. As we grow we learn that we can only see objects if they give off light or light bounces off of them. When we look up and see a bright object shining through the clouds our loved ones call the Sun. Soon the clouds and rain disappear and the Sun dries the water from our skin. In time our body and objects around us get warmer. We soon learn this bright object that radiates heat has a name our loved ones call the Sun. Later in life we learn that light and heat originate from tiny wave particles called Photons that have traveled a great distance from the sun. A wave particle has properties of both a wave and a particle. A wave is a kind of disturbance (oscillation, vibration, motion) that travels through negative space and objects (matter) transferring energy from one area to another. A particle is a tiny object that cannot be seen with our eyes. To get an idea how small a particle is imagine a 2 millimeter grain of sand being composed of unique collection of 10 Quintillion (10 to the 19th power or simply 1019) particles. Now your imagine that your body is comprised of a unique collection of over 10 Octillion (10 to the 28th power or simply 1028) particles. . So we see things because light bounces off objects back towards us. We can use other senses to gather information about things we cannot see, such as hearing. For example, sonar involves bouncing sound waves off an object and observing the reflected wave. This technique is also used in echolocation. Dolphins and bats use echo-location to detect the location and shape of an object, by sending out a sound wave and observing how the reflected sound wave comes back to them The form of your body is different from other forms that are visible in Nature. particles that are arranged differently from other forms that you perceive in Nature. Why do you matter? Because, you play a unique role in the evolution of our Nature (Universe). matter that make up everything in the universe A Photon is a type of unstructured zero mass elementary Boson (packet of energy) particle that is a carrier (transmitter) of electromagnetic (electric and magnetic waves) force (power to attract or repel anything with an electrical charge) that moves at the speed of light in the vacuum of space, but is significantly slower in air and water. Photons have limitless energy range (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays). At At high energy levels a photon can change knock off electrons and change chemical compositions. If a photon's energy level is high enough it can collapse and form a Black Hole (2 billion joules). In Nature, Dark Matter has not yet been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are accepted as a fundamental part of the Universe. The energy Photons are dispersed by what is called electromagnetic (electric and magnetic wave) radiation. A Photon is so small that it is considered unstructured with zero mass, but has ability to carry electromagnetic force energy to Earth and other objects in space at the the speed of light. In the span of 8 minutes and 20 seconds Photons reach Earth from the Sun. Plants, trees, and many other organisms convert the photon light energy packets into chemical energy in a process called Photosynthesis. When animals eat plants the stored chemical energy is transferred to the organism to function. Photon light energy heat the oceans, land masses, and the air. The heat makes wind and ocean currents. Photons light energy evaporates water, forms clouds, and drops rain and snow all over the place. There are Diest that believe and testify the Sun to a visible luminary (source of light) agent of the Creator which rises from the East and sets in the West, the source of all the seasons, the cause of day and night, the parent of vegetation, and a friend of man. There are many Polytheist that believe and testify the Sun to be a powerful Deity and a central figure in a pantheon of Gods. Jews and Christians believe and testify that that the Creator is not the Sun, but through a force of will God created light. that disperse the energy released by the constant conversion of hydrogen to helium reaction occurring in our sun.In Nature, our Sun is one of trillions of other stars that generate visible light you see and the radiant heat you feel. We notice that when the Sun disappears into the negative space our body and the objects around us become colder or darker. When the space around us becomes too dark and cold our loved ones may create a small light similar to our Sun. We soon learn this bright object has a name called Fire. As we look closer at Fire we notice that it has has different bright colors glowing from pile fallen trees and branches similar to the ones we have seen standing when the Sun shining are called wood. Stretching our hands over the whitish orange flames our body warms up from the cold. If we put our hands too close to the blue flames the warmth becomes hot and painful. As the fire continues more wood is added to the existing coals glowing as they slowly break down into powder we call ash. Sitting next our fire hot flashes of light shoot up into the black negative space with other bright objects (satellites, ships, asteroids, comets, planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, etc...). Later in life we learn our ancestors were sky watchers like ourselves. These sky watchers (astronomers) thought that our home called Earth was a motionless and all objects know collectively as the Universe moved around us through negative space. In time, we learned that our Earth moves around (orbits) the Sun like other planets and objects. We later learn that objects are any thing that is bound together by its own gravity. We then learned that our position in space was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and velocity (symbol v) as a fixed frame of reference. Velocity is the rate of motion in a specific direction. All motion is relative to the frame of reference from which it is being observed. When we look up at the sky at night and see Most of the universe is empty space, called a vacuum, but it is an imperfect vacuum. There are clouds of interstellar dust and the tiny particles that make up the solar wind. There are many isolated particles and hydrogen atoms, which sometimes form clouds over a billion kilometers wide called "nebulae." Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference our eyes see Space consisting of 3 dimensions (coordinate symbols x,y,z). Where x, y, and z equal individual points of space. If a point in space is expanded outward in two directions with infinite (never ending) distance a line of a one dimensional plane will be created with infinite length, but no width (breadth) or height (or depth). If that point of space is expanded outward in infinite directions and distance a two dimensional plane will be created with length and width (ex. square), but no height. Now if the two dimensional plane is expanded upwards and downwards with infinite distance then a three dimensional plane will be created with length, width and height (ex. cube). Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we observe a constant rising and setting of the sun in the sky. Before there were watches, time was measured by this physical process. Time is simply the rate of change happening all around us. As time progresses in a human lifespan we observe how starts as a newborn baby, a playful child, studious adolescent, mature adult parent, wise grandparent, and then death. Time (coordinate symbol t) is the fourth dimension that measures physical change (movement) of an object in space. Spacetime is a mathematical model that joins the dimensions of space and time into a single idea called a continuum (continuous connection x,y,z,t) that contains length, width height and movement (tesseract). Together space and time make up the four-dimension, in which all objects exist and interact with each other. Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we can observe that an object will move at a constant velocity unless another object or unbalanced force acts upon it. All frames of reference moving at constant velocity with respect to inertial frame are equivalent to each other and are also inertial frames. Time simply the rate of change happening all around us. Modern astronomers believe that Creation did not start at a single point in space. In Classical Physics Gravitational Potential Energy is proportional to the amount of work needed to bring an outside object into the gravitational field (an area of attractive force) of another object. The strength of the gravitational force of attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other. As the two objects accelerate closer to each other the Gravitational force gets smaller. Once the smaller object is trapped in the gravitational field it cannot escape unless and outside force can provide a greater amount of energy to escape. In the Gravitational Field Model, there is no gravity force of attraction, objects distort Spacetime by means of their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". light travels along geodesics, which are approximately straight lines in most circumstances that humans encounter in everyday life, but are curved by gravity) When an object approaches the speed of light, its inertial energy (work done to resist change in state of motion) approaches infinity and therefore its inertial mass (work done to resist change in velocity) also approaches infinity. 13.8 Billion years ago a oscillation (vibration) disturbance (quantum fluctuation) occurred that changed a true vacuum of nothing into our Universe being born as a very hot and dense singularity (point, bubble, or virtual particle) in space. Some physicist believe that a quantum fluctuation (disturbance) occurred in a Instanton (pseudoparticle that contained gravity, space, time, and mass) within a false vacuum (metastable vacuum absent of gravity, space, time, and mass) of pure energy (symbol E). In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable (unstable) vacuum state that wants to move to either a lower energy vacuum or a true vacuum state through a process known as bubble nucleation. This point in our Universe held a tremendous amount of high frequency stressed potential (stored) energy held together with a strong force of attraction. In the fraction of a second, a Quantum Fluctuation (temporary change in the amount of energy) occurred within the Singularity. The change of state in the Singularity caused a massive wave of energy to generate a repulsive force (also known as Inflation) that expanded our Universe like a balloon over 100 trillion times its initial size. After several minutes of expansion, the temperature of the Universe became cooler, less dense and the frequency of energy lowered to form a perfect condition for the fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, and strong and weak interactions to generate the building blocks of matter known as quarks and electrons. A quark is a tiny subatomic particle with a fractional charge Nucleation occurs when the concentration of the precursors exceeds a critical supersaturation value. Above this concentration, stable nuclei are formed which continue to grow as additional energy is available. Rather, space itself was expanding, with everything in the universe moving away from everything else. The Earth's axis would pierce that sphere in two places: the celestial north pole and the celestial south pole. the universe began cooling from the moment after the big bang, the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value at a very high temperature corresponding to when the universe was just a fraction of a second old, and when the number of spatial dimensions was approximately three. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-05-space-three-dimensional.html#jCp Frame of reference Something that oscillates is something that "vibrates", In 1811, Count Avogadro of Italy proposed that the simple integer coefficients in chemical reactions between gases could be explained by the rule that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (at the same temperature and pressure). physical space has three dimensions, which means that it takes exactly three real numbers to locate a point in space. These numbers are called the coordinates of the point, and the reference frame for coordinates is called the coordinate system. I This chapter paints in broad outline the transition from molecules to continuous matter, or mathematically speaking from point particles to fields. its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity. moving a mass from infinity (i.e. outside the gravitational field particles statistically move where there is less resistance by collisions which is generally towards an area of lower density or lower temperature High entropy generally means high disorder; and low entropy low disorder; the two paradigmatic cases that illustrate these two possibilities is a gas, for the first, and a crystal for the second. black holes have entropy -- a lot of entropy. I General Relativity gives a singularity at the very beginning, one spacet time point. ctual phase diagram of the universe and even if you knew it, there would be no easy way to tell what time scales phase transitions to a higher entropy state will take! The next phase transition (from the phase of the universe we see, right now) to the phase of the universe that will come next, may very well happen on a time scale of 1e40-1e100 years, or so (if we believe black hole evaporation, proton decay estimates etc.). However, if you look at the time scale of that phase transition from the perspective of a "normal" time scale of the following phase, it may happen in an instant... or as quickly as inflation may have happened on the scale of human time perception. he entropic force is determined by the variation of energy with respect to the radius, In the extreme mathematical limit, material particles are taken to be truly infinitesimal and all physical properties of the particles as well as the forces acting on them are described by smooth—or at least piecewise smooth—functions of space and time. What is the origin of such an entropic force? The most general answer is that the effect of thermal fluctuations tends to bring a thermodynamic system toward a macroscopic (visible to the unclothed eye) state that corresponds to a maximum in the number of microscopic states (or micro-states) that are compatible with this macroscopic state. In other words, As the universe expands the gravity energy becomes less negative and in the case of our nearly "flat" universe will approach zero. so-called “virtual particles” that constantly wink into and out of existence They appeal to the well-known phenomena of “virtual particle” creation and annihilation. The spontaneous (but short-lived) appearance of subatomic particles from a vacuum is called a quantum fluctuation. Force can be strong or weak can and can push or pull on any object. graviton particles All the forces of nature can be simplified down to four most fundamental of forces, which are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear. Without a first mover, nothing could be set in motion. Thus we acknowledge the first and primary mover as God. Electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. In empty space there are virtual quantum particles flitting in and out of existence The only form that can accommodate the change from nothing to something in a smooth transition without an infinite rate of change is the oscillatory In crystallization science, this level is referred to as ‘critical supersaturation.' The transition from ‘pure energy’ to particles is modeled as a crystallization process where the starting and end state consist of the same single entity. Formation of the Universe as a... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264339506_Formation_of_the_Universe_as_a_Crystallization_Process_and_the_Evolution_of_Gravity [accessed Apr 29 2018]. low-energy fluctuations are characterized by local increase in free energy density (‘bunching’) which is plotted in the positive y-direction of the plot. To maintain energy balance, this energy bunching must be accompanied by a local ‘energy-hole’ which is deficient of energy and has equal energy density. The energy in Light was so great that it spontaneously decayed (split) into 6 Fermion Particle types (also known as flavors) with a collective positive charge (Quark) and 6 Sfermion Antiparticle types with a collective negative charge (AntiQuark). Over 3 generations 6 flavors of Quarks and AntiQuarks have been created. The first generation: Up (symbol u) and Down (symbol d); the second generation: Charm (symbol c) and Strange (symbol s); the third generation Top (symbol t), and Bottom (symbol b ). but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons. which makes up protons and neutrons. An antiquark is a tiny subatomic antiparticle (antimatter). A Gluon is a zero mass subatomic particle that holds three quarks together forming either a larger proton (two up quarks and one down quark) or a neutron (two down quarks and one up quark) particle. In Nature a Graviton, is an unseen massless spin 2 particle that transmits gravity and travels at the speed of light. A tiny fraction of a second later quarks clustered together to produce protons and neutrons. Several minutes later protons and neutrons combined into nuclei. At this point, the evolution of our Universe slowed down as it took an estimated 380,000 years to for electrons to be trapped in orbits around nuclei, forming the the smallest component of matter called Atoms (Elements). The first two Atoms created were Hydrogen and Helium. The size of an Atom (Element) is roughly 4 billionths of an inch (0.000000004 inch) and cannot be divided chemically into a simpler substance. Every object that we can taste, smell and touch is comprised of atoms that come together and exist in the form of Matter. Atoms can come together and form into three different states of Matter: solid, liquid, or gas. In science, Mass is the measurement of how much Matter is in an object you are observing by first counting the total number of atoms (atomic weight of elements), then counting total volume (size) of space matter takes up. the You the reader and I the writer are both made up of Matter. The term Mass (M) is defined as the measurement of how many total atoms are in an object. become a moving visible substance known as Primordial Light. This visible substance moved in all directions in both linear momentum (moving in a straight line) and angular momentum (spin on an axis and orbit around an axis). Over a period of time this visible substance changed motion, divided and came together again through both collisions and scattering to form new substances with different more complex properties. http://www.ravkooktorah.org/BREISHIT_67.htm https://www.tikkun.org/nextgen/how-the-ari-created-a-myth-and-transformed-judaism When one Up Quark and force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. quantum superposition Wavefunction of Spin One-Half Particle interacting according to specific laws of force. When one up Quark (lightest of Quarks) Some of these new particles grouped together to form quantum noise energy particles over time. with complex phase interchanges and energy exchanges. Even the feel of your body is different from other solid visible objects found in nature. inert material body associated with inert energy The actions your un of matter that is visible are unique visible physical forms of substance that comprised of a diverse collection of physical matter types. that can found in every visible object in the Universe that takes up space. I am writing to us this at a point in time moving across our known universe that is only known to you the reader after I have written it. I testify that I am made of a we are in same place at the same time we can both observe and communicate with each other. Right now communication is one way. In the near future I imagine AI (Artificial Intelligence) will categorize our unique nature by recording our actions and brain waves. In the near future, there will be attraction between any two or more objects that have Mass. weight measures the force of gravity acting on an object Weight and Size measurements are used to ship objects (packaged goods) from one location to another. In order to calculate the cost of shipping a package the size of the container will be needed to transport it, a transport carrier needs to know the weight of the object and the volume (size) dimensions by multiplying the width times the length times the height. Finding volume shipping cost is usually done with measuring tape and a precision scale. Volume is also used in measuring cups to determine how much ingredients are needed in cooking and baking. Another way to measure volume is by dropping your observed object into a graduated cylinder containing a known volume of water and measuring the new volume. Gas pumps measure how much volume of fuel is going in your tank. On Earth, to find the Mass (symbolized M) of an object you need to divide its weight (symbolized w) by the gravitational field strength of the our planet. Before we understand weight, a few concepts need be defined. First, weight on our planet is a result of the Gravitational field strength (gravity or gravitation) between the Mass of Earth and the Mass of the observed object. In our everyday life people measure weight of objects to determine their value. To give an example, if apples cost one dollar per pound and you selected an apple that weighed a half pound, then the amount you would have to pay to purchase the apple would be fifty cents. In our everyday life we use symbols to better understand and measure Nature. When you checkout groceries at the store a person or machine will read (scan) a unique product code given to every item (meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, etc) to determine the unit cost per pound of the item selected. The grocer or machine will weigh the item and give you the cost. Product codes really save time when you are purchasing many items. Scientist also use symbols to better understand Nature. For example, the standard astronomical symbol for our planet Earth is ⊕. Gnostics define the the cross within a circle as an ancient symbol ⊕ as the both the seen and unseen spiritual upper half and the seen and unseen physical lower half of our world. The point in the middle represents the seen and unseen physical and spiritual coming together as a spiritual being. The unit of Mass equal to that of Earth is M⊕. This value includes the atmosphere but excludes our moon. Our Earth has a gravitational field strength of 10 Newtons (symbolized N) per kilogram (symbolized kg)2. The superscript (the number above the normal line type symbolized 2) means a given number multiplied (symbolized x) by itself. A Newton is a unit of force that would give an object with the mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second squared. The formula is N equals (symbolized ? 1 kg x 1 meter (symbolized m) per second (symbolized s) squared. 10 Newtons = 10 kg x 10 m/s2. Gravitational acceleration (symbolized g) is the intensity of the gravitational field strength between two objects that increase the rate of speed on an object caused by the force of gravitation. On Earth, a 1 kg object weighs 2.2 pounds (symbolized lbs) which also means that 1 lb is the same as 4.45 N Near the Earth's surface the gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.80665 m/s2 which means that, ignoring the effects of air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely will increase by about 9.8 metres per second every second. In a free fall acceleration has the same magnitude as the gravitational field vector as an arrow pointing in the direction of motion with a length proportional to the speed. We refer to this vector as the velocity. N / 9.807 = kg Once you know the mass and volume of an object, you can calculate its density. This is done by a simple formula of dividing the object’s mass by its volume. Density determines whether the observed object will sink or float in a selected environment. Transport carriers use density to engineer vehicles to more efficiently float in water, fly in air, and drive in roads and railways. After determining the weight, volume and des which affects only quarks, antiquarks, and gluons at a subatomic level. A Creator has not been directly observed, but is accepted by Jews, Christians, Diests, and Polytheist as the fundamental Architect of the Universe. and the knowledge of good and evil actions and events that can benefit or harm them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator gave human beings a conscious mind to reason actions or events that cause benefit or harm. In Nature, human beings have observed actions and events that by which life arises from non-living matter. Jews and Christians believe and testify the that Creator's Holy Spirit breathed life into dust (non living matter) and formed the first living creatures. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator is responsible for the Origin of the Universe, Natural Law, and the Evolution of non living (inorganic) matter into living (organic) matter. Quantum physicists would consider matter in terms of energy and vibration, radiating a unique energy signature. In Nature, parents teach their offspring what to do in order to survive during life. Jews and Christians teach their children that the Creator communicate with the Righteous who then share the Gospel (Accepted Testimony) of Truth on how to survive and prosper both physically and spiritually through a proper Code of Conduct (Morality). There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has directly assisted human beings to survive and prosper during life and after death. but its gravitational effects are visible Dark matter is a type of matter that has not yet been directly observed, but is thought to form a fundamental part of the universe. Lord and His Angels (Messenger Spirits) Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews) and Jesus (Christians) believe and testify that the Holy Spirit is a Supernatural (beyond Natural Law) force of Will of the Creator (God) that can can create, modify, and destroy Nature and Natural Law. In Nature and by Natural Law water moves throughout our planet to help bring forth and restore life. Like water, Jews and Christians believe and testify that in Nature the Lord's Spirit (Creator Spirit) moves Supernaturally by the Will of God throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Jews and Christians believe and testify that Creator's Holy Spirit has given certain loyal humble human spirits (Righteous) the Supernatural ability to perceive God's Will moving throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Christians believe in testify that the eternal water flows from within the Righteous. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings extrasensory perception (ESP) to perceive information of Unnatural (Supernatural) events where life was generated or restored that could not be viewed through normal senses. In Society, the community can reject members that break agreed upon laws. Jews and Christians testify that the Spirit of the Lord can reject Sinners (prideful unclean human spirits) and Demons (prideful unclean Angels) and that reject the Creator's Law (Will) on how to live with one another. Jews and Christians testify that the Lord's Spirit (Spirit of the Lord) can rebuke, condemn, and destroy an unclean Demon (Fallen Angel) and Sinners. In Society, members of the community can bestow positions of power to individuals that are considered worthy of it. Jews and Christians testify that the Holy Spirit can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment of good and evil to Righteous to testify the truth about the Creator and lead followers according to His will. In Nature, water is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures a way to regulate temperature and transport vital nutrients throughout the organism. Similar to water, Jews and Christians believe and testify the Lord's Spirit moves unperceivable through Nature with Supernatural power to control matter and bring nourishment to living creatures according to the Creator's Will. Both Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that both the seen and unseen in the Universe have no Supernatural power unless God wills it to be. Through prayer (communication with God) Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Spirit of the Creator to bless them with beneficial water to sustain the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to locate water and modify weather that cannot be done under normal circumstances. In Nature, water is used to purify (wash) unclean matter that can harm or destroy living creatures. Similar to water, Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that God has the the power to purify the mind and body of all living creatures from that which is unclean to God's Will. Both Jews and Christians use water to perform a purification ritual (Tvilah and Baptism) over human beings that are initiates to their corresponding faith communities. Jews believe and testify that running water is used to temporarily purify the physical bodies of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to temporarily atone themselves from Sin (Transgression) and find fellowship with God. Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Lord's Spirit of Holiness to come and bless water that is used to purify the living spirits of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to atone themselves from Sin and the Desire of the Flesh in order to find fellowship with God and enter the Kingdom of Heaven when the Lord Jesus Christ calls out for them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to manipulate matter to purify the body and conscious of disease and unclean toxins. In Nature, water can kill living creatures by floods and contamination. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has used water to punish sinful living spirits with overwhelming floods and contamination according to His Will. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has given the Righteous power of prophecy perceive floods and manipulate water to protect members of the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities of precognition to see future flood events and manipulate matter to contaminate water with disease and unclean toxins. In Nature, air is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures with energy. through the air, water, and Jews and Christians testify the Lord (another name for God) can permit a vile (evil unclean) spirit (evil unclean spirit) to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, possess, disease and death to rejected prideful unclean living human spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community. In Nature, drought can kill living creatures from the lack of drinking water. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has taken away water to punish sinful living spirits with drought. In Nature, blood is the fluid that contains water and nutrients that sustains life in an organism. Jews and Christians testify that the blood within all living creatures (including human) is life. Jews testify that that the Lord has taught sanctioned priests of the community to use the blood of a living creature as an offering for the temporary atonement of sins that have been committed and for the purpose of making a covenant with the Lord for a prosperous life. Christians believe and testify that the Holy Spirit of Glory (Holy Spirit) has taught that there is no longer a need to offer living creatures to the Creator, the unblemished Lamb (Jesus Christ) was sanctioned to sacrifice his blood as a permanent offering for the atonement of sins that have been committed and a new covenant with the Father (the Lord) for eternal life. Christians believe that purified water of eternal life and the power of God's Spirit resides in the blood of glorified body of Jesus Christ. . In Nature, Attraction is an instinctual physical connection behavior (Physical Beauty) between two or more creatures to survive and reproduce. Many Diest and Polytheist believe that it was the Creator's Will to form creatures with temporary Physical Beauty to arouse the desire to mate (Pairing) by sexual reproduction. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Lord formed living creatures with temporary Physical Beauty be to be fruitful and multiply populations around the planet. In Nature, affection is considered as an intense emotional connection behavior between two or more creatures. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Creator has affection for all living creatures. courtship is an instinctual physical attraction and the sending and receiving of pheromones. In Society believes and testifies that love is a term of selfless giving to others. While the instin Jews and Christians believe that the Lord permitted the Father of lies, the demon Adversary (Satan) to use Envy to tempt Eve and Adam to go against his will. The Lord used permitted Satan to mentally torment Job test to go against his will. Jesus follow God's will like he had successfully done with Eve and Adam. Christ rebuked Satan in the desert and later condemned God's Adversary. The Holy Spirit of Glory can also command unclean demons and spirits to test living human spirits. And we must not take or drink human blood (life) or face punishment. Catholics and Orthodox believe that through the sacrament (ritual) of communion (sharing) a real presence with the Messiah (Christ) can be made with humble living human spirits, in which Christ shares his Glorified blood for everlasting atonement of sins mankind has made against the Creator and other living creatures. Jesus blood also and contains the water of the Creator's new covenant with with living human spirits that grants eternal life to those that truly understand the command to Love. Genesis 2:7 The Lord God formed 20 the man from the soil of the ground 21 and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, 22 and the man became a living being. Exodus 17 17:4 Then Moses cried out to the Lord, “What will I do with 14 this people? – a little more 15 and they will stone me!” 16 17:5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go over before the people; 17 take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile and go. 17:6 I will be standing 18 before you there on 19 the rock in Horeb, and you will strike 20 the rock, and water will come out of it so that the people may drink.” 21 And Moses did so in plain view 22 of the elders of Israel. Exodus 24 24:3 Moses came 8 and told the people all the Lord’s words 9 and all the decisions. All the people answered together, 10 “We are willing to do 11 all the words that the Lord has said,” 24:4 and Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. Early in the morning he built 12 an altar at the foot 13 of the mountain and arranged 14 twelve standing stones 15 – according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24:5 He sent young Israelite men, 16 and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls for peace offerings 17 to the Lord. 24:6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and half of the blood he splashed on the altar. 24:7 He took the Book of the Covenant 19 and read it aloud 20 to the people, and they said, “We are willing to do and obey 21 all that the Lord has spoken.” 24:8 So Moses took the blood and splashed it on 22 the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant 23 that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.” Exodus 30 30:17 The Lord spoke to Moses: 38 30:18 “You are also to make a large bronze 39 basin with a bronze stand 40 for washing. You are to put it between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it, 41 30:19 and Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet from it. 42 30:20 When they enter 43 the tent of meeting, they must wash with 44 water so that they do not die. Leviticus 22:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 22:2 “Tell Aaron and his sons that they must deal respectfully with the holy offerings 1 of the Israelites, which they consecrate to me, so that they do not profane my holy name. 2 I am the Lord. 22:3 Say to them, ‘Throughout your generations, 3 if any man from all your descendants approaches the holy offerings which the Israelites consecrate 4 to the Lord while he is impure, 5 that person must be cut off from before me. 6 I am the Lord. 22:4 No man 7 from the descendants of Aaron who is diseased or has a discharge 8 may eat the holy offerings until he becomes clean. The one 9 who touches anything made unclean by contact with a dead person, 10 or a man who has a seminal emission, 11 22:5 or a man who touches a swarming thing by which he becomes unclean, 12 or touches a person 13 by which he becomes unclean, whatever that person’s impurity 14 – 22:6 the person who touches any of these 15 will be unclean until evening and must not eat from the holy offerings unless he has bathed his body in water. 22:7 When the sun goes down he will be clean, and afterward he may eat from the holy offerings, because they are his food. 22:8 He must not eat an animal that has died of natural causes 16 or an animal torn by beasts and thus become unclean by it. I am the Lord. 22:9 They must keep my charge so that they do not incur sin on account of it 17 and therefore die 18 because they profane it. I am the Lord who sanctifies them. 1 Kings 19 19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal 12 to the Lord, the sovereign God, 13 even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, 14 torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 15 19:11 The Lord 16 said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.” A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, 17 but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 18 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden 19 a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” Proverbs 31:30 Charm is deceitful 73 and beauty is fleeting, 74 but a woman who fears the Lord 75 will be praised. 31:31 Give 76 her credit for what she has accomplished, 77 and let her works praise her 78 in the city gates. 79 Wisdom of Solomon 2 24 Nevertheless through envy of the devil came death into the world: and they that do hold of his side do find it. Mark 1 1:21 Then 38 they went to Capernaum. 39 When the Sabbath came, 40 Jesus 41 went into the synagogue 42 and began to teach. 1:22 The people there 43 were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, 44 not like the experts in the law. 45 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46 and he cried out, 47 1:24 “Leave us alone, 48 Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49 of God!” 1:25 But 50 Jesus rebuked him: 51 “Silence! Come out of him!” 52 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53 the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee. Healings at Simon’s House 1:29 Now 54 as soon as they left the synagogue, 55 they entered Simon and Andrew’s house, with James and John. 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, sick with a fever, so 56 they spoke to Jesus 57 at once about her. 1:31 He came and raised her up by gently taking her hand. Then the fever left her and she began to serve 58 them. 1:32 When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were sick and demon-possessed. 1:33 The whole town gathered by the door. 1:34 So 59 he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons. 60 But 61 he would not permit the demons to speak, 62 because they knew him. 63 Praying and Preaching 1:35 Then 64 Jesus 65 got up early in the morning when it was still very dark, departed, and went out to a deserted place, and there he spent time in prayer. 66 1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him. 1:37 When they found him, they said, “Everyone is looking for you.” 1:38 He replied, 67 “Let us go elsewhere, into the surrounding villages, so that I can preach there too. For that is what I came out here to do.” 68 1:39 So 69 he went into all of Galilee preaching in their synagogues 70 and casting out demons. John 1 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 10. He was in the world, and the world existed by his hand, and the world knew him not. 11. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. 12. But those that received him, to them he gave authority to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his Name, 13. Those who had not been born of blood, nor of the desire of the flesh, nor of the desire of a man, but of God. 29. And the day after, Yohannan saw Yeshua Who came to him and Yohannan said : "Behold, The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world!" 30. "This is The One of whom I said: 'After me a man is coming and he was himself before me because he had priority over me.'" 32. And Yohannan testified and said: "I saw The Spirit who was descending from Heaven like a dove and remaining upon him." 33. "And I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me: 'The One on whom you see The Spirit descending and remaining, This is The One who baptizes in The Spirit of Holiness.' " 34. "And I have seen and have testified that This One is The Son of God." 35. And another day Yohannan was standing and two of his disciples; 36. And he gazed upon Yeshua as he was walking and said: "Behold: The Lamb of God." John 3 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 1. One man of the Pharisees was living there; his name was Nicodemus. He was a leader of the Judeans. 2. This man came to Yeshua at night and said to him: "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher sent from God, for no man is able to do these miracles that you are doing unless God were with him." 3. Yeshua answered and said to him: "Timeless truth I am telling you: If a person is not born again, it is impossible for that one to see the Kingdom of God." 4. Nicodemus said to him: "How can an old man be born? Is it not impossible for him again to enter his mother's womb a second time and be born?" 5. Yeshua answered and said to him: "Timeless truth I am telling you: "If a person is not born from water and The Spirit, it is impossible that he shall enter the Kingdom of God. 6. That which is born from flesh is flesh, and that which is born from The Spirit is spirit. 7. Do not be surprised that I said to you that all of you must be born again. 8. The Spirit breathes where he will, and you hear his voice, but you do not know from where he comes and where he goes; thus is everyone who is born from The Spirit." 9. Nicodemus answered and said to him, "How can these things be?" 10. Yeshua answered and said to him: "You are the Teacher of Israel and you do not know these things? 11. Timeless truth I speak to you: The things that We know We are speaking and the things that We see We are testifying, and Our testimony all of you do not accept. 12. If I have told all of you that which is in the earth and you are not believing, how shall you believe me if I tell you that which is in Heaven? 13. And no man has gone up to Heaven except he who went down from Heaven: The Son of Man -- he who is in Heaven. 14. And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, thus The Son of Man is going to be lifted up, 15. So that every person who believes in him shall not be lost, but shall have eternal life. 16. For God loved the world in this way: so much that he would give up his Son, The Only One, so that everyone who trusts in him shall not be lost, but he shall have eternal life. 17. For God did not send his Son into the world that he would condemn the world, but that he would give life to the world by him. 18. Whoever believes in him is not judged, and whoever does not believe is judged already, because he does not believe in The Name of The Only Begotten Son of God. 19. This is the judgment: The Light has come into the world and the children of men loved the darkness more than The Light, because their works were evil. 20. For everyone who does what is hateful, hates The Light and does not come to The Light, lest his works should be convicted. 21. But he who does The Truth comes to The Light, so that his works may be revealed, that they are performed by God." John 4 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 6. And Jaqob's spring of water was there, and Yeshua, weary from walking, sat down by himself at the spring at the sixth hour. 7. And a woman from Samaria came to draw water and Yeshua said to her, "Give me water to drink." 8. For his disciples had entered the city to buy provisions for themselves. 9. And the Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew, would ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?" For the Jews do not associate with the Samaritans. 10. Yeshua answered and said to her, "If only you knew what the gift of God is, and who this is who says to you, 'Give me to drink', you would have asked for what he has, and he would have given you living waters." 11. This woman said to him, "My Lord, you have no bucket and the well is deep. From where do you have living waters?" 12. "Are you greater than our forefather Jaqob, he who gave us this well, and he drank from it, also his children and his flock? " 13. Yeshua answered and said to her, "Everyone who shall drink from these waters shall thirst again; 14. But everyone who shall drink of the waters that I will give him shall not thirst for eternity, but those waters that I give him shall be springs of waters in him that shall spring up into eternal life." 15. This woman said to him, "My lord, give me from these waters that I shall not thirst again, and so I am not coming to draw from here." 16. Yeshua said to her, "Go call your husband and come here." 17. She said to him, "I have no husband.'" Yeshua said to her, "You have said correctly, 'I have no husband'. 18. For you have had five husbands, and this man that is with you now is not your husband; this you have spoken truly." 19. The woman said to him, "My lord, I perceive that you are a Prophet. 20. Our forefathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem is the place where it is necessary to worship." 21. Yeshua said to her, "Woman, believe me that the hour is coming in which neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship The Father. 22. You are worshiping what you do not know. We know what we are worshiping, for The Life is of the Jews. 23. But the hour is coming and now is, when the true worshippers will worship The Father in The Spirit and in The Truth, for The Father also is seeking such worshippers as these. 24. For The Spirit is God, and it is fitting that those who worship him worship in The Spirit and in The Truth." 25. The woman said to him, "I know that The Messiah is coming, and when he comes, he will teach us all things." 26. Yeshua said to her, "I AM THE LIVING GOD , I who am speaking with you." John 6 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 53. And Yeshua said to them, "Timeless truth I speak to you: Unless you eat the body of The Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves." 54. "But whoever eats of my body and drinks of my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise him in the last day." 55. "For my body truly is food, and my blood truly is drink." 56. "Whoever eats my body and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him." 57. "Just as The Living Father has sent me, and I am living because of The Father, whoever will eat me, he also will live because of Me." 58. "This is the bread that came down from Heaven. It is not as your forefathers who ate manna and have died; whoever eats this bread shall live for eternity." 59. These things he said in the synagogue when he taught in Kapernahum. 60. And many of his disciples who heard were saying, "This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?" 61. But Yeshua knew in his soul that his disciples were murmuring about this, and he said to them, "Does this subvert you?" 62. "Truly you will see therefore The Son of Man ascending to the place where he was from the first." 63. "The Spirit is The Life Giver; the body does not benefit anything. The words that I speak with you are spirit and life." John 7 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 35. The Judeans were saying among themselves, "Where is This Man prepared to go that we cannot be, indeed to a region of the Gentiles? Is he prepared to go teach the pagans?" 36. "What is this statement that he spoke: 'You will seek me and will not find me, and wherever I am, you are not able to come?' " 37. But at the great day, which is the last of the feast, Yeshua stood and he proclaimed and said: "If a man is thirsty, let him come to me and drink." 38. "Everyone who trusts in me, just as the scriptures have said, rivers of living water shall flow from within him." 39. But this he spoke about The Spirit, Whom those who were trusting in him were being prepared to receive; for The Spirit had not yet been given, because Yeshua had not yet been glorified. Jesus' "cleansing blood," that is, to his death that purifies believers from sin. John 19 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 34. But one of the soldiers struck him on his side with his spear, and at once blood and water issued forth. 35. And he who saw testified and his testimony is true and he knows that he spoke the truth so that you also may believe. 36. For these things happened that the scripture should be fulfilled that says, "Not a bone of him will be broken", 37. And another scripture again, that says, "They shall gaze at him whom they pierced through," Zech 12:10. Here a single phrase is quoted from Zech 12, but the entire context is associated with the events surrounding the crucifixion. The “Spirit of grace and of supplication” is poured out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the first part of v. 10. A few verses later in 13:1 Yahweh (typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT) says “In that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.” The blood which flowed from Jesus’ pierced side may well be what the author saw as the connection here, since as the shedding of the blood of the sacrificial victim it represents cleansing from sin. Although the Jewish authorities and Roman soldiers certainly “looked on the one whom they have pierced” as he hung on the cross, the author may also have in mind the parousia (second coming) here. The context in Zech 12-14 is certainly the second coming, so that these who crucified Jesus will look upon him in another sense when he returns in judgment. LEVITICUS 1 1:10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering 24 – from the sheep or the goats – he must present a flawless male, 1:11 and must slaughter it on the north side of the altar before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, will splash its blood against the altar’s sides. ZECHARIAH 13 12:1 The revelation of the word of the Lord concerning Israel: The Lord – he who stretches out the heavens and lays the foundations of the earth, who forms the human spirit within a person 1 – says, 12:2 “I am about to make Jerusalem 2 a cup that brings dizziness 3 to all the surrounding nations; indeed, Judah will also be included when Jerusalem is besieged. 12:3 Moreover, on that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy burden 4 for all the nations, and all who try to carry it will be seriously injured; 5 yet all the peoples of the earth will be assembled against it. 12:4 In that day,” says the Lord, “I will strike every horse with confusion and its rider with madness. I will pay close attention to the house of Judah, but will strike all the horses 6 of the nations 7 with blindness. 12:5 Then the leaders of Judah will say to themselves, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are a means of strength to us through their God, the Lord who rules over all.’ 12:6 On that day 8 I will make the leaders of Judah like an igniter 9 among sticks and a burning torch among sheaves, and they will burn up all the surrounding nations right and left. Then the people of Jerusalem will settle once more in their place, the city of Jerusalem. 12:7 The Lord also will deliver the homes 10 of Judah first, so that the splendor of the kingship 11 of David and of the people of Jerusalem may not exceed that of Judah. 12:8 On that day the Lord himself will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the weakest among them will be like mighty David, and the dynasty of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them. 12 12:9 So on that day I will set out to destroy all the nations 13 that come against Jerusalem.” 12:10 “I will pour out on the kingship 14 of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to me, 15 the one they have pierced. They will lament for him as one laments for an only son, and there will be a bitter cry for him like the bitter cry for a firstborn. 16 12:11 On that day the lamentation in Jerusalem will be as great as the lamentation at Hadad-Rimmon 17 in the plain of Megiddo. 18 12:12 The land will mourn, clan by clan – the clan of the royal household of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the clan of the family of Nathan 19 by itself and their wives by themselves; 12:13 the clan of the descendants of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; and the clan of the Shimeites 20 by itself and their wives by themselves – 12:14 all the clans that remain, each separately with their wives.” ZECHARIAH 13 13:1 “In that day there will be a fountain opened up for the dynasty 1 of David and the people of Jerusalem 2 to cleanse them from sin and impurity. 3 13:2 And also on that day,” says the Lord who rules over all, “I will remove 4 the names of the idols from the land and they will never again be remembered. Moreover, I will remove the prophets and the unclean spirit from the land. 13:3 Then, if anyone prophesies in spite of this, his father and mother to whom he was born will say to him, ‘You cannot live, for you lie in the name of the Lord.’ Then his father and mother to whom he was born will run him through with a sword when he prophesies. 5 13:4 “Therefore, on that day each prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies and will no longer wear the hairy garment 6 of a prophet to deceive the people. 7 13:5 Instead he will say, ‘I am no prophet – indeed, I am a farmer, for a man has made me his indentured servant since my youth.’ 8 13:6 Then someone will ask him, ‘What are these wounds on your chest?’ 9 and he will answer, ‘Some that I received in the house of my friends.’ 1 John 5 6 This is the one who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. John 21 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English 14. This was the third time Yeshua appeared to his disciples after he had risen from the tomb. 15. And after they had breakfast, Yeshua said to Shimeon Kaypha, "Shimeon, Bar Yonah, do you love me more than these things?" He said to him, "Yes, my Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Shepherd my lambs for me." 16. He said to him again a second time, "Shimeon Bar Yonah, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, my Lord. You know that I love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my sheep for me." 17. He said a third time, "Shimeon Bar Yonah, do you love me?" And Kaypha was saddened that he said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "My lord, you discern everything; you know that I love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my ewes for me." John 6 6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, 71 the one who believes 72 has eternal life. 73 6:48 I am the bread of life. 74 6:49 Your ancestors 75 ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6:50 This 76 is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person 77 may eat from it and not die. 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread 78 that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” 6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79 began to argue with one another, 80 “How can this man 81 give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82 unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83 you have no life 84 in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85 my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86 6:55 For my flesh is true 87 food, and my blood is true 88 drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89 my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90 6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91 me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92 is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93 ate, but then later died. 94 The one who eats 95 this bread will live forever.” John 16 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate 15 will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he 16 comes, he will prove the world wrong 17 concerning sin and 18 righteousness and 19 judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because 20 they do not believe in me; 21 16:10 concerning righteousness, 22 because 23 I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24 because 25 the ruler of this world 26 has been condemned. 27 Many Followers Depart 6:59 Jesus 96 said these things while he was teaching in the synagogue 97 in Capernaum. 98 6:60 Then many of his disciples, when they heard these things, 99 said, “This is a difficult 100 saying! 101 Who can understand it?” 102 6:61 When Jesus was aware 103 that his disciples were complaining 104 about this, he said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 105 6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before? 106 6:63 The Spirit is the one who gives life; human nature is of no help! The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 108 6:64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus had already known from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) 109 6:65 So Jesus added, 110 “Because of this I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has allowed him to come.” 111 1 Corinthians 15 15:42 It is the same with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 25 15:43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 15:44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 15:45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living person”; 26 the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15:46 However, the spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and then the spiritual. 15:47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 15:48 Like the one made of dust, so too are those made of dust, and like the one from heaven, so too those who are heavenly. 15:49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, let us also bear 27 the image of the man of heaven. 15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28 Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29 I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30 but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31 of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen, “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” 32 15:55 “Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?” 33 15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! 15:58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, 34 be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord. EPHESIANS 4 19 4:15 ...practicing the truth in love, 20 we will in all things grow up into Christ, who is the head. 4:16 From him the whole body grows, fitted and held together through every supporting ligament. As each one does its part, the body grows in love. 4:17 So I say this, and insist in the Lord, that you no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking. 4:18 They are darkened in their understanding, being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts. 4:19 Because they are callous, they have given themselves over to indecency for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 4:20 But you did not learn about Christ like this, 4:21 if indeed you heard about him and were taught in him, just as the truth is in Jesus. 4:22 You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old man who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, 4:23 to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 4:24 and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image 29 – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth. Hebrews 9 9:1 Now the first covenant, 1 in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 2 which contained 3 the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 4 is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 5 were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 6 were the cherubim 7 of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 8 as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 9 and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 10 9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 11 was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 12 and various washings; they are external regulations 13 imposed until the new order came. 14 9:11 But now Christ has come 15 as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 16 eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 17 9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 18 consciences from dead works to worship the living God. 9:15 And so he is the mediator 19 of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 20 since he died 21 to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 22 9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23 9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24 9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25 of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26 but the heavenly things themselves required 27 better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28 of the true sanctuary 29 – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30 himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31 are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32 9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33 to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34 but to bring salvation. 1 Peter 1 1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully. 1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when he testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and his subsequent glory. 27 1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven – things angels long to catch a glimpse of. 1 Peter 5 5:8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, 14 is on the prowl looking for someone 15 to devour. 5:9 Resist him, 16 strong in your faith, because you know 17 that your brothers and sisters 18 throughout the world 19 are enduring 20 the same kinds of suffering. 21 5:10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ 22 will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you. 23 5:11 To him belongs 24 the power forever. Amen. The Peshitta Aramaic-English Interlinear Gospels The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 10 1. He called His disciples and He gave to them authority over filfthy spirits to cast them out and to heal every ailment and disease The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 11 19. When they arrest you, not shall you be anxious how or what you will speak, it will be given to you for in that hour whatever you should speak. 20. Not it will be you speaking. but, The Spirit of your Father speaking in you, 21. will deliver but brother, his brother, to death, and father, his son and will rise children against their parents, and they will put to death them. 22. And you will be hated of everyman, because of My name, whoever, but will endure until the end he will be saved. The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 12 16. And he warned them that not they should reveal Him 17. that it should be fulfilled the thing, that which is spoken by Isaiah the prophet which says 18. Behold My Servant in Whom I delight in Him. My Beloved for Whom has longed for Him, My Soul, My Spirit, I shall put upon him and judgment to the nations He will preach. 19. not He will dispute neither will he cry out, nor a man will hear his voice in the streets 27. And if I am by Beelzebub I am casting out demons, you sons by whom do they cast out them, because of this they will be to you judges 28. And if by the Spirit of God, I am casting out demons has come near. it unto you the Kingdom of God. 29 Or How is able that man is able that he should enter the House of a mighty man. And his goods should plunder unless, only first he would bind him, the mighty man and then his house he may plunder 31. Because of this I say to you, that all sins and blasphemies they will be forgiven, to the children of men the blasphemy, but that is against the Spirit not will be forgiven, to the children of men. 32. everyone who will say, a word against The Son of Man, it will be forgiven to him to everyone, but who against the Spirit of Holiness will talk, not it will be forgiven to him, not in this world and not in the world that is being prepared. 33 either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad, from its fruit is for known a tree. 34. offspring of vipers, How are able you good things to speak who evil are? from the fullness of the heart speaks the mouth 35. a man good from a treasure good, brings good things and a man evil from treasure evil brings evil things 36. say I unto you for that every word idle, that will say children of men, they will give an answer for it in the day of judgement 37. by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned. 43. whenever but a spirit vile goes out, from a son of man it wanders about in places, where there is no water in them and it seeks rest and does not find it. 44 then it says I shall return to my house, from where I came out and it goes, finding that is empty and swept and decorated. 45. then it goes bringing with it seven other spirits, than it worse and they enter and dwell in it, and the end of a man that worse than the beginning, thus it will be done to it, to this evil generation The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 18 26. And falling down that servant worshiped him, and he said my lord prolong concerning me your spirit, and everything I shall pay you. 27. And moved with pity his lord of servant that, and he released him and his debt forgiving him. 28. went out but servant that and he found, one of his associates who had owed him a hundred danari and seized him and choked him, and he said to him give to m that which you owe to me. 29. And that associate he fell before his feet, begging of him and saying to him, prolong concerning me your spirit and I shall pay you. The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 26 41. watch and pray lest you enter into temptation, the spirit is ready but the body is weak The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 27 50. but He Yeshua cried again, with a voice loud, and departed his Spirit The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 28 therefore go you disciple all of them the and baptize them in the Name of the Father and the Son and the Spirit of Holiness The Holy Gospel Preaching of Mark 1 8. I have immersed you in water He will immerse you in The Spirit of Holiness 10. And at once as He came up from the waters He saw the heavens that were ripped open and the The Spirit as a dove who was descending upon Him. 11. And a voice there was from the heavens You are My beloved Son with you I am delighted. 12. And at once the spirit drove Him into the wilderness. 23. And there was in their synagogue a man who had a vile spirit in him and he cried out. 24. And he said, to us what? and to You Yeshua Nazarene, have you come to destroy us? I know Who You are. You are the Holy One of God 25. And Yeshua rebuked and said to him shut your mouth and come out from him. 26. And threw him down and he cried out and the foul spirit in a loud voice came out of him 27.
  12. Genesis 9 9:4 But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood, by other humans must his blood be shed; for in God’s image God has made humankind.” Leviticus 17 17:10 “‘Any man 23 from the house of Israel or from the foreigners who reside in their 25 midst who eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from the midst of his people, 17:11 for the life of every living thing is in the blood. 28 So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 30 17:12 Therefore, I have said to the Israelites: No person among you is to eat blood, 31 and no resident foreigner who lives among you is to eat blood. 32 17:13 “‘Any man from the Israelites 33 or from the foreigners who reside 34 in their 35 midst who hunts a wild animal 36 or a bird that may be eaten 37 must pour out its blood and cover it with soil, 17:14 for the life of all flesh is its blood. 38 So I have said to the Israelites: You must not eat the blood of any living thing 39 because the life of every living thing is its blood – all who eat it will be cut off. Numbers 35 35:33 “You must not pollute the land where you live, for blood defiles the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed there, except by the blood of the person who shed it. DEUTERONOMY 12 12:23 However, by no means eat the blood, for the blood is life itself 34 – you must not eat the life with the meat! EZEKIEL 16 16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. Ezekiel 22 22:23 The word of the Lord came to me: 22:24 “Son of man, say to her: ‘You are a land that receives no rain 32 or showers in the day of my anger.’ 33 22:25 Her princes 34 within her are like a roaring lion tearing its prey; they have devoured lives. They take away riches and valuable things; they have made many women widows 35 within it. 22:26 Her priests abuse my law and have desecrated my holy things. They do not distinguish between the holy and the profane, 36 or recognize any distinction between the unclean and the clean. They ignore 37 my Sabbaths and I am profaned in their midst. 22:27 Her officials are like wolves in her midst rending their prey – shedding blood and destroying lives – so they can get dishonest profit. John 6 6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79 began to argue with one another, 80 “How can this man 81 give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82 unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83 you have no life 84 in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85 my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86 6:55 For my flesh is true 87 food, and my blood is true 88 drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89 my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90 6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91 me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92 is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93 ate, but then later died. 94 The one who eats 95 this bread will live forever.” 1 Corinthians 15 15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28 Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29 I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30 but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31 of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen Hebrews 9 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23 9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24 9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25 of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26 but the heavenly things themselves required 27 better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28 of the true sanctuary 29 – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30 himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31 are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32 9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33 to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34 but to bring salvation. 35 Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted 10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 1 10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 2 no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 3 there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 4 10:5 So when he came into the world, he said, “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me. 10:6 “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in. 10:7 “Then I said, ‘Here I am: 5 I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 6 10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offeringsyou did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 7 (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 8 He does away with 9 the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 10 we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 11 serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 12 had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 13 of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 14 until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 15 10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 16 10:16 “This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 17 my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 18 10:17 then he says, 19 “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 20 10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10 10:19 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 21 since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 10:20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us 22 through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 23 10:21 and since we have a great priest 24 over the house of God, 10:22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings, 25 because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience 26 and our bodies washed in pure water. 10:23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 10:24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, 27 10:25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day 28 drawing near. 29 10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 30 10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury 31 of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 32 10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death 33 without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 34 10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for 35 the Son of God, and profanes 36 the blood of the covenant that made him holy, 37 and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 38 and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 39 10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God. EPHESIANS 2 2:11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh – who are called “uncircumcision” by the so-called “circumcision” that is performed on the body 24 by human hands – 2:12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, 25 alienated from the citizenship of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, 26 having no hope and without God in the world. 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 27 2:14 For he is our peace, the one who made both groups into one 28 and who destroyed the middle wall of partition, the hostility, 2:15 when he nullified 29 in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man 30 out of two, 31 thus making peace, 2:16 and to reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by which the hostility has been killed. 32 2:17 And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 2:18 so that 33 through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 2:19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of God’s household, 2:20 because you have been built 34 on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 35 with Christ Jesus himself as 36 the cornerstone. 37 2:21 In him 38 the whole building, 39 being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, 2:22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit. Paul's Relationship to the Divine Mystery 3:1 For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 1 for the sake of you Gentiles – 3:2 if indeed 2 you have heard of the stewardship 3 of God’s grace that was given to me for you, 3:3 that 4 by revelation the divine secret 5 was made known to me, as I wrote before briefly. 6 3:4 When reading this, 7 you will be able to 8 understand my insight into this secret 9 of Christ. 3:5 Now this secret 10 was not disclosed to people 11 in former 12 generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by 13 the Spirit, 3:6 namely, that through the gospel 14 the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members 15 of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus. The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches those the community that follows God's covenant with Moses that the blood of a living creature is life that we must not drink or face punishment. But, humble clean living human spirits may be use the blood of a living creature an offering to God for the atonement a sins that members of the community of Moses have committed. The Holy Spirit teaches that the blood of a living human spirit is life that we must not take or drink of face punishment. The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches the community that follows God's covenant with Jesus, that humble living human spirits are offered to drink His Glorified blood for the atonement and resurrection of all that believe in him.
  13. The 189th Article Why this passion excites weeping. Now, a man weeps easily in this passion because love, sending much blood to the heart, causes many vapors to issue through the eyes; and the coldness of sadness retarding the agitation of these vapors converts them into tears, as has been formerly said. The 190th Article Of satisfaction of oneself. The satisfaction that they have, who constantly follow the paths of virtue, is a habit in their soul called tranquility or quiet of conscience. But that which a man acquires anew when he has lately done any action that he thinks good, is a passion, to wit, a sort of joy which I believe is the softest of all, because the cause thereof depends only on ourselves. Yet when this cause is not just, that is, when the actions from whence we deduct this satisfaction are not of consequence, or else are vicious, it is ridiculous and serves only to produce a pride and impertinent arrogance, which may particularly be observed in those who believing themselves to be devout are only hypocritical and superstitious, that is, who under pretense of frequenting the church, saying many prayers, wearing short hair, fasting, giving alms, suppose they are exquisitely perfect, and imagine they are God's so intimate friends that they can do nothing that can displease him; and whatsoever their passions dictate to them is a good zeal (devotion): although it sometime dictate to them the greatest crimes that can be committed by men, as betraying of cities murdering of princes, exterminating whole nations merely for this, that they are not of their opinion. The 191st Article Of repentance. Repentance is directly contrary to satisfaction of oneself. And it is a sort of sadness proceeding from a belief that a man has done some evil action, and it is very bitter because the cause comes only from ourselves. Yet nevertheless, this hinders it not from being very useful, when it is true, that the action we repent of is evil, and that we have a certain knowledge thereof, because it incites us to do better another time. But it oft-times comes to pass that weak spirits repent the things they have done, not knowing certainly that they are evil. They persuade themselves so, only because they fear it is so, and had they done the contrary, they had repented too--which is an imperfection in them to be pitied. And the remedies against this defect are the same that serve to take away irresolution. PROVERBS 8 8:20 I walk in the path of righteousness, in the pathway of justice, 8:21 that I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth, and that I may fill their treasuries. 8:22 The Lord created me as the beginning of his works, before his deeds of long ago. 8:23 From eternity I was appointed, from the beginning, from before the world existed. 8:24 When there were no deep oceans I was born, when there were no springs overflowing with water; 8:25 before the mountains were set in place – before the hills – I was born, 8:26 before he made the earth and its fields, or the beginning of the dust of the world. 8:27 When he established the heavens, I was there; when he marked out the horizon over the face of the deep, 8:28 when he established the clouds above, when the fountains of the deep grew strong, 8:29 when he gave the sea his decree that the waters should not pass over his command, when he marked out the foundations of the earth, 8:30 then I was beside him as a master craftsman, and I was his delight day by day, rejoicing before him at all times, 8:31 rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth, and delighting in its people. John 1 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God. 1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning. 1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created. 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind. 1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it. 1 CHRONICLES 28 28:9 “And you, Solomon my son, obey the God of your father and serve him with a submissive attitude and a willing spirit, 12 for the Lord examines all minds and understands every motive of one’s thoughts. If you seek him, he will let you find him, 13 but if you abandon him, he will reject you permanently. Proverbs 8 8:32 “So now, children, listen to me; blessed are those who keep my ways. Luke 11 11:27 a woman in the crowd spoke out to him [Jesus], “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!” John 14 14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.” 8:33 Listen to my instruction so that you may be wise, and do not neglect it. John 14 14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you. 1 Peter 4 4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. 4:13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. 4:14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. Job 32 32:7 I said to myself, ‘Age should speak, and length of years should make wisdom known.’ 32:8 But it is a spirit in people, the breath of the Almighty, that makes them understand. Job 28 28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from? Where is the place of understanding? 28:21 For it has been hidden from the eyes of every living creature, and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed. 28:22 Destruction and Death say, ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’ 28:23 God understands the way to it, and he alone knows its place. 28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth and observes everything under the heavens. 28:25 When he made the force of the wind and measured the waters with a gauge. 28:26 When he imposed a limit for the rain, and a path for the thunderstorm, 28:27 then he looked at wisdom and assessed its value; he established it and examined it closely. 28:28 And he said to mankind, ‘The fear of the Lord – that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.’ Proverbs 8 8:34 Blessed is the one who listens to me, watching at my doors day by day, waiting beside my doorway. 8:35 For the one who finds me finds life and receives favor from the Lord. 8:36 But the one who does not find me brings harm to himself; all who hate me love death.” Isaiah 11 11:2 The Lord’s spirit will rest on him – a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans, a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord. 11:3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord. He will not judge by mere appearances, or make decisions on the basis of hearsay. 11:4 He will treat the poor fairly, and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and order the wicked to be executed. 11:5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist, integrity will be like a belt around his hips. Matthew 3 3:11 “I baptize you with water, for repentance, but the one coming after me is more powerful than I am – I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. MARK 1 1:9 Now in those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan River. 1:10 And just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens splitting apart and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my one dear Son; in you I take great delight.” 1:12 The Spirit immediately drove him into the wilderness. 1 CORINTHIANS 12 12:1 With regard to spiritual gifts, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed. 12:2 You know that when you were pagans you were often led astray by speechless idols, however you were led. 12:3 So I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit. 12:4 Now there are different gifts, but the same Spirit. 12:5 And there are different ministries, but the same Lord. 12:6 And there are different results, but the same God who produces all of them in everyone. 12:7 To each person the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the benefit of all. 12:8 For one person is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, and another the message of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 12:10 to another performance of miracles, to another prophecy, and to another discernment of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues. 12:11 It is one and the same Spirit, distributing as he decides to each person, who produces all these things. 12:12 For just as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body – though many – are one body, so too is Christ. 12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves 4 or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit. John 14 14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me. Exodus 3 3:13 Moses said to God, “If I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ – what should I say to them?” 3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” And he said, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’ 1 KINGS 19 19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.” A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” MARK 11 11:20 In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots. 11:21 Peter remembered and said to him, “Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered.” 11:22 Jesus said to them, “Have faith in God. 11:23 I tell you the truth, if someone says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him. 11:24 For this reason I tell you, whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 11:25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will also forgive you your sins.” 1 JOHN 5 This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. 5:5 Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? 5:6 Jesus Christ is the one who came by water and blood – not by the water only, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 5:7 For there are three that testify, 5:8 the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are in agreement. Genesis 1 1:2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the water. Isaiah 44 44:1 “Now, listen, Jacob my servant, Israel whom I have chosen!” 44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says – the one who formed you in the womb and helps you: “Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob, Jeshurun, 1 whom I have chosen! 44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground and cause streams to flow on the dry land. I will pour my spirit on your offspring and my blessing on your children. 44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass, like poplars beside channels of water. 44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’ and another will use the name ‘Jacob.’ One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’ and use the name ‘Israel.’” Isaiah 58 58:11 The Lord will continually lead you; he will feed you even in parched regions. He will give you renewed strength, and you will be like a well-watered garden, like a spring that continually produces water. JUDGES 15 15:18 He [Sampson] was very thirsty, so he cried out to the Lord and said, “You have given your servant this great victory. But now must I die of thirst and fall into hands of the Philistines?” 15:19 So God split open the basin at Lehi and water flowed out from it. When he took a drink, his strength was restored and he revived. For this reason he named the spring En Hakkore. It remains in Lehi to this very day. Psalms 105 105:26 He [God] sent his servant Moses, and Aaron, whom he had chosen. 105:27 They executed his miraculous signs among them, and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham. 105:28 He made it dark; they did not disobey his orders. 105:29 He turned their water into blood, and killed their fish. Psalms 107 107:33 He turned streams into a desert, springs of water into arid land, 107:34 and a fruitful land into a barren place, because of the sin of its inhabitants. 107:35 As for his people, he turned a desert into a pool of water, and a dry land into springs of water. 1 Kings 22 22:20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die 20 there?’ One said this and another that. 22:21 Then a spirit 21 stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 22:22 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 22 said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 23 Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 22:23 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 22:24 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?” 1 Samuel 16 16:14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. Isaiah 19 19:3 The Egyptians will panic, and I will confuse their strategy. They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead, from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians. Mark 1 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46 and he cried out, 47 1:24 “Leave us alone, 48 Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49 of God!” 1:25 But 50 Jesus rebuked him: 51 “Silence! Come out of him!” 52 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53 the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee. John 4 4:13 Jesus replied, 33 “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty 34 again. 4:14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again, 35 but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain 36 of water springing up 37 to eternal life.” 1 CORINTHIANS 11 11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. 11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8 and in this way 9 let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10 for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11 11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12 when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment. I will give directions about other matters when I come. 1 John 4 4:1 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to determine if they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4:2 By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses Jesus as the Christ who has come in the flesh is from God, 4:3 but every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming, and now is already in the world. 4:4 You are from God, little children, and have conquered them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world. 4:5 They are from the world; therefore they speak from the world’s perspective and the world listens to them. 4:6 We are from God; the person who knows God listens to us, but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of deceit. Note. Water is used to purify those repenting sin against God. strength was restored and he revived wash his clothes and bathe In nature water moves throughout our planet to bring forth and restore life. Water is used by man to drink, bathe, and wash clothes. The Holy Spirit of Glory is a force of God's will that moves everywhere through nature purifying and restoring life. The communities of Moses and Jesus testify that the Spirit of Glory can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, knowledge, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment to loyal humble human spirits to testify the truth about God and lead followers according to His will. Through prayer the communities of Moses and Jesus testify that humble living human spirits may ask God's Spirit to bless them with with clean water to purify repenting members from unclean sin. The Lord's Spirit can manipulate nature to pollute and eradicate life from prideful living human spirits that reject God they know to be true and rebel against His will. The Holy Spirit can also empower an evil unclean dead human spirit to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, disease and death to rejected prideful living humans spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community. Psalms 114 114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord – before the God of Jacob, 114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water, a hard rock into springs of water! Numbers 19 19:7 ...the priest must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, but the priest will be ceremonially unclean until evening. 19:8 The one who burns it must wash his clothes in water and bathe himself in water. He will be ceremonially unclean until evening. 19:9 “‘Then a man who is ceremonially clean must gather up the ashes of the red heifer and put them in a ceremonially clean place outside the camp. They must be kept for the community of the Israelites for use in the water of purification – it is a purification for sin. Numbers 27 27:15 Then Moses spoke to the Lord: 27:16 “Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all humankind, appoint a man over the community, 27:17 who will go out before them, and who will come in before them, and who will lead them out, and who will bring them in, so that the community of the Lord may not be like sheep that have no shepherd.” Psalms 51 51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! Renew a resolute spirit within me! 51:11 Do not reject me! Do not take your Holy Spirit away from me! 51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance! Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 51:13 Then I will teach rebels your merciful ways, and sinners will turn to you. 51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, O God, the God who delivers me! Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance. 51:15 O Lord, give me the words! Then my mouth will praise you. 51:16 Certainly you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it; you do not desire a burnt sacrifice. 51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit – O God, a humble and repentant heart you will not reject. Job 14 14:13 “O that 33 you would hide me in Sheol, 34 and conceal me till your anger has passed! 35 O that you would set me a time 36 and then remember me! 37 14:14 If a man dies, will he live again? 38 All the days of my hard service 39 I will wait 40 until my release comes. 41 14:15 You will call 42 and I 43 – I will answer you; you will long for 44 the creature you have made. John 14 14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34 my commandments. 14:16 Then 36 I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38 because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you. 1 CORINTHIANS 1 1:4 I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus. 1:5 For you were made rich 6 in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge 7 – 1:6 just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you – 1:7 so that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation 8 of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:8 He 9 will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son, Jesus Christ our Lord. GALATIANS 3 3:23 Now before faith 51 came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 52 until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 53 until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 54 by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 55 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 56 3:27 For all of you who 57 were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 58 nor free, there is neither male nor female 59 – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 60 heirs according to the promise.
  14. The 186th Article Who are most pitiful. Those who feel themselves very weak and subject to the adversities of fortune seem to be more inclined to this passion than any else, because they fancy the evil of another as possible to befall them, and so they are moved to pity rather out of the love they bear themselves than that they bear to others. The 187th Article How the most generous men are sensible of this passion. But nevertheless, they who are most generous and have the greatest spirits so that they fear not any evil to themselves, and hold themselves above the power of fortune, are not exempted from compassion when they see the infirmity of other men and hear their complaints. For it is a part of generosity to bear goodwill to every man. But the sadness of this pity is not bitter, and like that which tragic actions personated (pretended) on the stage cause, is more in the exteriors and the senses, than the interiors of the soul, which in the meanwhile is satisfied to think she has done her duty, in that she has a fellow feeling with the afflicted. And there is this difference in it, that whereas the vulgar pity those who complain because they think the ills they suffer are very grievous (serious), the principal object of great men's pity is the weakness of those that they see complain; because they esteem not any accident that may befall to be so great an evil, as is the baseness of those who cannot suffer constantly; and though they hate the vices (wickedness), yet they hate not those they see subject to them, they only pity them. The 188th Article Who those are that are not sensible of it. But there are none but malignant and envious spirits who naturally hate all men, or else those who are so belluine (brutal) and blinded by good fortune, or desperate through ill, that they think no further evil can befall them who are insensible of pity. EZEKIEL 16 16:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 16:2 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her abominable practices 16:3 and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your umbilical cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water; you were certainly not rubbed down with salt, nor wrapped with blankets. 16:5 No eye took pity on you to do even one of these things for you to spare you; you were thrown out into the open field because you were detested on the day you were born. 16:6 “‘I passed by you and saw you kicking around helplessly in your blood. I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” 16:7 I made you plentiful like sprouts in a field; you grew tall and came of age so that you could wear jewelry. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, but you were still unclothed and bare. 16:8 “‘Then I passed by you and watched you, noticing that you had reached the age for love. I spread my cloak over you and covered your nakedness. I swore a solemn oath to you and entered into a marriage covenant with you, declares the sovereign Lord, and you became mine. 16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. 16:10 I dressed you in embroidered clothing and put fine leather sandals on your feet. I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 16:11 I adorned you with jewelry. I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 16:12 I put a ring in your nose, earrings on your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. 16:13 You were adorned with gold and silver, while your clothing was of fine linen, silk, and embroidery. You ate the finest flour, honey, and olive oil. You became extremely beautiful and attained the position of royalty. 16:14 Your fame spread among the nations because of your beauty; your beauty was perfect because of the splendor which I bestowed on you, declares the sovereign Lord. 16:15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and capitalized on your fame by becoming a prostitute. You offered your sexual favors to every man who passed by so that your beauty became his. 16:16 You took some of your clothing and made for yourself decorated high places; you engaged in prostitution on them. You went to him to become his. 13 16:17 You also took your beautiful jewelry, made of my gold and my silver I had given to you, and made for yourself male images and engaged in prostitution with them. 16:18 You took your embroidered clothing and used it to cover them; you offered my olive oil and my incense to them. 16:19 As for my food that I gave you – the fine flour, olive oil, and honey I fed you – you placed it before them as a soothing aroma. That is exactly what happened, declares the sovereign Lord. 16:20 “‘You took your sons and your daughters whom you bore to me and you sacrificed them as food for the idols to eat. As if your prostitution not enough, 16:21 you slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 16:22 And with all your abominable practices and prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth when you were unclothed and bare, kicking around in your blood. JOHN 14 14:23 ...“If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me. 14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you. JOHN 16 16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’ 16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 16:10 concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned. HEBREWS 7 7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office, 7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness, but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever. GALATIANS 3 3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise. 4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors, were enslaved under the basic forces of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8 4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls “Abba! Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are a son, then you are also an heir through God. 4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless basic forces? Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again? EPHESIANS 6 6:10 Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. 6:11 Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 6:12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens. 26 6:13 For this reason, take up the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand your ground on the evil day, and having done everything, to stand. 6:14 Stand firm therefore, by fastening the belt of truth around your waist, by putting on the breastplate of righteousness, 6:15 by fitting your feet with the preparation that comes from the good news of peace, 6:16 and in all of this, by taking up the shield of faith with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 6:18 With every prayer and petition, pray at all times in the Spirit, and to this end be alert, with all perseverance and requests for all the saints. Is stoicheia tou kosmou (“the elemental things of the world”) the worthless basic forces Paul is referencing? Event, occurrence, state, the force that came COLOSSIANS 2 2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him, 2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:11 In him you also were circumcised – not, however, with a circumcision performed by human hands, but by the removal of the fleshly body, that is, through the circumcision done by Christ. 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. 2:13 And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. 2:14 He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. 2:15 Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross. 2:16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you with respect to food or drink, or in the matter of a feast, new moon, or Sabbath days – 2:17 these are only the shadow of the things to come, but the reality is Christ! 2:18 Let no one who delights in humility and the worship of angels pass judgment on you. That person goes on at great lengths about what he has supposedly seen, but he is puffed up with empty notions by his fleshly mind. 37 2:19 He has not held fast to the head from whom the whole body, supported and knit together through its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God. 2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence. Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike If, in teaching the great doctrine of the divine nature. of the Soul, and in striving to explain its longings after immortality, and in proving its superiority over the souls of the animals, which have no aspirations Heavenward, the ancients struggled in vain to express the nature of the soul, by comparing it to FIRE and LIGHT, it will be well for us to consider whether, with all our boasted knowledge, we have any better or clearer idea of its nature, and whether we have not despairingly taken refuge in having none at all. And if they erred as to its original place of abode, and understood literally the mode and path of its descent, these were but the accessories of the great Truth, and probably, to the Initiates, mere allegories, designed to make the idea more palpable and impressive to the mind. They are at least no more fit to be smiled at by the self-conceit of a vain ignorance, the wealth of whose knowledge consists solely in words, than the bosom of Abraham, as a home for the spirits of the just dead; the gulf of actual fire, for the eternal torture of spirits; and the City of the New Jerusalem, with its walls of jasper and its edifices of pure gold like clear glass, its foundations of precious stones, and its gates each of a single pearl. "I knew a man," says PAUL, "caught up to the third Heaven; . . . . that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard ineffable words, which it is not possible for a man to utter." And nowhere is the antagonism and conflict between the spirit and body more frequently and forcibly insisted on than in the writings of this apostle, nowhere the Divine nature of the soul more strongly asserted. "With the mind," he says, "I serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin. . . .As many as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of GOD.... The earnest expectation of the created waits for the manifestation of the sons of God. . . . The created shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, of the flesh liable to decay, into the glorious liberty of the children of God." 1 KINGS 8 8:27 “God does not really live on the earth! Look, if the sky and the highest heaven cannot contain you, how much less this temple I have built! 8:28 But respond favorably to your servant’s prayer and his request for help, O Lord my God. Answer the desperate prayer your servant is presenting to you today. 8:29 Night and day may you watch over this temple, the place where you promised you would live. May you answer your servant’s prayer for this place. 8:30 Respond to the request of your servant and your people Israel for this place. Hear from inside your heavenly dwelling place and respond favorably. 2 KINGS 2 2:9 When they had crossed over, Elijah said to Elisha, “What can I do for you, before I am taken away from you?” Elisha answered, “May I receive a double portion of the prophetic spirit that energizes you.” 2:10 Elijah replied, “That’s a difficult request! If you see me taken from you, may it be so, but if you don’t, it will not happen.” 2:11 As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a fiery chariot pulled by fiery horses appeared. They went between Elijah and Elisha, and Elijah went up to heaven in a windstorm. 2:12 While Elisha was watching, he was crying out, “My father, my father! The chariot and horsemen of Israel!” Then he could no longer see him. 2 CORINTHIANS 12 12:1 ...Though it is not profitable, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. 12:2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago (whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows) was caught up to the third heaven. 12:3 And I know that this man (whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows) 12:4 was caught up into paradise and heard things too sacred to be put into words, things that a person is not permitted to speak. 12:5 On behalf of such an individual I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except about my weaknesses. 12:6 For even if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I would be telling the truth, but I refrain from this so that no one may regard me beyond what he sees in me or what he hears from me, 12:7 even because of the extraordinary character of the revelations. Therefore, so that I would not become arrogant, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to trouble me – so that I would not become arrogant. 12:8 I asked the Lord three times about this, that it would depart from me. 12:9 But he said to me, “My grace is enough for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” So then, I will boast most gladly about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may reside in me. 12:10 Therefore I am content with weaknesses, with insults, with troubles, with persecutions and difficulties for the sake of Christ, for whenever I am weak, then I am strong. REVELATION 1 1:8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God – the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come – the All-Powerful! 1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus. 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day when I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, 1:11 saying: “Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.” 1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me, and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands, 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. 1:14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 1:17 When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last, 1:18 and the one who lives! I was dead, but look, now I am alive – forever and ever – and I hold the keys of death and of Hades! 59 1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things. 60 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches. 2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has a firm grasp on the seven stars in his right hand – the one who walks among the seven golden lampstands: 2:2 ‘I know your works as well as your labor and steadfast endurance, and that you cannot tolerate evil. You have even put to the test those who refer to themselves as apostles (but are not), and have discovered that they are false. 2:3 I am also aware that you have persisted steadfastly, endured much for the sake of my name, and have not grown weary. 2:4 But I have this against you: You have departed from your first love! 2:5 Therefore, remember from what high state you have fallen and repent! Do the deeds you did at the first; if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place – that is, if you do not repent. 16 2:6 But you do have this going for you: You hate what the Nicolaitans practice – practices I also hate. 2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, I will permit him to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.’ Stars are a luminary, and they have a strong gravity. Similarly, a leader of a local church must be a luminary who shines brightly serving the Lord in a special way, with a charismatic gravity to draw people in fellowship and transform them into one family body in Christ. Nicolaitans were known in the cities of Ephesus and Pergamum. Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike The Will is a force; its limits as yet unknown. It is in the power of the will that we chiefly see the spiritual and divine in man. There is a seeming identity between his will that moves other men, and the Creative Will whose action seems so incomprehensible. It is the men of will and action, not the men of pure intellect, that govern the world. 1 PETER 3 4:9 Show hospitality to one another without complaining. 4:10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 4:11 Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen. II JOHN 1:5 But now I ask you, lady (not as if I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one we have had from the beginning), that we love one another. 1:6 (Now this is love: that we walk according to His commandments.) This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning; thus you should walk in it. 1:7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, people who do not confess Jesus as Christ coming in the flesh. This person is the deceiver and the antichrist! 1:8 Watch out, so that you do not lose the things we have worked for, but receive a full reward. 1:9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not remain in the teaching (Didache) of Christ does not have God. The one who remains in this teaching (Didache) has both the Father and the Son. 1:10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching (Didache), do not receive him into your house and do not give him any greeting, 1:11 because the person who gives him a greeting shares in his evil deeds. 2 CORINTHIANS 6 6:14 Do not become partners with those who do not believe, for what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship does light have with darkness? 6:15 And what agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share in common with an unbeliever? 6:16 And what mutual agreement does the temple of God have with idols? For we are the temple of the living God, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.” 6:17 Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you, 6:18 and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,” says the All-Powerful Lord. TITUS 1 1:10 ...there are many rebellious people, idle talkers, and deceivers, especially those with Jewish connections, 1:11 who must be silenced because they mislead whole families by teaching for dishonest gain what ought not to be taught. 1:12 A certain one of them, in fact, one of their own prophets, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.” 1:13 Such testimony is true. For this reason rebuke them sharply that they may be healthy in the faith 1:14 and not pay attention to Jewish myths and commands of people who reject the truth. 1:15 All is pure to those who are pure. But to those who are corrupt and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 1:16 They profess to know God but with their deeds they deny Him, since they are detestable, disobedient, and unfit for any good deed. 2 TIMOTHY 3 3:10 You, however, have followed my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, my endurance, 3:11 as well as the persecutions and sufferings that happened to me in Antioch, in Iconium, and in Lystra. I endured these persecutions and the Lord delivered me from them all. 3:12 Now in fact all who want to live godly lives in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 3:13 But evil people and charlatans will go from bad to worse, deceiving others and being deceived themselves. 3:14 You, however, must continue in the things you have learned and are confident about. You know who taught you 3:15 and how from infancy you have known the holy writings, which are able to give you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 3:16 Every scripture is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 3:17 that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work. MATTHEW 5 5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 5:18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law and the Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Until "everything takes place" is a subject of controversy LUKE 24 24:44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled.” 24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures, 24:46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ would suffer and would rise from the dead on the third day, 24:47 and repentance for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 24:48 You are witnesses of these things. Hosea 6 6:1 Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up. 6:2 After two days will he revive us: in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight. Luke 24 24:13 Now that very day two of them were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. 24:14 They were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 24:15 While they were talking and debating these things, Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 24:16 (but their eyes were kept from recognizing him). 24:17 Then he said to them, “What are these matters you are discussing so intently as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 24:18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him, “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” 24:19 He said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet before God and all the people; 24:20 and how our chief priests and rulers handed him over to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24:21 But we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 24:22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us. They were at the tomb early this morning, 24:23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. 24:24 Then some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.” 24:25 So he said to them, “You foolish people – how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 24:26 Wasn’t it necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and enter into his glory?” 24:27 Then beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them the things written about himself in all the scriptures. Romans 11 11:13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Seeing that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 11:14 if somehow I could provoke my people to jealousy and save some of them. 11:15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? 1 CORINTHIANS 15 15:12 Now if Christ is being preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead? 15:13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is futile and your faith is empty. 15:15 Also, we are found to be false witnesses about God, because we have testified against God that he raised Christ from the dead, when in reality he did not raise him, if indeed the dead are not raised. 15:16 For if the dead are not raised, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is useless; you are still in your sins. 15:18 Furthermore, those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished. 15:19 For if only in this life we have hope in Christ, we should be pitied more than anyone. 15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 12 15:22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to him. 13 15:24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. 15:25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15:26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death. 15:27 For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. But when it says “everything” has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the one who put everything in subjection to him. 15:28 And when all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all. If our Lord Jesus Christ will submit to Yahweh in life and death, then we should really consider doing the same thing. 1 CORINTHIANS 88:5 If after all there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we live, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we live. MATTHEW 28 28:16 So the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 28:17 When they saw him, they worshiped him, but some doubted. 28:18 Then Jesus came up and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 28:19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 28:20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” GALATIANS 3 4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls “Abba! Father!”
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