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Luke_Wilbur    5

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Helen Demetriou explained her vision of Shekinah.

The Shekinah is also known as the Holy Spirit and Shakti; she is the divine feminine, the female side of the ALL which manifested itself into its male and female aspects which then incarnated into matter (flesh) in order to create matter.


Helen Demetriou response of the Shekinah is the same as Chaudhry Rajinder Nijjhar Jatt. Both mention the Shakti, the Divine Feminine. Did Alexander's Empire influence the concept of feminine Wisdom in the Middle and Far East?

The Prophecy of Baruch has a female personification of Wisdom.

Prophecy Of Baruch
Chapter 3

9 Hear, Israel, the commandments of life: give ear, that thou mayst learn wisdom.

10 How did it happen, O Israel, that thou art in thy enemies' land?

11 Thou art grown old in a strange country, thou art defiled with the dead: thou art counted with them that go down into hell.

12 Thou hast forsaken the fountain of wisdom:

13 For if thou hadst walked in the way of God, thou hadst surely dwelt in peace for ever.

14 Learn where is wisdom, where is strength, where is understanding: that thou mayst know also where is length of days and life, where is the light of the eyes, and peace.

15 Who hath found out her place? and who hath gone in to her treasures?

16 Where are the princes of the nations, and they that rule over the beasts that are upon the earth?

17 That take their diversion with the birds of the air.

18 That hoard up silver and gold, wherein men trust, and there is no end of their getting? who work in silver and are solicitous, and their works are unsearchable.

19 They are cut off, and are gone down to hell, and others are risen up in their place.

20 Young men have seen the light, and dwelt upon the earth: but the way of knowledge they have not known,

21 Nor have they understood the paths thereof, neither have their children received it, it is far from their face.

22 It hath not been heard of in the land of Chanaan, neither hath it been seen in Theman.

23 The children of Agar also, that search after the wisdom that is of the earth, the merchants of Merrha, and of Theman, and the tellers of fables, and searchers of prudence and understanding: but the way of wisdom they have not known, neither have they remembered her paths.

24 O Israel, how great is the house of God, and how vast is the place of his possession!

25 It is great, and hath no end: it is high and immense.

"Theman"... The capital city of Edom.

"Agar"... The mother of the Ismaelites.

26 There were the giants, those renowned men that were from the beginning, of great stature, expert in war.

27 The Lord chose not them, neither did they find the way of knowledge: therefore did they perish.

28 And because they had not wisdom, they perished through their folly.

29 Who hath gone up into heaven, and taken her, and brought her down from the clouds?

30 Who hath passed over the sea, and found her, and brought her preferably to chosen gold?

31 There is none that is able to know her ways, nor that can search out her paths:

32 But he that knows all things, knows her, and hath found her out with his understanding:

he that prepared the earth for evermore, and filled it with cattle and fourfooted beasts:

33 He that sends forth light, and it goes:

and hath called it, and it obeys him with trembling.

34 And the stars have given light in their watches, and rejoiced:

35 They were called, and they said: Here we are: and with cheerfulness they have shined forth to him that made them.

36 This is our God, and there shall no other be accounted of in comparison of him.

37 He found out all the way of knowledge, and gave it to Jacob his servant, and to Israel his beloved.

39 Afterwards he was seen upon earth, and conversed with men.

40 "Was seen upon earth"... viz., by the mystery of the incarnation, by means of which the son of God came visibly amongst us, and conversed with men. The prophets often speak of things to come as if they were past, to express the certainty of the event of the things foretold.

 

James 3

3:13 Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct he should show his works done in the gentleness that wisdom brings.

 

3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfishness in your hearts, do not boast and tell lies against the truth.

 

3:15 Such wisdom does not come from above but is earthly, natural, demonic.

 

3:16 For where there is jealousy and selfishness, there is disorder and every evil practice.

 

3:17 But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, accommodating, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial, and not hypocritical.

 

3:18 And the fruit that consists of righteousness is planted in peace among those who make peace.

 

For many the Trinity is Who, What, I Don't Know

http://youtu.be/sMXgvAGbQGg

I think God loves baseball and the mysteries of the game.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

I have distilled the preceding passages on Sophia, and the Shekinah from Bible, Apocrypha, and Targums to further my understanding of the Holy Spirit as feminine.

In wisdom the Lord created.

By Sophia the Lord laid the foundation of the earth

For Sophia is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the Shekinah of the Almighty: therefore can no defiled thing fall into her.

Learn where is sound judgement, where is strength, where is understanding: that thou mayst know also where is length of days and life, where is the light of the eyes, and peace.

Who hath found out her place? and who hath gone in to her treasures?

There is none that is able to know her ways, nor that can search out her paths:

But Hashem that knows all things, knows her, and hath found her out with His understanding:

He that prepared the earth for evermore, and filled it with cattle and four footed beasts

For God loves none but him that dwells with wisdom.

Wherefore I prayed, and understanding was given me: I called upon God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me.

Sophia is the Shekinah, and never fades away: yea, her glory is easily seen of them that love her, and found of such as seek her

For she is more beautiful than the sun, and above all the order of stars: being compared with the light, she is found before it.

For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness.

For the very true beginning of her is the desire of discipline; and the care of discipline is love.

Sophia has built her house, she has hewn out her seven pillars

Sophia reaches from one end to another mightily: and sweetly doth she order all things.

She has prepared her meat, she has mixed her wine; she also has arranged her table.

“Come, eat some of my food,and drink some of the wine I have mixed.

My fruit is better than the purest gold, and what I produce is better than choice silver.

The fruit that consists of righteousness is planted in peace among those who make peace.

I love those who love me,and those who seek me find me.

For the one who finds me finds life and receives favor from the Lord.

Blessed is the one who listens to me, watching at my doors day by day, waiting beside my doorway.

The Lord created me as the beginning of his works,before his deeds of long ago.

From eternity I was appointed, from the beginning, from before the world existed.

Riches and honor are with me,long-lasting wealth and righteousness.

Kings reign by means of me,and potentates decree righteousness;

by me princes rule,as well as nobles and all righteous judges.

Abandon your foolish ways so that you may live, and proceed in the way of understanding.

Listen to my instruction so that you may be wise, and do not neglect it.

I, wisdom, live with prudence, and I find knowledge and discretion.

The beginning of wisdom is to fear the Lord,and acknowledging the Holy One is understanding.

Counsel and sound judgement belong to me; I possess understanding and power.

The fear of the Lord is to hate evil; I hate arrogant pride and the evil way and perverse utterances.

Tell the next generation about the Lord’s praiseworthy acts, about his strength and the amazing things he has done.

Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you should answer everyone.

Give instruction to a wise person, and he will become wiser still; teach a righteous person and he will add to his learning.

If you are wise, you are wise to your own advantage, but if you are a mocker, you alone must bear it.

Whoever corrects a mocker is asking for insult; whoever reproves a wicked person receives abuse.

Do not reprove a mocker or he will hate you; reprove a wise person and he will love you.

The one who denounces his neighbor lacks wisdom, but the one who has discernment keeps silent.

The one who goes about slandering others reveals secrets, but the one who is trustworthy conceals a matter.

If you have bitter jealousy and selfishness in your hearts, do not boast and tell lies against the truth.

Such thoughts do not come from above but are earthly, natural, demonic.

For where there is jealousy and selfishness, there is disorder and every evil practice.

My Holy Spirit of discipline will flee deceit, and remove from thoughts that are without understanding, and will not abide when unrighteousness comes in.

Disaster will overtake you; you will not know how to charm it away. Destruction will fall on you; you will not be able to appease it.

Calamity will strike you suddenly, before you recognize it.

The one who wanders from the way of my teachings will rest among the Shades.

For I am a loving spirit; and will not acquit a blasphemer of his words: for God is witness of your true intentions, and a true beholder of your heart, and a hearer of your tongue.

END

 

Sophia.jpg

If you are to believe in a feminine personification of Wisdom defined by Solomon as shown by my example above, then the Gospel of John and the Letters of Paul would not be truth and the deifying Jesus and Holy Spirit would be the sin of idolatry. 2 Peter and Paul's letter to the Corinthians discuss those that receive the gift of Wisdom and Knowledge from the Holy Spirit are speaking from God. Thus the Gospel of John and Paul's letters would be blasphemy and those that follow their teaching would be in Apostasy, unless these books are improperly translated.. I will research if Pope John Paul I and Saint John Paul II made any statements about the Holy Spirit.

If the Sophia/Shekinah personification of Wisdom is a construct, then the deifying Sophia/Shekinah would be the sin of idolatry. Sophia/Shekinah have character and act on their own will.

If you believe in the Gospel of John, then you know the Holy Spirit cannot act on its own accord.
It would not be possible for the Holy Spirit to be Sophia/Shekinah, for they speak and act on their own will. Therefore, stating the Holy Spirit is Sophia/Shekinah would be blasphemy and idolatry.

If you believe in the Gospel of John and Paul's letter to the Corinthians, then you know the Holy Spirit is described in masculine terms of He and His. Sophia/Shekinah are described in terms of She and Her. Therefore, stating the Holy Spirit is feminine terms would be blasphemy unless these books are improperly translated.

John 14

14:15 "If you love me, you will obey my commandments.

14:16 Then I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever

14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you.

14:18 “I will not abandon you as orphans, I will come to you.

14:19 In a little while the world will not see me any longer, but you will see me; because I live, you will live too.

14:20 You will know at that time that I am in my Father and you are in me and I am in you.

14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.”

14:22 “Lord,” Judas (not Judas Iscariot) said, "what has happened that you are going to reveal yourself to us and not to the world?”

14:23 Jesus replied, "If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him.

14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you.

14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.


John 15

15:26 When the Advocate comes, whom I will send you from the Father – the Spirit of truth who goes out from the FatherHe will testify about me,

15:27 and you also will testify, because you have been with me from the beginning.

16:1 “I have told you all these things so that you will not fall away.

16:2 They will put you out of the synagogue, yet a time is coming when the one who kills you will think he is offering service to God.

16:3 They will do these things because they have not known the Father or me.

16:4 But I have told you these things so that when their time comes, you will remember that I told you about them.

"I did not tell you these things from the beginning because I was with you.

16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’

16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness because I have said these things to you.

16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send Him to you.

16:8 And when He comes, He will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment

16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me;

16:10 concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer;

16:11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned.

16:12 “I have many more things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.

16:13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. For He will not speak on His own authority, but will speak whatever He hears, and will tell you what is to come.

16:14 He will glorify me, because He will receive from me what is mine and will tell it to you.

16:15 Everything that the Father has is mine; that is why I said the Spirit will receive from me what is mine and will tell it to you.


Acts 13

13:1 Now there were these prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch: Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Lucius the Cyrenian, Manaen (a close friend of Herod the tetrarch from childhood ) and Saul.

13:2 While they were serving the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.

13:3 Then, after they had fasted and prayed and placed their hands on them, they sent them off.

13:4 So Barnabas and Saul, sent out by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia, and from there they sailed to Cyprus.

13:5 When they arrived in Salamis, they began to proclaim the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. (Now they also had John as their assistant.)

13:6 When they had crossed over the whole island as far as Paphos, they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus,

13:7 who was with the proconsul Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul summoned Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear the word of God.

13:8 But the magician Elymas (for that is the way his name is translated) opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul away from the faith.

13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), filled with the Holy Spirit, stared straight at him

13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord?

13:11 Now look, the hand of the Lord is against you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness and darkness came over him, and he went around seeking people to lead him by the hand.

13:12 Then when the proconsul saw what had happened, he believed, because he was greatly astounded at the teaching about the Lord.


2 Peter 1

1:18 When this voice was conveyed from heaven, we ourselves heard it, for we were with him on the holy mountain.

1:19 Moreover, we possess the prophetic word as an altogether reliable thing. You do well if you pay attention to this as you would to a light shining in a murky place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.

1:20 Above all, you do well if you recognize this:

No prophecy of scripture ever comes about by the prophet’s own imagination,

1:21 for no prophecy was ever borne of human impulse; rather, men carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.



Colossians

2:2 My goal is that their hearts, having been knit together in love, may be encouraged, and that they may have all the riches that assurance brings in their understanding of the knowledge of the mystery of God, namely, Christ,

2:3 in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

2:4 I say this so that no one will deceive you through arguments that sound reasonable.

2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him,

2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness.

2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ.

2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form,

2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority.


1 Corinthians 12

12:1 With regard to spiritual gifts, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed.

12:2 You know that when you were pagans you were often led astray by speechless idols, however you were led.

12:3 So I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit.

12:4 Now there are different gifts, but the same Spirit.

12:5 And there are different ministries, but the same Lord.

12:6 And there are different results, but the same God who produces all of them in everyone.

12:7 To each person the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the benefit of all.

12:8 For one person is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, and another the message of knowledge according to the same Spirit,

12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit,

12:10 to another performance of miracles, to another prophecy, and to another discernment of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues.

12:11 It is one and the same Spirit, distributing as He decides to each person, who produces all these things.

 

Just when I make definitive statements about the Holy Spirit a curve ball gets thrown my way.

 

Through the power of the Holy Spirit I pray to our Lord Jesus to ask the Father to either give me the gift of discernment of spirits or lead to me a person with this gift wisdom and knowledge.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


I asked and I received. During my spiritual journey this past year researching the Didache I prayed to have my questions answered. The Holy Spirit has revealed Wisdom during sermons and/or readings that week. Pope Francis reveals the 'Seven Pillars of Wisdom' as the 'Sequence of the Holy Spirit.'

2014044302pope_and_the_holy_spirit_300.j

VATICAN CITY

********
Pope Francis
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
Today we begin a series of reflections on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the soul, the lifeblood of the Church and of every Christian:

He is God's Love, who makes our hearts his home and enters into communion with us. The Holy Spirit is always with us, always in us, in our hearts.

The Spirit himself is "God's gift" par excellence (cf. Jn 4:10) a gift from God, and in turn communicates different spiritual gifts to those who welcome him. The Church identifies seven, a number that symbolically speaks of fullness, completeness; we learn these when preparing for the sacrament of Confirmation and we invoke them in the ancient prayer called the "Sequence of the Holy Spirit" the gifts of the Holy Spirit are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude , knowledge, piety and fear of God.

1 . The first gift of the Holy Spirit, according to this traditional list, is wisdom. It is not merely human wisdom, no, the fruit of knowledge and experience. In the Bible we are told that, at the time of his coronation as king of Israel , God asked Solomon what gift he wanted to receive. Solomon did not ask for wealth, success, fame , or a long and happy life, instead he asked for "an understanding heart that knows how to distinguish good from evil" ( 1 Kings 3:9).

This is wisdom:

it is the grace of being able to see everything with the eyes of God. It is simply this:

Seeing the world.situations, conjunctures, problems, everything with God's eyes. This is wisdom. Often we see things as we want to see them or according to our heart, with love, with hate, with envy. no this is not God's eyes. Wisdom is what the Holy Spirit does within us so that we can see everything with God's eyes. This is the gift of wisdom.

2 . Obviously this gift comes from intimacy with God. For our intimate relationship with God. From our relationship as children with a Father. And the Holy Spirit - when we have this relationship - gives us the gift of wisdom. When we are in communion with the Lord , it is as if the Spirit transfigures our heart and helps it to perceive all his warmth and predilection.

3 . The Holy Spirit also makes the Christian "wise". This is, however , not in the sense that he or she has an answer for everything, or knows everything, but in the sense that he or she "knows" of God, how God acts, they know when something is of God and when it is not.

They know this, they have this wisdom that God gives our heart. The heart of the wise man has this taste of God. It is so important that our communities have Christians such as these! Everything about them speaks of God and becomes a beautiful and vital sign of His presence and His love.

And it is something we cannot improvise, something we cannot obtain by our own merits:

it is a gift that God gives to those who are docile to His Holy Spirit. We have the Holy Spirit in our hearts we can listen to him or not.

If we listen to him he teaches us this path of wisdom, he gifts us wisdom which is seeing with God's eyes, listening with God's ears, loving with God's heart, judging things with Gods' judgment. These are the things that Holy Spirit gifts us and we can all have this. We just have to ask the Holy Spirit.

Think of a mother at home with her children. One does something and the other thinks otherwise and the poor mother is torn between the two with the children's problems; when the mother is tired and she shouts at her children, is that wisdom? I ask you is that wisdom - what do you say? No! Instead when the mother takes her child to one side and gently rebukes him, and explains this is God's wisdom! Yes! And this is what the Holy Spirit gives us in life.

In a marriage for example, the couple argue, then they won't look at one another, or if they do it is with anger. Is that God's wisdom? No! Instead when they say let the storm pass, let's make peace! That's wisdom, that's the gift of wisdom, that comes to our homes, to children, to all of us!
And it cannot be learned, it is a gift of the Holy Spirit!

This is why we must ask the Lord to gift us the Holy Spirit and the gift of wisdom that teaches us to see with God's eyes, to feel with God's heart to speak with God's words! And with this wisdom we can move forward, build the family, the Church and we can all be sanctified.Let us ask for this grace of wisdom today. Let us ask Our Lady, who is the Seat of Wisdom, for this gift.

Thank you

http://www.catholic.org/news/international/europe/


Seven-Gifts-Holy-Spirit.jpg

I asked a question to the group 'Jews for Judaism' to clarify how the Shekinah is a distinct generative element of Hashem. Some believe the Shekinah is female and has character. Here are two answers that I received.

Morgan Garrett
2:40 PM
Ask a Kohanim, the congregation cannot look upon the Shachina, because we avert our eyes by covering them or covering our head with out tallit gadol. The sight can drive you mad, you might go blind or even die. so in general a average Jew wont know...

Ask a Kohanim who gives the chant and brings the Shachina amongst the congregation to be blessed.


The 'tallit gadol' Morgan Garrett refers to is a rectangular "prayer shawl" that is traditionally worn during morning prayers on weekdays and Shabbat, and also during other Jewish holidays.

After the destruction of the Second Temple and the suspension of sacrificial offerings, the formal role of priests in sacrificial services came to an end, whether temporary or permanent. However, Kohanim retain a formal and public ceremonial role in synagogue prayer services, which were established as a substitute for or reminder of the sacrifices themselves ("Take with you words, and return unto the LORD; say unto Him: "Forgive all iniquity, and accept that which is good; so will we render for bullocks the offering of our lips..." (Hosea 14:3)). Kohanim also have a limited number of other special duties/privileges in Jewish religious practice. These special roles have been maintained in Orthodox Judaism, and sometimes in Conservative Judaism. Reform Judaism does not afford any special status or recognition to Kohanim.



Every Monday, Thursday and Shabbat in Orthodox synagogues (and many Conservative ones as well), a portion from the Torah is read aloud in the original Hebrew in front of the congregation. On weekdays, this reading is divided into three; it is customary to call a Kohen for the first reading (aliyah), a Levite for the second reading, and a member of any other Tribe of Israel to the third reading. On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven portions; a Kohen is called for the first aliyah and a Levite to the second, and a member of another tribe for the rest.

The Kohanim participating in an Orthodox prayer service also deliver the Priestly Blessing,during the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei. They perform this service by standing and facing the crowd in the front of the congregation, with their arms held outwards and their hands and fingers in a specific formation.

800px-Grave_Rabbi_Meschullam_Kohn.jpg

Kohanim living in Israel and many Sephardic Jews living in areas outside of Israel deliver the Priestly Blessing (birkat kohanim) daily; Ashkenazi Jews living outside of Israel deliver it only on Jewish holidays.

May God bless you and guard you.
May God make God's face shine upon you and grant grace to you.
May God lift up God's face to you and give you peace.


Saadia Gaon was first important rabbinic figure to write extensively in Arabic, he is considered the founder of Judeo-Arabic literature. Known for his works on Hebrew linguistics, Halakha, and Jewish philosophy, he was one of the more sophisticated practitioners of the philosophical school known as the "Jewish Kalam". In this capacity, his philosophical work Emunoth ve-Deoth represents the first systematic attempt to integrate Jewish theology with components of Greek philosophy. Saadia was also very active in opposition to Karaism, which denied the authority of the Talmud, believing only in the T'NaCh, had become very strong and influential in Saadia's time, especially in Egypt.

Jewish Kalam was an early-medieval style of Jewish philosophy that evolved in response to the Islamic Kalam, which in turn was a reaction against Aristotelian philosophy. The term "Jewish Kalam" is used by modern historians, but is not a term by which Jewish Kalamic thinkers designated themselves. In all likelihood, they were simply known as Mutakallimūn (Kalamists), as they are referred to by Maimonides (called Rambam by Jewish scholars) and other Jewish writers.


SAADIA GAON

HIS LIFE AND WORKS

BY

HENRY MALTER, Ph. D.

...the theory that ether, which he probably adopted from the Stoics/" pervades all existence, even the interior of the most solid bodies. It is through the medium of this sublimated air that God is omnipresent ; it is, figuratively speaking, " the throne of God's majesty," " the agency of the divine spirit that animates and sustains all creation.

Scripture therefore says (Psalms, 103, 19), " God hath established His throne in the heavens ; and His kingdom rules over all." In this sense Jerusalem,*" the city from which God sent His messages to the world, is called " the throne of God " (Jeremiah, 3, 17).

The same all-pervading ethereal substance is often designated in Scriptures by the name Kabod (Kavod), " glory," as it is said (Isaiah, 6, 3), " the whole earth is full of His glory." It is by means of this " finer air " that the word of God was communicated to the prophets, and that all the miraculous phenomena became visible to their eyes. The Jewish nation later coined the special term Shekinah, which also designates this imperceptible medium of power, the subtle air, charged, as it were, with divinity, in contradistinction to the perceptible atmospheric air, which serves as a vehicle for its manifestations.

Even after the cessation of prophecy, the divine spirit continued to manifest itself, though in a lesser degree, to the sages of the nation. During this period the imperceptible substance, which thus establishes the relation between God and the pious ones, is called " the Holy Spirit", or "Echo", that is, the resonance of God's voice.


Here is an excerpt from an article I found from the Holy See.

The Holy Spirit and the Spirit of Holiness in Jewish thought

The expression «Holy Spirit» as such (noun with attribute adjective) is not found in the text of the Jewish Bible where reference to the Spirit is always accompanied by a genitive of belonging: therefore the Spirit of God (ruah Elohim) in the case of creation; Spirit of the Lord (ruah Jhwh) in the case of God’s relation with his creatures. Only twice we find a reference to Holiness (ruah qodesh) Spirit of Holiness, in which Holiness is synonymous with God (Is 63, 10s; Ps 51, and 13).

If in creation it represents the ordering premise, «the first revelation of God to the world, almost a proclamation, the seed of future revelation» so much so as to suggest in the Targum Neophite the interpretation of the words «The Spirit of God hovered» as «a spirit of love before the Lord»; in the life of creatures he is poured out on some, transmitting to them «his intention, the direction of his will», he touches them with particular intensity (judges, kings) and enables their words to become words of prophecy and the prophet to be recognized as ish haruah a man of the spirit (Os 9,7). But the Spirit in certain circumstances may touch everyone: the verses of Joel 3,1-2 are in this case more indicative (v. appendix). Ezekiel furthermore in 36,24 regarding the heart of stone and the heart of flesh, suggests the intervention of the Spirit to bring about the spiritual revolution, in the desire for transformation through teshuvah (repentance, conversion), which leads to the fulfillment of «love your neighbour as yourself». It could therefore be suggested that while the Spirit is neither corporal nor material he is present in creatures and enriches them.

Rabbinical thought starts with the Spirit as Spirit of Prophecy which ceases as such with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi (Yoma 9b) and it is then recognized as charismatic inspiration and is promised to scholars. The Mishnah speaks of the spirit as something, which can be attained by man though different spiritual stages. Never in rabbinical texts is the Spirit considered as an entity separate from God, even though at times it is used as synonymous with God and inter-changeable with Shekinah (majesty of God present among men and in nature; immanence.

Hebrew philosophy likens the Spirit to the rabbinical Shekinah (Filone), to the Glory of God (Jehudah HaLevi); while Maimonide describes it as the inspiration of the divine Intellect (emanated by God upon prophets) and Nahmanide, regarding Gn 2,7 stresses «It is the spirit of the great name from whose mouth comes knowledge and intelligence». (Perushe hatorah 1,33).

The Mysticism of Rhenish Hassidism (12th-13th century) refers again to the Glory «it is the great splendour called Shekinah and therefore identical to the Spirit of Holiness from which come the voice and the word of God». The Zohar (1,15a) shows that it is thanks to the Spirit that the world was created, in as much as it is the emanation of this light, splendid and primordial point as it had already been described by the philosopher Saadia (9th century).

In this last century Idealism rediscovers the absolute Spirit as the name for the absolute «I». F. Rosenzweig, referring to creation, underlines «the spirit of the Covenant of Gn l, 2 as something tending to depersonalization, that is to greater transcendence». A Neher defines it an absolute principle of revelation. Lastly the divine Spirit is considered to be that which represents the inseparable relation between God and man (Herman Cohen).

http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/magazine/documents/ju_mag_01021998_p-24_en.html


The Zohar teaches the mastery of understanding the words of Hashem. When God speaks the result is creation and reveals the world. The essence of civilization is our right to choose whether or not to present our inner self to others. This right of choice is privacy.

As we master the mystery of sound we gain greater self realization and the ability to engage with Hashem. The Jewish faith really promotes education of understanding the proper form of diction. This may be the reason why there are so many Jewish lawyers.



10. The vision of Rabbi Chiya
Portion Prologue

56. THE ANGEL METATRON swears that he heard from behind the curtain how the King attends the Gazelle every day and remembers how She lies in the dust. At that time, He kicks 390 heavens, which all quake and tremble with fear because of Him. And He, THE KING, sheds tears because of this, THAT THE SHECHINAH LIES IN THE DUST. And the tears, that are hot as fire, fall down into the great sea. By the power of these tears, the governor who rules the sea, AND IS CALLED RAHAV, is sustained and stays alive. And he sanctifies the name of the Holy King by taking it upon himself to swallow all the waters of the days of Creation. He gathers them all within himself so that on that day when all the nations assemble against the holy nation, the waters may dry up while they cross over on dry land.

http://www.zohar.com/prologue/vision-rabbi-chiya


13. The two points
Portion Prologue

120. Beresheet. Rabbi Chiya opened the discussion with the verse, "The fear of Hashem is the beginning of wisdom; good understanding have all they who do His commandments; His praise endures forever" (Tehilim 111:10). Of the phrase, "the beginning of wisdom," HE ASKS: SHOULD this verse have read 'the fear of Hashem is the end of wisdom,' because the fear of Hashem IS THE SECRET OF MALCHUT, which is at the end of Chochmah! AND HE REPLIES: She, MALCHUT, is the beginning or the first stage that opens the entrance to the level of the supernal Chochmah (Wisdom). So it is written, "Open to me the gates of righteousness" (Ibid. 118:19). REFERRING TO THE GATES OF MALCHUT THAT ARE CALLED RIGHTEOUSNESS, "this is the gate to Hashem" (Ibid. 20). Assuredly, if he does not enter this gate, he shall never reach the Supernal King, because He is exalted, hidden, and concealed, and has made gates for Himself, one behind the other.


14. The night of the Bride

125. Rabbi Shimon was sitting and studying the Torah on the night when the Bride, WHO IS MALCHUT, was to be joined with Her husband! For we have learned that all the friends who are the attendants of the bridal chamber should remain with the Bride all that night. On the morrow, WHICH IS THE HOLIDAY OF SHAVUOT, the Bride to be is prepared for the matrimonial service and to be wed to Her husband. During this night, the attendants rejoice with Her as She prepares her jewels. THIS REFERS TO the study of the Torah, and from the study of the Torah to the Prophets, and from the Prophets to the Holy Writings, and then to the expositions of the scriptures and to the inner secrets of Wisdom. Because these are Her jewels and Her adornments. And She, THE BRIDE, approaches Her bridesmaids and sets Herself over their heads. She is prepared by them and rejoices with them all night. The day after, IN THE MORNING OF SHAVUOT, she does not enter under the Chupah (marriage canopy) without them. So THOSE FRIENDS, WHO STUDIED THE TORAH ALL NIGHT LONG, are called the "canopy attendants." As she approaches the canopy, the Holy One, blessed be He, inquires after them, blesses them, and crowns them with the Bridal Crowns. How happy is their portion.

129. "The glory of El" is the Bride, NAMELY, MALCHUT, which is called El. As it is written, "and El who has indignation every day"(Tehilim 7:12). During all the days of the year, She is called El, but now, IN THE HOLIDAY OF SHAVUOT, after entering under the bridal canopy, She is called 'glory' and 'El', WHICH MEANS glory upon glory, splendor upon splendor, and dominion upon dominion.

140. "Day to day utters speech" (Ibid. 3) is an allusion to the sacred day that belongs to those supernal days of the King, REFERRING TO THE SFIROT OF ZEIR ANPIN THAT ARE CALLED "DAYS," that praise the friends, WHO DELVED INTO THE STUDY OF THE TORAH DURING THE NIGHT OF SHAVUOT. And they say to each other the same words that are written, "Day to day utters" that same "speech," thereby praising Him. The words "and night to night" refer to the levels that govern the night, WHICH ARE THE SFIROT OF MALCHUT THAT GOVERNS AT NIGHT. They praise one another with the knowledge that each RECEIVES from its friends. And by this state of harmony and perfection, they become their friends and beloved ones.

141. "There is no speech nor language" (Ibid. 4). THIS REFERS TO the speech and language that belong to worldly matters that are not heard before the Holy King, and that he is not interested in hearing them. But the words, "Their line is gone out through all the earth" (Ibid. 5), MEAN that these words draw a line between the inhabitants of above and the inhabitants of below. From THESE WORDS, Firmaments are formed, and from THESE WORDS and from that praise, the earth is molded. And if you should say that these words wander around the world in one place, THE VERSE STATES, "and their words to the end of the world" (Ibid.).

142. Because Firmaments are formed by them, who resides there? He repeated, "In them He set a tent for the sun" (Ibid.). That holy sun, WHICH IS ZEIR ANPIN, has made his habitation and above in them and crowned himself with them.

143. Because Zeir ANPIN resides among those Firmaments, and crowns himself with them, he "is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber" (Tehilim 19:6). He is happy and runs along these Firmaments. Then, he leaves them and enters into another tower at a different place; this tower comes "from the end of the heaven" (Ibid. 7). It certainly comes from the supernal world, which is the upper "end of the heaven" NAMELY BINAH. "and his circuit:" what is his circuit? It is the "lower end of the heaven" NAMELY MALCHUT. THIS is the circuit of the year that revolves around all the "ends." It is attached to the heavens and extends from there to this firmament.


17. "Who is this"

169. Rabbi Elazar opened the discussion by quoting, "Who is this coming up out of the wilderness?" (Shir Hashirim 3:6). "Who is this" is the joining of two kinds of holiness, of two worlds OF BINAH AND MALCHUT, into one firm bond. "Coming up (Heb. olah)," means that it actually comes up to become the Holy of Holies. Because "Who," WHICH IS BINAH, is the Holy of Holies and has joined "this," WHICH IS MALCHUT, so that she, THE MALCHUT, will be a burnt offering (Heb. olah) which is the highest class of sacrifices (lit. "Holy of Holies'). "Out of the wilderness," means that THIS inherits it from the wilderness in order to become a bride and enter the bridal canopy.

170. Furthermore she came out of the wilderness (Heb. midbar) as it is written, "And your speech (Heb. midbarech) is comely" (Shir Hashirim 4:3), meaning that she is "coming up" with the speech in a whisper. And we have learned why it is written in scripture, "these mighty Elohim. These is Elohim that smote Egypt with all the plagues in the wilderness" (I Shmuel 4:8). But is it possible that all the Holy One, blessed be He, brought about occurred only in the wilderness? Was it not in the place of habitation? But the phrase "in the wilderness" (Heb. bamidbar) IS TO BE INTERPRETED by speech (Heb. bedibur). As it is written, "and your speech is comely," and, "from the desert (Heb. midbar) peaks" (Tehilim 75:7). Similarly "coming up out of the wilderness" (Shir Hashirim 3:6) means by the word that is uttered by the mouth, she, MALCHUT, is "coming up" and enters between the wings of the Mother, she, BINAH. Afterwards, through speech, she, MALCHUT, descends and rests upon the leaders of the holy nation.

171. HE ASKS: How does she, MALCHUT, rise up through speech? AND HE REPLIES: Because when a person awakens in the morning - at the time that he opens his eyes - he should at first bless his Master. How is he to make the blessing? This is what the pious ones did: They prepared beside them a vessel of water, and when they awoke at night, they washed their hands, rose up, and studied the Torah. And they blessed on their Torah recitation as well! WHEN the rooster crows and it is exactly midnight, then the Holy One, blessed be He, joins the Righteous in the Garden of Eden. It is forbidden to utter any blessing IN THE MORNING with unclean hands, as it is at any time of the day.

172.Because when a person falls asleep, his spirit departs from him. And when the spirit departs from him, the spirit of impurity comes forth, settles on his hands, and defiles them. So it is forbidden to utter any blessing without first washing ONE'S HANDS. And if you might say, If it is so, then on a day when a person does not go to sleep and his spirit does not depart from him, the spirit of impurity does not defile his hands; NEVERTHELESS, when he enters the lavatory, he should not utter any blessing nor read the Torah - not even one word - until he washes his hands. And although you might say that it is because they are sullied, this is not so! Because how did they become soiled?


2. "The brightness of the firmament"
Portion Beresheet A

10. Until now, this is the secret of "Hashem our Elohim, Hashem" (Devarim 6:4). These three grades correspond to the supernal secret in the verse: "In the beginning Elohim created" And so the term "in the beginning" is an ancient secret, namely Chochmah that is called Beginning. The term "created" alludes to a concealed secret, from which everything else expands. Elohim's secret meaning is sustaining everything that exists below. The term "the heaven" alludes to the union of the male and female, and it is forbidden to separate them, but rather one should combine them, for they are the secret of the voice and the utterance Yud Hei Vav Hei - Adonai, which are united into one.

11. (The particle Et (the) is created by combining the letters Aleph and Tav, which are the first and last letters of the alphabet.) Thus, Et includes all the letters from beginning to end. Afterwards, the letter Hei was added to Et, so all the letters would be united with Hei. This formed the word Atah (Eng. 'you', Aleph-Tav-Hei.) Thus, the verse reads: "And you do preserve them all" (Nechemyah 9:6). Et is the secret of Adonai and is so called. Heaven is Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is superior to the name Adonai, for Zeir Anpin, called "the heavens" and also called "voice," is the secret of the name of Yud Hei Vav Hei. And his Female principle, called 'Et' and 'speech,' is the secret of the name Adonai.

12. The word Ve'et (Eng. 'and the') alludes to the establishment of the Male and Female Principles. Ve'et is the secret of Vav-Yud Hei Vav Hei, and both are as one. The earth is the name Elohim, equivalent to the supernal, which is fit to issue fruit and offspring. This name is included in three places and defined in many ways. Up until now, it is the secret of the most secret of mysteries, which was engraved, built, and established in a concealed manner according to the hidden meaning of one single verse.


Malkuth or Malchut or Shekhinah, is the tenth of the sephirot in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


4. "And the earth was without form"
Portion Beresheet A

18. "And wind (also: 'spirit') from Elohim" (Ibid.) alludes to the spirit of holiness that proceeded from living Elohim and "moved over the surface of the waters" (Ibid.). This means that after this wind blew, a thin layer from the refuse was refined, just as the filth flies off and away. In this manner, it was refined, covered and purified over and over again until the foulness was left without any filth.

26. "And a great and strong wind rent the mountains...but Hashem was not in the wind..." (I Melachim 19:11). The name Yud Hei Vav Hei was not in the wind because this strong wind comes from formlessness, upon which the name Shadai rests. Hence it reads, "but Hashem was not in the wind." And it explains that the earthquake came from Void, as the verse continues: "And after the wind an earthquake; but Hashem was not in the earthquake," because only the name Tzva'ot rests upon it in the secret of the Void. Hence, it is called Void. As for the fire that comes out of darkness, the scripture reads, "And after the earthquake a fire; but Hashem was not in the fire" (Ibid. 12), because the name Elohim rests upon it from the aspect of darkness. "And after the fire a still small voice," which comes from the aspect of a wind from Elohim, upon which the name Yud Hei Vav Hei rests. The verse reads "And when Elijah heard it...and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave. And, behold, there came a voice to him, and said, 'What are you doing here, Elijah?" (Ibid. 13). He did not leave the cave at the first three aspects, only when he heard a still small voice, because the name Yud Hei Vav Hei was there. And he knew that Yud Hei Vav Hei was talking to him.

27. The name Yud Hei Vav Hei has four segments, namely four letters, that signify the parts of the human body and certain members namely, the limbs which are four that can become twelve. Here is the secret of the name that consists of twelve letters, which was given to Elijah while inside the cave. This alludes to the three names of Yud Hei Vav Hei. Each consists of four letters, which together add up to twelve. And this name, with its twelve letters, appears in the human body. The first appears in the head: Chochmah, Binah and Da'at; the second in the body from the top to the navel: Chesed, Gvurah and Tiferet; the third from the navel downward: Netzach, Hod and Yesod. Each part of the body is divided into four other parts, which add up to twelve.


5. "And there was light"
Portion Beresheet A

28. "And Elohim said, 'Let there be light;' and there was light" (Beresheet 1:3). From here, from this saying, we can begin to learn the secrets of how the world was created in details, because until now, the Creation was discussed only generally, in the verse "In the beginning Elohim created..." (Ibid. 1) After this, the description returns to the general, then the particular, and then the general again.

30. The words: "And...said" should be studied and questioned. The term "And...said (Heb. vayomer)" consists of the Hebrew letters of Mi (Eng. 'who') and Or (Eng. 'light'), which is an inquiry. "And...said" alludes to a raised force, and the raising is done in silence. A light is drawn from the secret of the Endless Light; from the beginning of thought. "And Elohim said" means that now the chamber gave birth to a holy seed, with which it was pregnant, in secret. And he who was born, namely the Male and Female principles, was heard without. Whoever gave birth to him, to the Male and Female principles, did it secretly and was not heard at all. This refers to giving birth to the Mochin of the Male and Female principles while still in Binah. But as soon as he emerged from there, from Binah, a sound was heard without.

31. "Let there be (Heb. yehi) light," means that everything that comes forth and emanates in the world proceeds according to the secret of the words: "Let there be light." Yehi alludes to the secret of Aba and Ima, which are Yud-Hei of Yehi (Yud-Hei-Yud). The letter Yud alludes to Aba and the Hei to Ima. Afterward, the letters Yud- Hei return to the first point by adding another point, namely Yud, just like the first one as it is written: Yehi (Yud-Hei-Yud) to institute a beginning for an expansion of something else.

32. The terms "light" and "Let there be light," do not refer to the renewal of the light, but rather to the returning of the light that Aba and Ima already had. The expansion of this light that appears in the verse: "Let there be light (Heb. or, Aleph-Vav -Resh)" is a most hidden secret, because it was the expansion that split according to the secret of the concealment of the supernal and concealed air (Heb. avir). The word Avir consists of the letters Aleph-Vav -Yud-Resh and is Arich Anpin. It was split in such a way that there is nothing really renewed in the name Yud Hei Vav Hei. Rather, the perfection that was there before the splitting is now revealed. It first split and produced one concealed point from within its own mystery. It revealed the point Yud. As a result of this removal of the Yud from Avir, what is left of the original word Avir is Or, which is from the secret of the concealed air.

35. The phrase: "Let there be light" alludes to the name great El, according to the secret of he who issues from the primal air. Hence, it is written:

"Let there be (Heb. yehi)," implying the Sfirah of Chesed of Zeir Anpin called 'great El.' The phrase:

"And there was (Heb. vayehi)" refers to the secret of the darkness that is called 'Elohim.' And it is called 'light' after the left was combined with the right because the name Elohim extends from the secret of the name El, which is Chesed. Thus, the name Elohim is the aspect of Chesed as well. And the right was included within the left, and the left within the right.

36. The verse: "And Elohim saw the light, that it was good" (Beresheet 1:4) implies the central pillar of Zeir Anpin, which is the Sfirah of Tiferet in it. The phrase:

"That it was good" said about Tiferet means that it shone up and down in all directions, namely to all the Sfirot:

Netzach, Hod, Yesod and Malchut.

Tiferet of Zeir Anpin is the secret of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which includes all directions, right and left, front and back, up and down. The words, "And Elohim divided the light" mean that he prevented the dispute between right and left, so that everything may be perfect.

37. "And Elohim called..." (Beresheet 1:5). He asks:

What is the meaning of "And Elohim called the light day"? He replies, This means that he called and invited it to bring forth from within that perfect light that stands in the middle, referring to Tiferet, one light. And this light is the foundation of the world, upon which all worlds are erected and from where all the souls are born. From this perfected light emerges the central pillar, the foundation of the life of the worlds, this being the day from the right side. The words:

"And the darkness he called night" mean that He called and invited it, bringing forth one female from within the left side, the secret of darkness. This female principle is the secret of the moon that governs at night. For this reason, it is called night. And this is the secret of the name "Adonai" and the name "the Master of all the earth" (Yehoshua 3:11).

39. The left is set ablaze by the force of might, and smells. It smelled throughout the grades, and from the glow of this fire it emanates the Female principle called moon. This blazing is considered to be darkness, because it extends from darkness. And these two sides, the right and the left, produce these two grades, one male and one female, because Yesod, which is male, emanated from the rule of the Right of Zeir Anpin. The Female principle emanates from the Left Column of Zeir Anpin.

41. The night, Master of all Earth, is the Female principle. She emanates from the left side, from that darkness. Because the entire desire of that darkness was to be included within the Right Column and receive light, its power was weakened. When night began to expand from the left before its structure was completed, the darkness namely the Left Column entered and merged with the Right Column, and the Right held on to it. Night then was left lacking at its end, because its source, which is the Left Column, disappeared in the Right Column and did not help it reach completion. So now there are two things lacking in the Female principle: (1) the aspect of the night, meaning darkness instead of light, and (2) her structure was not completed by the left.

42. Just as darkness, which is the left, desires to be included within the light of the Right Column, so the Female principle, which is night, desires to be included within day. Darkness, which is the Left Column, abated its light because it had not yet completed the structure of the Female principle. Because of this, it produced the grade of the female with an incomplete structure and without light, namely with the two aforementioned defects. Therefore, the Female principle required two reforms: (1) to bring her light and free her from her darkness and (2) to complete her structure. Darkness, the Left Column, cannot illuminate unless it merges with the light of the right. And the same applies to the night, which is constructed in the left and emerges from it. It does not show any light unless it merges with the day, Yesod. The defect of the structure of the night is not completed until the Musaf (additional prayer), which is the additional light that Yesod has received from the Central Column namely, the excessive illumination of Chochmah in Zeir Anpin. And this additional light completes the structure of the Female principle. So what was added to one place is diminished in another. This means that what was added to the Sfirah of Yesod of Zeir Anpin by the Central Column, the Left Column of Zeir Anpin, has caused a diminution and lack in the Female principle. But Yesod fills up this lack with its additional light.


6. "Let there be a firmament"
Portion Beresheet A

45. In his wisdom, Moses looked into this and learned about the work of Creation. In the work of Creation, there was a dispute between the left and the right. And in that dispute, which the left provoked, Gehenom was created and Gehenom held on to the left. The central pillar, which is Tiferet, entered between them on the third day, ending the dispute and bringing the two sides to an agreement. So Gehenom removed itself from the left and descended below. The left joined the right, and there was peace everywhere.

46. A similar dispute occurred between Korah and Aaron, the left against the right. Moses studied the Creation and said, 'I am one able to eliminate the dispute between right and left.' Moses tried his best to reconcile them, but the left did not want to be reconciled. So Korah become stronger and overcame Aaron.

47. Moses said, assuredly, because of the power of the disagreement of the left, Gehenom should cling to it, just as it was in the works of Creation. Korah did not wish to be attached above, namely to the structure of holiness, and join the right, like the left on high. So assuredly, he shall descend below, down into Gehenom, because of the fierceness of his anger. As happened in the works of Creation, Gehenom came out and cleaved to the left. Moses knew that with the strength of Korah's anger, Korah would descend to Gehenom and be attached to it.

48. Because of this, Korah did not want Moses to settle this dispute, since it was not for heaven's sake (with pure intentions). He had no respect for the celestial glory, which is the Shechinah, and refused to acknowledge the work of Creation. This means that he denied the settlement of the Central Column. in the work of Creation. He wanted only the left to govern. As soon as Moses realized that he was denying the work of Creation and being rejected out of holiness, "Moses was much angered" (Bemidbar 16:15).

49. "And Moses was much angered," because Korah and his company refused to acknowledge him and did not allow him to settle the dispute. It is written "much," because they denied the acknowledgment of the work of Creation. So Korah denied everything above in Zeir Anpin and below in the souls, as it is written: "When they strove against Hashem" (Bemidbar 26:9) which is the secret of Zeir Anpin, for the damage that he did reached both above to Zeir Anpin and below to Moses. Therefore, Korah cleaved on to what he deserved; he reached Gehenom, as written, "They went down alive into Sheol" (Bemidbar 16:33).

51. This secret appears in the Book of Adam. When darkness was aroused to take control, it emerged in all its might and created Gehenom within it, and Gehenom cleaved to it in that dispute. As the anger and the might of the Gvurot were calmed down, the dispute was aroused in a different manner, as a dispute of love.

52. There were two kinds of disputes: One at the beginning and one at the end. This is the path of the righteous, which is hard in the beginning, because it is full of suffering, but ends in peace. Korah, being the left, was the beginning of the dispute between the right and the left, which was full of anger and fierceness. Each wanted to diminish the illumination of its neighbor. From this, Gehenom emerged and Korah cleaved to Gehenom. Shammai was also the aspect of the left, but at the end of the dispute between the right and the left, when anger was forgotten and the dispute of love was set in motion so as to receive approval from the heavens, which is the Column that settles the dispute.

53. This is the secret of the verse: "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide..." (Beresheet 1:6) This is the first dispute, aroused by anger and force, in which each wanted to overcome and annul its neighbor. The Holy One, blessed be He, wished to nullify the dispute and Gehenom was aroused until the anger and aggressiveness cooled down. Then it is written: "And Elohim made the firmament and divided..." (Ibid. 7). This division is the dispute, carried with love and friendship, which supports the world. According to this secret, (namely through the dispute of love) is carried the dispute between Shammai and Hillel namely the dividing of "And Elohim made the firmament" at the end of the dispute. On the other hand, the dispute of Korah was one of anger which is the dividing of "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters" at the beginning of the dispute. So the dispute of Shammai and Hillel was for the sake of heaven, in which the Oral Torah, which is the secret of the Female principle, entered with love into the Written Torah, which is Zeir Anpin and called heaven. And they were in perfect union.

60. The upper waters are male; the lower waters are female. At first, before they were firmly established, they were mixed, but were later separated to distinguish the upper waters from the lower waters. And to differentiate them, one is called Elohim, which is Binah, and the other is called Adonai, which is Malchut. One is the upper Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is Binah, and the other is the lower Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is Malchut. It is then written about them: "And Elohim made the firmament" (Beresheet 1:7). This expansion assumed the name Elohim, for the verse: "And Elohim made" indicates that the expansion of Hei-Yud-Mem returned back to El and merged into the name Elohim and the upper waters. For the name Elohim is the upper waters and the name Adonai, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, is the female waters. Nevertheless, since the male waters, or the letters Hei-Yud-Mem, were completed only by the female waters namely, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin the name Elohim expanded everywhere, including the female waters.

62. Although the separation of the lower waters from the upper waters occurred on the second day, the dispute between El, which is the Right, and Hei-Yud-Mem, which is the Left, was unresolved. Only the third day reconciled between them. Both became equal and joined them into the one name Elohim. The third day, which is Zeir Anpin, is the name, upon which is engraved Hei-Vav-Hei, to make the upper waters, Binah, equal to the lower waters, Malchut. Because the letters Hei-Vav-Hei are the secret of the two Heis with Vav between them:

the upper Hei is Binah, and the lower Hei is Malchut. The Vav in between is Zeir Anpin and it completes and illuminates both sides, above in Binah and below in Malchut. This was signified by the splitting of the waters of the Jordan, where the upper waters rose in a heap and did not flow down into the Dead Sea. This is the secret of the upper Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, namely Binah. On the other hand, the lower waters which are the secret of the lower Hei, Malchut flowed down into the Dead Sea which is the secret of the lower Hei, Malchut. And Yisrael, the secret of the letter Vav, went in the middle between the upper waters and the lower waters of the Jordan. Thus Yisrael, the secret of the Vav of Yud Hei Vav Hei, received the abundance from the upper Hei and bestowed it upon the lower Hei.

64. When disagreement was aroused through the fierceness of the left, the mist of fire increased and became overpowering. The spirits produced from within that mist immediately congealed; they became dry and without any moisture. These spirits, which were male and female, produced a multitude of evil spirits. From this, all the might of the impure spirit appeared in all those strong spirits. This is the secret of the Klipah of the foreskin. These spirits were strengthened in impurity through the violent demons. One is called a viper and the other a serpent, and these two kinds become one. The viper bears offspring every seventy years, while the serpent only every seven years. But as they are joined together, everything returned to the seven years of the serpent. Therefore, the viper begets every seven years like the serpent, and they become as if one species.

65. From herein lies the secret of Gehenom, which has seven names, and the Evil Inclination, which also has seven names. From here, impurity expands and spreads out in many grades into the world. And everything comes from the principle of the left, which contains good and evil and thereby, makes the world habitable. From here is the secret of the Holy Name that is engraved by eighteen letters and is responsible for the bountiful rains that feed the earth, for human charity, for all our blessings, and for the general habitation of this world.


malchut.jpg

From what I understand at this point the Seifrot is similar to the Trinity that there is more than one aspect of the Godhead. What I do not know is whether these aspects are considered constructs. Further the Seifrot aspects are divided into three columns. The left column is female which is aggressive and wants to govern. The right column wants to transcend closer to Hashem. The middle column is the how Keter balances and controls the actions of both sides. There are two levels of Heaven. The upper is Binah, the lower is Malchut are both female.

The four levels of understanding Islam.

orbit.png

Alam-i-Hahut (Realm of He-ness) The Realm of pre-existence, the condition of the universe before its formation, equated with the unknowable essence of God. Alam-e-Hahut has similarities to the Christian concept of Deus absconditus, the Hindu notion of Nirguna Brahman and the Kabbalist idea of the En-Sof.

Alam-i-Lahut (Realm of Divinity) That region where incalculable unseen tiny dots emerge and expand to such large circles that they engulf the entire universe. This Realm is also known as Tajalliat (The Beatific Vision, or the Circle of the Beatific Vision).

Alam-i-Jabarut (Realm of Power) The stage when the universe is constituted into features. Hijab-e-Kibria (The Grand Veil) is the last limit of this realm. Nehr-e-tajreed (Channel of Abstraction), whose last limit is The Realm of Omnipotency, feeds the Human Soul with its information.

Alam-i-Malakut (Angelic Realm) The stage when the characteristics of the species and their individuals descend from the Realm of Omnipotency, separate consciousnesses comes into being. Its last limit is called Hijab-e-Azmat (The Great Veil). Nehr-e-Tasheed (Channel of Evidence) whose last limit is Angelic Realm, feeds the subtleties of the human heart.

Alam-i-Nasut (Realm of Humans) The stage when foundations of the tangible world of matter are laid, (parallel to the Tree of Life's sephiroth of Malkuth). It includes the material realm and all the normally visible cosmos. Nehr-e-Tazheer (Channel of Manifestation) whose last limit is Alam-e-Nasut, feeds The subtleties of ego.

The late Maulana Syed Muhammad Miyan, who served for many years, before and after 1947, as the general secretary of the Jamiat ul-Ulema-e Hind writes, that it was in India that for the first time the Holy Spirit (ruh-i muqaddas) appeared on earth, that the glory (azmat) and unity (tauhid) of God was mentioned, and that Muhammad’s prophet-hood was announced.

Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina (also known by the Latinized name "Avicenna.") speaks of the capacity for prophecy as sanctified spirit (ruh muqaddas) and describes the prophet's mind as a holy intellect or divine power. As the highest point above the Active Intellect, God, the pure intellect, is also the highest object of human knowledge. All sense experience, logic and the faculties of the human soul are therefore directed at grasping the fundamental structure of reality as it emanates from that source and, through various levels of being down to the Active Intellect, becomes available to human thought through reason or, in the case of prophets holy intellect, intuition. By this conception, then, there is a close relation between logic, thought, experience, the grasp of the ultimate structure of reality and an understanding of God. As the highest and purest intellect, God is the source of all the existent things in the world.

The philosopher Avicenna says, “The spirit which is truly sanctified attains to so lofty a degree that all which it sees is real, all which it desires is granted, and in all which it commands, it is obeyed.” When the free spirit is stablished in true sanctification, it draws God to itself, and were it placed beyond the reach of contingencies, it would assume the properties of God. But God cannot part with those to anyone; all that He can do for the sanctified spirit is to impart Himself to it. The man who is wholly sanctified is so drawn towards the Eternal, that no transitory thing may move him, no corporeal thing affect him, no earthly thing attract him. This was the meaning of St Paul when he said, “I live; yet not I; Christ liveth in me.”

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/eckhart/sermons.ix.html


Do Muslims believe that there are many Holy intellects and there equally many Holy Spirits that communicate with them?

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Purification or Infallibility.

So if the servant is dedicated with his intention to Allah, the Glorious, the Almighty, and wants the face of Allah, Allah would love him and Allah would assign for him an Angel that causes him to enter into all good and takes him out of all evil, and leads him towards the Noble Morals, and and the Holy Spirit would become an intermediary to transfer knowledge to the human being that he [the Holy Spirit] has been entrusted with.

And the Holy Spirits are many and not [just] one.

And the one that was with Jesus (pbuh) and with the Prophets is not like the one that was with Muhammad (pbuh & his family), and Ali (pbuh), and Fatima (pbuh), and the Imams (pbut), and this [Holy Spirit] is the Greatest Holy Spirit; which was not sent down to anyone except Muhammad (pbuh & his family), and after his death it was passed to Ali (pbuh), and then to the Imams (pbut), and then after them [it shall be passed] to the twelve Mahdis.

https://ahmadalhassan.wordpress.com/tag/the-companions-of-al-qaim/


Maimonides and his followers, who regarded man as a fragment of the universe whose immortality is dependent upon the degree of development of his active intellect. The Zohar instead declared Man to be the lord of the creation, whose immortality is solely dependent upon his morality.

And the one that was with Jesus (pbuh) and with the Prophets is not like the one that was with Muhammad (pbuh & his family), and Ali (pbuh), and Fatima (pbuh), and the Imams (pbut), and this [Holy Spirit] is the Greatest Holy Spirit; which was not sent down to anyone except Muhammad (pbuh & his family), and after his death it was passed to Ali (pbuh), and then to the Imams (pbut), and then after them [it shall be passed] to the twelve Mahdis.

https://ahmadalhassan.wordpress.com/tag/the-companions-of-al-qaim/




My novice understanding of Kabbalist and Sufi mysticism leads me to think that both groups correctly understand that the Holy Intellect is a gift of discipline given by Hashem in both understanding and following His commands. Their paths are different, but their goal of achieving enlightenment is the same.

In my faith, Jesus is closest ideal of what God really is and his commands are humane.

John 10

10:22 Then came the feast of the Dedication in Jerusalem.

10:23 It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple area in Solomon’s Portico.

10:24 The Jewish leaders surrounded him and asked, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.”

10:25 Jesus replied, “I told you and you do not believe. The deeds I do in my Father’s name testify about me.

10:26 But you refuse to believe because you are not my sheep.

10:27 My sheep listen to my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.

10:28 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish; no one will snatch them from my hand.

10:29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one can snatch them from my Father’s hand.

10:30 The Father and I are one.”

10:31 The Jewish leaders picked up rocks again to stone him to death.

10:32 Jesus said to them, “I have shown you many good deeds from the Father. For which one of them are you going to stone me?”

10:33 The Jewish leaders replied, “We are not going to stone you for a good deed but for blasphemy, because you, a man, are claiming to be God.”

10:34 Jesus answered, “Is it not written in your law, ‘I said, you are gods’?

10:35 If those people to whom the word of God came were called ‘gods’ (and the scripture cannot be broken),

10:36 do you say about the one whom the Father set apart and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?

10:37 If I do not perform the deeds of my Father, do not believe me.

10:38 But if I do them, even if you do not believe me, believe the deeds, so that you may come to know and understand that I am in the Father and the Father is in me.”


According to Russian Orthodox belief, Jesus was the one who spoke with the prophets in the Old Testament.

In the theophanies (appearances of God) of the Old Testament, as our Holy Fathers bear witness, it was not God the Father Who appeared, but rather it was always our Savior, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity (i.e., the Word or Logos, the Angel of the Lord, the Lord God of Sabaoth, the Angel of Great Counsel, the Ancient of Days) Who revealed Himself to the prophets and seers of the Old Testament.

I reject all human systems of interpretation of the Holy Scriptures, whether they be allegorical, literalistic, or otherwise. I confess that the Holy Scripture was written through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and that it is solely through the Holy Spirit that we can read and understand It. I acknowledge that I cannot read or understand the Scriptures without the assistance of the Holy Spirit and the illumination of the Tradition of the Church, even as the eunuch of Candice could not understand the prophets without the aid of St. Philip, who was sent to him by the Holy Spirit (Acts 8).

http://cabrapokrov.org/orthodox-doctrine/


Does the above mean Jesus was the female personification of Wisdom that Solomon mentioned?

Qaim (the last infallible spiritual guide)

1 Corinthians 1

1:26 Think about the circumstances of your call, brothers and sisters. Not many were wise by human standards, not many were powerful, not many were born to a privileged position.

1:27 But God chose what the world thinks foolish to shame the wise, and God chose what the world thinks weak to shame the strong.

1:28 God chose what is low and despised in the world, what is regarded as nothing, to set aside what is regarded as something,

1:29 so that no one can boast in his presence.

1:30 He is the reason you have a relationship with Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,

1:31 so that, as it is written, “Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord."

2:1 When I came to you, brothers and sisters, I did not come with superior eloquence or wisdom as I proclaimed the testimony of God.

2:2 For I decided to be concerned about nothing among you except Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

2:3 And I was with you in weakness and in fear and with much trembling.

2:4 My conversation and my preaching were not with persuasive words of wisdom, but with a demonstration of the Spirit and of power,

2:5 so that your faith would not be based on human wisdom but on the power of God.

2:6 Now we do speak wisdom among the mature, but not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are perishing.

2:7 Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory.

2:8 None of the rulers of this age understood it. If they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

2:9 But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.

2:10 God has revealed these to us by the Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God.

2:11 For who among men knows the things of a man except the man’s spirit within him? So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God.

2:12 Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things that are freely given to us by God.

2:13 And we speak about these things, not with words taught us by human wisdom, but with those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people.

2:14 The unbeliever does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. And he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.

2:15 The one who is spiritual discerns all things, yet he himself is understood by no one.

2:16 For who has known the mind of the Lord, so as to advise him? But we have the mind of Christ.

 

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

 

Chapter 5

 

5:1 But the way of death is this.

5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;

The Great Isaiah Scroll reads that that a man from the line of David will have the Wisdom of God's Holy Spirit. My faith believes the prophet was speaking about Jesus Christ.

 

Isaiah 11

 

11:1 A shoot will come forth from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit.

 

11:2 The spirit of the LORD will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.

 

11:3 His delight will be in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by appearances, nor decide by what he hears,

 

11:4 but with righteousness he will obtain justice for the poor and decide with equity for the meek of the land. He will strike the land with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips the wicked will be killed.

 

11:5 Righteousness will be the belt around his waist and faithfulness the belt around his loins.

The first word is b'reishit, or Bereishit ( בְּרֵאשִׁית[/size] ) "at [the] head [of]", or more colloquially, "in [the] beginning [of]"

 

The Bereshith Rabbah states Wisdom is the Torah. And in the Torah Hashem created.

 

If we include the Zohar to this idea:

 

In Wisdom the female principle, Oral Torah and male principle, Written Torah Hashem Created.

 

If we add the prophecy of Isaiah to this idea:

 

In the Spirit of Wisdom the female principle, Oral Torah, and male principle, Written Torah Hashem created.

 

If we add the Genesis Rabbah to this idea:

 

In thought through Hashem's Spirit the Wisdom of the Living Word, Torah, and Throne of Glory came to be. Hashem contemplated the names: Messiah, Patriarchs, Israel, and Repentance. In the Spirit of Wisdom the male principle, Written Torah, and the female principle, Oral Torah Hashem created Heaven and Earth.

 

Genesis Rabbah

 

Chapter 1

 

Bereshith

 

 

The speaker is the Torah (Wisdom) personified and a mystery until the Revelation at Sinai.

 

1. R. Oshaya commenced [his exposition thus]:

 

Then I was by Him, as a nursling (amon); and I was daily all delight (Proverbs 8:30) 'Amon' means tutor; 'amon' means covered; 'amon' means hidden; and some say, 'amon' means great. 'Amon' is a tutor, as you read, As an omen (nursing-father) carrieth the suckling child (Numbers 11:12). 'Amon' means covered, as in the verse, Ha'emunim (they were clad - ie. covered) in scarlet (Lamentations 4:5). 'Amon' means hidden, as in the verse, And he concealed (omen) Hadassah (Ester 2:7). 'Amon' means great, as in the verse, Art thou better than No-amon (Nahum 3:8)? which is rendered, Art though better than Alexandria the Great, that is situate among the rivers? Another interpretation:

 

'amon' is a workman (uman). The Torah declares:

 

'I was the working tool of the Holy One, blessed be He.' In human practice, when a mortal king builds a palace, he it not with his own skill, but the skill of an architect. The architect moreover does not build it out of his head, but employs plans and diagrams to know how to arrange the chambers and the wicket doors. Thus God consulted the Torah and created the world, while the Torah declares, IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED (Genesis 1:1), BEGINNING referring to the Torah, as in the verse, The Lord me as the beginning of His way (Proverbs 8:22).

 

4. IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were actually created, while the creation of others were already contemplated. The Torah and Throne of Glory were created. The Torah, for it is written, The Lord made me as the beginning of His way, prior to his works of old (Proverbs 8:22) The Throne of Glory, as it is written, They throne is established of old, etc (Psalms 93:2) The creation of the Patriarchs was contemplated, for it is written, I saw your fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree at her first season (Hosea 9:10) [The creation of] Israel was contemplated, as it is written, Remember Thy congregation, which Thou throne of glory, on high from the beginning, the place of our sanctuary (Jeremiah 17:12). The name of the Messiah was contemplated, for it is written, His name existeth ere the sun (Psalms 72:17)

 

R. Ahabah b R. Ze'ira said:

 

Repentance too was contemplated, for it is written, Before the mountains were brought forth, et (ib. XC, 2) and from that very moment, Though turnest man to contrition, and sayest: Repent, ye children of men (ib. 3). I still do not know which was first, whether the Torah proceeded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory proceeded the Torah.

 

Said R. Abba b. Kahana: The Torah proceeded the Throne of Glory, for it says, 'The Lord made me as the beginning of His way, ere His works of old,' which means, ere that wherof it is written, 'Thy throne is established of old.'

 

R. Banaya said:

 

The world and the fullness therof were created only for the sake of the Torah:

 

The Lord for the sake of wisdom [i.e. the Torah] founded the earth (Proverbs 3:19)

The Book of the Secrets of Enoch or the Second Book of Enoch was written by Jews in the late first century.

 

God relates to Enoch, how out of the very deepest parts came forth the visible and invisible

 

Second Book of Enoch

 

Chapter 25

 

1 I commanded in the very lowest parts, that visible things should come down from invisible, and Adoil came down very great, and I beheld him, and lo! He had a belly of great light.

 

2 And I said to him: Become undone, Adoil, and let the visible come out of you.

 

3 And he came undone, and a great light came out. And I was in the midst of the great light, and as there is born light from light, there came forth a great age, and showed all creation, which I had thought to create.

 

4 And I saw that it was good.

 

5 And I placed for myself a throne, and took my seat on it, and said to the light: Go thence up higher and fix yourself high above the throne, and be a foundation to the highest things.

 

6 And above the light there is nothing else, and then I bent up and looked up from my throne.

God summons from the very deepest a second time that Archas, heavy and very red should come forth

 

Second Book of Enoch

 

Chapter 26

 

1 And I summoned the very lowest a second time, and said: Let Archas come forth hard, and he came forth hard from the invisible.

 

2 And Archas came forth, hard, heavy, and very red.

 

3 And I said: Be opened, Archas, and let there be born from you, and he came undone, an age came forth,very great and very dark, bearing the creation of all lower things, and I saw that it was good and said to him:

 

4 Go thence down below, and make yourself firm, and be a foundation for the lower things, and it happened and he went down and fixed himself, and became the foundation for the lower things, and below the darkness there is nothing else.

Adoil and Archas are the beings Enoch described who executed Hashem's architectural physics to create the universe. I am looking for statements from the great faiths on the validity of 2 Enoch. When I read it was written in the first century after the death of Christ it becomes suspect. Although this could have been orally transmitted like the Talmud. What is more interesting is Adoil's unfolding of the Universe is similar to our modern 'Big Bang' theory. And Archas red shift.

 

Here we find Hashem's Wisdom once again creating man from seven consistencies.

 

Second Book of Enoch

 

Chapter 30

 

1 On the third day I commanded the earth to make grow great and fruitful trees, and hills, and seed tosow, and I planted Paradise, and enclosed it, and placed as armed guardians flaming angels, and thus I created renewal.

 

2 Then came evening, and came morning the fourth day.

 

3 [Wednesday]. On the fourth day I commanded that there should be great lights on the heavenly circles.

 

4 On the first uppermost circle I placed the stars, Kruno, and on the second Aphrodit, on the third Aris,on the fifth Zoues, on the sixth Ermis, on the seventh lesser the moon, and adorned it with the lesser stars.

 

5 And on the lower I placed the sun for the illumination of day, and the moon and stars for the illumination of night.

 

6 The sun that it should go according to each constellation, twelve, and I appointed the succession of the months and their names and lives, their thunderings, and their hour-markings, how they should succeed.

 

7 Then evening came and morning came the fifth day.

 

8 [Thursday]. On the fifth day I commanded the sea, that it should bring forth fishes, and feathered birds of many varieties, and all animals creeping over the earth, going forth over the earth on four legs, and soaring in the air, male sex and female, and every soul breathing the spirit of life.

 

9 And there came evening, and there came morning the sixth day.

 

10 [Friday]. On the sixth day I commanded my wisdom to create man from seven consistencies: one, his flesh from the earth; two, his blood from the dew; three, his eyes from the sun; four, his bones from stone; five, his intelligence from the swiftness of the angels and from cloud; six, his veins and his hair from the grass of the earth; seven, his soul from my breath and from the wind.

 

11 And I gave him seven natures: to the flesh hearing, the eyes for sight, to the soul smell, the veins for touch, the blood for taste, the bones for endurance, to the intelligence sweetness [enjoyment].

 

12 I conceived a cunning saying to say, I created man from invisible and from visible nature, of both are his death and life and image, he knows speech like some created thing, small in greatness and again great in smallness, and I placed him on earth, a second angel, honorable, great and glorious, and I appointed him as ruler to rule on earth and to have my wisdom, and there was none like him of earth of all my existing creatures.

 

13 And I appointed him a name, from the four component parts, from east, from west, from south, from north, and I appointed for him four special stars, and I called his name Adam, and showed him the two ways, the light and the darkness, and I told him:

 

14 This is good, and that bad, that I should learn whether he has love towards me, or hatred, that it be clear which in his race love me.

 

15 For I have seen his nature, but he has not seen his own nature, therefore

through not seeing he will sin worse, and I said After sin what is there

but death?

 

16 And I put sleep into him and he fell asleep. And I took from him a rib, and created him a wife, that death should come to him by his wife, and I took his last word and called her name mother, that is to say, Eva.

If we add the Second Book of Enoch to the idea of creation:

 

In thought through Hashem's Spirit the Throne of Glory and the Wisdom of the Word and Torah came to be. Hashem contemplated the names: Messiah, Patriarchs, Israel, and Repentance. In the Spirit of Wisdom the female principle, Oral Torah, and male principle, Written Torah Hashem created.

 

Second Book of Enoch

 

Chapter 33

 

1 And I appointed the eighth day also, that the eighth day should be the first-created after my work, and that the first seven revolve in the form of the seventh thousand, and that at the beginning of the eighth thousand there should be a time of not-counting, endless, with neither years nor months nor weeks nor days nor hours.

 

2 And now, Enoch, all that I have told you, all that you have understood, all that you have seen of heavenly things, all that you have seen on earth, and all that I have written in books by my great wisdom, all these things I have devised and created from the uppermost foundation to the lower and to the end, and there is no counselor nor inheritor to my creations.

 

3 I am self-eternal, not made with hands, and without change.

 

4 My thought is my counselor, my wisdom and my word are made, and my eyes observe all things how they stand here and tremble with terror.

 

5 If I turn away my face, then all things will be destroyed.

 

6 And apply your mind, Enoch, and know him who is speaking to you, and take thence the books which you yourself have written.

 

7 And I give you Samuil and Raguil, who led you up, and the books, and go down to earth, and tell your sons all that I have told you, and all that you have seen, from the lower heaven up to my throne,and all the troops.

 

8 For I created all forces, and there is none that resists me or that does not subject himself to me. For all subject themselves to my monarchy, and labour for my sole rule.

 

9 Give them the books of the handwriting, and they will read them and will know me for the creator of all things, and will understand how there is no other God but me.

 

10 And let them distribute the books of your handwriting–children to children, generation to generation,nations to nations.

 

11 And I will give you, Enoch, my intercessor, the archistratege Michael, for the handwriting of your fathers Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahaleleel, and Jared your father.

 

If we add Colossians 1 to the idea of creation:

 

Through thought Hashem's Spirit the Wisdom of the Living Word (Jesus) and Throne of Glory came to be. Hashem contemplated the names: Patriarchs, Israel, Torah and Repentance. Through Jesus Hashem created Heaven and Earth.

 

Colossians 1

 

1:12 giving thanks to the Father who has qualified you to share in the saints’ inheritance in the light.

 

1:13 He delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of the Son he loves,

 

1:14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.

 

1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation,

 

1:16 for all things in heaven and on earth were created by him – all things, whether visible or invisible, whether thrones or dominions, whether principalities or powers – all things were created through him and for him.

 

1:17 He himself is before all things and all things are held together in him.

 

1:18 He is the head of the body, the church, as well as the beginning, the firstborn from among the dead, so that he himself may become first in all things

 

1:19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in the Son

 

1:20 and through him to reconcile all things to himself by making peace through the blood of his cross – through him, whether things on earth or things in heaven.

Through the power of Hashem's Holy Spirit, His Holy Word (Jesus Christ) became flesh for the world to witness. The men and women that did have opportunity to see the miracles of the Living Word (Jesus Christ) were given a choice to follow His Way or the path of sin.

 

John 15

 

15:22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not be guilty of sin. But they no longer have any excuse for their sin.

 

15:23 The one who hates me hates my Father too.

 

15:24 If I had not performed among them the miraculous deeds that no one else did, they would not be guilty of sin. But now they have seen the deeds and have hated both me and my Father.

 

15:25 Now this happened to fulfill the word that is written in their law, ‘They hated me without reason.

Hebrews 1

 

1:1 After God spoke long ago in various portions and in various ways to our ancestors through the prophets,

 

1:2 in these last days He has spoken to us in a son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he created the world.

 

1:3 The Son is the radiance of his glory and the representation of his essence, and he sustains all things by his powerful word, and so when he had accomplished cleansing for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.

 

1:4 Thus He became so far better than the angels as he has inherited a name superior to theirs.

Here is a wonderful poem on what the gift of Jesus brings.

 

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

 

Chapter 5

 

5:1 But the way of death is this.

5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;

Old Holy Roman Church of the English Rite: Catechism

 

73. How can we keep from committing sin?

We can keep from committing sin by praying and by receiving the sacraments; by remembering that God is always with us; by recalling that our bodies are temples of the Holy Ghost; by keeping occupied with work or play; by promptly resisting the sources of sin within us; by avoiding the near occasions of sin.

And if thy right hand scandalize thee, cut it off and cast it from thee. For it is expedient for thee that one of thy members perish rather than that thy whole body go into hell. (Mark 9:42)

 

http://www.anglicanritecatholicchurch.org/catechism.html

Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi declares to be an incarnation of Adi Shakti - who is known in other religions as the Holy Spirit (Christianity), Shekhinah/ Ruach (Judaism), Ruh of Allah (Islam), Aykaa Mayee (Sikhism), Wakan-Taka (Native Indian Spirituality).

 

 

Does Shri Mataji believe that the Holy Spirit dwells within her? Or does Shri Mataji profess she is the Holy Spirit? If the former, does Shri Mataji believe we all have the Holy Spirit dwelling with us? If the latter does Shri Mataji profess we are all the Holy Spirit?

 

Here is what the Catholic Church states about idolizing human beings and Hindu karma.

 

INTERNATIONAL THEOLOGICAL COMMISSION

 

SELECT QUESTIONS

ON THE THEOLOGY OF GOD THE REDEEMER

(1995)

 

4. Christian faith is therefore careful not, on the one hand, to divinize or to idolize human beings because of their greatness, their dignity and their achievements, nor, on the other hand, to condemn them or crush them because of their failures and misdeeds. Christian faith does not underestimate the human potential and desire for growth and fulfillment, and the achievements to which the actualization of this potential and desire can effectively lead. Not only are such achievements not considered a priori by faith as obstacles to be overcome or adversaries to be combated, but they are, on the contrary, positively evaluated from the outset. From the first pages of the book of Genesis to the encyclicals of recent Popes; the invitation addressed to human beings—and, of course, in the first place to Christians—is always to organize the world and society in such a way as to improve at all levels the conditions of human life, and beyond that, to enhance the happiness of individuals, promote justice and peace among all and, as far as possible, foster a love, which, in being translated into words and actions, does not exclude anyone on the face of the earth.

 

17. Hinduism is not a monolithic religion. It is rather a mosaic of religious beliefs and practices that claims to offer the human race redemption and salvation. Although early Vedic Hinduism was polytheistic, later Vedic tradition came to speak of ultimate Reality, also referred to as “Atman” or “Brahman”, as One, out of which all things emerged with a specific, triadic mode of manifestation. “Brahman” itself is incomprehensible and formless, but is also the Self-existent Conscious being who is the fullness of Bliss. At a more popular, personal level, divinities such as Shiva, destroyer of the imperfect, Vishnu and his “avatars” (“incarnations”) like Ram, the Enlightened One, Krishna and the Mother Goddess Shakti—correspond to the attributes of the Supreme Reality. God's “incarnations” descend to earth to deal with evil when it becomes powerful on earth.

 

18. Making due allowances for over-simplification, one could say that for Hinduism the human person is a spark of the divine, a soul (“atman”) embodied because of “avidya” (ignorance: either a kind of metaphysical ignorance of one's true nature or a kind of original ignorance). As a result, the human being is subject to the law of “karma” or rebirth, the cycle of birth and rebirth being known as “karma-samsara”, or the law of retribution. Selfish desire, leading to spiritual ignorance, is the source of all evil, misery and suffering in the world.

 

19. Redemption for Hinduism—expressed by such terms as “moksha” and “mukti”—is thus liberation from the law of “karma”. Although human beings can in three (not mutually exclusive) ways take some steps towards their salvation—through disinterested action, spiritual intuition and loving devotion to God—the final stage of salvific communion with God can only be attained with the help of grace.

 

http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/cti_documents/rc_cti_1995_teologia-redenzione_en.html

Karma Yoga teaches that selfish desire is the source of all evil. All suffering, misery, disease and misfortune lies in our own actions. Christianity teaches the same thing.

 

Choice-love_lust_300.jpg

 

There are two points in this passage that I want to note. First, the Holy Spirit was with King David, not Jesus. Otherwise Jesus would have made it plain for all to understand. Second, Jesus explains the difference between His relationship with the Father and David's relationship with the Lord.

 

Mark 12

 

12:35 While Jesus was teaching in the temple courts, he said, “How is it that the experts in the law say that the Christ is David’s son?

 

12:36 David himself, by the Holy Spirit, said,

 

‘The Lord said to my lord,

 

“Sit at my right hand,

 

until I put your enemies under your feet.”’

 

12:37 If David himself calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?” And the large crowd was listening to him with delight.

It is important to know that anyone who states they know and understand Jesus will NOT state that they know God without Jesus. They also know the Holy Spirit comes from God from the request of Jesus.

 

John 15

 

15:18 “If the world hates you, be aware that it hated me first.

 

15:19 If you belonged to the world, the world would love you as its own. However, because you do not belong to the world, but I chose you out of the world, for this reason the world hates you.

 

15:20 Remember what I told you, ‘A slave is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they obeyed my word, they will obey yours too.

 

15:21 But they will do all these things to you on account of my name, because they do not know the one who sent me.

 

15:22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not be guilty of sin. But they no longer have any excuse for their sin.

 

15:23 The one who hates me hates my Father too.

 

15:24 If I had not performed among them the miraculous deeds that no one else did, they would not be guilty of sin. But now they have seen the deeds and have hated both me and my Father.

 

15:25 Now this happened to fulfill the word that is written in their law, ‘They hated me without reason.’

 

15:26 When the Advocate comes, whom I will send you from the Father – the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father – he will testify about me,

 

15:27 and you also will testify, because you have been with me from the beginning.

Anyone who believes the Gospel of John is true understands that no one has see our Father except Jesus.

 

John 6

 

6:41 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus began complaining about him because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven,”

 

6:42 and they said, “Isn’t this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How can he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?”

 

6:43 Jesus replied, “Do not complain about me to one another.

 

6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day.

 

6:45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who hears and learns from the Father comes to me.

 

6:46 (Not that anyone has seen the Father except the one who is from God – he has seen the Father.)

Although God the Father is unknowable He does share His Wisdom and Commands with us through His Holy Spirit, His Son Jesus, Angels, and Patriarchs.

 

James 1

 

1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one.

 

1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires.

 

1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death.

Third Chakra: Nabhi

 

Satisfaction is actually a key word for the Nabhi Chakra. Some 'hot-livered' people are naturally irritable. For them life without worry is an impossibility and will express their discontent at the slightest excuse. When our Spirit manifests, we can put things into their true perspective, and worry becomes an unusual occurrence. In the peace of thoughtlessness, we can only be content. We realize that the Spirit is not concerned with the passing trends and fashions. We have been blessed with intelligence and wisdom through which we can work to fulfill all human needs. When these needs are satisfied, then these mundane matters no longer occupy us and block our growth.

 

However, the vast majority of us get lost. The desire for basic needs transform into a cycle of insatiable desire for things in general and the start of a materialistic existence. There is nothing wrong in being wealthy. The problem lies in becoming obsessed with money. The desire for money for the sake of money is greed. It crosses the boundary of need and becomes an obsession, a disease that retards growth. Miserliness and hoarding prevent the proper flow of money to places of need, and represents the selfish, primitive mind which does not know the Truth about the Circle of Life. Nature sustains all creatures by sharing everything, because it is part and parcel the Holistic Whole. But humans have appropriated Mother Earth for themselves by carving and controlling vast resources, especially through the machinery of money.

 

- See more at: http://www.adishakti.org/subtle_system/nabhi_chakra.htm#sthash.GW7F2P4X.dpuf

It appears possible to get an understanding for the origins of the word Spirit. I am hoping to find the divergence of the how people view the Holy Spirit. Thus, truly know the sin of idolatry and everything that comes with it.

 

spirit (n.)

mid-13c., "animating or vital principle in man and animals," from Anglo-French spirit, Old French espirit "spirit, soul" (12c., Modern French esprit) and directly from Latin spiritus "a breathing (respiration, and of the wind), breath; breath of a god," hence "inspiration; breath of life..."

 

According to Barnhart and OED, originally in English mainly from passages in Vulgate, where the Latin word translates Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah. Distinction between "soul" and "spirit" (as "seat of emotions") became current in Christian terminology (such as Greek psykhe vs. pneuma, Latin anima vs. spiritus) but "is without significance for earlier periods" [buck]. Latin spiritus, usually in classical Latin "breath," replaces animus in the sense "spirit" in the imperial period and appears in Christian writings as the usual equivalent of Greek pneuma.

 

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=spirit

 

animate (v.) Look up animate at Dictionary.com

1530s, "to fill with boldness or courage," from Latin animatus past participle of animare "give breath to," also "to endow with a particular spirit, to give courage to," from anima "life, breath"

 

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=animate&allowed_in_frame=0

 

used in English in various sense, from Greek pneuma "a blowing, a wind, blast; breeze; influence; breathed air, breath; odor, scent; spirit of a person; inspiration, a spirit, ghost," from pnein "to blow, to breathe," from PIE root *pneu- "to breathe," of imitative origin (compare Greek pnoe "breath," pnoia "breathing;" Old English fnora "sneezing," fnæran "to snort").

 

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pneuma&allowed_in_frame=0

Pneuma, "air in motion, breath, wind," is equivalent in the material monism of Anaximenes to aer (ἀήρ, "air") as the element from which all else originated. This usage is the earliest extant occurrence of the term in philosophy. A quotation from Anaximenes observes that "just as our soul (psyche), being air (aer), holds us together, so do breath (pneuma) and air (aer) encompass the whole world." In this early usage, aer and pneuma are synonymous.

 

trier_anaximene.jpg

 

Anaximenes would have loved to observe the boson force of nature that holds matter together.

 

Heraclitus would have been a big fan of zero point energy as well.

 

More on these two points in another topic.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Still searching for the fulcrum divergence of the how people view the Holy Spirit. I am now using the Online Etymology Dictionary for Animus.

animus (n.)
1820, "temper" (usually in a hostile sense), from Latin animus "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers; courage, desire," related to anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling," from PIE root *ane- "to blow, to breathe" (cognates: Greek anemos "wind," Sanskrit aniti "breathes," Old Irish posterior, Welsh anadl "breath," Old Irish animm "soul," Gothic uzanan "to exhale," Old Norse anda "to breathe," Old English eðian "to breathe," Old Church Slavonic vonja "smell, breath," Armenian anjn "soul"). It has no plural. As a term in Jungian psychology for the masculine component of a feminine personality, it dates from 1923.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=animus&searchmode=none


In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi (Greek: Ἄνεμοι, "Winds") were Greek wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came (see Classical compass winds), and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. They were sometimes represented as mere gusts of wind, at other times were personified as winged men, and at still other times were depicted as horses kept in the stables of the storm god Aeolus, who provided Odysseus with the Anemoi in the Odyssey. The Spartans were reported to sacrifice a horse to the winds on Mount Taygetus. Astraeus, the astrological deity sometimes associated with Aeolus, and Eos, the goddess of the dawn, were the parents of the Anemoi, according to the Greek poet Hesiod.

anemoi-758x523.jpg

Homer and Hesiod distinguish the four seasonal Anemoi (Winds) from the Anemoi Thuellai, (Storms-Winds and Hurricanes). The latter were housed in the caverns of Aiolos or the pit of Tartaros where they were guarded by the Hekatonkheires. Later authors, however, blurred the distinction between the two.

The female counterparts of the Anemoi were the Aellai Harpyiai (or Harpies). Mating, with these they sired swift, immortal horses.
PARENTS
[1.1] ASTRAIOS & EOS (Hesiod Theogony 378, Apollodorus 1.8, Hyginus Preface, Nonnus Dionysiaca 6.18 & 47.340)
[1.2] EOS (Quintus Smyrnaeus 2.549)
[1.3] ASTRAIOS (Ovid Metamorphoses 14.544)
NAMES
[1.1] ZEPHYROS, BOREAS, NOTOS (Hesiod Theogony 378 & 869, Pindar Maiden Songs Frag 104)
[1.2] ZEPHYROS, BOREAS (Homer Iliad 9.4 & 23.194)
[1.3] ZEPHYROS, BOREAS, NOTOS, EUROS (Homer Odyssey 5.291, Quintus Smyrnaeus 12.189, Valerius Flaccus 1.574, Nonnus Dionysiaca 6.18)
[1.4] ZEPHYROS, BOREAS, NOTOS, EUROS, KAIKIAS, APELIOTES, SKIRON, LIPS (Tower of the Winds in Athens)
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Anemoi.html


How did we come to think the spirit came from wind? Did the Greeks sages think their gods could breathe life into mortals?

Take a break and watch Mythic Warriors - Icarus and Daedalus. See what happens when Daedulus prides himself like a god with his inventions. Then see Icarus pride himself to fly higher than the gods. Deadulus and Icarus remind me of Lucifer's pride against Hashem.

http://youtu.be/4UXG0Zkkzx4

It appears that the Greek anemos "wind" is from a masculine origin. But, when we move further east to their neighbors this begins to change.

The Turkish word for mother is "ana."

The Conception by Righteous Anna of the Most Holy Mother of God

Icon+of+Ss+Joachim+and+Anna+commission+wSinsharishkun (Sin-shar-ishkun, ca. 627 - 612 BC), who seems to have been the Saràkos (Saracus) of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the Assyrian empire, followed only by Ashur-uballit II. He was the son of Ashurbanipal, and possibly the brother of the last Assyrian king, Ashuruballit II (612-605 BC). He is the last king who has years attested in most Babylonian records. After temporarily defeating his rivals, Sinsharishkun faced a much larger threat. Babylon, a vassal state of Assyria for three centuries, took advantage of the anarchy within Assyria and rebelled under the previously unknown Nabopolassar, the leader of the Chaldean peoples of south eastern Mesopotamia, in 626 BC.

 

From 610 BC until his death, Nabopolassar also waged war against Egypt, which was allied with Assyria. In 605 BC, his son Nebuchadnezzar fought Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt and the remnants of the Assyrian army at the Battle of Carchemish, shortly before Nabopolassar died.

 

When the Assyrian capital Nineveh was overrun by the Babylonians in 612 BC, the Assyrians moved their capital to Harran. When Harran was captured by the Babylonians in 610 BC, the capital was once again moved, this time to Carchemish, on the Euphrates river. Egypt was allied with the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit II, and marched in 609 BC to his aid against the Babylonians.

 

The Egyptian army of Pharaoh Necho II was delayed at Megiddo by the forces of King Josiah of Judah. Josiah was killed and his army was defeated. The dead body of Josiah was delivered to Jerusalem immediately and buried according to the customs of Judah's kings, near the grave of King David.

 

The Egyptians and Assyrians together crossed the Euphrates and laid siege to Harran, which they failed to retake. They then retreated to northern Syria.

 

Stela of Nabonidus

ps278608_l.jpg

The Stela is currently located at the British Museum

It is not known where this basalt stela was originally found, but it may come from Babylon. Comparison with other sculptures, on which he is named, suggest that it represents King Nabonidus. He wears the traditional dress of a Babylonian king, and holds a standard which was possibly carried during a religious ceremony. Above him are the divine symbols of the moon god, Sin, (closest to him), the planet Venus of Ishtar and the winged disc of the sun-god Shamash. The text celebrates the return of plenty after a drought.

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/s/stela_of_nabonidus.aspx

 

Nabonidus (/ˌnæbəˈnaɪdəs/; Akkadian Nabû-naʾid, "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556-539 BC.

 

Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary: Am-Ani shows Chaldean goddess for Ana. Chaldea was the home of Abraham.

Ana (Chaldean) The invisible heaven; the astral light, the heavenly mother of the terrestrial sea. One of the triad comprising the goddesses Ana, Belita, and Damkina. As mother of the sea, a likely origin of the Christian symbology of the Virgin Mary standing on the crescent moon and of her connection with the sea. “Anna (the name of the Mother of the Virgin Mary) . . . is derived from the Chaldean Ana” (SD 1:91).

In the Hindu pantheon a cognate is Annapurna (a name of Devi-Durga, wife of Siva), meaning “full of food” — the fecund mother, the “Astral Light in one of its multitudinous aspects” (SD 1:92). See also ANAITIS; MARY

http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/etgloss/am-ani.htm


I am trying to confirm the Chaldean Ana mentioned by the Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary.

According to The Chaldean Account of Genesis, by George Smith, [1876] Anu in Chaldean belief was king of angels and spirits.

Here is the map of the Chaldean empire

oriental_empire.jpg


Chaldea as the name of a country is used in two different senses. In the early period, between circa. 1000 BC and 600 BC, it was the name of a small sporadically independent territory in southern Babylonia extending along the northern and probably also the western shores of the Persian Gulf. After the Chaldean tribes settled in the region it was called mat Kaldi "land of Chaldeans" by the native Assyrians and Babylonians.

Chaldea generally referred to the low, marshy, alluvial land around the estuaries of the Tigris and Euphrates, which then discharged their waters through separate mouths into the sea. In a later time, when the Chaldean tribe had burst their narrow bonds and obtained the ascendency over all Babylonia, they briefly gave their name to the whole land of Babylonia, which then was called Chaldea for a short time.

In the Hebrew Bible, the prophet Abraham is stated to have originally been from "Ur of the Chaldees" (Ur Kaśdim); if this city is to be identified with the Sumerian Ur, it would be within the original Chaldean homeland south of the Euphrates. a few interpreters have additionally tried to identify Abraham's birthplace with Chaldia, a distinct region in Asia Minor on the Black Sea. According to the Book of Jubilees, Ur Kaśdim (and Chaldea) took their name from Ura and Kesed, descendants of Arpachshad.

When Cyrus the Great conquered the great city of Babylon in the sixth century BC, his Magi came into contact with the teachings of the city's astrologers, known as Chaldeans. Diodorus of Sicily, a Greek historian of 80 to 20 BC, and author of a universal history, Bibliotheca historica
thought highly of Chaldean magi (priests).

Bibliotheca historica

Book II, 28:29-31

But to us it seems not inappropriate to speak briefly of the Chaldeans of Babylon and of their antiquity, that we may omit nothing which is worthy of record. Now the Chaldeans, belonging as they do to the most ancient inhabitants of Babylonia, have about the same position among the divisions of the state as that occupied by the priests of Egypt; for being assigned to the service of the gods they spend their entire life in study, their greatest renown being in the field of astrology. But they occupy themselves largely with soothsaying as well, making predictions about future events, and in some cases by purifications, in others by sacrifices, and in others by some other charms they attempt to effect the averting of evil things and the fulfillment of the good. They are also skilled in the soothsaying by the flight of birds, and they give out interpretations of both dreams and portents. They also show marked ability in making divinations from the observations of the entrails of animals, deeming that in thi s branch they are eminently successful.

The training which they receive in all these matters is not the same as that of the Greeks who follow such practices. For among the Chaldeans the scientific study of these subjects is passed down in the family, and son takes it over from father, being relieved of all other services in the state. Since, therefore, they have their parents for teachers, they not only are taught everything ungrudgingly but also at the same time they give heed to the precepts of their teachers with a more unwavering trust. Furthermore, since they are bred in these teachings from childhood up, they attain a great skill in them, both because of the ease with which youth is taught and because of the great amount of time which is devoted to this study.

Among the Greeks, on the contrary, the student who takes up a large number of subjects without preparation turns to the higher studies only quite late, and then, after laboring upon them to some extent, gives them up, being distracted by the necessity of earning a livelihood; and but a few here and there really strip for the higher studies and continue in the pursuit of them as a profit-making business, and these are always trying to make innovations in connection with the most important doctrines instead of following the in the path of their predecessors. The result of this is that the barbarians, by sticking to the same things always, keep a firm hold on every detail, while the Greeks, on the other hand, aiming at the profit to be made out of the business, keep founding new schools and wrangling with each other over the most important matters of speculation, bring it about that their pupils hold conflicting views, and that their minds, vacillating throughout their lives and unable to believe anything at all with firm conviction, simply wander in confusion. It is at any rate true that, if a man were to examine carefully the most famous schools of the philosophers, he would find them differing from one another to the uttermost degree and maintaining opposite opinions regarding the most fundamental tenets.

30. Now, as the Chaldeans say, the world is by its nature eternal, and neither had a first beginning nor will at a later term suffer destruction; furthermore, both the disposition and the orderly arrangement of the universe have come about by virtue of a divine providence, and today whatever takes place in the heavens is in every instance brought to pass, not a haphazard nor by virtue of any spontaneous action, but by some fixed and firmly determined divine decision. And since they have observed the stars over a long period of time and have noted both the movements and the influences of each of them with greater precision than any other men, they foretell to mankind many things that will take place in the future. But above all in importance, they say, is the study of the influence of the five stars known as planets, which they call "Interpreters" when speaking of them as a group, but if referring to them singly, the one named Cronus by the Greeks, which is the most conspicuous and presages more events an d such as are greater in importance than the others, they call the star Helios [sun], whereas the other four they designate as the star of Ares [Mars], Aphrodite [Venus], Hermes [Mercury], and Zeus [Jupiter], as do our astrologers. The reason whey they call them "Interpreters" is that whereas all other stars are fixed and follow a single circuit in a regular course, these alone, by virtue of following each its own course, point out future events, thus interpreting to mankind the design of the gods. For sometimes by their risings, sometimes by their settings, and again by their colour, the Chaldeans say, they give signs of coming events to such a are willing to observe them closely; for at one time they show forth mighty storms of winds, at another excessive rains or heat, at times the appearance of comets, also eclipses of both sun and moon, and earthquakes, and in a word all the condition which owe their origin to the atmosphere and work both benefits and harm, not only to whole peoples or regions, but also to kings and to persons of private station.

Under the course in which these planets move are situated, according to them, thirty stars, which they designate as "counseling gods"; of these one half oversee the regions above the earth and the other half those beneath the earth, having under their purview the affairs of mankind and likewise those of the heavens; and every ten days one of the stars above is sent as a messenger, so to speak, to the stars below, and again in like manner of the stars below the earth to those above, and this movement of their is fixed and determined by means of an orbit which is unchanging forever. Twelve of these gods, they say, hold chief authority, and to each of these the Chaldeans assign a month and one of the signs of the zodiac, as they are called. And through the midst of these signs, they say, both the sun and moon and the five planets make their course, the sun completing his cycle in a year and the moon traversing her circuit in a month.

31. Each of the planets, according to them, has its own particular course, and its velocities and periods of time are subject to change and variation. These stars it is which exert the greatest influence for both good and evil upon the nativity of men; and it is chiefly from the nature of these planets and the study of them that they known what is in store for mankind. And they have made predictions, they say, not only to numerous other kings, but also to Alexander, who defeated Darius, and to Antigonus and Seleucus Nicator who afterwards became kings, and in all their prophecies they are thought to have hit the truth. But of these things we shall write in detail on a more appropriate occasion. Moreover, they also foretell to men in private station what will befall them, and with such accuracy that those who have made trial of them marvel at the feat and believe that it transcends the power of man.

Beyond the circle of the zodiac they designate twenty-for other stars, of which one half, they say, are situated in the northern parts and one half in the southern, and of these those which are visible they assign to the world of the living, while those which are invisible they regard as being adjacent to the dead, and so they call them Judges of the Universe. And under all the stars hitherto mentioned the moon, according to them, takes her way, being nearest the earth because of her weight and completing her course in a very brief period of time, not by reason of her great velocity, but because her orbit is so short. They also agree with the Greeks in saying that her light is reflected and that her eclipses are due to the shadow of the earth. Regarding the eclipse of the sun, however, they offer the weakest kind of explanation, and do not presume to predict it or to define the times of its occurrence with any precision. Again, in connection with the earth they make assertions entirely peculiar to themselves, saying that it is shaped like a boat and hollow, and they offer many plausible arguments about both the earth and all other bodies in the firmament, a full discussion of which we feel would be alien to our history. this point, however, a man may fittingly maintain, that the Chaldeans have of all men the greatest grasp of astrology, and that they have bestowed the greatest diligence upon the study of it. But as to the number of years which, according to their statements, the order of the Chaldeans has spent on the study of the bodies of the universe, a man can scarcely believe them; for they reckon that, down Alexander's crossing over into Asia, it has been four hundred and seventy-three thousand years, since they began in early times to make their observations of the stars.

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodorus_Siculus/home.html


IMAGO MUNDI
The first known map of the World

THE BABYLONIAN CLAY TABLET
6th century BC
Located at the British Museum – London.
92687

babylonia1-large.jpg

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/m/map_of_the_world.aspx

Heavenly Ocean (Top) Earthly Ocean (Bottom)

103B.GIF

Map and quote is by Henry Davis

Henry Davis Consulting
PO Box 105
Ash Fork, AZ 86320
phone: (831) 359-1310
e-mail:<henry@henry-davis.com>

At this time Babylon was still a flourishing city, regarded as the center - the "hub" - of the universe. Yet only with the rise to supremacy of the Babylonian kings, with Hammurabi, toward 2000 B.C., had its claim to this position become possible. Previously the position was occupied by one of the former capitals of the earlier kingdoms. Probably the Sumerians made the city of Nippur- honored by them as a central shrine, a Sumerian Rome - the center of the universe from about 2300 B.C., for at that time supremacy was regarded as conditional upon the possession of Nippur.

In addition to the entire kingdom of Babylonia, which is schematically portrayed, seven unnamed circles are depicted and an accompanying cuneiform text is found on both sides of the tablet. The text contains names of countries and cities but, on the reverse side, is chiefly concerned with a description of the Seven Islands or regions which are depicted in the form of equal triangles (only one of which is entirely intact on the tablet) rising beyond the circle of the Earthly Ocean. Some scholars believe that there may have been eight "islands" originally. The tablet further states that these islands are at equal distances of seven miles (from either each other or from the Babylonian world), around the outer periphery of the Earthly Ocean. Various legendary beasts are named which were reputed to live in regions beyond the ocean that encircled the Babylonian world. A few ancient heroes reached those places, and the badly damaged text appears to describe conditions in them. The map is really a diagram to show the relation of these places to the world of the Babylonians.

The Babylonians knew little about the nature of these seven islands. We hear chiefly only of their various degrees of brightness. From the text on the tablet and the inscriptions on the chart itself we learn that the first island lay in the southeast, the second in the southwest, and so on, in a clockwise sequence.

The descriptions of the first and second islands are not preserved. The third island is where "the winged bird ends not his flight," i.e., cannot reach. On the forth island "the light is brighter than that of sunset or stars": it lay in the northwest, and after sunset in summer was practically in semi-obscurity. The fifth island, due north, lay in complete darkness - a land "where one sees nothing," and "the sun is not visible." The Sumerians and Babylonians probably had some knowledge, possibly acquired from other people, of the northern high latitudes and of the polar nights. Highly remarkable is the sixth island, "where a horned bull dwells and attacks the newcomer". An exactly similar presentation, true to tradition, occurs in the same position in an astrolabe of the 17th century A.D. and has been used in the reconstruction of the tablet. The seventh island lay in the east and is thus described: "where the morning dawns," meaning that it faces the sunrise. Again, the islands are all "seven miles" distant from the earth, but the distance between them varies, being sometimes six, sometimes nine miles. The description of two of these islands, however, has not survived.

According to Babylonian ideas, the islands said to lie between the Earthly and the Heavenly Oceans connected the heavens and the earth. These islands form bridges to the Heavenly Ocean, wherein are the various animal constellations, 18 of which are mentioned by name.

Thus round the heavens flowed the Heavenly Ocean, corresponding to the Earthly Ocean on the earth. And in the Heavenly Ocean were animal constellations, the "vanished" gods. These probably recur in the expression "belt of heaven," the Sumerian for which may be literally translated, "divine animals". As the animal constellations also sank below the horizon, so the Heavenly Ocean extended beneath the earth, so that plenty of room existed below the Underworld for the passage of the sun, moon, and planets. After the overthrow of the old world order of Apsu and Tiamat or Chaos, the former gods, according to the Babylonian Epic of Creation, were deposed and banned as animals to the Heavenly Ocean, by command of the creator of the new world.
http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ancient%20Web%20Pages/103Amono.html


http://youtu.be/lIvUl2ViK34

Title: Chaldea

From the Earliest Times to the Rise of Assyria

Author: Zénaïde A. Ragozin

7. To the people of Shumir and Accad, then, the universe was peopled with Spirits, whom they distributed according to its different spheres and regions. For they had formed a very elaborate and clever, if peculiar idea of what they supposed the world to be like. According to the ingenious expression of a Greek writer of the 1st century a.d. they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (kî-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. Above the convex surface of the earth (kî-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions:—the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East—some say North—and the lower heaven, where the planets—a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature—wandered forever on their appointed path. To these were opposed seven evil demons, sometimes called "the Seven Fiery Phantoms." But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), Zi-ana, or, as often, simply Ana—"Heaven." Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of Im or Mermer, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly Ocean. As to the earthly Ocean, it is fancied as a broad river, or watery rim, flowing all round the edge of the imaginary inverted bowl; in its waters dwells Êa (whose name means "the House of Waters"), the great Spirit of the Earth and Waters (Zi-kî-a), either in the form of a fish, whence he is frequently called "Êa the fish," or "the Exalted Fish," or on a magnificent ship, with which he travels round the earth, guarding and protecting it. The minor spirits of earth (Anunnaki) are not much spoken of except in a body, as a sort of host or legion. All the more terrible are the seven spirits of the abyss, the Maskim, of whom it is said that, although their seat is in the depths of the earth, yet their voice resounds on the heights also: they reside at will in the immensity of space, "not enjoying a good name either in heaven or on earth." Their greatest delight is to subvert the orderly course of nature, to cause earthquakes, inundations, ravaging tempests. Although the Abyss is their birth-place and proper sphere, they are not submissive to its lord and ruler Mul-ge ("Lord of the Abyss"). In that they are like their brethren of the lower heaven who do not acknowledge Ana's supremacy, in fact are called "spirits of rebellion," because, being originally Ana's messengers, they once "secretly plotted a wicked deed," rose against the heavenly powers, obscured the Moon, and all but hurled him from his seat. But the Maskim are ever more feared and hated, as appears from the following description, which has become celebrated for its real poetical force:

8. "They are seven! they are seven!—Seven they are in the depths of Ocean,—seven they are, disturbers of the face of Heaven.—They arise from the depths of Ocean, from hidden lurking-places.—They spread like snares.—Male they are not, female they are not.—Wives they have not, children are not born to them.—Order they know not, nor beneficence;—prayers and supplication they hear not.—Vermin grown in the bowels of the mountains—foes of Êa—they are the throne-bearers of the gods—they sit in the roads and make them unsafe.—The fiends! the fiends!—They are seven, they are seven, seven they are!

"Spirit of Heaven (Zi-ana, Ana), be they conjured!

"Spirit of Earth (Zi-kî-a, Êa), be they conjured!"

9. Besides these regular sets of evil spirits in sevens—seven being a mysterious and consecrated numberthere are the hosts untold of demons which assail man in every possible form, which are always on the watch to do him harm, not only bodily, but moral in the way of civil broils and family dissensions; confusion is their work; it is they who "steal the child from the father's knee," who "drive the son from his father's house," who withhold from the wife the blessing of children; they have stolen days from heaven, which they have made evil days, that bring nothing but ill-luck and misfortune,—and nothing can keep them out: "They fall as rain from the sky, they spring from the earth,—they steal from house to house,—doors do not stop them,—bolts do not shut them out,—they creep in at the doors like serpents,—they blow in at the roof like winds." Various are their haunts: the tops of mountains, the pestilential marshes by the sea, but especially the desert. Diseases are among the most dreaded of this terrible band, and first among these Namtar or Dibbara, the demon of Pestilence, Idpa (Fever), and a certain mysterious disease of the head, which must be insanity, of which it is said that it oppresses the head and holds it tight like a tiara (a heavy headdress) or "like a dark prison," and makes it confused, that "it is like a violent tempest; no one knows whence it comes, nor what is its object.

10. All these evil beings are very properly classed together under the general name of "creations of the Abyss," births of the nether world, the world of the dead. For the unseen world below the habitable earth was naturally conceived as the dwelling place of the departed spirits after death. It is very remarkable as characteristic of the low standard of moral conception which the Shumiro-Accads had attained at this stage of their development, that, although they never admitted that those who died ceased to exist altogether, there is very little to show that they imagined any happy state for them after death, not even as a reward for a righteous life, nor, on the other hand, looked to a future state for punishment of wrongs committed in this world, but promiscuously consigned their dead to the Arali, a most dismal region which is called the "support of chaos," or, in phrase no less vague and full of mysterious awe, "the Great Land" (Kî-gal), "the Great City" (Urugal), "the spacious dwelling," "where they wander in the dark,"—a region ruled by a female divinity called by different names, but most frequently "Lady of the Great Land" (Nin-kî-gal), or "Lady of the Abyss" (Nin-ge), who may then rather be understood as Death personified, that Namtar (Pestilence) is her chief minister. The Shumiro-Accads seem to have dimly fancied that association with so many evil beings whose proper home the Arali was, must convert even the human spirits into beings almost as noxious, for one or two passages appear to imply that they were afraid of ghosts, at least on one occasion it is threatened to send the dead back into the upper world, as the direst calamity that can be inflicted.

11. As if all these terrors were not sufficient to make life a burden, the Shumiro-Accads believed in sorcerers, wicked men who knew how to compel the powers of evil to do their bidding and thus could inflict death, sickness or disasters at their pleasure. This could be done in many ways—by a look, by uttering certain words, by drinks made of herbs prepared under certain conditions and ceremonies. Nay, the power of doing harm sometimes fatally belonged even to innocent persons, who inflicted it unintentionally by their look—for the effect of "the evil eye" did not always depend on a person's own will.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24654/24654-h/24654-h.htm


The kingdom of Shumir (Shinar of the Hebrews) was located Southern Chaldea (Calda, Kaldu). The Chaldean tribe first dwelled in the marshes of the Persian Gulf, They slowly expanded their territory northwest, which the land later was known by their name. Ur, the city of the moon god (Sin, Nanna), was established as the capital of Chaldea.

Ancient documents describe the city of Agade (also spelt Akkade) as the capital city of King Sargon (about 2334-2279 BC). The site of the ancient city has never been located, although descriptions indicate that it was in the upper part of the southern Mesopotamian plain. One suggestion is that it may have been at Ishan Mizyad, where there is a large unexplored mound. Later references suggest that it lay near the confluence of the Rivers Tigris and Diyala.

 

Sargon and his dynastic successors conquered much of Mesopotamia, and their capital city probably reflected their wealth and power. Royal inscriptions talk of the quays where boats from as far afield as Magan and Meluhha (possibly Oman and the Indus Valley) docked and unloaded their exotic goods. Agade's patron deity was Ishtar; ancient poems describe how the goddess abandoned her temple, causing the city to be destroyed by invaders. Agade certainly continued to exist as a town even after the collapse of the Akkadian empire around 2100 BC, and was inhabited into the early Hellenistic period (third century BC), though it never again played a prominent political role. However, from the twenty-first to the seventh century BC Sumerian and Babylonian kings continued to use the title 'King of Sumer and Akkad'.

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/agade.aspx

 

 

Chaldea, like the rest of Mesopotamia and much of the ancient Near East and Asia Minor, from the 10th to late 7th centuries BC, came to be dominated by the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.

 

assyrianempire.jpg

 

Greenstone seal of Hashhamer

 

AN00417161_001_l.jpg

 

This seal is typical of the last century of the third and of the early second millennium BC. The scene depicts Hashhamer being led by a lamma, before the seated king, and another lamma follows. The king is probably bestowing the governorship on Hashhamer. The accompanying inscription translates: 'Ur-Nammu, the mighty hero, king of Ur; Hashhamer the governor of Ishkun-Sin, his servant.'

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/g/greenstone_seal_of_hashhamer.aspx

 

Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. His main achievement was state-building, and Ur-Nammu is chiefly remembered today for his legal code, the Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest known surviving example in the world.

 

The Akkadian Empire was an ancient Semitic empire centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region in ancient Mesopotamia which united all the indigenous Akkadian speaking Semites and the Sumerian speakers under one rule within a multilingual empire. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia, the Levant, and parts of Iran.

 

Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great "the Great King" (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning "the true king" or "the king is legitimate"), was a Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC. The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned during the last quarter of the third millennium BC. Cuneiform sources agree that he was cup-bearer (official in charge of wine) of king Ur-Zababa of Kish, and some later historians have speculated that he killed the king and usurped his throne before embarking on the quest to conquer Mesopotamia.

 

 

2akkadian-20empire-20map-jpg.jpg

 

Sargon, throughout his long life, showed special deference to the Sumerian deities, particularly Inanna (Ishtar), his patroness, and Zababa, the warrior god of Kish. He called himself "The anointed priest of Anu" and "the great ensi of Enlil" and his daughter, Enheduanna, was installed as priestess to Nanna at the temple in Ur.

 

In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven and Ea) was the oldest god and father of the pantheon, he the a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara (crown). Anu was part of a triad including Enlil (god of the air) and Enki (god of water).

 

Anu is so prominently associated with the E-anna temple in the city of Uruk (biblical Erech) in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing this place to be the original seat of the Anu cult. If this is correct, then the goddess Inanna (or Ishtar) of Uruk may at one time have been his consort.

 

The god Ilabrat (Ilabrat, Ili-Abrat, Ili-Abrat, Habrat, Sumerian Ninshubur or Sumerian Ninshubur, Papsukkal)) was Anu's attendant, minister of state was the god, and messenger of the gods.

 

As Inanna was associated with the planet Venus, Ninshubur was said to be associated with Mercury, as Venus and Mercury appear together in the sky. Ninshubur accompanied Inanna as a vassal and friend throughout Inanna's many exploits. She helped Inanna fight Enki's demons after Inanna's theft of the sacred me. Later, when Inanna became trapped in the Underworld, it was Ninshubur who pleaded with Enki for her mistress's release. Though described as an unmarried virgin, in a few accounts Ninshubur is said to be one of Inanna's lovers. In later Akkadian mythology, Ninshubur was male. In "A hymn to Nergal" Ninshubur appeared as the minister of the underworld.

 

BC2500SumerEn.gif

 

Sumer (from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian "land of the civilized kings" or "native land") was an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who may or may not have spoken the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc. as evidence). These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.

 

It is known that Sumer, Accad, Ur, al'Ubaid used copper between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago. Even at such an early date, these people adopted the practice of burying under the foundations of buildings a record concerning the builder.

 

Lugal-Zage-Si was the last Sumerian King before the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad and the rise of the Akkadian Empire. After coming to power in Umma he had conquered or otherwise come into possession of Ur, Uruk, Nippur, and Lagash. Lugal-Zage-Si claimed in his inscription that the god Enlil gave to him rulership of "all the lands between the upper and the lower seas", that is, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. There are no actual evidence that his territory actually extended that far.

 

Enlil (nlin), (EN = Lord + LÍL = Wind, "Lord (of the) Storm") is the God of breath, wind, loft and breadth (height and distance). It was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion, and later in Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian), Hittite, Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as "Ellil" in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature. In later Akkadian, Enlil is the son of Anshar and Kishar.

 

As Enlil was the only god who could reach the heaven god An, he held sway over the other gods who were assigned tasks by his agent and would travel to Nippur to draw in his power. He is thus seen as the model for kingship.

 

Enlil was also known as the god of weather. According to the Sumerians, Enlil helped create the humans, but then got tired of their noise and tried to kill them by sending a flood. A mortal known as Utnapishtim survived the flood through the help of another god, Ea, and he was made immortal by Enlil after Enlil's initial fury had subsided.

 

Anu had several consorts, the foremost being Ki (earth), Nammu, and Uras. By Ki he was the father of, among others, the Anunnaki gods. By Uras he was the father of Nin'insinna. According to legends, heaven and earth were once inseparable until An and Ki bore Enlil, god of the air, who cleaved heaven and earth in two. An and Ki were, in some texts, identified as brother and sister being the children of Anshar and Kishar. Ki later developed into the Akkadian goddess Antu (also known as "Keffen Anu", "Kef", and "Keffenk Anum").

 

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Ninsun is depicted as a human queen who lives in Uruk with her son as king. Since the father of Gilgamesh was former king Lugalbanda, it stands to reason that Ninsun procreated with Lugalbanda to give birth.

 

According to the ancient Babylonian text, Nininsina wedded Pabilsag near a riverbank. Pabilsag warrior son of Enlil in Mesopotamian tradition he was the guardian god of the city of Isin and Larak. Pabilsag and Ninsun she bore Damu.

 

Pabilsag is also called Ninurta and revered as a god of war.

 

Pabilsag was considered both highly intelligent and tremendously strong. He resembled a cross between a man and a scorpion in appearance, and is said to have guarded the gate between the human world and the demon world. Pabilsag was also known later as Sagittarius, the Archer.

 

When the hero Gilgamesh descended into the demon world in search of immortality, he came to this gate guarded by Pabilsag. When Pa Bil Sag aimed his bow at Gilgamesh, he was such a terrible sight to behold that even Gilgamesh, slayer of countless monsters, recoiled in fear.

 

Damu is a god of vegetation and rebirth in Sumerian mythology

 

Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the subterranean Abzu).

 

In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted. The Akkadians inherited An as the god of heavens from the Sumerian as Anu-, and in Akkadian cuneiform, the DINGIR character may refer either to Anum or to the Akkadian word for god, ilu-, and consequently had two phonetic values an and il. Hittite cuneiform as adapted from the Old Assyrian kept the an value but abandoned it.

 

Sin (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;



EriduUrMapSatelliteDrawing.jpg

The above image comes from Forbidden Knowledge: the Bible's Origins. He makes a point on asking How could King David be a prophet if Ruth was a Moabite? For the gift of insight from his picture, I will do my best to make him understand through her selfless actions, Hashem made Ruth worthy to accepted into the House of Israel and have her descendant David king of His people.

Deuteronomy 7

7:1 When the Lord your God brings you to the land that you are going to occupy and forces out many nations before you – Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and powerful than you –

7:2 and He delivers them over to you and you attack them, you must utterly annihilate them. Make no treaty with them and show them no mercy!

7:3 You must not intermarry with them. Do not give your daughters to their sons or take their daughters for your sons,

7:4 for they will turn your sons away from me to worship other gods. Then the anger of the Lord will erupt against you and he will quickly destroy you.

7:5 Instead, this is what you must do to them: You must tear down their altars, shatter their sacred pillars, cut down their sacred Asherah poles, and burn up their idols.

7:6 For you are a people holy to the Lord your God. He has chosen you to be his people, prized above all others on the face of the earth.


Moab (/ˈmoʊæb/; Moabite: Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Modern Mo'av Tiberian Môʼāḇ ; "seed of father"; Greek Μωάβ Mōav; Assyrian Mu'aba, Ma'ba, Ma'ab ; Egyptian Mu'ab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan. The land lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. The existence of the Kingdom of Moab is attested to by numerous archeological findings, most notably the Mesha Stele, which describes the Moabite victory over an unnamed son of King Omri of Israel. The existence of Moab prior to the rise of the Israelite state has been deduced from a colossal statue erected at Luxor by Pharaoh Ramesses II, in the 13th century BCE, which lists Mu'ab among a series of nations conquered during a campaign.

Genesis tells that Abraham and Lot travelled together in the Land of Canaan, but that after awhile they decided to part ways. Lot decided to move to the east of the Jordan, while Abraham stayed in Canaan. The paths of the two branches would diverge further, with Abraham's descendants moving to Egypt, while Lot's branch apparently staying on the land east of the Jordan. When the two branches met again, it was after the Israelites left Egypt on the way back to Canaan.

The Moabite Stone



The principal shrine in Moab was Beyt-baal-me'on, which means "house/shrine of the baal/master/god of On". The principal shrine of On was in the sacred city of Heliopolis in Egypt and Joseph married one of the daughters of the high priest of On. Mesha, the King of Moab, built a reservoir at Beth-baal-me’On (II Kings 3). On the Moabite or Mesha Stone (discovered in 1868 at Dibon) it is recorded that King Mesha "reigned in peace over the hundred towns which he had added to the land. And he built Medeba and Beth-diblathen and Beth-baal-me'On, and he set there the … of the land." The stone is defaced at this point so we do not know what the King set up, but it was likely an image of his god, Ashtar-Chemosh.

Deuteronomy 23

23:3 An Ammonite or Moabite may not enter the assembly of the Lord; to the tenth generation none of their descendants shall ever do so,

23:4 for they did not meet you with food and water on the way as you came from Egypt, and furthermore, they hired Balaam son of Beor of Pethor in Aram Naharaim to curse you.

23:5 But the Lord your God refused to listen to Balaam and changed the curse to a blessing, for the Lord your God loves you.

23:6 You must not seek peace and prosperity for them through all the ages to come.

23:7 You must not hate an Edomite, for he is your relative; you must not hate an Egyptian, for you lived as a foreigner in his land.

23:8 Children of the third generation born to them may enter the assembly of the Lord.


Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin

Sanhedrin 103b

R. Johanan said on the authority of R. Jose b. Kisma:

Of great [importance] is the mouthful [of food given to wayfarers], since it alienated two families from Israel, as it is written, [An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord] Because they met you not with bread and water in the way, when ye come forth out of Egypt.

R. Johanan, stating his own views, said:

It alienates those who are near, and draws near those who are distant; it causes [God's] eyes to be averted from the wicked, and made the Shechinah to rest even on the prophets of Baal; and an unwitting offense in connection therewith is accounted as deliberate. 'It alienates those who are near,

Folio 104a

— [this is deduced] from Ammon and Moab. 'And brings near those who are distant,' from Jethro. For R. Johanan said:

As a reward for [Jethro's saying] Call him, that he may eat bread, his descendants were privileged to sit in the Hall of Hewn Stones [as scribes], as it is written, And the family of the scribes which dwell at Jabez; the Tirahites, the Shimeathites, and Suchathites. These are the Kenites that came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab; whilst elsewhere it is written, And the children of the Kenite, Moses' father-in-law, went up out of the city of palm trees with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which lies in the south of Arad; and they went and dwelt among the people. 'It causes [God's] eyes to be averted from the wicked' — [this is learnt] from Micah. 'And made the Shechinah to rest upon the prophets of Baal', — from the companion of Iddo the prophet. For it is written, And it came to pass, as they sat at the table, that the word of the Lord came unto the prophet that brought him back. 'And an unwitting offense in connection therewith is accounted as deliberate' — for Rab Judah said in Rab's name:

Had but Jonathan given David two loaves of bread for his travels, Nob, the city of priests would not have been massacred, Doeg the Edomite would not have been destroyed, and Saul and his three sons would not have been slain


Ruth 1

1:1 During the time of the judges there was a famine in the land of Judah. So a man from Bethlehem in Judah went to live as a resident foreigner in the region of Moab, along with his wife and two sons.

1:2 (Now the man’s name was Elimelech, his wife was Naomi, and his two sons were Mahlon and Kilion. They were of the clan of Ephrath from Bethlehem in Judah.) They entered the region of Moab and settled there.

1:3 Sometime later Naomi’s husband Elimelech died, so she and her two sons were left alone.

1:4 So her sons married Moabite women. (One was named Orpah and the other Ruth.) And they continued to live there about ten years.

1:5 Then Naomi’s two sons, Mahlon and Kilion, also died. So the woman was left all alone – bereaved of her two children as well as her husband!

1:6 So she decided to return home from the region of Moab, accompanied by her daughters-in-law, because while she was living in Moab she had heard that the Lord had shown concern for his people, reversing the famine by providing abundant crops.


Ruth 2

2:10 Ruth knelt before him with her forehead to the ground and said to him, “Why are you so kind and so attentive to me, even though I am a foreigner?”

2:11 Boaz replied to her, “I have been given a full report of all that you have done for your mother-in-law following the death of your husband – how you left your father and your mother, as well as your homeland, and came to live among people you did not know previously.

2:12 May the Lord reward your efforts! May your acts of kindness be repaid fully by the Lord God of Israel, from whom you have sought protection!”

2:13 She said, “You really are being kind to me, sir, for you have reassured and encouraged me, your servant, even though I am not one of your servants!”


Ruth 4

4:1 Now Boaz went up to the village gate and sat there. Then along came the guardian whom Boaz had mentioned to Ruth! Boaz said,

“Come here and sit down, ‘John Doe’!” So he came and sat down.

4:2 Boaz chose ten of the village leaders and said, “Sit down here!” So they sat down.

4:3 Then Boaz said to the guardian, “Naomi, who has returned from the region of Moab, is selling the portion of land that belongs to our relative Elimelech.

4:4 So I am legally informing you:

Acquire it before those sitting here and before the leaders of my people! If you want to exercise your right to redeem it, then do so. But if not, then tell me so I will know. For you possess the first option to redeem it; I am next in line after you.”

He replied, “I will redeem it.”

4:5 Then Boaz said, “When you acquire the field from Naomi, you must also acquire Ruth the Moabite, the wife of our deceased relative, in order to preserve his family name by raising up a descendant who will inherit his property.

4:6 The guardian said, “Then I am unable to redeem it, for I would ruin my own inheritance in that case. You may exercise my redemption option, for I am unable to redeem it.”

4:7 (Now this used to be the customary way to finalize a transaction involving redemption in Israel:

A man would remove his sandal and give it to the other party. This was a legally binding act in Israel.)

4:8 So the guardian said to Boaz, “You may acquire it,” and he removed his sandal.

4:9 Then Boaz said to the leaders and all the people, “You are witnesses today that I have acquired from Naomi all that belonged to Elimelech, Kilion, and Mahlon.

4:10 I have also acquired Ruth the Moabite, the wife of Mahlon, as my wife to raise up a descendant who will inherit his property so the name of the deceased might not disappear from among his relatives and from his village. You are witnesses today.”

4:11 All the people who were at the gate and the elders replied, “We are witnesses. May the Lord make the woman who is entering your home like Rachel and Leah, both of whom built up the house of Israel! May you prosper in Ephrathah and become famous in Bethlehem.

4:12 May your family become like the family of Perez – whom Tamar bore to Judah – through the descendants the Lord gives you by this young woman.”

4:13 So Boaz married Ruth and had sexual relations with her. The Lord enabled her to conceive and she gave birth to a son.

4:14 The village women said to Naomi, “May the Lord be praised because he has not left you without a guardian today! May he become famous in Israel!

4:15 He will encourage you and provide for you when you are old, for your daughter-in-law, who loves you, has given him birth. She is better to you than seven sons!”

4:16 Naomi took the child and placed him on her lap; she became his caregiver.

4:17 The neighbor women named him, saying, “A son has been born to Naomi.” They named him Obed. Now he became the father of Jesse – David’s father!

4:18 These are the descendants of Perez: Perez was the father of Hezron,

4:19 Hezron was the father of Ram, Ram was the father of Amminadab,

4:20 Amminadab was the father of Nachshon, Nachshon was the father of Salmah,

4:21 Salmon was the father of Boaz, Boaz was the father of Obed,

4:22 Obed was the father of Jesse, and Jesse was the father of David.

 


Mishnah Yevamot 4

4:10 Women who have become subject to Yeboom, may not proceed to it or to the ceremony of Chalitzah until after three months have elapsed [since the death of their husbands], other women also shall not be betrothed nor married [again] till after three months, whether they were virgins or not, whether divorced or widowed, married or only betrothed. R. Jehudah says, "Women who had already been married may be betrothed immediately, and the betrothed ones married, except the betrothed in Judah, for there the intercourse of the bridegroom with his betrothed is less restrained." R. José says, "All women may be immediately betrothed, except a widow, on account of the mourning [she is bound to observe for her deceased husband]."

 

4:13 What's the definition of a mamzer? [The offspring of a union with] someone who shares the same flesh who the Torah forbids to you, according to Rabbi Akiva. Shimon the Yemenite says, a mamzer is [the offspring resulting from] any [sexual] prohibition that carries the penalty of excision by the Hand of Heaven ["kareit"]. The halacha is according to Shimon the Yemenite. Rabbi Joshua says, any [offspring resulting from a union] where there is a penalty of death by the court. Rabbi Simon the son of Azai said, "I found that it was written in the scroll where the courts would record the lineages of the families of Jerusalem that someone is a mamzer if he is the offspring of a married woman [and a man other than her husband], supporting the words of Rabbi Joshua. If a man's wife died, he is permitted to marry her sister. If they divorced, and then the wife died, he is permitted to marry her sister. If [they divorced and] the wife married another, and then the former wife died, he is permitted to marry his former wife's sister. If he performed the ritual of yevamot with a woman, and that woman died, he is permitted to marry that woman's sister. If he performed the ritual of chalitza with a woman and then she died, he is permitted to marry that woman's sister.


Our Blessed Virgin Mother's story very much reminds me of Ruth. Like Boaz, Saint Joseph married Mary to keep her in good standing with the Jewish congregation.

Luke 1

1:46 And Mary said,

My soul exalts the Lord,

1:47 and my spirit has begun to rejoice in God my Savior,

1:48 because he has looked upon the humble state of his servant.

For from now on all generations will call me blessed,

1:49 because he who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is his name;

1:50 from generation to generation He is merciful to those who fear Him.

1:51 He has demonstrated power with his arm; he has scattered those whose pride wells up from the sheer arrogance of their hearts.

1:52 He has brought down the mighty from their thrones, and has lifted up those of lowly position;

1:53 He has filled the hungry with good things, and has sent the rich away empty.

1:54 He has helped his servant Israel, remembering His mercy,

1:55 as he promised to our ancestors, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.”


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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;




Numbers 22

22:1 The Israelites traveled on 2 and camped in the plains of Moab on the side of the Jordan River 3 across from Jericho.

22:2 Balak son of Zippor saw all that the Israelites had done to the Amorites.

22:3 And the Moabites were greatly afraid of the people, because they were so numerous. The Moabites were sick with fear because of the Israelites.

22:4 So the Moabites said to the elders of Midian, “Now this mass of people will lick up everything around us, as the bull devours the grass of the field. Now Balak son of Zippor was king of the Moabites at this time.

22:5 And he sent messengers to Balaam son of Beor at Pethor, which is by the Euphrates River in the land of Amaw, to summon him, saying, “Look, a nation has come out of Egypt. They cover the face of the earth, and they are settling next to me.

22:6 So now, please come and curse this nation for me, for they are too powerful for me. Perhaps I will prevail so that we may conquer them and drive them out of the land. For I know that whoever you bless is blessed, and whoever you curse is cursed.”

22:7 So the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian departed with the fee for divination in their hand. They came to Balaam and reported to him the words of Balak.

22:8 He replied to them, “Stay here tonight, and I will bring back to you whatever word the Lord may speak to me.” So the princes of Moab stayed with Balaam.

22:9 And God came to Balaam and said, “Who are these men with you?”

22:10 Balaam said to God, “Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab, has sent a message to me, saying,

22:11 “Look, a nation has come out of Egypt, and it covers the face of the earth. Come now and put a curse on them for me; perhaps I will be able to defeat them and drive them out.”

22:12 But God said to Balaam, “You must not go with them; you must not curse the people, for they are blessed.”

22:13 So Balaam got up in the morning, and said to the princes of Balak, “Go to your land, for the Lord has refused to permit me to go with you.”

22:14 So the princes of Moab departed and went back to Balak and said, “Balaam refused to come with us.”


Jeremiah 48

48:1 The Lord God of Israel who rules over all spoke about Moab.

Sure to be judged is Nebo! Indeed, it will be destroyed!

Kiriathaim will suffer disgrace. It will be captured!

Its fortress will suffer disgrace. It will be torn down!

48:2 People will not praise Moab any more.

The enemy will capture Heshbon and plot how to destroy Moab,

saying, ‘Come, let’s put an end to that nation!’

City of Madmen, you will also be destroyed.

A destructive army will march against you.

48:3 Cries of anguish will arise in Horonaim,

‘Oh, the ruin and great destruction!’

48:4 “Moab will be crushed.

Her children will cry out in distress.

48:5 Indeed they will climb the slopes of Luhith,

weeping continually as they go.

For on the road down to Horonaim

they will hear the cries of distress over the destruction.

48:6 They will hear, ‘Run! Save yourselves!

Even if you must be like a lonely shrub in the desert!’

48:7 “Moab, you trust in the things you do and in your riches.

So you too will be conquered.

Your god Chemosh will go into exile

along with his priests and his officials.

48:8 The destroyer will come against every town.

Not one town will escape.

The towns in the valley will be destroyed.

The cities on the high plain will be laid waste.

I, the Lord, have spoken!

48:9 Set up a gravestone for Moab,

for it will certainly be laid in ruins!

Its cities will be laid waste

and become uninhabited.”

48:10 A curse on anyone who is lax in doing the Lord’s work!

A curse on anyone who keeps from carrying out his destruction!

48:11 “From its earliest days Moab has lived undisturbed.

It has never been taken into exile.

Its people are like wine allowed to settle undisturbed on its dregs,

never poured out from one jar to another.

They are like wine which tastes like it always did,

whose aroma has remained unchanged.

48:12 But the time is coming when I will send

men against Moab who will empty it out.

They will empty the towns of their people,

then will lay those towns in ruins. 23

I, the Lord, affirm it!

48:13 The people of Moab will be disappointed by their god Chemosh.

They will be as disappointed as the people of Israel were

when they put their trust in the calf god at Bethel.

48:14 How can you men of Moab say, ‘We are heroes,

men who are mighty in battle?’

48:15 Moab will be destroyed. Its towns will be invaded.

Its finest young men will be slaughtered.

I, the King, the Lord who rules over all, affirm it!

48:16 Moab’s destruction is at hand.

Disaster will come on it quickly.

48:17 Mourn for that nation, all you nations living around it,

all of you nations that know of its fame.

Mourn and say, ‘Alas, its powerful influence has been broken!

Its glory and power have been done away!’

48:18 Come down from your place of honor;

sit on the dry ground, you who live in Dibon.

For the one who will destroy Moab will attack you;

he will destroy your fortifications.

48:19 You who live in Aroer,

stand by the road and watch.

Question the man who is fleeing and the woman who is escaping.

Ask them, ‘What has happened?’

48:20 They will answer, ‘Moab is disgraced, for it has fallen!

Wail and cry out in mourning!

Announce along the Arnon River

that Moab has been destroyed.’

48:21 “Judgment will come on the cities on the high plain: on Holon, Jahzah, and Mephaath,

48:22 on Dibon, Nebo, and Beth Diblathaim,

48:23 on Kiriathaim, Beth Gamul, and Beth Meon,

48:24 on Kerioth and Bozrah. It will come on all the towns of Moab, both far and near.

48:25 Moab’s might will be crushed. Its power will be broken. I, the Lord, affirm it!

48:26 “Moab has vaunted itself against me.

So make him drunk with the wine of my wrath 37

until he splashes around in his own vomit,

until others treat him as a laughingstock.

48:27 For did not you people of Moab laugh at the people of Israel?

Did you think that they were nothing but thieves,

that you shook your head in contempt

every time you talked about them?

48:28 Leave your towns, you inhabitants of Moab.

Go and live in the cliffs.

Be like a dove that makes its nest

high on the sides of a ravine.

48:29 I have heard how proud the people of Moab are,

I know how haughty they are.

I have heard how arrogant, proud, and haughty they are,

what a high opinion they have of themselves.

48:30 I, the Lord, affirm thatI know how arrogant they are.

But their pride is ill-founded.

Their boasting will prove to be false.

48:31 So I will weep with sorrow for Moab.

I will cry out in sadness for all of Moab.

I will moan for the people of Kir Heres.

48:32 I will weep for the grapevines of Sibmah

just like the town of Jazer weeps over them.

Their branches once spread as far as the Dead Sea.

They reached as far as the town of Jazer.

The destroyer will ravage

her fig, date, and grape crops.

48:33 Joy and gladness will disappear

from the fruitful land of Moab.

I will stop the flow of wine from the wine presses.

No one will stomp on the grapes there and shout for joy.

The shouts there will be shouts of soldiers,

not the shouts of those making wine.

48:34 Cries of anguish raised from Heshbon and Elealeh

will be sounded as far as Jahaz.

They will be sounded from Zoar as far as Horonaim and Eglath Shelishiyah.

For even the waters of Nimrim will be dried up.

48:35 I will put an end in Moab

to those who make offerings at her places of worship.


I will put an end to those who sacrifice to other gods.

I, the Lord, affirm it! 56

48:36 So my heart moans for Moab

like a flute playing a funeral song.

Yes, like a flute playing a funeral song,

my heart moans for the people of Kir Heres.

For the wealth they have gained will perish.

48:37 For all of them will shave their heads in mourning.

They will all cut off their beards to show their sorrow.

They will all make gashes in their hands.

They will all put on sackcloth.

48:38 On all the housetops in Moab

and in all its public squares

there will be nothing but mourning.

For I will break Moab like an unwanted jar.

I, the Lord, affirm it! 58

48:39 Oh, how shattered Moab will be!

Oh, how her people will wail!

Oh, how she will turn away in shame!

Moab will become an object of ridicule,

a terrifying sight to all the nations that surround her.”

48:40 For the Lord says,

“Look! Like an eagle with outspread wings

a nation will swoop down on Moab.

48:41 Her towns will be captured.

Her fortresses will be taken.

At that time the soldiers of Moab will be frightened

like a woman in labor.

48:42 Moab will be destroyed and no longer be a nation,

because she has vaunted herself against the Lord.

48:43 Terror, pits, and traps are in store

for the people who live in Moab.

I, the Lord, affirm it!

48:44 Anyone who flees at the sound of terror

will fall into a pit.

Anyone who climbs out of the pit

will be caught in a trap.

For the time is coming

when I will punish the people of Moab.

I, the Lord, affirm it!

48:45 In the shadows of the walls of Heshbon

those trying to escape will stand helpless.

For a fire will burst forth from Heshbon.

Flames will shoot out from the former territory of Sihon.

They will burn the foreheads of the people of Moab,

the skulls of those war-loving people.

48:46 Moab, you are doomed!

You people who worship Chemosh will be destroyed.

Your sons will be taken away captive.

Your daughters will be carried away into exile.

48:47 Yet in days to come

I will reverse Moab’s ill fortune.”

says the Lord.

The judgment against Moab ends here.


1906 Jewish Encyclopedia

The national god of the Moabites. He became angry with his people and permitted them to become the vassals of Israel; his anger passed, he commanded Mesha to fight against Israel, and Moabitish independence was reestablished (Moabite Stone, lines 5, 9, 14 et seq.). A king in the days of Sennacherib was called "Chemoshnadab" ("K. B." ii. 90 et seq. ; see Jehonadab). Chemosh was a god developed out of the primitive Semitic mother-goddess Athtar, whose name he bears (Moabite Stone, line 17; compare Barton, "Semitic Origins," iv.). Peake wrongly holds that Ashtar-Chemosh was a deity distinct from Chemosh, while Moore and Bäthgen ("Beiträge zur Semitischen Religionsge. schichte," p. 14) regard "Ashtar" in this name as equivalent to "Astarte," who they believe was worshiped in the temple of Chemosh. "Ashtar" is more probably masculine here, as in South Arabia, and another name for Chemosh, the compound "Ashtar-Chemosh" being formed like "Yhwh-Elohim" or "Yhwh-Sebaoth." There seems to be no good reason for denying that Chemosh was a "baal," and that the names "Baal-maon" (Moabite Stone, line 30) and "Baal-peor" (Num. xxv. 3; Hosea ix. 10) apply to what was practically the same god as Chemosh. The way Mesha brings Baal-maon into his inscription identifies the latter with Chemosh; for when Baal-maon is pleased Chemosh speaks to Mesha (Moabite Stone, lines 30, 31). Whatever differences of conception may have attached to the god at different shrines, there is no adequate reason for doubting the substantial identity of the gods to whom these various names were applied. Hosea ix. 10 is proof that at some period (according to Wellhausen, at the time of the prophet himself) the impure cult of the Semitic goddess was practised at Baal-peor (compare Wellhausen, "Kleine Prophetell"; Nowack's Commentary; and G. A. Smith, "Twelve Prophets," ad loc.). Chemosh, therefore,was in general a deity of the same nature as Baal. On critical occasions a human sacrifice was considered necessary to secure his favor (compare II Kings iii. 27), and when deliverance came, a sanctuary might be built to him (Moabite Stone, line 3). An ancient poem, twice quoted in the Old Testament (Num. xxi. 27-30; Jer. xlviii. 45, 46), regards the Moabites as the children of Chemosh, and also calls them "the people of Chemosh."

The etymology of "Chemosh" is unknown. The name of the father of Mesba, Chemosh-melek ("Chemosh is Malik," or "Chemosh is king"; compare Moabite Stone, line 1), indicates the possibility that Chemosh and Malik (or Moloch) were one and the same deity. Judges xi. 24 has been thought by some to be a proof of this, since it speaks of Chemosh as the god of the Ammonites, while Moloch is elsewhere their god (compare I Kings xi. 7, 33). Several critics rightly regard the statement in Judges as a mistake; but such an error was not unnatural. since both Chemosh and Moloch were developed, in different environments, from the same primitive divinity, and possessed many of the same epithets.

Solomon is said to have built a sanctuary to Chemosh on the Mount of Olives (I Kings xi. 7, 33), which was maintained till the reform of Josiah (II Kings xxiii. 13). This movement by Solomon was no doubt to some extent a political one, but it made the worship of Chemosh a part of the religious life of Israel for nearly 400 years.


The Mesha Stele inscription translation published by James King (1878), based on translations by M. Ganneau and Dr. Ginsberg.

I am Mesha, son of Chemosh-gad, king of Moab, the Dibonite. My father reigned over Moab thirty years, and I have reigned after my father. And I have built this sanctuary for Chemosh in Karchah, a sanctuary of salvation, for he saved me from all aggressors, and made me look upon all mine enemies with contempt. Omri was king of Israel, and oppressed Moab during many days, and Chemosh was angry with his aggressions. His son succeeded him, and he also said, I will oppress Moab. In my days he said, Let us go, and I will see my desire upon him and his house, and Israel said, I shall destroy it for ever. Now Omri took the land of Madeba, and occupied it in his day, and in the days of his son, forty years. And Chemosh had mercy on it in my time. And I built Baal-meon and made therein the ditch, and I built Kiriathaim. And the men of Gad dwelled in the country of Ataroth from ancient times, and the king of Israel fortified Ataroth. I assaulted the wall and captured it, and killed all the warriors of the city for the well-pleasing of Chemosh and Moab, and I removed from it all the spoil, and offered it before Chemosh in Kirjath; and I placed therein the men of Siran, and the men of Mochrath. And Chemosh said to me, Go take Nebo against Israel, and I went in the night and I fought against it from the break of day till noon, and I took it: and I killed in all seven thousand men, but I did not kill the women and maidens, for I devoted them to Ashtar-Chemosh; and I took from it the vessels of Jehovah, and offered them before Chemosh. And the king of Israel fortified Jahaz, and occupied it, when he made war against me, and Chemosh drove him out before me, and I took from Moab two hundred men in all, and placed them in Jahaz, and took it to annex it to Dibon. I built Karchah the wall of the forest, and the wall of the Hill. I have built its gates and I have built its towers. I have built the palace of the king, and I made the prisons for the criminals within the wall. And there were no wells in the interior of the wall in Karchah. And I said to all the people, ‘Make you every man a well in his house.’ And I dug the ditch for Karchah with the chosen men of Israel. I built Aroer, and I made the road across the Arnon. I took Beth-Bamoth for it was destroyed. I built Bezer for it was cut down by the armed men of Daybon, for all Daybon was now loyal; and I reigned from Bikran, which I added to my land. And I built Beth-Gamul, and Beth-Diblathaim, and Beth Baal-Meon, and I placed there the poor people of the land. And as to Horonaim, the men of Edom dwelt therein, on the descent from old. And Chemosh said to me, Go down, make war against Horonaim, and take it. And I assaulted it, And I took it, for Chemosh restored it in my days. Wherefore I made.... ...year...and




Omri was the sixth king of Israel after Jeroboam. God was angered by Omri's sinful actions and allowed King Mesha of Moab to defeat him in battle.

1 Kings 16

16:21 At that time the people of Israel were divided in their loyalties. Half the people supported Tibni son of Ginath and wanted to make him king; the other half supported Omri.

16:22 Omri’s supporters were stronger than those who supported Tibni son of Ginath. Tibni died; Omri became king.

16:23 In the thirty-first year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Omri became king over Israel. He ruled for twelve years, six of them in Tirzah.

16:24 He purchased the hill of Samaria from Shemer for two talents of silver. He launched a construction project there and named the city he built after Shemer, the former owner of the hill of Samaria.

16:25 Omri did more evil in the sight of the Lord than all who were before him.

16:26 He followed in the footsteps of Jeroboam son of Nebat and encouraged Israel to sin; they angered the Lord God of Israel with their worthless idols.

16:27 The rest of the events of Omri’s reign, including his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.

16:28 Omri passed away and was buried in Samaria. His son Ahab replaced him as king.


King Mesha of Moab was a king of Moabites around the 9th century BC. Mesha was a descendant of King Saul.

1 Chronicles 8

8:8 Shaharaim fathered sons in Moab after he divorced his wives Hushim and Baara.

8:9 By his wife Hodesh he fathered Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malkam, 8:10 Jeuz, Sakia, and Mirmah. These were his sons; they were family leaders. 8:11 By Hushim he fathered Abitub and Elpaal.


The Kingdom of Moab at the time of Mesha was subject to Israel. Mesha rebelled against three generations Israel. It took the alliance of three kingdoms (Israel, Judah, and Edom) to finally defeat Mesha and his kingdom of Moab.

Jehoram (or Joram) was a king of the northern Kingdom of Israel. He was the son of Ahab and Jezebel.

Jehoshaphat (Jehosaphat, Josaphat, or Yehoshafat) was the fourth king of the Kingdom of Judah, and successor of his father Asa. His mother was Azubah. Historically, his name has sometimes been connected with the Valley of Jehosaphat where, according to Joel 3:2, the God of Israel will gather all nations for judgment.

697px-Genealogy_of_the_kings_of_Israel_a

2 Kings 3

3:4 Now King Mesha of Moab was a sheep breeder. He would send as tribute to the king of Israel 100,000 male lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams.

3:5 When Ahab died, the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel.

3:6 At that time King Jehoram left Samaria and assembled all Israel for war.

3:7 He sent this message to King Jehoshaphat of Judah: “The king of Moab has rebelled against me. Will you fight with me against Moab?” Jehoshaphat replied, “I will join you in the campaign; my army and horses are at your disposal.”

3:8 He then asked, “Which invasion route are we going to take?” Jehoram answered, “By the road through the Desert of Edom.”

3:9 So the kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom set out together. They wandered around on the road for seven days and finally ran out of water for the men and animals they had with them.

3:10 The king of Israel said, “Oh no! Certainly the Lord has summoned these three kings so that he can hand them over to the king of Moab!”

3:11 Jehoshaphat asked, “Is there no prophet of the Lord here that we might seek the Lord’s direction?” One of the servants of the king of Israel answered, “Elisha son of Shapat is here; he used to be Elijah’s servant.”

3:12 Jehoshaphat said, “The Lord speaks through him.” So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to visit him.

3:13 Elisha said to the king of Israel, “Why are you here? Go to your father’s prophets or your mother’s prophets!” The king of Israel replied to him, “No, for the Lord is the one who summoned these three kings so that he can hand them over to Moab.”

3:14 Elisha said, “As certainly as the Lord who rules over all lives (whom I serve), if I did not respect King Jehoshaphat of Judah, I would not pay attention to you or acknowledge you.

3:15 But now, get me a musician.” When the musician played, the Lord energized him,

3:16 and he said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘Make many cisterns in this valley,’

3:17 for this is what the Lord says, ‘You will not feel any wind or see any rain, but this valley will be full of water and you and your cattle and animals will drink.’

3:18 This is an easy task for the Lord; he will also hand Moab over to you.

3:19 You will defeat every fortified city and every important city. You must chop down every productive tree, stop up all the springs, and cover all the cultivated land with stones.”

3:20 Sure enough, the next morning, at the time of the morning sacrifice, water came flowing down from Edom and filled the land.

3:21 Now all Moab had heard that the kings were attacking, so everyone old enough to fight was mustered and placed at the border.

3:22 When they got up early the next morning, the sun was shining on the water. To the Moabites, who were some distance away, the water looked red like blood.

3:23 The Moabites said, “It’s blood! The kings are totally destroyed! They have struck one another down! Now, Moab, seize the plunder!”

3:24 When they approached the Israelite camp, the Israelites rose up and struck down the Moabites, who then ran from them. The Israelites thoroughly defeated Moab.

3:25 They tore down the cities and each man threw a stone into every cultivated field until they were covered. They stopped up every spring and chopped down every productive tree.

Only Kir Hareseth was left intact, but the slingers surrounded it and attacked it.

3:26 When the king of Moab realized he was losing the battle, he and 700 swordsmen tried to break through and attack the king of Edom, but they failed.

3:27 So he took his firstborn son, who was to succeed him as king, and offered him up as a burnt sacrifice on the wall. There was an outburst of divine anger against Israel, so they broke off the attack and returned to their homeland.


Edom (Ĕḏôm, Udumi, Idumea, Idoumaía; Latin: Idūmaea was a semite-inhabited historical region of the Southern Levant located south of Judea and the Dead Sea. It is mentioned in biblical records as a 1st millennium BC Iron Age kingdom of Edom,and in classical antiquity the cognate name Idumea was used to refer to a smaller area in the same region. The name Edom means "red" in Hebrew, and was given to Esau, the eldest son of the Hebrew patriarch Isaac, once he ate the "red pottage", which the Bible used in irony at the fact he was born "red all over". The Torah, Tanakh and New Testament thus describe the Edomites as descendants of Esau. The oldest biblical traditions place Yahweh as the deity of southern Edom, and may have originated in "Edom/Seir/Teman/Sinai" before being adopted in Israel and Judah. (read The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts)

1 Kings 22

22:41 In the fourth year of King Ahab’s reign over Israel, Asa’s son Jehoshaphat became king over Judah.

22:42 Jehoshaphat was thirty-five years old when he became king and he reigned for twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother was Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi.

22:43 He followed in his father Asa’s footsteps and was careful to do what the Lord approved. However, the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places.

22:44 Jehoshaphat was also at peace with the king of Israel.

22:45 The rest of the events of Jehoshaphat’s reign, including his successes and military exploits, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.

22:46 He removed from the land any male cultist prostitutes who had managed to survive the reign of his father Asa.

22:47 There was no king in Edom at this time; a governor ruled.

22:48 Jehoshaphat built a fleet of large merchant ships to travel to Ophir for gold, but they never made the voyage because they were shipwrecked in Ezion Geber.

22:49 Then Ahaziah son of Ahab said to Jehoshaphat, “Let my sailors join yours in the fleet,” but Jehoshaphat refused.

22:50 Jehoshaphat passed away and was buried with his ancestors in the city of his ancestor David. His son Jehoram replaced him as king.

 

I wonder if Iram was the governor of Edom during Jehoshaphat’s reign?

 

1 Chronicles 1

1:43 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:

Bela son of Beor; the name of his city was Dinhabah.

1:44 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah, succeeded him.

1:45 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him.

1:46 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad succeeded him. He struck down the Midianites in the plains of Moab; the name of his city was Avith.

1:47 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him.

1:48 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the river succeeded him.

1:49 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Achbor succeeded him.

1:50 When Baal-Hanan died, Hadad succeeded him; the name of his city was Pai. 26 His wife was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, daughter of Me-Zahab.

1:51 Hadad died.

The tribal chiefs of Edom were:

Timna, Alvah, Jetheth,

1:52 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon,

 

1:53 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar,

1:54 Magdiel, Iram. These were the tribal chiefs of Edom.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Moses tells Israel that Hashem is angered by idols of any type: This includes idols of stars, creatures, and people.

Deuteronomy 4

4:15 Be very careful, then, because you saw no form at the time the Lord spoke to you at Horeb from the middle of the fire.

4:16 I say this so you will not corrupt yourselves by making an image in the form of any kind of figure. This includes the likeness of a human male or female,

4:17 any kind of land animal, any bird that flies in the sky,

4:18 anything that crawls on the ground, or any fish in the deep waters of the earth.

4:19 When you look up to the sky and see the sun, moon, and stars – the whole heavenly creation – you must not be seduced to worship and serve them, for the Lord your God has assigned them to all the people of the world.

4:20 You, however, the Lord has selected and brought from Egypt, that iron-smelting furnace, to be his special people as you are today.

4:21 But the Lord became angry with me because of you and vowed that I would never cross the Jordan nor enter the good land that he is about to give you.

4:22 So I must die here in this land; I will not cross the Jordan. But you are going over and will possess that good land.

4:23 Be on guard so that you do not forget the covenant of the Lord your God that he has made with you, and that you do not make an image of any kind, just as he has forbidden you.

4:24 For the Lord your God is a consuming fire; he is a jealous God.


elijah-call-down-fire.jpeg

God goes from Mt. Seir in Edom to Mt. Sinai, where He appeared to the Israelites in great power in the form of a storm and earthquake

Judges 5

5:3 Hear, O kings!

Pay attention, O rulers!

I will sing to the Lord!

I will sing to the Lord God of Israel!

5:4 O Lord, when you departed from Seir,

when you marched from Edom’s plains,

the earth shook, the heavens poured down,

the clouds poured down rain.

5:5 The mountains trembled before the Lord, the God of Sinai;

before the Lord God of Israel.


Exodus 5

6:2 God spoke to Moses and said to him, “I am the Lord.

6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty, but by my name ‘the Lord’ was not known to them.

6:4 I also established my covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, where they were living as resident foreigners.

6:5 I 13 have also heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, and I have remembered my covenant.

6:6 Therefore, tell the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord. I will bring you out from your enslavement to the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the hard labor they impose, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.

6:7 I will take you to myself for a people, and I will be your God. Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from your enslavement to the Egyptians.

6:8 I will bring you to the land I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and I will give it to you 23 as a possession. I am the Lord!’”


1 Chronicles 18

18:1 Later David defeated the Philistines and subdued them. He took Gath and its surrounding towns away from the Philistines.

18:2 He defeated the Moabites; the Moabites became David’s subjects and brought tribute.

18:3 David defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah as far as Hamath, when he went to extend his authority to the Euphrates River.

18:4 David seized from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 charioteers, and 20,000 infantrymen. David cut the hamstrings of all but a hundred of Hadadezer’s chariot horses.

18:5 The Arameans of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, but David killed 22,000 of the Arameans.

18:6 David placed garrisons in the territory of the Arameans of Damascus; the Arameans became David’s subjects and brought tribute. The Lord protected David wherever he campaigned.

18:7 David took the golden shields which Hadadezer’s servants had carried and brought them to Jerusalem.

18:8 From Tibhath and Kun, Hadadezer’s cities, David took a great deal of bronze. (Solomon used it to make the big bronze basin called “The Sea,” the pillars, and other bronze items.

18:9 When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah,

18:10 he sent his son Hadoram to King David to extend his best wishes and to pronounce a blessing on him for his victory over Hadadezer, for Tou had been at war with Hadadezer. He also sent various items made of gold, silver, and bronze.

18:11 King David dedicated these things to the Lord, along with the silver and gold which he had carried off from all the nations, including Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

18:12 Abishai son of Zeruiah killed 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt.

18:13 He placed garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s subjects. The Lord protected David wherever he campaigned.


Moses evidently wrote this book on the plains of Moab shortly before his death, which occurred about 1406 B.C.

Deuteronomy 1

1:1 This is what Moses said to the assembly of Israel in the Transjordanian wastelands, the arid country opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Di Zahab.

1:2 Now it is ordinarily an eleven-day journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by way of Mount Seir.

1:3 However, it was not until the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year that Moses addressed the Israelites just as the Lord had instructed him to do.

1:4 This took place after the defeat of King Sihon of the Amorites, whose capital was in Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was in Ashtaroth, specifically in Edrei.

1:5 So it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that Moses began to deliver these words:

1:6 The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, “You have stayed in the area of this mountain long enough.

1:7 Get up now, resume your journey, heading for the Amorite hill country, to all its areas including the arid country, the highlands, the Shephelah, the Negev, and the coastal plain – all of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the Great River, that is, the Euphrates.

1:8 Look! I have already given the land to you. Go, occupy the territory that I, the Lord, promised to give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants.”

1:9 I also said to you at that time, “I am no longer able to sustain you by myself.

1:10 The Lord your God has increased your population to the point that you are now as numerous as the very stars of the sky.

1:11 Indeed, may the Lord, the God of your ancestors, make you a thousand times more numerous than you are now, blessing you just as he said he would!


Here we find God punishing Moses and his brother for their transgression. And the Edomites rejecting their cousin, Israel's plea for water and pass through their kingdom.

Numbers 20

20:12 Then the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, “Because you did not trust me enough to show me as holy before the Israelites, therefore you will not bring this community into the land I have given them.”

20:13 These are the waters of Meribah, because the Israelites contended with the Lord, and his holiness was maintained among them.

20:14 Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom:

“Thus says your brother Israel:

‘You know all the hardships we have experienced,

20:15 how our ancestors went down into Egypt, and we lived in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our ancestors badly.

20:16 So when we cried to the Lord, he heard our voice and sent a messenger, and has brought us up out of Egypt. Now we are here in Kadesh, a town on the edge of your country.

20:17 Please let us pass through your country. We will not pass through the fields or through the vineyards, nor will we drink water from any well. We will go by the King’s Highway; we will not turn to the right or the left until we have passed through your region.’”

20:18 But Edom said to him, “You will not pass through me, or I will come out against you with the sword.”

20:19 Then the Israelites said to him, “We will go along the highway, and if we or our cattle drink any of your water, we will pay for it. We will only pass through on our feet, without doing anything else.”

20:20 But he said, “You may not pass through.” Then Edom came out against them with a large and powerful force.

20:21 So Edom refused to give Israel passage through his border; therefore Israel turned away from him.


Moses does not follow Hashem's instructions and does not speak to the rock. Instead he hits it twice.

20:7 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:

20:8 “Take the staff and assemble the community, you and Aaron your brother, and then speak to the rock before their eyes. It will pour forth its water, and you will bring water out of the rock for them, and so you will give the community and their beasts water to drink.”

20:9 So Moses took the staff from before the Lord, just as he commanded him.

20:10 Then Moses and Aaron gathered the community together in front of the rock, and he said to them, Listen, you rebels, must we bring water out of this rock for you?”

20:11 Then Moses raised his hand, and struck the rock twice with his staff. And water came out abundantly. So the community drank, and their beasts drank too.


moses_water_rock_strike-1.jpg

Moses was aggressive to Hashem's thirsty flock for wanting water to drink and struck the rock. Hashem delivered water to Israel, but was angered at Moses and Aaron for not following instructions and hitting the rock without his permission. But, the biggest transgression was Moses and His brother disavowed Hashem's gift of bringing forth water to Israel and christened it as their own action. How many times in life do we see individuals take credit for something they did not do.

Hashem punishment is equal to all His creation. Prophets are given no special treatment and are at His Mercy.

Psalms 119

119:21 You reprimand arrogant people.

Those who stray from your commands are doomed.


Here we see again a prophet partially following Hashem's orders and paying for his disobedience.
In addition, we see King Jeroboam rebel against Hashem.

1 Kings 13

12:25 Jeroboam built up Shechem in the Ephraimite hill country and lived there. From there he went out and built up Penuel.

12:26 Jeroboam then thought to himself:

“Now the Davidic dynasty could regain the kingdom.

12:27 If these people go up to offer sacrifices in the Lord’s temple in Jerusalem, their loyalty could shift to their former master, King Rehoboam of Judah. They might kill me and return to King Rehoboam of Judah.”

12:28 After the king had consulted with his advisers, he made two golden calves. Then he said to the people, “It is too much trouble for you to go up to Jerusalem. Look, Israel, here are your gods who brought you up from the land of Egypt.”

12:29 He put one in Bethel and the other in Dan.

12:30 This caused Israel to sin; the people went to Bethel and Dan to worship the calves.

12:31 He built temples on the high places and appointed as priests people who were not Levites.

12:32 Jeroboam inaugurated a festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, like the festival celebrated in Judah. On the altar in Bethel he offered sacrifices to the calves he had made. In Bethel he also appointed priests for the high places he had made.

12:33 On the fifteenth day of the eighth month (a date he had arbitrarily chosen) Jeroboam offered sacrifices on the altar he had made in Bethel. He inaugurated a festival for the Israelites and went up to the altar to offer sacrifices.

13:1 Just then a prophet from Judah, sent by the Lord, arrived in Bethel, as Jeroboam was standing near the altar ready to offer a sacrifice.

13:2 With the authority of the Lord he cried out against the altar, “O altar, altar! This is what the Lord says, ‘Look, a son named Josiah will be born to the Davidic dynasty. He will sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who offer sacrifices on you. Human bones will be burned on you.’”

13:3 That day he also announced a sign, “This is the sign the Lord has predetermined:

The altar will be split open and the ashes on it will fall to the ground.”

13:4 When the king heard what the prophet cried out against the altar in Bethel, Jeroboam, standing at the altar, extended his hand and ordered, "Seize him!” The hand he had extended shriveled up and he could not pull it back.

13:5 The altar split open and the ashes fell from the altar to the ground, in fulfillment of the sign the prophet had announced with the Lord’s authority.

13:6 The king pled with the prophet, “Seek the favor of the Lord your God and pray for me, so that my hand may be restored. So the prophet sought the Lord’s favor and the king’s hand was restored to its former condition.

13:7 The king then said to the prophet, “Come home with me and have something to eat. I’d like to give a present.”

13:8 But the prophet said to the king, “Even if you were to give me half your possessions, I could not go with you and eat and drink in this place.

13:9 For the Lord gave me strict orders, ‘Do not eat or drink there and do not go home the way you came.’”

13:10 So he started back on another road; he did not travel back on the same road he had taken to Bethel.

13:11 Now there was an old prophet living in Bethel. When his sons came home, they told their father 27 everything the prophet had done in Bethel that day and all the words he had spoken to the king.

13:12 Their father asked them, “Which road did he take?” His sons showed him the road the prophet from Judah had taken.

13:13 He then told his sons, “Saddle the donkey for me.” When they had saddled the donkey for him, he mounted it

13:14 and took off after the prophet, whom he found sitting under an oak tree. He asked him, “Are you the prophet from Judah?” He answered, “Yes, I am.”

13:15 He then said to him, “Come home with me and eat something.”

13:16 But he replied, “I can’t go back with you or eat and drink with you in this place.

13:17 For the Lord gave me strict orders, ‘Do not eat or drink there; do not go back the way you came.’”

13:18 The old prophet then said,“I too am a prophet like you. An angel told me with the Lord’s authority, ‘Bring him back with you to your house so he can eat and drink.’” But he was lying to him.

13:19 So the prophet went back with him and ate and drank in his house.

13:20 While they were sitting at the table, the Lord spoke through the old prophet

13:21 and he cried out to the prophet from Judah, “This is what the Lord says, ‘You have rebelled against the Lord and have not obeyed the command the Lord your God gave you.

13:22 You went back and ate and drank in this place, even though he said to you, “Do not eat or drink there.” Therefore your corpse will not be buried in your ancestral tomb.’”

13:23 When the prophet from Judah finished his meal, the old prophet saddled his visitor’s donkey for him.

13:24 As the prophet from Judah was traveling, a lion attacked him on the road and killed him. His corpse was lying on the road, and the donkey and the lion just stood there beside it.

13:25 Some men came by and saw the corpse lying in the road with the lion standing beside it. They went and reported what they had seen in the city where the old prophet lived.

13:26 When the old prophet who had invited him to his house heard the news, he said, “It is the prophet who rebelled against the Lord. The Lord delivered him over to the lion and it ripped him up and killed him, just as the Lord warned him.”

13:27 He told his sons, “Saddle my donkey,” and they did so.

13:28 He went and found the corpse lying in the road with the donkey and the lion standing beside it; the lion had neither eaten the corpse nor attacked the donkey.

13:29 The old prophet picked up the corpse of the prophet, put it on the donkey, and brought it back. The old prophet then entered the city to mourn him and to bury him.

13:30 He put the corpse into his own tomb, and they mourned over him, saying, “Ah, my brother!”

13:31 After he buried him, he said to his sons, “When I die, bury me in the tomb where the prophet is buried; put my bones right beside his bones,

13:32 for the prophecy he announced with the Lord’s authority against the altar in Bethel and against all the temples on the high places in the cities of the north will certainly be fulfilled.”


Golden Calf in Bethel

week4-large.jpg

Egyptian God Apis

apisterttttt.jpg

 

Syrian and Canaanite Bull Gods

gold_leaf_bull_phoenician.jpg

 

Golden Calf India

cow-and-calf.jpg



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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

 

Chapter 5

 

5:1 But the way of death is this.

5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;

Canaan-After-%20Conquest%20-and-Divided-

 

Canaan (Northwest Semitic knaʿn, knaʿn, Kənáʿan) was, during the 2nd millennium BC, a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East, which as described in the Bible roughly corresponds to the Levant, i.e. modern-day Lebanon, Israel, Palestinian territories, the western part of Jordan and southwestern Syria. The name remained the endonym of the region later known to the Ancient Greeks from c.500 BC as Phoenicia.

 

lebanon_phoenician_map_001.jpg

 

Phoenicia (Phoiníkē, Finiqyah) was an ancient Semitic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon and Tartus Governorate in Syria. All major Phoenician cities were on the coastline of the Mediterranean, some colonies reaching the Western Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC.

 

w11_Greece_Phoenicia.gif

 

Phoenicia is really a Classical Greek term used to refer to the region of the major port towns.Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. However, in terms of archaeology, language, life style and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other Semitic cultures of Canaan. As Canaanites, they were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements.

 

 

Each city-state was a politically independent unit. They could come into conflict and one city might be dominated by another city-state, although they would collaborate in leagues or alliances. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland.

 

The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets. From a traditional linguistic perspective, they spoke Phoenician, a Canaanite dialect.

 

Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Etruscans, who in turn transmitted it to the Romans. In addition to their many inscriptions, the Phoenicians are believed to have left numerous other types of written sources, but most have not survived.

 

Fernand Braudel remarked in The Perspective of the World that Phoenicia was an early example of a "world-economy" surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c. 1200–800 BC.

 

Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this: Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Arwad, and Berytus, all appear in the Amarna tablets. Archeology has identified cultural elements of the Phoenician zenith as early as the 3rd millennium BC.

 

The league of independent city-state ports, with others on the islands and along other coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, was ideally suited for trade between the Levant area, rich in natural resources, and the rest of the ancient world. During the early Iron Age, in around 1200 BC an unknown event occurred, historically associated with the appearance of the Sea Peoples from the north. They weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers.

 

The societies rested on three power-bases: the king; the temple and its priests; and councils of elders. Byblos first became the predominant center from where the Phoenicians dominated the Mediterranean and Erythraean (Red) Sea routes. according to fragments attributed to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, it was built by Cronus as the first city in Phoenicia. Today it is believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was here that the first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram (c. 1200 BC). Byblos was a Canaanite city called Gubal during the Bronze Age, at which time it also appears as Gubla in the Amarna letters. During the Iron Age the city is called Gebal in Phoenician and appears in the Hebrew Bible under the name Geval (Hebrew: גבל‎).

 

Psalms 83

 

83:1 A song, a psalm of Asaph.

 

O God, do not be silent!

 

Do not ignore us! Do not be inactive, O God!

 

83:2 For look, your enemies are making a commotion;

 

those who hate you are hostile.

 

83:3 They carefully plot against your people,

 

and make plans to harm the ones you cherish.

 

83:4 They say, “Come on, let’s annihilate them so they are no longer a nation!

 

Then the name of Israel will be remembered no more.”

 

83:5 Yes, they devise a unified strategy;

 

they form an alliance against you.

 

83:6 It includes the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites,

 

Moab and the Hagrites,

 

83:7 Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek,

 

Philistia and the inhabitants of Tyre.

 

83:8 Even Assyria has allied with them,

 

lending its strength to the descendants of Lot. (Selah)

 

83:9 Do to them as you did to Midian –

 

as you did to Sisera and Jabin at the Kishon River!

 

83:10 They were destroyed at Endor;

 

their corpses were like manure on the ground.

 

83:11 Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb,

 

and all their rulers like Zebah and Zalmunna,

 

83:12 who said, “Let’s take over the pastures of God!”

 

83:13 O my God, make them like dead thistles,

 

like dead weeds blown away by the wind!

 

83:14 Like the fire that burns down the forest,

 

or the flames that consume the mountainsides,

 

83:15 chase them with your gale winds,

 

and terrify them with your windstorm.

 

83:16 Cover their faces with shame,

 

so they might seek you, O Lord.

 

83:17 May they be humiliated and continually terrified!

 

May they die in shame!

 

83:18 Then they will know that you alone are the Lord,

 

the sovereign king over all the earth.

Later, Tyre gained in power. One of its kings, the priest Ithobaal (887–856 BC) ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, and part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion of Tyre (820–774 BC). The collection of city-states constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians as Sidonia or Tyria. Phoenicians and Canaanites alike were called Sidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician city came to prominence after another.

 

The Phoenicians supplied materials and people to build a palace and temple for Israel.

 

2 Samuel 5

 

5:11 King Hiram of Tyre sent messengers to David, along with cedar logs, carpenters, and stonemasons. They built a palace for David.

 

5:12 David realized that the Lord had established him as king over Israel and that he had elevated his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel.

1 Kings 4

 

5:1 King Hiram of Tyre sent messengers to Solomon when he heard that he had been anointed king in his father’s place. (Hiram had always been an ally of David.)

 

5:2 Solomon then sent this message to Hiram:

 

5:3 “You know that my father David was unable to build a temple to honor the Lord his God, for he was busy fighting battles on all fronts while the Lord subdued his enemies.

 

5:4 But now the Lord my God has made me secure on all fronts; there is no adversary or dangerous threat.

 

5:5 So I have decided to build a temple to honor the Lord my God, as the Lord instructed my father David, ‘Your son, whom I will put on your throne in your place, is the one who will build a temple to honor me.’

 

5:6 So now order some cedars of Lebanon to be cut for me. My servants will work with your servants. I will pay your servants whatever you say is appropriate, for you know that we have no one among us who knows how to cut down trees like the Sidonians.

 

5:7 When Hiram heard Solomon’s message, he was very happy. He said, “The Lord is worthy of praise today because he has given David a wise son to rule over this great nation.”

 

5:8 Hiram then sent this message to Solomon: “I received the message you sent to me. I will give you all the cedars and evergreens you need.

 

5:9 My servants will bring the timber down from Lebanon to the sea. I will send it by sea in raft-like bundles to the place you designate. There I will separate the logs and you can carry them away. In exchange you will supply the food I need for my royal court."

 

5:10 So Hiram supplied the cedars and evergreens Solomon needed,

 

5:11 and Solomon supplied Hiram annually with 20,000 cors (6 bushels of wheat as provision for his royal court, as well as 20,000 baths of pure olive oil.

 

5:12 So the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as he had promised him. And Hiram and Solomon were at peace and made a treaty.

 

5:13 King Solomon conscripted work crews from throughout Israel, 30,000 men in all.

 

5:14 He sent them to Lebanon in shifts of 10,000 men per month. They worked in Lebanon for one month, and then spent two months at home. Adoniram was supervisor of 24 the work crews.

 

5:15 Solomon also had 70,000 common laborers 25 and 80,000 stonecutters in the hills,

 

5:16 besides 3,300 officials who supervised the workers.

 

5:17 By royal order they supplied large valuable stones in order to build the temple’s foundation with chiseled stone.

 

5:18 Solomon’s and Hiram’s construction workers, along with men from Byblos, did the chiseling and prepared the wood and stones for the building of the temple.

1 Kings 7

 

7:13 King Solomon sent for Hiram of Tyre.

 

7:14 He was the son of a widow from the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a craftsman in bronze from Tyre. He had the skill and knowledge to make all kinds of works of bronze. He reported to King Solomon and did all the work he was assigned.

 

7:15 He fashioned two bronze pillars; each pillar was feet high and 18 feet in circumference.

 

7:16 He made two bronze tops for the pillars; each was seven-and-a-half feet high.

 

7:17 The latticework on the tops of the pillars was adorned with ornamental wreaths and chains; the top of each pillar had seven groupings of ornaments.

 

7:18 When he made the pillars, there were two rows of pomegranate-shaped ornaments around the latticework covering the top of each pillar.

 

7:19 The tops of the two pillars in the porch were shaped like lilies and were six feet high.

 

7:20 On the top of each pillar, right above the bulge beside the latticework, there were two hundred pomegranate-shaped ornaments arranged in rows all the way around.

 

7:21 He set up the pillars on the porch in front of the main hall. He erected one pillar on the right side and called it Jakin; he erected the other pillar on the left side and called it Boaz.

 

7:22 The tops of the pillars were shaped like lilies. So the construction of the pillars was completed.

1 Kings 9

 

9:10 After twenty years, during which Solomon built the Lord’s temple and the royal palace,

 

9:11 King Solomon gave King Hiram of Tyre twenty cities in the region of Galilee, because Hiram had supplied Solomon with cedars, evergreens, and all the gold he wanted.

 

9:12 When Hiram went out from Tyre to inspect the cities Solomon had given him, he was not pleased with them.

 

9:13 Hiram asked, “Why did you give me these cities, my friend?” He called that area the region of Cabul, a name which it has retained to this day.

 

9:14 Hiram had sent to the king one hundred twenty talents of gold.

Solomon gave Hiram cities from the tribe of Asher. Asher was the second son of Jacob and Zilpah, and the founder of the Tribe of Asher. Asher played a role in selling his brother Joseph into slavery. Many scholars suspect that the name of Asher may have more to do with a deity originally worshipped by the tribe, either Asherah, or Ashur, the chief Assyrian deity;the latter possibility is cognate with Asher. The tribe of Asher was the one most blessed with male children (Sifre, l.c.); and its women were so beautiful that priests and princes sought them in marriage (Gen. R. lxxi., end). The abundance of oil in the land possessed by Asher so enriched the tribe that none of them needed to hire a habitation (Gen. R. l.c.); and the soil was so fertile that in times of scarcity, and especially in the Sabbatical year, Asher provided all Israel with olive-oil

 

AsherCityMap.jpg

 

After the conquest of Phoenicia by Alexander the Great in 332 BC, the merchant network of city states took on new life as Greek-dominated Phoenicia.

 

Issiah 23

 

23:1 Here is a message about Tyre:

 

Wail, you large ships,

 

for the port is too devastated to enter!

 

From the land of Cyprus this news is announced to them.

 

23:2 Lament, you residents of the coast,

 

you merchants of Sidon who travel over the sea,

 

whose agents sail over

 

23:3 the deep waters!

 

Grain from the Shihor region,

 

crops grown near the Nile she receives;

 

she is the trade center of the nations.

 

23:4 Be ashamed, O Sidon,

 

for the sea says this, O fortress of the sea:

 

“I have not gone into labor

 

or given birth;

 

I have not raised young men

 

or brought up young women."

 

23:5 When the news reaches Egypt,

 

they will be shaken by what has happened to Tyre.

 

23:6 Travel to Tarshish!

 

Wail, you residents of the coast!

 

23:7 Is this really your boisterous city

 

whose origins are in the distant past,

 

and whose feet led her to a distant land to reside?

 

23:8 Who planned this for royal Tyre,

 

whose merchants are princes,

 

whose traders are the dignitaries of the earth?

 

23:9 The Lord who commands armies planned it –

 

to dishonor the pride that comes from all her beauty,

 

to humiliate all the dignitaries of the earth.

 

23:10 Daughter Tarshish, travel back to your land, as one crosses the Nile;

 

there is no longer any marketplace in Tyre.

 

23:11 The Lord stretched out his hand over the sea,

 

he shook kingdoms;

 

he gave the order

 

to destroy Canaan’s fortresses.

 

23:12 He said,

 

“You will no longer celebrate,

 

oppressed virgin daughter Sidon!

 

Get up, travel to Cyprus,

 

but you will find no relief there."

 

23:13 Look at the land of the Chaldeans,

 

these people who have lost their identity!

 

The Assyrians have made it a home for wild animals.

 

They erected their siege towers,

 

demolished its fortresses,

 

and turned it into a heap of ruins.

 

23:14 Wail, you large ships,

 

for your fortress is destroyed!

 

23:15 At that time Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, the typical life span of a king. At the end of seventy years Tyre will try to attract attention again, like the prostitute in the popular song:

 

23:16 “Take the harp,

 

go through the city,

 

forgotten prostitute!

 

Play it well,

 

play lots of songs,

 

so you’ll be noticed!”

 

23:17 At the end of seventy years the Lord will revive Tyre. She will start making money again by selling her services to all the earth’s kingdoms.

 

23:18 Her profits and earnings will be set apart for the Lord. They will not be stored up or accumulated, for her profits will be given to those who live in the Lord’s presence and will be used to purchase large quantities of food and beautiful clothes.

Ezekiel 27

 

27:1 The word of the Lord came to me:

 

27:2 “You, son of man, sing a lament for Tyre.

 

27:3 Say to Tyre, who sits at the entrance of the sea, merchant to the peoples on many coasts, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

“‘O Tyre, you have said, “I am perfectly beautiful.”

 

27:4 Your borders are in the heart of the seas;

your builders have perfected your beauty.

 

27:5 They crafted all your planks out of fir trees from Senir;

they took a cedar from Lebanon to make your mast.

 

27:6 They made your oars from oaks of Bashan;

they made your deck with cypresses from the Kittean isles.

 

27:7 Fine linen from Egypt, woven with patterns, was used for your sail

to serve as your banner;

blue and purple from the coastlands of Elishah was used for your deck’s awning.

 

27:8 The leaders of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers;

your skilled men, O Tyre, were your captains.

 

27:9 The elders of Gebal and her skilled men were within you, mending cracks;

all the ships of the sea and their mariners were within you to trade for your merchandise.

 

27:10 Men of Persia, Lud, and Put were in your army, men of war.

They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.

 

27:11 The Arvadites joined your army on your walls all around,

and the Gammadites were in your towers.

They hung their quivers on your walls all around;

they perfected your beauty.

 

27:12 “‘Tarshish was your trade partner because of your abundant wealth; they exchanged silver, iron, tin, and lead for your products.

 

27:13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech were your clients; they exchanged slaves and bronze items for your merchandise.

 

27:14 Beth Togarmah exchanged horses, chargers, and mules for your products.

 

27:15 The Dedanites were your clients. Many coastlands were your customers; they paid you with ivory tusks and ebony.

 

27:16 Edom was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods; they exchanged turquoise, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies for your products.

 

27:17 Judah and the land of Israel were your clients; they traded wheat from Minnith, millet, honey, olive oil, and balm for your merchandise.

 

27:18 Damascus was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods and of all your wealth: wine from Helbon, white wool from Zahar,

 

27:19 and casks of wine from Izal they exchanged for your products. Wrought iron, cassia, and sweet cane were among your merchandise.

 

27:20 Dedan was your client in saddlecloths for riding.

 

27:21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your trade partners; for lambs, rams, and goats they traded with you.

 

27:22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah engaged in trade with you; they traded the best kinds of spices along with precious stones and gold for your products.

 

27:23 Haran, Kanneh, Eden, merchants from Sheba, Asshur, and Kilmad were your clients.

 

27:24 They traded with you choice garments, purple clothes and embroidered work, and multicolored carpets, bound and reinforced with cords; these were among your merchandise.

 

27:25 The ships of Tarshish were the transports for your merchandise.

“‘So you were filled and weighed down in the heart of the seas.

 

27:26 Your rowers have brought you into surging waters.

The east wind has wrecked you in the heart of the seas.

 

27:27 Your wealth, products, and merchandise, your sailors and captains,

your ship’s carpenters, your merchants,

and all your fighting men within you,

along with all your crew who are in you,

will fall into the heart of the seas on the day of your downfall.

 

27:28 At the sound of your captains’ cry the waves will surge;

 

27:29 They will descend from their ships – all who handle the oar,

the sailors and all the sea captains – they will stand on the land.

 

27:30 They will lament loudly over you and cry bitterly.

They will throw dust on their heads and roll in the ashes;

 

27:31 they will tear out their hair because of you and put on sackcloth,

and they will weep bitterly over you with intense mourning.

 

27:32 As they wail they will lament over you, chanting:

“Who was like Tyre, like a tower in the midst of the sea?”

 

27:33 When your products went out from the seas,

you satisfied many peoples;

with the abundance of your wealth and merchandise

you enriched the kings of the earth.

 

27:34 Now you are wrecked by the seas, in the depths of the waters;

your merchandise and all your company have sunk along with you.

 

27:35 All the inhabitants of the coastlands are shocked at you,

and their kings are horribly afraid – their faces are troubled.

 

27:36 The traders among the peoples hiss at you;

you have become a horror, and will be no more.’”

 

28:1 The word of the Lord came to me:

 

28:2 “Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

“‘Your heart is proud and you said, “I am a god;

 

I sit in the seat of gods, in the heart of the seas” –

 

yet you are a man and not a god,

 

though you think you are godlike.

 

28:3 Look, you are wiser than Daniel;

 

no secret is hidden from you.

 

28:4 By your wisdom and understanding you have gained wealth for yourself;

 

you have amassed gold and silver in your treasuries.

 

28:5 By your great skill in trade you have increased your wealth,

 

and your heart is proud because of your wealth.

 

28:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

Because you think you are godlike,

 

28:7 I am about to bring foreigners against you, the most terrifying of nations.

 

They will draw their swords against the grandeur made by your wisdom,

 

and they will defile your splendor.

 

28:8 They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die violently in the heart of the seas.

 

28:9 Will you still say, “I am a god,” before the one who kills you –

 

though you are a man and not a god –

 

when you are in the power of those who wound you?

 

28:10 You will die the death of the uncircumcised by the hand of foreigners;

 

for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

 

28:11 The word of the Lord came to me:

 

28:12 “Son of man, sing a lament for the king of Tyre, and say to him, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

“‘You were the sealer of perfection,

 

full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

 

28:13 You were in Eden, the garden of God.

 

Every precious stone was your covering,

 

the ruby, topaz, and emerald,

 

the chrysolite, onyx, and jasper,

 

the sapphire, turquoise, and beryl;

 

your settings and mounts were made of gold.

 

On the day you were created they were prepared.

 

28:14 I placed you there with an anointed guardian cherub;

 

you were on the holy mountain of God;

 

you walked about amidst fiery stones.

 

28:15 You were blameless in your behavior from the day you were created,

 

until sin was discovered in you.

 

28:16 In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned;

 

so I defiled you and banished you from the mountain of God –

 

the guardian cherub expelled you from the midst of the stones of fire.

 

28:17 Your heart was proud because of your beauty;

 

you corrupted your wisdom on account of your splendor.

 

I threw you down to the ground;

 

I placed you before kings, that they might see you.

 

28:18 By the multitude of your iniquities, through the sinfulness of your trade,

 

you desecrated your sanctuaries.

 

So I drew fire out from within you;

 

it consumed you,

 

and I turned you to ashes on the earth

 

before the eyes of all who saw you.

 

28:19 All who know you among the peoples are shocked at you;

 

you have become terrified and will be no more.’”

A cherub is a winged angelic being who is considered to attend on Hashem. A cherubim is the plural form of cherub (more than one angel). The prophet Ezekiel gave the best description of cherubim in Jerusalem. Were these the same as the anointed guardian cherub that the king of Tyre saw in Eden?

 

Ezekiel 10

 

10:1 As I watched, I saw 1 on the platform above the top of the cherubim something like a sapphire, resembling the shape of a throne, appearing above them.

 

10:2 The Lord said to the man dressed in linen, “Go between the wheelwork underneath the cherubim. Fill your hands with burning coals from among the cherubim and scatter them over the city.” He went as I watched.

 

10:3 (The cherubim were standing on the south side of the temple when the man went in, and a cloud filled the inner court.)

 

10:4 Then the glory of the Lord arose from the cherub and moved to the threshold of the temple. The temple was filled with the cloud while the court was filled with the brightness of the Lord’s glory.

 

10:5 The sound of the wings of the cherubim could be heard from the outer court, like the sound of the sovereign God when he speaks.

 

10:6 When the Lord commanded the man dressed in linen, “Take fire from within the wheelwork, from among the cherubim,” the man went in and stood by one of the wheels.

 

10:7 Then one of the cherubim stretched out his hand toward the fire which was among the cherubim. He took some and put it into the hands of the man dressed in linen, who took it and left.

 

10:8 (The cherubim appeared to have the form of human hands under their wings.)

 

10:9 As I watched, I noticed four wheels by the cherubim, one wheel beside each cherub; the wheels gleamed like jasper.

 

10:10 As for their appearance, all four of them looked the same, something like a wheel within a wheel.

 

10:11 When they moved, they would go in any of the four directions they faced without turning as they moved; in the direction the head would turn they would follow without turning as they moved,

 

10:12 along with their entire bodies, their backs, their hands, and their wings. The wheels of the four of them were full of eyes all around.

 

10:13 As for their wheels, they were called “the wheelwork” as I listened.

 

10:14 Each of the cherubim had four faces: The first was the face of a cherub, the second that of a man, the third that of a lion, and the fourth that of an eagle.

 

10:15 The cherubim rose up; these were the living beings I saw at the Kebar River.

 

10:16 When the cherubim moved, the wheels moved beside them; when the cherubim spread their wings to rise from the ground, the wheels did not move from their side.

 

10:17 When the cherubim stood still, the wheels stood still, and when they rose up, the wheels rose up with them, for the spirit of the living beings was in the wheels.

 

10:18 Then the glory of the Lord moved away from the threshold of the temple and stopped above the cherubim.

 

10:19 The cherubim spread their wings, and they rose up from the earth while I watched (when they went the wheels went alongside them). They stopped at the entrance to the east gate of the Lord’s temple as the glory of the God of Israel hovered above them.

 

10:20 These were the living creatures which I saw at the Kebar River underneath the God of Israel; I knew that they were cherubim.

 

10:21 Each had four faces; each had four wings and the form of human hands under the wings.

 

10:22 As for the form of their faces, they were the faces whose appearance I had seen at the Kebar River. Each one moved straight ahead.

Just like Hashem punished Tyre for its wicked ways, Jerusalem gets experiences the same wrath as well.

 

Ezekiel 3

 

3:12 Then a wind lifted me up and I heard a great rumbling sound behind me as the glory of the Lord rose from its place,

 

3:13 and the sound of the living beings’ wings brushing against each other, and the sound of the wheels alongside them, a great rumbling sound.

 

3:14 A wind lifted me up and carried me away. I went bitterly, my spirit full of fury, and the hand of the Lord rested powerfully on me.

 

3:15 I came to the exiles at Tel Abib, who lived by the Kebar River. I sat dumbfounded among them there, where they were living, for seven days.

 

3:16 At the end of seven days the word of the Lord came to me:

 

3:17 “Son of man, I have appointed you a watchman for the house of Israel. Whenever you hear a word from my mouth, you must give them a warning from me.

 

3:18 When I say to the wicked, “You will certainly die,” and you do not warn him – you do not speak out to warn the wicked to turn from his wicked deed and wicked lifestyle so that he may live – that wicked person will die for his iniquity, but I will hold you accountable for his death.

 

3:19 But as for you, if you warn the wicked and he does not turn from his wicked deed and from his wicked lifestyle, he will die for his iniquity but you will have saved your own life.

 

3:20 “When a righteous person turns from his righteousness and commits iniquity, and I set an obstacle before him, he will die. If you have not warned him, he will die for his sin. The righteous deeds he performed will not be considered, but I will hold you accountable for his death.

 

3:21 However, if you warn the righteous person not to sin, and he does not sin, he will certainly live because he was warned, and you will have saved your own life.”

Tel Abib (Hebrew: תל-אביב‎, Tel Aviv; lit. "Spring Mound", where Spring is the season) is an unidentified place on the river Khabur in what is now Syria.

 

According to the "Biblical Repository and Classical Review" The captives of Chebar, were the ten tribes that were being held Chaldean territory of Kabar River that was called Tel Abib. This was not the same as present day Tel Aviv in Israel.

 

http://books.google.com/books?id=ToAaAQAAIAAJ&lpg=PA46&ots=RuENfxQ_DN&dq=Tel%20Abib%20Syria%20Ezekiel%20Khabur&pg=PA46#v=onepage&q=Tel%20Abib%20Syria%20Ezekiel%20Khabur&f=false

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


2 Kings 16

17:1 In the twelfth year of King Ahaz’s reign over Judah, Hoshea son of Elah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for nine years.

17:2 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but not to the same degree as the Israelite kings who preceded him.

17:3 King Shalmaneser of Assyria threatened him; Hoshea became his subject and paid him tribute.

17:4 The king of Assyria discovered that Hoshea was planning a revolt. Hoshea had sent messengers to King So of Egypt and had not sent his annual tribute to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria arrested him and imprisoned him.

17:5 The king of Assyria marched through the whole land. He attacked Samaria and besieged it for three years.

17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea’s reign, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the people of Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor (the river of Gozan), and in the cities of the Medes.

17:7 This happened because the Israelites sinned against the Lord their God, who brought them up from the land of Egypt and freed them from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt. They worshiped other gods;

17:8 they observed the practices of the nations whom the Lord had driven out from before Israel, and followed the example of the kings of Israel.

17:9 The Israelites said things about the Lord their God that were not right. They built high places in all their cities, from the watchtower to the fortress.

17:10 They set up sacred pillars and Asherah poles on every high hill and under every green tree.

17:11 They burned incense on all the high places just like the nations whom the Lord had driven away from before them. Their evil practices made the Lord angry.

17:12 They worshiped the disgusting idols in blatant disregard of the Lord’s command.

17:13 The Lord solemnly warned Israel and Judah through all his prophets and all the seers, “Turn back from your evil ways; obey my commandments and rules that are recorded in the law. I ordered your ancestors to keep this law and sent my servants the prophets to remind you of its demands.”

17:14 But they did not pay attention and were as stubborn as their ancestors, who had not trusted the Lord their God.

17:15 They rejected his rules, the covenant he had made with their ancestors, and the laws he had commanded them to obey. They paid allegiance to worthless idols, and so became worthless to the Lord. They copied the practices of the surrounding nations in blatant disregard of the Lord’s command.

17:16 They abandoned all the commandments of the Lord their God; they made two metal calves and an Asherah pole, bowed down to all the stars in the sky, and worshiped Baal.

17:17 They passed their sons and daughters through the fire, and practiced divination and omen reading. They committed themselves to doing evil in the sight of the Lord and made him angry.

17:18 So the Lord was furious with Israel and rejected them; only the tribe of Judah was left.

17:19 Judah also failed to keep the commandments of the Lord their God; they followed Israel’s example.

17:20 So the Lord rejected all of Israel’s descendants; he humiliated them and handed them over to robbers, until he had thrown them from his presence.

17:21 He tore Israel away from David’s dynasty, and Jeroboam son of Nebat became their king. Jeroboam drove Israel away from the Lord and encouraged them to commit a serious sin.

17:22 The Israelites followed in the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat and did not repudiate them.

17:23 Finally the Lord rejected Israel just as he had warned he would do through all his servants the prophets. Israel was deported from its land to Assyria and remains there to this very day.

17:24 The king of Assyria brought foreigners from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim and settled them in the cities of Samaria in place of the Israelites. They took possession of Samaria and lived in its cities.

17:25 When they first moved in, they did not worship the Lord. So the Lord sent lions among them and the lions were killing them.

17:26 The king of Assyria was told, “The nations whom you deported and settled in the cities of Samaria do not know the requirements of the God of the land, so he has sent lions among them. They are killing the people because they do not know the requirements of the God of the land.”

17:27 So the king of Assyria ordered, “Take back one of the priests whom you deported from there. He must settle there and teach them the requirements of the God of the land."

17:28 So one of the priests whom they had deported from Samaria went back and settled in Bethel. He taught them how to worship the Lord.

17:29 But each of these nations made its own gods and put them in the shrines on the high places that the people of Samaria had made. Each nation did this in the cities where they lived.

17:30 The people from Babylon made Succoth Benoth, the people from Cuth made Nergal, the people from Hamath made Ashima,

17:31 the Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burned their sons in the fire as an offering to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim.

17:32 At the same time they worshiped the Lord. They appointed some of their own people to serve as priests in the shrines on the high places.

17:33 They were worshiping the Lord and at the same time serving their own gods in accordance with the practices of the nations from which they had been deported.

17:34 To this very day they observe their earlier practices. They do not worship the Lord; they do not obey the rules, regulations, law, and commandments that the Lord gave the descendants of Jacob, whom he renamed Israel.

17:35 The Lord made an agreement with them and instructed them, “You must not worship other gods. Do not bow down to them, serve them, or offer sacrifices to them.

17:36 Instead you must worship the Lord, who brought you up from the land of Egypt by his great power and military ability; bow down to him and offer sacrifices to him.

17:37 You must carefully obey at all times the rules, regulations, law, and commandments he wrote down for you. You must not worship other gods.

17:38 You must never forget the agreement I made with you, and you must not worship other gods.

17:39 Instead you must worship the Lord your God; then he will rescue you from the power of all your enemies.”

17:40 But they pay no attention; instead they observe their earlier practices.

17:41 These nations are worshiping the Lord and at the same time serving their idols; their sons and grandsons do just as their fathers have done, to this very day.

18:1 In the third year of the reign of Israel’s King Hoshea son of Elah, Ahaz’s son Hezekiah became king over Judah.

18:2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother was Abi, the daughter of Zechariah.

18:3 He did what the Lord approved, just as his ancestor David had done.

18:4 He eliminated the high places, smashed the sacred pillars to bits, and cut down the Asherah pole. He also demolished the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for up to that time the Israelites had been offering incense to it; it was called Nehushtan.

18:5 He trusted in the Lord God of Israel; in this regard there was none like him among the kings of Judah either before or after.

18:6 He was loyal to the Lord and did not abandon him. He obeyed the commandments which the Lord had given to Moses.

18:7 The Lord was with him; he succeeded in all his endeavors. He rebelled against the king of Assyria and refused to submit to him.

18:8 He defeated the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from the watchtower to the city fortress.

18:9 In the fourth year of King Hezekiah’s reign (it was the seventh year of the reign of Israel’s King Hoshea, son of Elah), King Shalmaneser of Assyria marched up against Samaria and besieged it.

18:10 After three years he captured it (in the sixth year of Hezekiah’s reign); in the ninth year of King Hoshea’s reign over Israel Samaria was captured.

18:11 The king of Assyria deported the people of Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor (the river of Gozan), and in the cities of the Medes.

18:12 This happened because they did not obey the Lord their God and broke his agreement with them. They did not pay attention to and obey all that Moses, the Lord’s servant, had commanded.

 

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

ps279539_l.jpg

The obelisk features twenty reliefs, five on each side. They depict five different subdued kings, bringing tribute and prostrating before the Assyrian king. From top to bottom they are: (1) Sua of Gilzanu (in north-west Iran), (2) "Hoshea of Bit Omri" (3) an unnamed ruler of Musri (probably Egypt), (4) Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi (middle Euphrates, Syria and Iraq), and (5) Qalparunda of Patin (Antakya region of Turkey). Each scene occupies four panels around the monument and is described by a cuneiform script above them.

 

800px-Jehu-Obelisk-cropped.jpg

 

Depiction of Hoshea King of Israel giving tribute to King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (2 Kings 17:3), on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III from Nimrud (circa 827 BC) in the British Museum (London).

 

To understand what led Israel being conquered and the tribes deported background context is needed.

 

1 Chronicles 5

5:23 The half-tribe of Manasseh settled in the land from Bashan as far as Baal Hermon, Senir, and Mount Hermon. They grew in number.

5:24 These were the leaders of their families:

Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel. They were skilled warriors, men of reputation, and leaders of their families.

5:25 But they were unfaithful to the God of their ancestors and worshiped instead the gods of the native peoples whom God had destroyed before them.

5:26 So the God of Israel stirred up King Pul of Assyria (that is, King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria), and he carried away the Reubenites, Gadites, and half-tribe of Manasseh and took them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river of Gozan, where they remain to this very day.


ensignlp.nfo:o:2c46.jpg

Isaiah 28

28:1 The splendid crown of Ephraim’s drunkards is doomed,

the withering flower, its beautiful splendor,

situated at the head of a rich valley,

the crown of those overcome with wine.

28:2 Look, the sovereign master sends a strong, powerful one.

With the force of a hailstorm or a destructive windstorm,

with the might of a driving, torrential rainstorm,

he will knock that crown to the ground with his hand.

28:3 The splendid crown of Ephraim’s drunkards

will be trampled underfoot.

28:4 The withering flower, its beautiful splendor,

situated at the head of a rich valley,

will be like an early fig before harvest –

as soon as someone notices it,

he grabs it and swallows it.

28:5 At that time the Lord who commands armies will become a beautiful crown

and a splendid diadem for the remnant of his people.

28:6 He will give discernment to the one who makes judicial decisions,

and strength to those who defend the city from attackers.

28:7 Even these men stagger because of wine,

they stumble around because of beer –

priests and prophets stagger because of beer,

they are confused because of wine,

they stumble around because of beer;

they stagger while seeing prophetic visions,

they totter while making legal decisions.

28:8 Indeed, all the tables are covered with vomit;

no place is untouched.

28:9 Who is the Lord trying to teach?

To whom is he explaining a message?

Those just weaned from milk!

Those just taken from their mother’s breast!

28:10 Indeed, they will hear meaningless gibberish,

senseless babbling,

a syllable here, a syllable there.

28:11 For with mocking lips and a foreign tongue

he will speak to these people.

28:12 In the past he said to them,

“This is where security can be found.

Provide security for the one who is exhausted!

This is where rest can be found.”

But they refused to listen.

28:13 So the Lord’s word to them will sound like

meaningless gibberish,

senseless babbling,

a syllable here, a syllable there.

As a result, they will fall on their backsides when they try to walk,

and be injured, ensnared, and captured.


1 Kings 16

16:23 In the thirty-first year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Omri became king over Israel. He ruled for twelve years, six of them in Tirzah.

16:24 He purchased the hill of Samaria from Shemer for two talents of silver. He launched a construction project there and named the city he built after Shemer, the former owner of the hill of Samaria.

16:25 Omri did more evil in the sight of the Lord than all who were before him.

16:26 He followed in the footsteps of Jeroboam son of Nebat and encouraged Israel to sin; they angered the Lord God of Israel with their worthless idols.

16:27 The rest of the events of Omri’s reign, including his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.

16:28 Omri passed away and was buried in Samaria. His son Ahab replaced him as king.


Shemer is decended from Merari and Levi

1 Chronicles 6

6:31 These are the men David put in charge of music in the Lord’s sanctuary, after the ark was placed there.

6:32 They performed music before the sanctuary of the meeting tent until Solomon built the Lord’s temple in Jerusalem. They carried out their tasks according to regulations.

6:33 These are the ones who served along with their sons:

From the Kohathites:

Heman the musician, son of Joel, son of Samuel,

6:34 son of Elkanah, son of Jeroham, son of Eliel, son of Toah,

6:35 son of Zuph, son of Elkanah, son of Mahath, son of Amasai,

6:36 son of Elkanah, son of Joel, son of Azariah, son of Zephaniah,

6:37 son of Tahath, son of Assir, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah,

6:38 son of Izhar, son of Kohath, son of Levi, son of Israel.

6:39 Serving beside him was his fellow Levite Asaph, son of Berechiah, son of Shimea,

6:40 son of Michael, son of Baaseiah, son of Malkijah,

6:41 son of Ethni, son of Zerah, son of Adaiah,

6:42 son of Ethan, son of Zimmah, son of Shimei,

6:43 son of Jahath, son of Gershom, son of Levi.

6:44 Serving beside them were their fellow Levites, the descendants of Merari, led by Ethan, son of Kishi, son of Abdi, son of Malluch,

6:45 son of Hashabiah, son of Amaziah, son of Hilkiah,

6:46 son of Amzi, son of Bani, son of Shemer,

6:47 son of Mahli, son of Mushi, son of Merari, son of Levi.

6:48 The rest of their fellow Levites were assigned to perform the remaining tasks at God’s sanctuary.

6:49 But Aaron and his descendants offered sacrifices on the altar for burnt offerings and on the altar for incense as they had been assigned to do in the most holy sanctuary. They made atonement for Israel, just as God’s servant Moses had ordered.


Joshua 21

21:1 The tribal leaders of the Levites went before Eleazar the priest and Joshua son of Nun and the Israelite tribal leaders

21:2 in Shiloh in the land of Canaan and said, “The Lord told Moses to assign us cities in which to live along with the grazing areas for our cattle.”

21:3 So the Israelites assigned these cities and their grazing areas to the Levites from their own holdings, as the Lord had instructed.

21:4 The first lot belonged to the Kohathite clans. The Levites who were descendants of Aaron the priest were allotted thirteen cities from the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin.

21:5 The rest of Kohath’s descendants were allotted ten cities from the clans of the tribe of Ephraim, and from the tribe of Dan and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

21:6 Gershon’s descendants were allotted thirteen cities from the clans of the tribe of Issachar, and from the tribes of Asher and Naphtali and the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan.

21:7 Merari’s descendants by their clans were allotted twelve cities from the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.

21:8 So the Israelites assigned to the Levites by lot these cities and their grazing areas, as the Lord had instructed Moses.

21:9 They assigned from the tribes of Judah and Simeon the cities listed below.

21:10 They were assigned to the Kohathite clans of the Levites who were descendants of Aaron, for the first lot belonged to them.

21:11 They assigned them Kiriath Arba (Arba was the father of Anak), that is, Hebron, in the hill country of Judah, along with its surrounding grazing areas.

21:12 (Now the city’s fields and surrounding towns they had assigned to Caleb son of Jephunneh as his property.)

21:13 So to the descendants of Aaron the priest they assigned Hebron (a city of refuge for one who committed manslaughter), Libnah,

21:14 Jattir, Eshtemoa,

21:15 Holon, Debir,

21:16 Ain, Juttah, and Beth Shemesh, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of nine cities taken from these two tribes.

21:17 From the tribe of Benjamin they assigned Gibeon, Geba,

21:18 Anathoth, and Almon, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities.

21:19 The priests descended from Aaron received thirteen cities and their grazing areas.

21:20 The rest of the Kohathite clans of the Levites were allotted cities from the tribe of Ephraim.

21:21 They assigned them Shechem (a city of refuge for one who committed manslaughter) in the hill country of Ephraim, Gezer,

21:22 Kibzaim, and Beth Horon, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities.

21:23 From the tribe of Dan they assigned Eltekeh, Gibbethon,

21:24 Aijalon, and Gath Rimmon, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities.

21:25 From the half-tribe of Manasseh they assigned Taanach and Gath Rimmon, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of two cities.

21:26 The rest of the Kohathite clans received ten cities and their grazing areas.

21:27 They assigned to the Gershonite clans of the Levites the following cities:

from the half-tribe of Manasseh: Golan in Bashan (a city of refuge for one who committed manslaughter) and Beeshtarah, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of two cities;

21:28 from the tribe of Issachar: Kishon, Daberath,

21:29 Jarmuth, and En Gannim, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities;

21:30 from the tribe of Asher: Mishal, Abdon,

21:31 Helkath, and Rehob, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities;

21:32 from the tribe of Naphtali: Kedesh in Galilee (a city of refuge for one who committed manslaughter), Hammoth Dor, and Kartan, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of three cities.

21:33 The Gershonite clans received thirteen cities and their grazing areas.

21:34 They assigned to the Merarite clans (the remaining Levites) the following cities: from the tribe of Zebulun: Jokneam, Kartah,

21:35 Dimnah, and Nahalal, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities;

21:36 from the tribe of Reuben: Bezer, Jahaz,

21:37 Kedemoth, and Mephaath, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities;

21:38 from the tribe of Gad: Ramoth in Gilead (a city of refuge for one who committed manslaughter), Mahanaim,

21:39 Heshbon, and Jazer, along with the grazing areas of each – a total of four cities.

21:40 The Merarite clans (the remaining Levites) were allotted twelve cities.

21:41 The Levites received within the land owned by the Israelites forty-eight cities in all and their grazing areas.

21:42 Each of these cities had grazing areas around it; they were alike in this regard.

21:43 So the Lord gave Israel all the land he had solemnly promised to their ancestors, and they conquered it and lived in it.

21:44 The Lord made them secure, in fulfillment of all he had solemnly promised their ancestors. None of their enemies could resist them.

21:45 Not one of the Lord’s faithful promises to the family of Israel was left unfulfilled; every one was realized.


Genesis 48

48:12 So Joseph moved them from Israel’s knees and bowed down with his face to the ground.

48:13 Joseph positioned them; he put Ephraim on his right hand across from Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh on his left hand across from Israel’s right hand. Then Joseph brought them closer to his father.

48:14 Israel stretched out his right hand and placed it on Ephraim’s head, although he was the younger. Crossing his hands, he put his left hand on Manasseh’s head, for Manasseh was the firstborn.

48:15 Then he blessed Joseph and said,

“May the God before whom my fathers

Abraham and Isaac walked –

the God who has been my shepherd

all my life long to this day,

48:16 the Angel who has protected me

from all harm –

bless these boys.

May my name be named in them,

and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac.

May they grow into a multitude on the earth.”

48:17 When Joseph saw that his father placed his right hand on Ephraim’s head, it displeased him. So he took his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head.

48:18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this is the firstborn. Put your right hand on his head.”

48:19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He too will become a nation and he too will become great. In spite of this, his younger brother will be even greater and his descendants will become a multitude of nations.”

48:20 So he blessed them that day, saying,

“By you will Israel bless, saying,

‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh.’”

So he put Ephraim before Manasseh.

48:21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “I am about to die, but God will be with you and will bring you back to the land of your fathers.

48:22 As one who is above your brothers, I give to you the mountain slope, which I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow.”


1 Chronicles

7:30 The sons of Asher:

Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah. Serah was their sister.

7:31 The sons of Beriah:

Heber and Malkiel, who was the father of Birzaith.

7:32 Heber was the father of Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and Shua their sister.

7:33 The sons of Japhlet:

Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath. These were Japhlet’s sons.

7:34 The sons of his brother Shemer:

Rohgah, Hubbah, and Aram.


In the Hebrew Bible, Oholah (אהלה) and Oholibah (אהליבה) (or: Aholah and Aholibah) are pejorative names given by the prophet Ezekiel to the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and Judah..

Ezekial 23

23:1 The word of the Lord came to me:

23:2 “Son of man, there were two women who were daughters of the same mother.

23:3 They engaged in prostitution in Egypt; in their youth they engaged in prostitution. Their breasts were squeezed there; lovers fondled their virgin nipples there.

23:4 Oholah was the name of the older and Oholibah the name of her younger sister. They became mine, and gave birth to sons and daughters. Oholah is Samaria and Oholibah is Jerusalem.

23:5 “Oholah engaged in prostitution while she was mine. She lusted after her lovers, the Assyrians – warriors

23:6 clothed in blue, governors and officials, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding on horses.

23:7 She bestowed her sexual favors on them; all of them were the choicest young men of Assyria. She defiled herself with all whom she desired – with all their idols.

23:8 She did not abandon the prostitution she had practiced in Egypt; for in her youth men had sex with her, fondled her virgin breasts, and ravished her.

23:9 Therefore I handed her over to her lovers, the Assyrians for whom she lusted.

23:10 They exposed her nakedness, seized her sons and daughters, and killed her with the sword. She became notorious among women, and they executed judgments against her.

23:11 “Her sister Oholibah watched this, but she became more corrupt in her lust than her sister had been, and her acts of prostitution were more numerous than those of her sister.

23:12 She lusted after the Assyrians – governors and officials, warriors in full armor, horsemen riding on horses, all of them desirable young men.

23:13 I saw that she was defiled; both of them followed the same path.

23:14 But she increased her prostitution. She saw men carved on the wall, images of the Chaldeans carved in bright red,

23:15 wearing belts on their waists and flowing turbans on their heads, all of them looking like officers, the image of Babylonians whose native land is Chaldea.

23:16 When she saw them, she lusted after them and sent messengers to them in Chaldea.

23:17 The Babylonians crawled into bed with her. They defiled her with their lust; after she was defiled by them, she became disgusted with them.

23:18 When she lustfully exposed her nakedness, I was disgusted with her, just as I had been disgusted with her sister.

23:19 Yet she increased her prostitution, remembering the days of her youth when she engaged in prostitution in the land of Egypt.

23:20 She lusted after their genitals – as large as those of donkeys, and their seminal emission was as strong as that of stallions.

23:21 This is how you assessed the obscene conduct of your youth, when the Egyptians fondled your nipples and squeezed your young breasts.

23:22 “Therefore, Oholibah, this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Look here, I am about to stir up against you the lovers with whom you were disgusted; I will bring them against you from every side:

23:23 the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod, Shoa, and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them, desirable young men, all of them governors and officials, officers and nobles, all of them riding on horses.

23:24 They will attack you with weapons, chariots, wagons, and with a huge army; they will array themselves against you on every side with large shields, small shields, and helmets. I will assign them the task of judgment; they will punish you according to their laws.

23:25 I will direct my jealous anger against you, and they will deal with you in rage. They will cut off your nose and your ears, and your survivors will die by the sword. They will seize your sons and daughters, and your survivors will be consumed by fire.

23:26 They will strip your clothes off you and take away your beautiful jewelry.

23:27 So I will put an end to your obscene conduct and your prostitution which you have practiced in the land of Egypt. You will not seek their help or remember Egypt anymore.

23:28 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Look here, I am about to deliver you over to those whom you hate, to those with whom you were disgusted.

23:29 They will treat you with hatred, take away all you have labored for, and leave you unclothed and bare. Your nakedness will be exposed, just as when you engaged in prostitution and obscene conduct.

23:30 I will do these things to you because you engaged in prostitution with the nations, polluting yourself with their idols.

23:31 You have followed the ways of your sister, so I will place her cup of judgment in your hand.

23:32 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: “You will drink your sister’s deep and wide cup; you will be scorned and derided, for it holds a great deal.

23:33 You will be overcome by drunkenness and sorrow. The cup of your sister Samaria is a cup of horror and desolation.

23:34 You will drain it dry, gnaw its pieces, and tear out your breasts, for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.

23:35 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Because you have forgotten me and completely disregarded me, you must bear now the punishment for your obscene conduct and prostitution.”

23:36 The Lord said to me: “Son of man, are you willing to pronounce judgment 51 on Oholah and Oholibah? Then declare to them their abominable deeds!

23:37 For they have committed adultery and blood is on their hands. They have committed adultery with their idols, and their sons, whom they bore to me, they have passed through the fire as food to their idols.

23:38 Moreover, they have done this to me:

In the very same day they desecrated my sanctuary and profaned my Sabbaths.

23:39 On the same day they slaughtered their sons for their idols, they came to my sanctuary to desecrate it. This is what they have done in the middle of my house.

23:40 “They even sent for men from far away; when the messenger arrived, those men set out. For them you bathed, painted your eyes, and decorated yourself with jewelry.

23:41 You sat on a magnificent couch, with a table arranged in front of it where you placed my incense and my olive oil.

23:42 The sound of a carefree crowd accompanied her, including all kinds of men; even Sabeans were brought from the desert. The sisters put bracelets on their wrists and beautiful crowns on their heads.

23:43 Then I said about the one worn out by adultery, ‘Now they will commit immoral acts with her.’

23:44 They had sex with her as one does with a prostitute. In this way they had sex with Oholah and Oholibah, promiscuous women.

23:45 But upright men will punish them appropriately for their adultery and bloodshed, because they are adulteresses and blood is on their hands.

23:46 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Bring up an army against them and subject them to terror and plunder.

23:47 That army will pelt them with stones and slash them with their swords; they will kill their sons and daughters and burn their houses.

23:48 I will put an end to the obscene conduct in the land; all the women will learn a lesson from this and not engage in obscene conduct.

23:49 They will repay you for your obscene conduct, and you will be punished for idol worship. Then you will know that I am the sovereign Lord.”


There is a pun in these names in the Hebrew. Oholah means "her tent", and Oholibah means "my tent is in her". Ezekiel's rhetoric portrays Oholah and Oholibah, or Samaria and Jerusalem, as the daughters of one mother. Both are said to be "brides of God", and both are guilty of idolatry and of religious and political alliances with Gentile nations. These kingdoms are described as prostitutes and adulteresses, given up to the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Because of Oholah's crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased to be a kingdom. (Comp. Psalm 78:67-69; 1 Kings 12:25-33; 2 Chr 11:13-16.)

Samaria (green) within Palestine, under Persian rule

Palestine_under_the_Persians_Smith_1915.

Samaria is a mountainous region in the northern part of the geographical area to the west of the Jordan River, roughly corresponding to the northern part of the West Bank. It was the only name used for this area from ancient times until the Jordanian conquest of 1948, at which point the Jordanians coined the term West Bank.



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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

 

Chapter 5

 

5:1 But the way of death is this.

5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;

The Hebrew prophets frequently compared the sin of idolatry to the sin of adultery. Ezekiel's rhetoric directed against these two allegorical figures is more vivid than most:

 

Ezekiel 23

 

24:1 The word of the Lord came to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month:

 

24:2 “Son of man, write down the name of this day, this very day. The king of Babylon has laid siege to Jerusalem this very day.

 

24:3 Recite a proverb to this rebellious house and say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

“‘Set on the pot, set it on,

 

pour water in it too;

 

24:4 add the pieces of meat to it,

 

every good piece,

 

the thigh and the shoulder;

 

fill it with choice bones.

 

24:5 Take the choice bone of the flock,

 

heap up bones under it;

 

boil rapidly,

 

and boil its bones in it.

 

24:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

Woe to the city of bloodshed,

 

the pot whose rot is in it,

 

whose rot has not been removed from it!

 

Empty it piece by piece.

 

No lot has fallen on it.

 

24:7 For her blood was in it;

 

she poured it on an exposed rock;

 

she did not pour it on the ground to cover it up with dust.

 

24:8 To arouse anger, to take vengeance,

 

I have placed her blood on an exposed rock so that it cannot be covered up.

 

24:9 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

Woe to the city of bloodshed!

 

I will also make the pile high.

 

24:10 Pile up the bones, kindle the fire;

 

cook the meat well, mix in the spices,

 

let the bones be charred.

 

24:11 Set the empty pot on the coals,

 

until it becomes hot and its copper glows,

 

until its uncleanness melts within it and its rot is consumed.

 

24:12 It has tried my patience;

 

yet its thick rot is not removed from it.

 

Subject its rot to the fire!

 

24:13 You mix uncleanness with obscene conduct.

 

I tried to cleanse you, but you are not clean.

 

You will not be cleansed from your uncleanness

 

until I have exhausted my anger on you.

 

24:14 “‘I the Lord have spoken; judgment is coming and I will act! I will not relent, or show pity, or be sorry! I will judge you according to your conduct and your deeds, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

The Lord allows the spirit of deception to enter the minds of the rebellious.

 

I Kings 21

 

22:1 There was no war between Syria and Israel for three years.

 

22:2 In the third year King Jehoshaphat of Judah came down to visit the king of Israel.

 

22:3 The king of Israel said to his servants, “Surely you recognize that Ramoth Gilead belongs to us, though we are hesitant to reclaim it from the king of Syria.”

 

22:4 Then he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to attack Ramoth Gilead?” Jehoshaphat replied to the king of Israel, “I will support you; my army and horses are at your disposal.”

 

22:5 Then Jehoshaphat added, “First seek an oracle from the Lord.”

 

22:6 So the king of Israel assembled about four hundred prophets and asked them, “Should I attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” They said, “Attack! The sovereign one will hand it over to the king.”

 

22:7 But Jehoshaphat asked, “Is there not a prophet of the Lord still here, that we may ask him?”

 

22:8 The king of Israel answered Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man through whom we can seek the Lord’s will. But I despise him because he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but disaster. His name is Micaiah son of Imlah. Jehoshaphat said, “The king should not say such things.

 

22:9 The king of Israel summoned an official and said, “Quickly bring Micaiah son of Imlah.”

 

22:10 Now the king of Israel and King Jehoshaphat of Judah were sitting on their respective thrones, dressed in their robes, at the threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria. All the prophets were prophesying before them.

 

22:11 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah made iron horns and said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘With these you will gore Syria until they are destroyed.’”

 

22:12 All the prophets were prophesying the same, saying, “Attack Ramoth Gilead! You will succeed; the Lord will hand it over to the king.”

 

22:13 Now the messenger who went to summon Micaiah said to him, “Look, the prophets are in complete agreement that the king will succeed. Your words must agree with theirs; you must predict success.”

 

22:14 But Micaiah said, “As certainly as the Lord lives, I will say what the Lord tells me to say.”

 

22:15 When he came before the king, the king asked him, “Micaiah, should we attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” He answered him, “Attack! You will succeed; the Lord will hand it over to the king.”

 

22:16 The king said to him, “How many times must I make you solemnly promise in the name of the Lord to tell me only the truth?”

 

22:17 Micaiah said, “I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains like sheep that have no shepherd. Then the Lord said, ‘They have no master. They should go home in peace.’”

 

22:18 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Didn’t I tell you he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but disaster?”

 

22:19 Micaiah said, “That being the case, hear the word of the Lord. I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, with all the heavenly assembly standing on his right and on his left.

 

22:20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die there?’ One said this and another that.

 

22:21 Then a spirit stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’

 

22:22 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. Go out and do as you have proposed.’

 

22:23 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.”

 

22:24 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?”

 

22:25 Micaiah replied, “Look, you will see in the day when you go into an inner room to hide.”

 

22:26 Then the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah and return him to Amon the city official and Joash the king’s son.

 

22:27 Say, ‘This is what the king says, “Put this man in prison. Give him only a little bread and water until I safely return.”’”

 

22:28 Micaiah said, “If you really do safely return, then the Lord has not spoken through me.” Then he added, “Take note, all you people.”

 

22:29 The king of Israel and King Jehoshaphat of Judah attacked Ramoth Gilead.

 

22:30 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “I will disguise myself and then enter into the battle; but you wear your royal robes.” So the king of Israel disguised himself and then entered into the battle.

 

22:31 Now the king of Syria had ordered his thirty-two chariot commanders, “Do not fight common soldiers or high-ranking officers; fight only the king of Israel.”

 

22:32 When the chariot commanders saw Jehoshaphat, they said, “He must be the king of Israel.” So they turned and attacked him, but Jehoshaphat cried out.

 

22:33 When the chariot commanders realized he was not the king of Israel, they turned away from him.

 

22:34 Now an archer shot an arrow at random, and it struck the king of Israel between the plates of his armor. The king ordered his charioteer, “Turn around and take me from the battle line, because I’m wounded.”

 

22:35 While the battle raged throughout the day, the king stood propped up in his chariot opposite the Syrians. He died in the evening; the blood from the wound ran down into the bottom of the chariot.

 

22:36 As the sun was setting, a cry went through the camp, “Each one should return to his city and to his homeland.”

 

22:37 So the king died and was taken to Samaria, where they buried him.

 

22:38 They washed off the chariot at the pool of Samaria (this was where the prostitutes bathed); dogs licked his blood, just as the Lord had said would happen.

 

22:39 The rest of the events of Ahab’s reign, including a record of his accomplishments and how he built a luxurious palace and various cities, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.

 

22:40 Ahab passed away. His son Ahaziah replaced him as king.

spirit-of-deception-fdp.jpg

 

http://youtu.be/tbVYalAE5-8

 

Toronto Blessing from the Holy Ghost Bartender.

 

2 Thessalonians 2

 

2:1 Now regarding the arrival of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered to be with him, we ask you, brothers and sisters,

 

2:2 not to be easily shaken from your composure or disturbed by any kind of spirit or message or letter allegedly from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord is already here.

 

2:3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not arrive until the rebellion comes and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction.

 

2:4 He opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, and as a result he takes his seat in God’s temple, displaying himself as God.

 

2:5 Surely you recall that I used to tell you these things while I was still with you.

 

2:6 And so you know what holds him back, so that he will be revealed in his own time.

 

2:7 For the hidden power of lawlessness is already at work. However, the one who holds him back will do so until he is taken out of the way,

 

2:8 and then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will destroy by the breath of his mouth and wipe out by the manifestation of his arrival.

 

2:9 The arrival of the lawless one will be by Satan’s working with all kinds of miracles and signs and false wonders,

 

2:10 and with every kind of evil deception directed against those who are perishing, because they found no place in their hearts for the truth so as to be saved.

 

2:11 Consequently God sends on them a deluding influence so that they will believe what is false.

 

2:12 And so all of them who have not believed the truth but have delighted in evil will be condemned.

tumblr_lykeg9c5lv1r826ovo1_500.jpg

 

 

Could the Jezebel spirit be misunderstood to be the Shekinah, Sophia, Shakti, and the Holy Spirit? Sophia99 wrote me the following:

 

Sophia99

Apr 8, 2014

The ruach hakodesh is the spirit of Yahweh, not separate. The Gnostics believed it was a female spirit because they had the Jezebel spirit.

 

1 Kings 18 states that Jezebel had commanded that all the prophets of Yahweh in the kingdom of Israel be killed, while entertaining "four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal and four hundred prophets of Asherah" at her royal table.

Ithobaal I (Hebrew Ethbaal) was a king of Tyre who founded a new dynasty. During his reign, Tyre expanded its power on the mainland, making all of Phoenicia its territory as far north as Beirut, including Sidon, and even a part of the island of Cyprus. At the same time, Tyre also built new overseas colonies: Botrys (now Batrun) near Byblos, and Auza in Libya.

 

Ithobaal held close diplomatic contacts with king Ahab of Israel and Phoenician influence in Samaria and the other Israelite cities was extensive. In the 1 Kings passage, Ithobaal is labeled king of the Sidonians. At this time Tyre and Sidon were consolidated into one kingdom.

 

1 Kings 16

 

16:29 In the thirty-eighth year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Omri’s son Ahab became king over Israel. Ahab son of Omri ruled over Israel for twenty-two years in Samaria.

 

16:30 Ahab son of Omri did more evil in the sight of the Lord than all who were before him.

 

16:31 As if following in the sinful footsteps of Jeroboam son of Nebat were not bad enough, he married Jezebel the daughter of King Ethbaal of the Sidonians. Then he worshiped and bowed to Baal.

 

16:32 He set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal he had built in Samaria.

 

16:33 Ahab also made an Asherah pole; he did more to anger the Lord God of Israel than all the kings of Israel who were before him.

 

16:34 During Ahab’s reign, Hiel the Bethelite rebuilt Jericho. Abiram, his firstborn son, died when he laid the foundation; Segub, his youngest son, died when he erected its gates, just as the Lord had warned through Joshua son of Nun.

Baal with thunderbolt. Limestone stele, 15th-13th century BC. Found at the acropolis in Ras Shamra (ancient city of Ugarit).

 

Baal_thunderbolt_Louvre_AO15775.jpg

 

Baal of Tyre (Melqart) is the son of El in the Phoenician triad of worship. In the Phoenician religion, or Levantine religion El was the Father of humanity and all creatures.

 

GOD$20EL$20STNE$20JPEG-new.jpg

 

El was the husband of the goddess Asherah (Also known in other cultures as Astarte.

 

King Ithobaal had been a priest of Asherah before becoming king explains why his daughter Jezebel was so zealous in the promotion of idolatry, thus leading to the conflicts between Elijah and Jezebel’s forces.

 

Asherah.gif

 

King Ithobaalr was a murderer sheds some light on his daughter's choice to

 

1 Kings 18

 

18:1 Some time later, in the third year of the famine, the Lord told Elijah, “Go, make an appearance before Ahab, so I may send rain on the surface of the ground."

 

18:2 So Elijah went to make an appearance before Ahab.

 

Now the famine was severe in Samaria.

 

18:3 So Ahab summoned Obadiah, who supervised the palace. (Now Obadiah was a very loyal follower of the Lord.

 

18:4 When Jezebel was killing the Lord’s prophets, Obadiah took one hundred prophets and hid them in two caves in two groups of fifty. He also brought them food and water.)

 

18:5 Ahab told Obadiah, “Go through the land to all the springs and valleys. Maybe we can find some grazing areas so we can keep the horses and mules alive and not have to kill some of the animals.”

 

18:6 They divided up the land between them; Ahab went one way and Obadiah went the other.

 

18:7 As Obadiah was traveling along, Elijah met him. When he recognized him, he fell face down to the ground and said, “Is it really you, my master, Elijah?”

 

18:8 He replied, “Yes, go and say to your master, ‘Elijah is back.’”

 

18:9 Obadiah said, “What sin have I committed that you are ready to hand your servant over to Ahab for execution?

 

18:10 As certainly as the Lord your God lives, my master has sent to every nation and kingdom in an effort to find you. When they say, ‘He’s not here,’ he makes them swear an oath that they could not find you.

 

18:11 Now you say, ‘Go and say to your master, “Elijah is back.”’

 

18:12 But when I leave you, the Lord’s spirit will carry you away so I can’t find you. If I go tell Ahab I’ve seen you, he won’t be able to find you and he will kill me. That would not be fair, because your servant has been a loyal follower of the Lord from my youth.

 

18:13 Certainly my master is aware of what I did when Jezebel was killing the Lord’s prophets. I hid one hundred of the Lord’s prophets in two caves in two groups of fifty and I brought them food and water.

 

18:14 Now you say, ‘Go and say to your master, “Elijah is back,”’ but he will kill me.”

 

18:15 But Elijah said, “As certainly as the Lord who rules over all lives (whom I serve), I will make an appearance before him today.”

 

18:16 When Obadiah went and informed Ahab, the king went to meet Elijah.

 

18:17 When Ahab saw Elijah, he said to him, “Is it really you, the one who brings disaster on Israel?”

 

18:18 Elijah replied, “I have not brought disaster on Israel. But you and your father’s dynasty have, by abandoning the Lord’s commandments and following the Baals.

 

18:19 Now send out messengers and assemble all Israel before me at Mount Carmel, as well as the 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of Asherah whom Jezebel supports.

1 Kings 21

 

21:1 ... Naboth the Jezreelite owned a vineyard in Jezreel adjacent to the palace of King Ahab of Samaria.

 

21:2 Ahab said to Naboth, “Give me your vineyard so I can make a vegetable garden out of it, for it is adjacent to my palace. I will give you an even better vineyard in its place, or if you prefer, I will pay you silver for it.”

 

21:3 But Naboth replied to Ahab, “The Lord forbid that I should sell you my ancestral inheritance.”

 

21:4 So Ahab went into his palace, bitter and angry that Naboth the Jezreelite had said, “I will not sell to you my ancestral inheritance.” He lay down on his bed, pouted, and would not eat.

 

21:5 Then his wife Jezebel came in and said to him, “Why do you have a bitter attitude and refuse to eat?”

 

21:6 He answered her, “While I was talking to Naboth the Jezreelite, I said to him, ‘Sell me your vineyard for silver, or if you prefer, I will give you another vineyard in its place.’ But he said, ‘I will not sell you my vineyard.’”

 

21:7 His wife Jezebel said to him, “You are the king of Israel! Get up, eat some food, and have a good time. I will get the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite for you.”

 

21:8 She wrote out orders, signed Ahab’s name to them, and sealed them with his seal. She then sent the orders to the leaders and to the nobles who lived in Naboth’s city.

 

21:9 This is what she wrote: “Observe a time of fasting and seat Naboth in front of the people.

 

21:10 Also seat two villains opposite him and have them testify, ‘You cursed God and the king.’ Then take him out and stone him to death.”

 

21:11 The men of the city, the leaders and the nobles who lived there, followed the written orders Jezebel had sent them.

 

21:12 They observed a time of fasting and put Naboth in front of the people.

 

21:13 The two villains arrived and sat opposite him. Then the villains testified against Naboth right before the people, saying, “Naboth cursed God and the king.” So they dragged him outside the city and stoned him to death.

 

21:14 Then they reported to Jezebel, “Naboth has been stoned to death.”

 

21:15 When Jezebel heard that Naboth had been stoned to death, she said to Ahab, “Get up, take possession of the vineyard Naboth the Jezreelite refused to sell you for silver, for Naboth is no longer alive; he’s dead.”

 

21:16 When Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, he got up and went down to take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.

 

21:17 The Lord told Elijah the Tishbite:

 

21:18 “Get up, go down and meet King Ahab of Israel who lives in Samaria. He is at the vineyard of Naboth; he has gone down there to take possession of it.

 

21:19 Say to him, ‘This is what the Lord says:

 

“Haven’t you committed murder and taken possession of the property of the deceased?”’

 

Then say to him, ‘This is what the Lord says:

 

“In the spot where dogs licked up Naboth’s blood they will also lick up your blood – yes, yours!”’”

 

21:20 When Elijah arrived, Ahab said to him, “So, you have found me, my enemy!” Elijah replied, “I have found you, because you are committed to doing evil in the sight of the Lord.

 

21:21 The Lord says, ‘Look, I am ready to bring disaster on you. I will destroy you and cut off every last male belonging to Ahab in Israel, including even the weak and incapacitated.

 

21:22 I will make your dynasty like those of Jeroboam son of Nebat and Baasha son of Ahijah because you angered me and made Israel sin.’

 

21:23 The Lord says this about Jezebel, ‘Dogs will devour Jezebel by the outer wall of Jezreel.’

 

21:24 As for Ahab’s family, dogs will eat the ones who die in the city, and the birds of the sky will eat the ones who die in the country.”

 

21:25 (There had never been anyone like Ahab, who was firmly committed to doing evil in the sight of 41 the Lord, urged on by his wife Jezebel.

 

21:26 He was so wicked he worshiped the disgusting idols, just like the Amorites whom the Lord had driven out from before the Israelites.)

 

21:27 When Ahab heard these words, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and fasted. He slept in sackcloth and walked around dejected.

 

21:28 The Lord said to Elijah the Tishbite,

 

21:29 “Have you noticed how Ahab shows remorse before me? Because he shows remorse before me, I will not bring disaster on his dynasty during his lifetime, but during the reign of his son.”

Here is some good videos of the mountain where God lived.

 

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Scimitar_Dancer_by_jezebel.jpg



Receiving the spark of the Spirit of Drunkenness and Laughter.

1 Kings 19

19:1 Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, including a detailed account of how he killed all the prophets with the sword.

19:2 Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah with this warning, “May the gods judge me severely if by this time tomorrow I do not take your life as you did theirs!”

19:3 Elijah was afraid, so he got up and fled for his life to Beer Sheba in Judah. He left his servant there,

19:4 while he went a day’s journey into the desert. He went and sat down under a shrub and asked the Lord to take his life:

“I’ve had enough! Now, O Lord, take my life. After all, I’m no better than my ancestors.”

19:5 He stretched out and fell asleep under the shrub. All of a sudden an angelic messenger touched him and said, “Get up and eat.”

19:6 He looked and right there by his head was a cake baking on hot coals and a jug of water. He ate and drank and then slept some more.

19:7 The Lord’s angelic messenger came back again, touched him, and said, “Get up and eat, for otherwise you won’t be able to make the journey.”

19:8 So he got up and ate and drank. That meal gave him the strength to travel forty days and forty nights until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God.

19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”

19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake.

19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper.

19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

19:14 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”

19:15 The Lord said to him, “Go back the way you came and then head for the Desert of Damascus. Go and anoint Hazael king over Syria.

19:16 You must anoint Jehu son of Nimshi king over Israel, and Elisha son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to take your place as prophet.

19:17 Jehu will kill anyone who escapes Hazael’s sword, and Elisha will kill anyone who escapes Jehu’s sword.

19:18 I still have left in Israel seven thousand followers who have not bowed their knees to Baal or kissed the images of him.”

19:19 Elijah went from there and found Elisha son of Shaphat. He was plowing with twelve pairs of oxen; he was near the twelfth pair. Elijah passed by him and threw his robe over him.

19:20 He left the oxen, ran after Elijah, and said, “Please let me kiss my father and mother goodbye, then I will follow you.” Elijah said to him, “Go back! Indeed, what have I done to you?”

19:21 Elisha went back and took his pair of oxen and slaughtered them. He cooked the meat over a fire that he made by burning the harness and yoke. He gave the people meat and they ate. Then he got up and followed Elijah and became his assistant.


2 Kings 8

8:16 In the fifth year of the reign of Israel’s King Joram, son of Ahab, Jehoshaphat’s son Jehoram became king over Judah.

8:17 He was thirty-two years old when he became king and he reigned for eight years in Jerusalem.

8:18 He followed in the footsteps of the kings of Israel, just as Ahab’s dynasty had done, for he married Ahab’s daughter. He did evil in the sight of the Lord.

8:19 But the Lord was unwilling to destroy Judah. He preserved Judah for the sake of his servant David to whom he had promised a perpetual dynasty.

8:20 During his reign Edom freed themselves from Judah’s control and set up their own king.

8:21 Joram crossed over to Zair with all his chariots. The Edomites, who had surrounded him, attacked at night and defeated him and his chariot officers. The Israelite army retreated to their homeland.

8:22 So Edom has remained free from Judah’s control to this very day. At that same time Libnah also rebelled.

8:23 The rest of the events of Joram’s reign, including a record of his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.

8:24 Joram passed away and was buried with his ancestors in the city of David. His son Ahaziah replaced him as king.

8:25 In the twelfth year of the reign of Israel’s King Joram, son of Ahab, Jehoram’s son Ahaziah became king over Judah.

8:26 Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he became king and he reigned for one year in Jerusalem. His mother was Athaliah, the granddaughter of King Omri of Israel.

8:27 He followed in the footsteps of Ahab’s dynasty and did evil in the sight of the Lord, like Ahab’s dynasty, for he was related to Ahab’s family.

8:28 He joined Ahab’s son Joram in a battle against King Hazael of Syria at Ramoth Gilead in which the Syrians defeated Joram.

8:29 King Joram returned to Jezreel to recover from the wounds he received from the Syrians in Ramah when he fought against King Hazael of Syria. King Ahaziah son of Jehoram of Judah went down to visit Joram son of Ahab in Jezreel, for he was ill.


2 Kings 8

9:1 Now Elisha the prophet summoned a member of the prophetic guild and told him, “Tuck your robes into your belt, take this container of olive oil in your hand, and go to Ramoth Gilead.

9:2 When you arrive there, look for Jehu son of Jehoshaphat son of Nimshi and take him aside into an inner room.

9:3 Take the container of olive oil, pour it over his head, and say, ‘This is what the Lord says, “I have designated you as king over Israel.”’ Then open the door and run away quickly!"

9:4 So the young prophet went to Ramoth Gilead.

9:5 When he arrived, the officers of the army were sitting there. So he said, "I have a message for you, officer." Jehu asked, “For which one of us?" He replied, "For you, officer."

9:6 So Jehu got up and went inside. Then the prophet poured the olive oil on his head and said to him, "This is what the Lord God of Israel says, 'I have designated you as king over the Lord’s people Israel.

9:7 You will destroy the family of your master Ahab. I will get revenge against Jezebel for the shed blood of my servants the prophets and for the shed blood of all the Lord’s servants.

9:8 Ahab’s entire family will die. I will cut off every last male belonging to Ahab in Israel, including even the weak and incapacitated.

9:9 I will make Ahab’s dynasty like those of Jeroboam son of Nebat and Baasha son of Ahijah.

9:10 Dogs will devour Jezebel on the plot of ground in Jezreel; she will not be buried.'" Then he opened the door and ran away.

9:11 When Jehu rejoined his master's servants, they asked him, "Is everything all right? Why did this madman visit you?" He replied, "Ah, it’s not important. You know what kind of man he is and the kinds of things he says."

9:12 But they said, "You’re lying! Tell us what he said." So he told them what he had said. He also related how he had said, "This is what the Lord says, 'I have designated you as king over Israel.'"

9:13 Each of them quickly took off his cloak and they spread them out at Jehu’s feet on the steps. The trumpet was blown and they shouted, "Jehu is king!”

9:14 Then Jehu son of Jehoshaphat son of Nimshi conspired against Joram.

Now Joram had been in Ramoth Gilead with the whole Israelite army, guarding against an invasion by King Hazael of Syria.

9:15 But King Joram had returned to Jezreel to recover from the wounds he received from the Syrians when he fought against King Hazael of Syria. Jehu told his supporters, "If you really want me to be king, then don't let anyone escape from the city to go and warn Jezreel."

9:16 Jehu drove his chariot to Jezreel, for Joram was recuperating there. (Now King Ahaziah of Judah had come down to visit Joram.)

9:17 Now the watchman was standing on the tower in Jezreel and saw Jehu’s troops approaching. He said, “I see troops!" Jehoram ordered, "Send a rider out to meet them and have him ask, 'Is everything all right?'"

9:18 So the horseman went to meet him and said, “This is what the king says, ‘Is everything all right?’” Jehu replied, “None of your business! Follow me." The watchman reported, "The messenger reached them, but hasn’t started back."

9:19 So he sent a second horseman out to them and he said, “This is what the king says, ‘Is everything all right?’” Jehu replied, “None of your business! Follow me."

9:20 The watchman reported, “He reached them, but hasn’t started back. The one who drives the lead chariot drives like Jehu son of Nimshi; he drives recklessly."

9:21 Jehoram ordered, "Hitch up my chariot." When his chariot had been hitched up, King Jehoram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah went out in their respective chariots to meet Jehu. They met up with him in the plot of land that had once belonged to Naboth of Jezreel.

9:22 When Jehoram saw Jehu, he asked, “Is everything all right, Jehu?” He replied, “How can everything be all right as long as your mother Jezebel promotes idolatry and pagan practices?"

9:23 Jehoram turned his chariot around and took off. He said to Ahaziah, “It’s a trap, Ahaziah!”

9:24 Jehu aimed his bow and shot an arrow right between Jehoram’s shoulders. The arrow went through his heart and he fell to his knees in his chariot.

9:25 Jehu ordered his officer Bidkar, “Pick him up and throw him into the part of the field that once belonged to Naboth of Jezreel. Remember, you and I were riding together behind his father Ahab, when the Lord pronounced this judgment on him,

9:26 '"Know for sure that I saw the shed blood of Naboth and his sons yesterday,” says the Lord, “and that I will give you what you deserve right here in this plot of land,” says the Lord.’ So now pick him up and throw him into this plot of land, just as the Lord said."

9:27 When King Ahaziah of Judah saw what happened, he took off up the road to Beth Haggan. Jehu chased him and ordered, “Shoot him too.” They shot him while he was driving his chariot up the ascent of Gur near Ibleam. He fled to Megiddo and died there.

9:28 His servants took his body back to Jerusalem and buried him in his tomb with his ancestors in the city of David.

9:29 Ahaziah had become king over Judah in the eleventh year of Joram son of Ahab.

9:30 Jehu approached Jezreel. When Jezebel heard the news, she put on some eye liner, fixed up her hair, and leaned out the window.

9:31 When Jehu came through the gate, she said, “Is everything all right, Zimri, murderer of his master?”

9:32 He looked up at the window and said, “Who is on my side? Who?” Two or three eunuchs looked down at him.

9:33 He said, “Throw her down!” So they threw her down, and when she hit the ground, her blood splattered against the wall and the horses, and Jehu drove his chariot over her.

9:34 He went inside and had a meal. Then he said, “Dispose of this accursed woman’s corpse. Bury her, for after all, she was a king’s daughter.”

9:35 But when they went to bury her, they found nothing left but the skull, feet, and palms of the hands.

9:36 When they went back and told him, he said, “The Lord’s word through his servant, Elijah the Tishbite, has come to pass. He warned, ‘In the plot of land at Jezreel, dogs will devour Jezebel’s flesh.

9:37 Jezebel’s corpse will be like manure on the surface of the ground in the plot of land at Jezreel. People will not be able to even recognize her.'"

 

Jezebel may be dead, but her spirit is making a comeback in modern culture.

 

 

Revelation 2

2:18 “To the angel of the church in Thyatira write the following:

“ This is the solemn pronouncement of the Son of God, the one who has eyes like a fiery flame and whose feet are like polished bronze:

2:19 ‘I know your deeds: your love, faith, service, and steadfast endurance. In fact, your more recent deeds are greater than your earlier ones.

2:20 But I have this against you: You tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, and by her teaching deceives my servants to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.

2:21 I have given her time to repent, but she is not willing to repent of her sexual immorality.

2:22 Look! I am throwing her onto a bed of violent illness, and those who commit adultery with her into terrible suffering, unless they repent of her deeds.

2:23 Furthermore, I will strike her followers with a deadly disease, and then all the churches will know that I am the one who searches minds and hearts. I will repay each one of you what your deeds deserve.

2:24 But to the rest of you in Thyatira, all who do not hold to this teaching (who have not learned the so-called “deep secrets of Satan”), to you I say:

I do not put any additional burden on you.

2:25 However, hold on to what you have until I come.

2:26 And to the one who conquers and who continues in my deeds until the end, I will give him authority over the nations –

2:27 he will rule them with an iron rod

and like clay jars he will break them to pieces,

2:28 just as I have received the right to rule from my Father – and I will give him the morning star.

2:29 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’


There were at least 33 other places of Artemis worship in the ancient world, but the temple in Ephesus was the chief worship center. Pausanias, who wrote in the middle of the second century A.D., claimed that the Artemis cult was the most widely followed one in the ancient world.

The temple of Diana in Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and many historians believe it was one of the most beautiful buildings ever built. It stood on the side of Mount Pion about a mile northeast of the city and served as a bank as well as a place of worship and cultic immorality. It could accommodate about 25,000 people and was probably the largest Greek temple ever built. Its centerpiece was evidently a meteorite that resembled a woman with many breasts. Other meteorites that became sacred cult objects were at Troy, Pessinus, Enna, and Emeas.

Acts 19

19:23 At that time a great disturbance took place concerning the Way.

19:24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought a great deal of business to the craftsmen.

19:25 He gathered these together, along with the workmen in similar trades, and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity comes from this business.

19:26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded and turned away a large crowd, not only in Ephesus but in practically all of the province of Asia, by saying that gods made by hands are not gods at all.

19:27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be regarded as nothing, and she whom all the province of Asia and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.”

19:28 When they heard this they became enraged and began to shout, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”

19:29 The city was filled with the uproar, and the crowd rushed to the theater together, dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions.

19:30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly, the disciples would not let him.

19:31 Even some of the provincial authorities who were his friends sent a message to him, urging him not to venture into the theater.

19:32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together.

19:33 Some of the crowd concluded it was about Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front. Alexander, gesturing with his hand, was wanting to make a defense before the public assembly.

19:34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” for about two hours.

19:35 After the city secretary quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper of the temple of the great Artemis and of her image that fell from heaven?

19:36 So because these facts are indisputable, you must keep quiet and not do anything reckless.

19:37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers nor blasphemers of our goddess.

19:38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint against someone, the courts are open and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there.

19:39 But if you want anything in addition, it will have to be settled in a legal assembly.

19:40 For we are in danger of being charged with rioting today, since there is no cause we can give to explain this disorderly gathering.”

19:41 After he had said this, he dismissed the assembly.

 

ephesus-museum_AJP1730.jpg?m=1367129308

 

ArtemisTemple.jpg

 

2 Kings 21

21:1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned for fifty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother was Hephzibah.

21:2 He did evil in the sight of the Lord and committed the same horrible sins practiced by the nations whom the Lord drove out from before the Israelites.

21:3 He rebuilt the high places that his father Hezekiah had destroyed; he set up altars for Baal and made an Asherah pole just like King Ahab of Israel had done. He bowed down to all the stars in the sky and worshiped them.

21:4 He built altars in the Lord’s temple, about which the Lord had said, “Jerusalem will be my home.”

21:5 In the two courtyards of the Lord’s temple he built altars for all the stars in the sky.

21:6 He passed his son through the fire and practiced divination and omen reading. He set up a ritual pit to conjure up underworld spirits, and appointed magicians to supervise it. He did a great amount of evil in the sight of the Lord, provoking him to anger.

21:7 He put an idol of Asherah he had made in the temple, about which the Lord had said to David and to his son Solomon, “This temple in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, will be my permanent home.

21:8 I will not make Israel again leave the land I gave to their ancestors, provided that they carefully obey all I commanded them, the whole law my servant Moses ordered them to obey.”

21:9 But they did not obey, and Manasseh misled them so that they sinned more than the nations whom the Lord had destroyed from before the Israelites.

21:10 So the Lord announced through his servants the prophets:

21:11 “King Manasseh of Judah has committed horrible sins. He has sinned more than the Amorites before him and has encouraged Judah to sin by worshiping his disgusting idols.

21:12 So this is what the Lord God of Israel says, ‘I am about to bring disaster on Jerusalem and Judah. The news will reverberate in the ears of those who hear about it.

21:13 I will destroy Jerusalem the same way I did Samaria and the dynasty of Ahab. I will wipe Jerusalem clean, just as one wipes a plate on both sides.

21:14 I will abandon this last remaining tribe among my people and hand them over to their enemies; they will be plundered and robbed by all their enemies,

21:15 because they have done evil in my sight and have angered me from the time their ancestors left Egypt right up to this very day!’”

21:16 Furthermore Manasseh killed so many innocent people, he stained Jerusalem with their blood from end to end, in addition to encouraging Judah to sin by doing evil in the sight of the Lord.

21:17 The rest of the events of Manasseh’s reign and all his accomplishments, as well as the sinful acts he committed, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.

21:18 Manasseh passed away and was buried in his palace garden, the garden of Uzzah, and his son Amon replaced him as king.

 

Joel 2

3:1 1 For look! In those days and at that time

I will return the exiles to Judah and Jerusalem.

3:2 Then I will gather all the nations,

and bring them down to the valley of Jehoshaphat.

I will enter into judgment against them there

concerning my people Israel who are my inheritance,

whom they scattered among the nations.

They partitioned my land,

3:3 and they cast lots for my people.

They traded a boy for a prostitute;

they sold a little girl for wine so they could drink.

3:4 Why are you doing these things to me, Tyre and Sidon?

Are you trying to get even with me, land of Philistia?

I will very quickly repay you for what you have done!

3:5 For you took my silver and my gold

and brought my precious valuables to your own palaces.

3:6 You sold Judeans and Jerusalemites to the Greeks,

removing them far from their own country.

3:7 Look! I am rousing them from that place to which you sold them.

I will repay you for what you have done!

3:8 I will sell your sons and daughters to the people of Judah.

They will sell them to the Sabeans, a nation far away.

Indeed, the Lord has spoken!


Amos 1

1:9 This is what the Lord says:

“Because Tyre has committed three crimes

make that four! – I will not revoke my decree of judgment.

They sold a whole community to Edom;

they failed to observe a treaty of brotherhood.

1:10 So I will set fire to Tyre’s city wall;

fire will consume her fortresses.”

 

Isreal killed the Phoenician Princess Jezabel. Phoenicia retaliated and sided with the Assyrians.

The used their merchant skills to sell Isrealites into slavery. Later Hashem punished Sidonia for their transgressions. Without this context, it is difficult to imagine Sidon attacking their brothers in genealogy, trade, and most importantly helping build Hashem's sanctuary.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;

 

Ezekiel prophecy is pretty on mark. Not too many know of Phoenicia great history and its intimate relationship with Israel.

 

Ezekiel 26

26:1 In the eleventh year, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me:

 

26:2 “Son of man, because Tyre has said about Jerusalem, ‘Aha, the gateway of the peoples is broken; it has swung open to me. I will become rich, now that she has been destroyed,’

 

26:3 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

Look, I am against you, O Tyre! I will bring up many nations against you, as the sea brings up its waves.

 

26:4 They will destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers. I will scrape her soil from her and make her a bare rock.

 

26:5 She will be a place where fishing nets are spread, surrounded by the sea. For I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. She will become plunder for the nations,

 

26:6 and her daughters who are in the field will be slaughtered by the sword. Then they will know that I am the Lord.

 

26:7 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

Take note that I am about to bring King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon, king of kings, against Tyre from the north, with horses, chariots, and horsemen, an army and hordes of people.

 

26:8 He will kill your daughters in the field with the sword. He will build a siege wall against you, erect a siege ramp against you, and raise a great shield against you.

 

26:9 He will direct the blows of his battering rams against your walls and tear down your towers with his weapons.

 

26:10 He will cover you with the dust kicked up by his many horses. Your walls will shake from the noise of the horsemen, wheels, and chariots when he enters your gates like those who invade through a city’s broken walls.

 

26:11 With his horses’ hoofs he will trample all your streets. He will kill your people with the sword, and your strong pillars will tumble down to the ground.

 

26:12 They will steal your wealth and loot your merchandise. They will tear down your walls and destroy your luxurious homes. Your stones, your trees, and your soil he will throw into the water.

 

26:13 I will silence the noise of your songs; the sound of your harps will be heard no more.

 

26:14 I will make you a bare rock; you will be a place where fishing nets are spread. You will never be built again, for I, the Lord, have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.

 

26:15 “This is what the sovereign Lord says to Tyre:

 

Oh, how the coastlands will shake at the sound of your fall, when the wounded groan, at the massive slaughter in your midst!

 

26:16 All the princes of the sea will vacate their thrones. They will remove their robes and strip off their embroidered clothes; they will clothe themselves with trembling. They will sit on the ground; they will tremble continually and be shocked at what has happened to you.

 

26:17 They will sing this lament over you:

 

“‘How you have perished – you have vanished from the seas,

 

O renowned city, once mighty in the sea,

 

she and her inhabitants, who spread their terror!

 

26:18 Now the coastlands will tremble on the day of your fall;

 

the coastlands by the sea will be terrified by your passing.’

 

26:19 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

 

When I make you desolate like the uninhabited cities, when I bring up the deep over you and the surging waters overwhelm you,

 

26:20 then I will bring you down to bygone people, to be with those who descend to the pit. I will make you live in the lower parts of the earth, among the primeval ruins, with those who descend to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited or stand in the land of the living.

 

26:21 I will bring terrors on you, and you will be no more! Though you are sought after, you will never be found again, declares the sovereign Lord.”

 

 

It appears Phoenicians and Canaanites were the descendants of Noah's son Ham.

Genesis 10

10:6 The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

10:7 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah were Sheba 29 and Dedan.

10:8 Cush was the father of Nimrod; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth.

10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord.(That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”)

10:10 The primary regions of his kingdom were Babel, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

10:11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah,

10:12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah.

10:13 Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites,

10:14 Pathrusites, Casluhites (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorites.

10:15 Canaan was the father of Sidon his firstborn, Heth,

10:16 the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites,

10:17 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites,

10:18 Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Eventually the families of the Canaanites were scattered

10:19 and the borders of Canaan extended from Sidon all the way to Gerar as far as Gaza, and all the way to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

10:20 These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.


If Ham just put the cloak on Noah the descendants of Canaan would never had been cursed.

Ksenophontov_noah.jpg

Genesis 9

9:18 The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Now Ham was the father of Canaan.)

9:19 These were the sons of Noah, and from them the whole earth was populated.

9:20 Noah, a man of the soil, began to plant a vineyard.

9:21 When he drank some of the wine, he got drunk and uncovered himself inside his tent.

9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers who were outside.

9:23 Shem and Japheth took the garment and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so they did not see their father’s nakedness.

9:24 When Noah awoke from his drunken stupor he learned what his youngest son had done to him.

9:25 So he said,

“Cursed be Canaan!

The lowest of slaves

he will be to his brothers.”

9:26 He also said,

“Worthy of praise is the Lord, the God of Shem!

May Canaan be the slave of Shem!

9:27 May God enlarge Japheth’s territory and numbers!

May he live in the tents of Shem

and may Canaan be his slave!”


Joshua 19

19:24 The fifth lot belonged to the tribe of Asher by its clans.

19:25 Their territory included Helkath, Hali, Beten, Acshaph,

19:26 Alammelech, Amad, and Mishal. Their border touched Carmel to the west and Shihor Libnath.

19:27 It turned eastward toward Beth Dagon, touched Zebulun and the Valley of Iphtah El to the north, as well as the Valley of Emek and Neiel, and extended to Cabul on the north

19:28 and on to Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, and Kanah, as far as Greater Sidon.

19:29 It then turned toward Ramah as far as the fortified city of Tyre, turned to Hosah, and ended at the sea near Hebel, Aczib,

19:30 Umah, Aphek, and Rehob. In all they had twenty-two cities and their towns.

19:31 This was the land assigned to the tribe of Asher by its clans, including these cities and their towns

 

If the Tribe of Asher had been able to defeat the Phoenicians the world would indeed have been different.

 

Judges 1

1:31 The men of Asher did not conquer the people living in Acco or Sidon, nor did they conquer Ahlab, Aczib, Helbah, Aphek, or Rehob.

1:32 The people of Asher live among the Canaanites residing in the land because they did not conquer them.

 

Matthew 11

11:20 Then Jesus began to criticize openly the cities in which he had done many of his miracles, because they did not repent.

11:21 “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! If the miracles done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.

11:22 But I tell you, it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you!

11:23 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? No, you will be thrown down to Hades! For if the miracles done among you had been done in Sodom, it would have continued to this day.

11:24 But I tell you, it will be more bearable for the region of Sodom on the day of judgment than for you!"


Matthew 15

15:21 After going out from there, Jesus went to the region of Tyre and Sidon.

15:22 A Canaanite woman from that area came and cried out, “Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David! My daughter is horribly demon-possessed!”

15:23 But he did not answer her a word. Then his disciples came and begged him,"Send her away, because she keeps on crying out after us."

15:24 So he answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel."

15:25 But she came and bowed down before him and said, "Lord, help me!"

15:26 "It is not right to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs," he said.

15:27 "Yes, Lord," she replied, "but even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table."

15:28 Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, your faith is great! Let what you want be done for you." And her daughter was healed from that hour.


canaanitewoman.jpg

 

Mark 3

3:7 Then Jesus went away with his disciples to the sea, and a great multitude from Galilee followed him. And from Judea,

3:8 Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan River, and around Tyre and Sidon a great multitude came to him when they heard about the things he had done.

3:9 Because of the crowd, he told his disciples to have a small boat ready for him so the crowd would not press toward him.

3:10 For he had healed many, so that all who were afflicted with diseases pressed toward him in order to touch him.

3:11 And whenever the unclean spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God."

3:12 But he sternly ordered them not to make him known.


Mark 7

7:24 After Jesus left there, he went to the region of Tyre. When he went into a house, he did not want anyone to know, but he was not able to escape notice.

7:25 Instead, a woman whose young daughter had an unclean spirit immediately heard about him and came and fell at his feet.

7:26 The woman was a Greek,of Syrophoenician origin. She asked him to cast the demon out of her daughter.

7:27 He said to her, “Let the children be satisfied first, for it is not right to take the children’s bread and to throw it to the dogs.”

7:28 She answered, “Yes, Lord, but even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.”

7:29 Then 30 he said to her, “Because you said this, you may go. The demon has left your daughter.”

7:30 She went home and found the child lying on the bed, and the demon gone.


7:31 Then Jesus went out again from the region of Tyre and came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee in the region of the Decapolis.

7:32 They brought to him a deaf man who had difficulty speaking, and they asked him to place his hands on him.

7:33 After Jesus took him aside privately, away from the crowd, he put his fingers in the man’s ears, and after spitting, he touched his tongue.

7:34 Then he looked up to heaven and said with a sigh, “Ephphatha” (that is, “Be opened”).

7:35 And immediately the man’s ears were opened, his tongue loosened, and he spoke plainly.

7:36 Jesus ordered them not to tell anything. But as much as he ordered them not to do this, they proclaimed it all the more.

7:37 People were completely astounded and said, “He has done everything well. He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak."

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Abraham was a decendant of Noah, who was father of Shem, who was father of Eber, who was father of Peleg, who was father of Reu, who was father of Serug, who was father of Nahor, who was father of Serug, who was father of Abraham. At some point between Shem and Serug Abraham's ancestor's stopped believing in Hashem as the one and only God.

Joshua 23

23:14 “Look, today I am about to die. You know with all your heart and being that not even one of all the faithful promises the Lord your God made to you is left unfulfilled; every one was realized – not one promise is unfulfilled!

23:15 But in the same way every faithful promise the Lord your God made to you has been realized, it is just as certain, if you disobey, that the Lord will bring on you every judgment until he destroys you from this good land which the Lord your God gave you.

23:16 If you violate the covenantal laws of the Lord your God which he commanded you to keep, and follow, worship, and bow down to other gods, the Lord will be very angry with you and you will disappear quickly from the good land which he gave to you.”

24:1 Joshua assembled all the Israelite tribes at Shechem. He summoned Israel’s elders, rulers, judges, and leaders, and they appeared before God.

24:2 Joshua told all the people, “Here is what the Lord God of Israel says:

‘In the distant past your ancestors lived beyond the Euphrates River, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor. They worshiped other gods,

24:3 but I took your father Abraham from beyond the Euphrates and brought him into the entire land of Canaan. I made his descendants numerous; I gave him Isaac,

24:4 and to Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau. To Esau I assigned Mount Seir, while Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt.

24:5 I sent Moses and Aaron, and I struck Egypt down when I intervened in their land. Then I brought you out.

24:6 When I brought your fathers out of Egypt, you arrived at the sea.

The Egyptians chased your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea.

24:7 Your fathers cried out for help to the Lord; he made the area between you and the Egyptians dark, and then drowned them in the sea. You witnessed with your very own eyes what I did in Egypt. You lived in the wilderness for a long time.

24:8 Then I brought you to the land of the Amorites who lived east of the Jordan. They fought with you, but I handed them over to you; you conquered their land and I destroyed them from before you.

24:9 Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab, launched an attack against Israel. He summoned Balaam son of Beor to call down judgment on you.

24:10 I refused to respond to Balaam; he kept prophesying good things about you, and I rescued you from his power.

24:11 You crossed the Jordan and came to Jericho. The leaders of Jericho, as well as the Amorites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hittites, Girgashites, Hivites, and Jebusites, fought with you, but I handed them over to you.

24:12 I sent terror ahead of you to drive out before you the two Amorite kings. I gave you the victory; it was not by your swords or bows.

24:13 I gave you a land in which you had not worked hard; you took up residence in cities you did not build and you are eating the produce of vineyards and olive groves you did not plant.’

24:14 Now obey the Lord and worship him with integrity and loyalty. Put aside the gods your ancestors worshiped beyond the Euphrates and in Egypt and worship the Lord.

24:15 If you have no desire to worship the Lord, choose today whom you will worship, whether it be the gods whom your ancestors worshiped beyond the Euphrates, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living. But I and my family will worship the Lord!”

24:16 The people responded, “Far be it from us to abandon the Lord so we can worship other gods!

24:17 For the Lord our God took us and our fathers out of slavery in the land of Egypt and performed these awesome miracles before our very eyes. He continually protected us as we traveled and when we passed through nations.

24:18 The Lord drove out from before us all the nations, including the Amorites who lived in the land. So we too will worship the Lord, for he is our God!”

24:19 Joshua warned the people, “You will not keep worshiping the Lord, for he is a holy God. He is a jealous God who will not forgive your rebellion or your sins.

24:20 If you abandon the Lord and worship foreign gods, he will turn against you; he will bring disaster on you and destroy you, though he once treated you well.”

24:21 The people said to Joshua, “No! We really will worship the Lord!”

24:22 Joshua said to the people, “Do you agree to be witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen to worship the Lord?” They replied, “We are witnesses!”

24:23 Joshua said, “Now put aside the foreign gods that are among you and submit to the Lord God of Israel.”

24:24 The people said to Joshua, “We will worship the Lord our God and obey him.”

24:25 That day Joshua drew up an agreement for the people, and he established rules and regulations for them in Shechem.

24:26 Joshua wrote these words in the Law Scroll of God. He then took a large stone and set it up there under the oak tree near the Lord’s shrine.

24:27 Joshua said to all the people, “Look, this stone will be a witness against you, for it has heard everything the Lord said to us. It will be a witness against you if you deny your God.”

24:28 When Joshua dismissed the people, they went to their allotted portions of land.




Shem does not fit the mold of a rebel. He was Noah's most beloved son.

Genesis 9

9:26 He also said,

"Worthy of praise is the Lord, the God of Shem!

May Canaan be the slave of Shem!

9:27 May God enlarge Japheth’s territory and numbers!

May he live in the tents of Shem

and may Canaan be his slave!”


With Noah's blessing stating Lord was the God of Shem eliminates him from corruption. So it was between Eber and Serug that Abraham's ancestor's stopped believing in Hashem as the one and only God.

Numbers 24

24:20 Then Balaam looked on Amalek and delivered this oracle:

“Amalek was the first of the nations,

but his end will be that he will perish.”

24:21 Then he looked on the Kenites and uttered this oracle:

“Your dwelling place seems strong,

and your nest is set on a rocky cliff.

24:22 Nevertheless the Kenite will be consumed.

How long will Asshur take you away captive?”

24:23 Then he uttered this oracle:

“O, who will survive when God does this!

24:24 Ships will come from the coast of Kittim,

and will afflict Asshur, and will afflict Eber,

and he will also perish forever.”

24:25 Balaam got up and departed and returned to his home, and Balak also went his way.


kittim-cyprus.gif

It is generally assumed that the word Hebrew is derived from his name. In 93 AD, Josephus wrote that the Hebrews were called after Eber (Antiquities of the Jews I, 6:4).

Genesis 10

10:22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.

10:23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

10:24 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber.

10:25 Two sons were born to Eber:

One was named Peleg because in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan.

10:26 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,

10:27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,

10:28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba,

10:29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.

10:30 Their dwelling place was from Mesha all the way to Sephar in the eastern hills.

10:31 These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and according to their nations.

10:32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations, and from these the nations spread over the earth after the flood.

11:1 The whole earth had a common language and a common vocabulary.

11:2 When the people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

11:3 Then they said to one another,“Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” (They had brick instead of stone and tar instead of mortar.)

11:4 Then they said, “Come, let’s build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens 10 so that we may make a name for ourselves. Otherwise we will be scattered across the face of the entire earth.”

11:5 But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the people had started building.

11:6 And the Lord said, “If as one people all sharing a common language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be beyond them.

11:7 Come, let’s go down and confuse their language so they won’t be able to understand each other.”

11:8 So the Lord scattered them from there across the face of the entire earth, and they stopped building the city.

11:9 That is why its name was called Babel – because there the Lord confused the language of the entire world, and from there the Lord scattered them across the face of the entire earth.


TableOfNationsMap20101224.png

Manetho, The Book of Sothis, Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 239. (Loeb Classical Library 350). Manetho was the victim of many Egyptian fairy tales in constructing his chronology of Egypt. The Egyptians would place the Flood and Peleg’s birth much earlier than the Bible, but still they linked the Babel incident with Peleg's birth.

Book of Jubilees

Chapter 8

1 In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu'eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam, and she 2 bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for

3 himself a city. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and

4 stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was

5 afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. And in the thirtieth jubilee, in the second week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai, the son of Japheth, and in the fourth year he begat a son, and

6 called his name Shelah; for he said: 'Truly I have been sent.' [And in the fourth year he was born], and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu'ak, the daughter of Kesed, his father's brother, in the one and thirtieth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year

7 thereof. And she bare him a son in the fifth year thereof, and he called his name Eber:

and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was 'Azurad, the daughter of Nebrod, in the thirty-second

8 jubilee, in the seventh week, in the third year thereof. And in the sixth year thereof, she bare him son, and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of Noah began

9 to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called his name Peleg. And they

10 divided (it) secretly amongst themselves, and told it to Noah. And it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each, in the first year in the first week, when one of us

11 who had been sent, was with them. And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father.

12 And there came forth on the writing as Shem's lot the middle of the earth which he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the generations of eternity, from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa, from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its waters into the sea Me'at, and this river flows into the great sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth's, and all that is towards the

13 south belongs to Shem. And it extends till it reaches Karaso: this is in the bosom of the tongue


14 which looks towards the south. And his portion extends along the great sea, and it extends in a straight line till it reaches the west of the tongue which looks towards the south: for this sea is

15 named the tongue of the Egyptian Sea. And it turns from here towards the south towards the mouth of the great sea on the shore of (its) waters, and it extends to the west to 'Afra, and it extends till it reaches the waters of the river Gihon, and to the south of the waters of Gihon, to the

16 banks of this river. And it extends towards the east, till it reaches the Garden of Eden, to the south thereof, [to the south] and from the east of the whole land of Eden and of the whole east, it turns to the east and proceeds till it reaches the east of the mountain named Rafa, and it descends

17 to the bank of the mouth of the river Tina. This portion came forth by lot for Shem and his sons,

18 that they should possess it for ever unto his generations for evermore. And Noah rejoiced that this portion came forth for Shem and for his sons, and he remembered all that he had spoken with his mouth in prophecy; for he had said: 'Blessed be the Lord God of Shem And may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of Shem.'

19 And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the holy of holies, and the dwelling of the Lord, and Mount Sinai the centre of the desert, and Mount Zion -the centre of the navel of the earth: these three

20 were created as holy places facing each other. And he blessed the God of gods, who had put the

21 word of the Lord into his mouth, and the Lord for evermore. And he knew that a blessed portion and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto the generations for ever -the whole land of Eden and the whole land of the Red Sea, and the whole land of the east and India, and on the Red Sea and the mountains thereof, and all the land of Bashan, and all the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, and all the mountains of Sanir and 'Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Susan and Ma'edai, and all the mountains of Ararat, and all the region beyond the sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur towards the

22 north, a blessed and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good. And for Ham came forth the second portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west to the sea of 'Atel and it extends towards the west till it reaches the sea of Ma'uk -that (sea) into which

23 everything which is not destroyed descends. And it goes forth towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden

24 of Eden. And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to occupy

25 for ever for himself and his sons unto their generations for ever. And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north-

26 easterly to the whole region of Gog, and to all the country east thereof. And it extends northerly to the north, and it extends to the mountains of Qelt towards the north, and towards the sea of

27 Ma'uk, and it goes forth to the east of Gadir as far as the region of the waters of the sea. And it extends until it approaches the west of Fara and it returns towards 'Aferag, and it extends easterly

28 to the waters of the sea of Me'at. And it extends to the region of the river Tina in a north-easterly direction until it approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain Rafa, and it turns

29 round towards the north. This is the land which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the portion of his inheritance which he should possess for himself and his sons, for their generations for ever;

30 five great islands, and a great land in the north. But it is cold, and the land of Ham is hot, and the land of Shem is neither hot nor cold, but it is of blended cold and heat.


Chapter 9

1 And Ham divided amongst his sons, and the first portion came forth for Cush towards the east, and to the west of him for Mizraim, and to the west of him for Put, and to the west of him

2 [and to the west thereof] on the sea for Canaan. And Shem also divided amongst his sons, and the first portion came forth for Ham and his sons, to the east of the river Tigris till it approachcs the east, the whole land of India, and on the Red Sea on its coast, and the waters of Dedan, and all the mountains of Mebri and Ela, and all the land of Susan and all that is on the side of Pharnak

3 to the Red Sea and the river Tina. And for Asshur came forth the second Portion, all the land of

4 Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascends and skirts the river. And for Arpachshad came forth the third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to the east of the Euphrates, bordering on the Red Sea, and all the waters of the desert close to the tongue of the sea which looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and Sanir and 'Amana to the border of the

5 Euphrates.And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains

6 of Asshur and the land of 'Arara. And there came forth for Lud the fifth portion, the mountains of Asshur and all appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till it reaches the east of

7, 8 Asshur his brother. And Japheth also divided the land of his inheritance amongst his sons. And the first portion came forth for Gomer to the east from the north side to the river Tina; and in the north there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of the north until it reaches to the sea of

9 Me'at. And for Madai came forth as his portion that he should posses from the west of his two

10 brothers to the islands, and to the coasts of the islands. And for Javan came forth the fourth

11 portion every island and the islands which are towards the border of Lud. And for Tubal there came forth the fifth portion in the midst of the tongue which approaches towards the border of the portion of Lud to the second tongue, to the region beyond the second tongue unto the third tongue.

12 And for Meshech came forth the sixth portion, all the region beyond the third tongue till it

13 approaches the east of Gadir. And for Tiras there came forth the seventh portion, four great islands in the midst of the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham [and the islands of Kamaturi

14 came out by lot for the sons of Arpachshad as his inheritance].
And thus the sons of Noah divided unto their sons in the presence of Noah their father, and he bound them all by an oath, imprecating

15 a curse on every one that sought to seize the portion which had not fallen (to him) by his lot. And they all said, 'So be it; so be it ' for themselves and their sons for ever throughout their generations till the day of judgment, on which the Lord God shall judge them with a sword and with fire for all the unclean wickedness of their errors, wherewith they have filled the earth with transgression and uncleanness and fornication and sin.


TableofNationsA.jpg

 

We now know UR was real and where it was located. U.S. Soldiers from the 17th Fires Brigade make their way up the reconstructed stairs of the Ziggurat of Ur, Iraq, near Contingency Operating Base Adder, May 18, 2010. Josephus Flavious was correct.

Photo taken by Spc. Samantha Ciaramitaro

US_Soldiers_climbing_the_Ziggurat_of_Ur.

It interesting to view origins from DNA.

Haplogroup K1a

mtDNA-K-map.png

http://youtu.be/Q6epLexw404

George Smith (Chelsea, London March 26, 1840 – August 19, 1876), was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one the oldest-known written works of literature.

The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia, is amongst the earliest surviving works of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five independent Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for Gilgamesh), king of Uruk. Four of these were used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian. This first combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few fragments of it have survived. The later "Standard Babylonian" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: 'He who Sees the Unknown). Fragments of approximately two thirds of this longer, twelve-tablet version have been recovered. Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal.

The first half of the story relates a friendship between Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh's peer to distract him from oppressing the people of Uruk. Together, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven, which the goddess Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. As a punishment for these actions, the gods sentence Enkidu to death.

In the second half of the epic, Gilgamesh's distress at Enkidu's death causes him to undertake a long and perilous journey to discover the secret of eternal life. He eventually learns that "Life, which you look for, you will never find. For when the gods created man, they let death be his share, and life withheld in their own hands".However, because of his great building projects, his account of Siduri's advice, and what the immortal man Utnapishtim told him about the great flood, Gilgamesh's fame survived his death. His story has been translated into many languages, and in recent years has featured in works of popular fiction.

In 1872, Smith achieved worldwide fame by his translation of the Chaldaean account of the Great Flood, which he read before the Society of Biblical Archaeology on December 3 and whose audience included the Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone.

THE CHALDEAN ACCOUNT OF GENESIS

CONTAINING

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE CREATION, THE DELUGE, THE

TOWER OF BABEL, THE DESTRUCTION OF SODOM,

THE TIMES OF THE PATRIARCHS,

AND NIMROD ;

BABYLONIAN FABLES, AND LEGENDS OP THE GODS;

FROM THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS.

BY GEORGE SMITH,

FORMERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUSEUM,

ASSURBANIPAL OF " HISTORY OF ASSURBANIPAL," "ASSYRIAN DISCOVERIES," ETC. ETC.

A NEW EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED AND CORRECTED (WITH ADDITIONS),

BY A. H. SAYCE,

DEPUTY-PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

March 1881 recieved by University of Princeton (exact publication date unknown)

Extract I. From Alexander Polyhistor (Cor. 56

"There was a time in which there existed nothing but darkness and an abyss of waters, wherein resided most hideous beings, which were produced of a two-fold principle. There appeared men some of whom were furnished with two wings, others with four, and two faces. They had one body, but two faces. They had one body, but two hands; the one that of a man, the other of a woman; they were likewise in their several organs both mal and female. Other human figures were be seen with legs and horns of a goat; some horses' feet, while others united the hind quarters of a horse with the body of a man, resembling in shape the hippocentaurs. Bulls likewise were bred there with heads of men; and dogs with fourfold bodis, terminated in their extremities with the tails of fishes; horses also with heads of dogs; men, too, and other animals, with the heads and bodies of horses, and the tails of fishes. In short, there were creatures in which were combined the species of animals. In addition to these, fishes, reptiles, serpents, with other monstrous animals which assumed each other's shape countenance. Of all which were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon.

"The person who supposed to have presided over them was a woman named Omoroka, which in the Chaldean language is Thalatth; which in Greek is interpreted Thalassa, the sea; but according to the most true interpretation it is equivalent to Selene the moon. All things being in this situation, Belus came, and cut the woman asunder, and one half of her formed the earth, and the other half the heavens, and at the same time destroyed the animals within her (or in the abyss).

"All this" (he says) "was an allegorical description of nature. For, the whole universe consisting of moisture, and animals being continually generated therein, the deity above-mentioned (Belus) cut off his own head; upon the other gods mixed blood, as it gushed out, which the earth, and from thence men were formed. On this account it is that they are rational, and partake of divine knowledge. This Belus, by whom they signify Hades (Pluto), divided the darkness, and separated the heavens from the earth, and reduced the universe to order. But the recently-created creatures, not being able to bear the prevalence of light died. Belus upon this, seeing a vast space unoccupied, though by nature fruitful, commanded one of the gods to take off his head, and mix the blood with the earth, and thence to form other men and animals, which should be capable of bearing light. Belus formed also the stars, and the sun, and the moon, and five planets." (Such, according to Alexander Polyhisor, is the account which gives in his first book.)

"After the death of Ardates, his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened the great deluge; the history of which is thus described. The deity Kronos appeared to him in a vision, and warned him that upon the fifteenth day of which Daesius there would be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the beginning, progress, and conclusion of all things, down to the present term, and to bury it in Sippara, the city of the Sun; and build a vessel, and take him into it his friends and his relations; and to convey on board everything necessary to sustain life, together with all the different animals, both birds and quadrupeds, and trust himself fearlessly to the deep. Having asked the Diety whither he was to sail, he was answered, 'To the Gods;' upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of mankind. He then obeyed the divine admonition, and built a vessel five stadia in length and two in breath. In this he put everything which he had prepared, and last of all conveyed into it his wife, his children, and his friends.

After the flood had been upon the earth, was in time abated, Xisuthrus sent out birds from the vessel; which not finding any food, nor any place whereupon they might rest their feet, returned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent them forth a second time; and they now returned with their feet tinged with mud. He made a trial a third time with these birds; but they returned to him no more: from whence he judged that the surface of the earth had appeared above the waters.

He therefore mad an opening in the vessel, and upon looking out found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain; upon which he immediately quitted it with his wife, his daughter, and the pilot. Xisuthrus then paid adoration to the earth; and having constructed an alter, offered sacrifices to the gods, and, with those who had come out of the vessel with him, disappeared.

They who remained within, finding that their companions did not return, quitted the vessel with many lamentations, and called continually on the name of Xisuthrus. Him they saw no more; but they could distinguish his voice in the air, and could hear him admonish them to pay due regard to the gods; and he likewise informed them that it was upon account of his piety that he was translated to live with the gods, and his wife and daughter and the pilot had obtained the same honor. To this he added that they should return to Babylonia, and it was ordained, search for the writings at Sipara, which they were to make known to all mankind; moreover, that the place wherin they then were was the land of Armenia. The rest having heard these words offered sacrifices to the gods, and, taking circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia.

The vessel being thus stranded in Armenia, som part of it yet remains in the Gordyaen (or Kurdish) mountains in Armenda, and people scrape off the bitumen which it had been outwardly coated, and use of it by way of an antidote or amulet.

In this manner they returned to Babylon and when they had found the writing at Sippara they built cities and erected temples, and Babylon was thus inhabited again.


Bel (/ˈbeɪl/; from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. The feminine form is Belit 'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Greek as Belos and in Latin as Belus. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate (common parent language) with Northwest Semitic Ba‘al with the same meaning.

Here are examples:

Judges 2

2:11 The Israelites did evil before the Lord by worshiping the Baals.

Jeremiah 9

9:14 Instead they have followed the stubborn inclinations of their own hearts. They have paid allegiance to the gods called Baal, as their fathers taught them to do.

7771093766_525758579d.jpg

Thalatth or Tiamat of Mesopotamian Religion (Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian and Babylonian), is a chaos monster, a primordial goddess of the ocean, mating with Abzû (the god of fresh water) to produce younger gods. The Enûma Elish specifically states that Tiamat did give birth to dragons and serpents.

The Enûma Eliš (also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation mythos (named after its opening words). It was recovered by Austen Henry Layard in 1849 (in fragmentary form) in the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), and published by George Smith in 1876.

The Enûma Eliš exists in various copies from Babylon and Assyria. The version from Ashurbanipal's library dates to the 7th century BCE. The composition of the text probably dates to the Bronze Age, to the time of Hammurabi or perhaps the early Kassite era (roughly 18th to 16th centuries BCE), although some scholars favour a later date of c. 1100 BCE.

The epic names two primeval gods:

Apsû (or Abzu) who represents fresh water and Tiamat representing oceanic waters.

The Abzu ( Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû) also called engur, (Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru) literally, ab='water' (or 'semen') zu='to know' or 'deep' was the name for fresh water from underground aquifers that was given a religious fertilizing quality in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. Lakes, springs, rivers, wells, and other sources of fresh water were thought to draw their water from the Abzu the abode of Enki (Akkadian Ea), god of wisdom and incantations.

Several other gods are created (Ea and his brothers) who reside in Tiamat's vast body. They make so much noise that the babel or noise annoys Tiamat and Apsû greatly.

Apsû wishes to kill the young gods, but Tiamat disagrees. The vizier, Mummu, agrees with Apsû's plan to destroy them. Tiamat, in order to stop this from occurring, warns Ea (Nudimmud), the most powerful of the gods.

Ea_(Babilonian)_-_EnKi_(Sumerian).jpg

Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts (gašam); mischief; water, seawater, lakewater (a, aba, ab), intelligence (gestú, literally "ear") and creation (Nudimmud: nu, likeness, dim mud, make beer). He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea, but also with the constellation AŠ-IKU, the Field (Square of Pegasus). Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40," occasionally referred to as his "sacred number." The planet Mercury was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki.

Ea uses magic to put Apsû into a coma, then kills him, and shuts Mummu out. Ea then becomes the chief god. With his consort Damkina, he has a son, Marduk, greater still than himself. Marduk is given wind to play with and he uses the wind to make dust storms and tornadoes. This disrupts Tiamat's great body and causes the gods still residing inside her to be unable to sleep.

They persuade Tiamat to take revenge for the death of her husband, Apsû. Her power grows, and some of the gods join her. She creates 11 monsters (Bašmu, Ušumgallu, Mušmaḫḫū, Ugallu, Umū dabrūtu, Kulullû, Kusarikku, Scorpion man, ?, ?, ?) to help her win the battle and elevates Kingu, her new husband, to "supreme dominion." A lengthy description of the other gods' inability to deal with the threat follows.


Merodach and the Dragon

Chaos_Monster_and_Sun_God.png

Above black and white crop of full plate scan, from Austen Henry Layard's 'Monuments of Nineveh, Second Series' plate 19/83, London, J. Murray, 1853

Marduk offers to save the gods if he is appointed as their leader and allowed to remain so even after the threat passes. When the gods agree to Marduk's conditions he is selected as their champion against Tiamat, and becomes very powerful. Marduk challenges Tiamat to combat and destroys her. He then rips her corpse into two halves with which he fashions the earth and the skies.

The gods who had pledged their allegiance to Tiamat are initially forced into labor in the service of the gods who sided with Marduk. But they are freed from these labors when Marduk then destroys Tiamat's husband, Kingu, and uses his blood to create humankind to do the work for the gods. Most noteworthy is Marduk's symbolic elevation over Enlil, who was seen by earlier Mesopotamian civilizations as the king of the gods.

Job's image of Hashem fighting Rehab is similar to Marduk fighting Tiamat.

Job 26

26:5 “The dead tremble –

those beneath the waters

and all that live in them.

26:6 The underworld is unclothed before God;

the place of destruction lies uncovered.

26:7 He spreads out the northern skies over empty space;

he suspends the earth on nothing.

26:8 He locks the waters in his clouds,

and the clouds do not burst with the weight of them.

26:9 He conceals the face of the full moon,

shrouding it with his clouds.

26:10 He marks out the horizon on the surface of the waters

as a boundary between light and darkness.

26:11 The pillars of the heavens tremble

and are amazed at his rebuke.

26:12 By his power he stills the sea;

by his wisdom he cut Rahab the great sea monster to pieces.

26:13 By his breath the skies became fair;

his hand pierced the fleeing serpent.

26:14 Indeed, these are but the outer fringes of his ways!

How faint is the whisper we hear of him!

But who can understand the thunder of his power?”


THE CHALDEAN ACCOUNT OF GENESIS

BY GEORGE SMITH

*' The person who was supposed to have presided over them was a woman named Omoroka, which in the Chaldean language is Thalatth ; which in Greek is interpreted Thalassa, the sea ; but according to the most true interpretation it is equivalent to Selene the moon. All things being in this situation, Belus came, and cut the woman asunder, and of one half of her he formed the earth, and of the other half the heavens, and at the same time destroyed the animals within her (or in the abyss)

" All this " (he says) " was an allegorical description of nature. For, the whole universe consisting of moisture, and animals being continually generated therein, the deity above-mentioned (Belus) cut off his own head ; upon which the other gods mixed the blood, as it gushed out, with the earth, and from thence men were formed. On this account it is that they are rational, and partake of divine knowledge. This Belus, by whom they signify Hades (Pluto), divided the darkness, and separated the heavens from the earth, and reduced the universe to order. But the recently-created animals, not being able to bear the prevalence of light, died. Belus upon this, seeing a vast space unoccupied, though by nature fruitful, commanded one of the gods to take off his head, and to mix the blood with the earth, and from thence to form other men and animals, which should be capable of bearing the light. Belus formed also the stars, and the sun, and the moon, and the five planets." (Such, according to Alexander Polyhistor, is the account which Berosus gives in his first book.)

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


THE CHALDEAN ACCOUNT OF GENESIS

BY GEORGE SMITH

Sixth Fragment

1. he fixed it...
2. the weapon with right hand he took
3. ...and the quiver from his hand he hung,
4.and he hurled lightning before him,
5. heat filled his body.
6.He made also the scimitar (to produce) calm in the midst of the sea (Tiamtu).
7 The four winds he imprisoned that might come forth from its calm,
8. the South, the North, the East, and the West winds.
9. His hand caused the scimitar to approach the bow of his father Anu.
10. He created the evil wind, the hostile wind, the tempest, the storm,
11. the four winds, the seven winds, the whirlwind, the unceasing wind.
12. He sent forth also the winds he had created, seven of them;
13. into the midst of the sea (Tiamtu) they were launched to disturb, they came after him.
14. He lifted up the weapon, the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon;
15.in a chariot that sweeps away all in front, which gives rest, he rode.
16. He fixed it and four yoke-thongs on its pole he hung,
17....the unyeilding, the overwhelming, he that pursues her.
18....with their sting bringing poison
19....sweeping away knowledge
20....destruction and fighting

Reverse.

1. Unprevailling (is) thy; troop; may thy arms strike their bodies!
2. I also stand firm, and with thee make battle.
3. Tiamtu (the sea) on hearing this
4. as before used spells, and changed her resolution.
5. Tiamtu also raised herself; warily she ascended.
6. At the roots fully she grounded (her) foundations.
7. She told over the spell; she determined return (to chaos),
8. and the gods for the war asked themselves their weapons.
9. Then Tiamtu attacked the prince of the gods, Merodach,
10. who had made charms as for combat for the conflict in battle.
11. Then Bel made sharp his scimitar; he smote her.
12. The evil wind that siezes behind from before him fled.
13. And Tiamtu opened her mouth to swallow him.
14. The evil wind he made to descend so that she could not close her lips;
15. the force of the wind her stomach filled, and
16. She was sickened in heart, and her mouth it distorted.
17. She bit the shaft (of the sword); her stomach failed;
18. her inside it cut asunder, it conquered the heart;
19. it consumed her, and her life it ended.
20. Her death he completed, of her he fixes (it).
21. When Tiamat their leader he had conquered,
22. her ranks he broke, her assembly was scattered;
23. and the gods her helpers who went beside her
24. returned in fear, they fled back behind them.
25. They fled and feared for their life.
26. They are companions in flight, powerless.
27. He trampled on them and their weapons he broke.
28. Like a scimitar are they laid, and as in darkness they sat.
29. (They seek) their quarters, they are full of grief;
30. what was left they take away, they pull back like a rope,
31. and eleven-fold offspring from fear they produce
32. (Through) the flood the demons go (all of them?).
33. he laid the hostility, his hand...
34. part of their opposition under him...
35. and the god Kingu again...


Akkadian Myths and Epics

Here is a more complete translation of the Enuma Elish

TRANSLATOR: E. A. SPEISER

Ea and Damkina, his wife, dwelled (there) in splendor.In the chamber of fates, the abode of destinies, A god was engendered, most able and wisest of gods.

In the heart of Apsu was Marduk created, In the heart of holy Apsu was Marduk created.He who begot him was Ea, his father;She who bore him was Damkina, his mother.The breast of goddesses he did suck.

The nurse that nursed him filled him with awesomeness. Alluring was his figure, sparkling the lift of his eyes.Lordly was his gait, commanding from of old. When Ea saw him, the father who begot him,He exulted and glowed, his heart filled with gladness.

He rendered him perfect and endowed him with a double godhead. Greatly exalted was he above them, exceeding through-out.Perfect were his members beyond comprehension, Unsuited for understanding, difficult to perceive. Four were his eyes, four were his ears; When he moved his lips, fire blazed forth. Large were all four hearing organs, And the eyes, in like number, scanned all things.He was the loftiest of the gods, surpassing was his stature; His members were enormous, he was exceeding tall.

My son, the Sun! Sun of the heavens! "Clothed with the halo of ten gods, he was strong to the utmost, As their awesome flashes were heaped upon him. Anu brought forth and begot the fourfold wind; Consigning to its power the leader of the host.

He fashioned . . . , stationed the whirlwind, He produced streams to disturb Tiamat. The gods, given no rest, suffer in the storm. Their hearts having plotted evil, to Tiamat, their mother, said:

"When they slew Apsu, thy consort, Thou did not aid him but remained still. When the dread fourfold wind he created, Thy vitals were diluted and so we can have no rest. Let Apsu, thy consort, be in thy mind And Mummu, who has been vanquished! Thou art left alone! . . .thou paces about distraught,... without cease. Thou dost not love us! . . . pinched are our eyes,...without cease. Let us have rest!

...to battle. Do thou avenge them![... ] and render (them) as the wind!" When Tiamat heard these words, she was pleased:

"[...] you have given. Let us make monsters, [... ] and the gods in the midst... ].[ ... let us do] battle and against the gods [...]!"They thronged and marched at the side of Tiamat. Enraged, they plot without cease night and day, They are set for combat, growling, raging, They form a council to prepare for the fight.

Mother Hubur, she who fashions all things, Added matchless weapons, bore monster-serpents, Sharp of tooth, unsparing of fang. [With venom] for blood she has filled their bodies.Roaring dragons she has clothed with terror, Has crowned them with haloes, making them like gods, So that he who beholds them shall perish abjectly,(And) that, with their bodies reared up, none might turn [them back]. She set up the Viper, the Dragon,and the Sphinx, The Great-Lion, the Mad-Dog, and the Scorpion-Man, Mighty lion-demons, the Dragon-Fly, the Centaur—Bearing weapons that spare not, fearless in battle.Firm were her decrees, past withstanding were they. With all eleven of this kind she brought [forth].

From among the gods, her first-born, who formed [her Assembly],She elevated Kingu, made him chief among them. The leading of the ranks, command of the Assembly, The raising of weapons for the encounter, advancing to combat, In battle the command-in-chief. These to his hand she entrusted as she seated him in the Council:

"I have cast for thee the spell, exalting thee in the Assembly of the gods. To counsel all the gods I have given thee full power. Verily, thou art supreme, my only consort art thou! Thy utterance shall prevail over all the Anunnaki!"

She gave him the Tablet of Destinies, fastened on his breast:

"As for thee, thy command shall be unchangeable,[Thy word] shall endure!" As soon as Kingu was elevated, possessed of [the rank of Anu], For the gods, his
sons, [they decreed] the fate:

"Your word shall make the first subside, Shall humble the 'Power-Weapon,' so potent in (its) sweep""

When Tiamat had thus lent import to her handiwork,She prepared for battle against the gods, her offspring. To avenge Apsu, Tiamat wrought evil. That she was girding for battle, was divulged to Ea. As soon as Ea heard of this matter, He lapsed into dark silence and sat right still. Then, on further thought, his anger subsided, To Anshar, his (fore)father he betook himself. When he came before his grandfather, Anshar, All that Tiamat had plotted to him he repeated:

"My father, Tiamat, she who bore us, detests us. She has set up the Assembly
and is furious with rage. All the gods have rallied to her; Even those whom you brought forth march at her side. They throng and march at the side of Tiamat, Enraged, they plot without cease night and day. They are set for combat, growling, raging, They have formed a council to prepare for the fight. Mother Hubur, she who fashions all things, has added matchless weapons, has born monster serpents, Sharp of tooth, unsparing of fang. With venom for blood she has filled their bodies.

Roaring dragons she has clothed with terror,Has crowned them with halos, making them like gods, so that he who beholds them shall perish abjectly,(And) that, with their bodies reared up, none might turn them back.She has set up the Viper, the Dragon, and the Sphinx, The Great Lion, the Mad Dog, and the Scorpion Man, Mighty lion demons, the Dragon-Fly, the Centaur—Bearing weapons that spare not,fearless in battle.

Firm are her decrees, past withstanding are they. With all eleven of this kind she has brought forth. From among the gods, her first-born, who formed her
Assembly, She has elevated Kingu, has made him chief among them.The leading of the ranks, command of the Assembly,The raising of weapons for the encounter, advancing to combat,In battle the command-in-chief. These to his hands [she entrusted] as she seated him inthe Council:

'I have cast the spell for thee, exalting thee in the Assembly of the gods. To counsel all the gods I have given thee full power. Verily, thou art supreme, my only consort] art thou![Thy utterance shall prevail over all the Anunnaki!'

She has given him the Tablet of Destinies, fastened on his breast:

'As for thee, thy command shall be unchangeable, They word shall endure!'

As soon as Kingu was elevated, possessed of the rank of Anu,[For the gods, her sons, they decreed the fate:

'Your word shall make the fire subside, Shall humble the "Power-Weapon," so potent in (its) su/eepl]'"

When Anshar heard that Tiamat was sorely troubled,He smote his loins and bit his lips. Gloomy was his heart, resdess his mood. He covered his mouth
to stifle his outcry:

"...battle. The weapon thou hast made], up, bear thou! Lo, Mummu and] Apsu thou didst slay. Now, slay thou Kingu, who marches before her... ] wisdom."

Answered the counselor of the gods, Nudimmud.(The reply of Ea-Nudimmud is lost in the break. Apparently, Ea had no remedy, for Anshar next turns to Anu:

[To Anu,] his son, [a word] he addressed:

"[...] this, the most puissant of heroes, Whose strength [is outstanding], past resisting his onslaught. Go and stand thou up to Tiamat,That her mood be calmed, that her heart expand. If she will not hearken to thy word, then tell her our [word], that she might be calmed." When he heard the command of his father, Anshar, He made straight for her way, following the road to her.

But when Anu was near (enough) to see the plan of Tiamat, he was not able to face her and he turned back. He came abjecdy to his father, Anshar. As though he were Tiamat thus he] addressed him:

"My hand suffices not for me to subdue thee."

Speechless was Anshar as he stared at the ground, hair on edge, shaking his head at Ea. All the Anunnaki gathered at that place; Their lips closed tight, they sat in silence.

"No god," thought they, "can go to battle and, Facing Tiamat, escape [with his life."

Lord Anshar, father of the gods, rose up in grandeur, And having pondered in his heart, he said to the Anunnaki:

"He whose [strength] is potent shall be our avenger,He who is been
in battle, Marduk, the hero!"

Ea called Marduk to his place of seclusion. Giving counsel, he told him what was in his heart:

"O Marduk, consider my advice. Hearken to thy father, for thou art my son who comforts his heart. When facing Anshar, approach as though in combat; Stand up as thou speakest; seeing thee, he will grow restful."

The lord rejoiced at the word of his father; He approached and stood up facing Anshar. When Anshar saw him, his heart filled with joy. He kissed his lips, his own gloom dispelled.

"Anshar, be not muted; open wide thy lips.I will go and attain thy heart's desire. Anshar, be not muted; open wide thy lips. I will go and attain thy heart's desire! What male is it who has pressed his fight against thee? It is but Tiamat, a woman, that flies at thee with weapons!O my father creator, be glad and rejoice; The neck of Tiamat thou shalt soon tread upon! O my father creator, be glad and rejoice; The neck of Tiamat thou shalt soon tread upon!"

"My son, (thou) who knowest all wisdom, calm Tiamat] with thy holy spell. on the storm chariot] proceed with all speed. From her presence they shall not drive (thee)! Turn (them) back!"

The lord rejoiced at the word of his father.

His heart exulting, he said to his father:

"Creator of the gods, destiny of the great gods,If I indeed, as your avenger, Am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives,Set up the Assembly, proclaim supreme my destiny! When jointly in Ubshukinna you have sat down rejoicing, Let my word, instead of you, determine the fates. Unalterable shall be what I may bring into being; Neither recalled nor changed shall be the command of my lips."

Anshar opened his mouth and to Gaga, his vizier, a word he addressed:

"O Gaga, my vizier, who gladdens my spirit, to Lahmu and Lahamu I will dispatch thee. Thou knowest discernment, art adept at fine talk; The gods, thy fathers, produce thou before me!Let all the gods proceed hither, Let them hold converse, sit down to a banquet, Let them eat festive bread, poured wine; For Marduk, their avenger, let them fix the decrees.

Be on thy way, Gaga, take the stand before them, And that which I shall tell thee repeat thou unto them:

'Anshar, your son, has sent me hither,Charging me to give voice to [the dictates] of his heart, saying:

"Tiamat, she who bore us, detests us. She has set up the Assembly and is furious with rage. All the gods have rallied to her; Even those whom you brought forth march at her side. They throng and march at the side of Tiamat. Enraged, they plot without cease night and day. They are set for combat, growling, raging,They have formed a council to prepare for the fight.

Mother Hubur, she who fashions all things, Has added matchless weapons, has born monster serpents,Sharp of tooth, unsparing of fang. With venom for blood she has filled their bodies.Roaring dragons she has clothed wi'h terror,Has crowned them with haloes, making them like gods,So that he who beholds them shall perish abjecdy,(And) that, with their bodies reared up, none might turn them back.

She has set up the Viper, the Dragon, and the Sphinx, The Great-Lion, the Mad-Dog, and the Scorpion-Man, Mighty lion-demons, the Dragon-Fly, the Centaur bearing weapons that spare not, fearless in battle.Firm are her decrees, past withstanding are they. Withal eleven of this kind she has brought forth.From among the gods, her first-born, who formed her Assembly, She has elevated Kingu, has made him chief among them.The leading of the ranks, command of the Assembly, the raising of weapons for the encounter, advancing to combat, in battle the command-in-chief. These to his hands she entrusted as she sefated him in the Council:

'I have cast the spell for thee, exalting thee in the Assembly of the gods. To counsel all the gods have given thee full power. Verily], thou art supreme, my only consort art thou! Thy utterance shall prevail over all the Anunnaki!'

She has given him the Tablet of Destinies, fastened on his breast:

'As for thee, thy command shall be unchangeable, thy word shall endure!' As soon as Kingu was elevated, possessed of the rank of Anu, For the gods, her sons, they decreed the fate:

'Your word shall make the fire subside,Shall humble the "Power-Weapon," so potent in its sweep I sent forth Anu; he could not face her. Nudimmud was afraid and turned back.Forth came Marduk, the wisest of gods, your son,His heart having prompted him to set out to faceTiamat.He opened his mouth, saying unto me:'If I indeed, as your avenger, Am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives,Set up the Assembly, proclaim supreme my destiny!

When joindy in Ubshukinna you have sat down rejoicing, let my word, instead of you, determine the fates. Unalterable shall be what I may bring into being;
Neither recalled nor changed shall be the command of my lips! 'Now hasten hither and prompdy fix for him your decrees, That he may go forth to face your mighty foe!"'"

Gaga departed, proceeding on his way. Before Lahmu and Lahamu, the gods, his fathers, He made obeisance, kissing the ground at their feet. He bowed low as he took his placeto address them:

"It was Anshar, your son, who has sent me hither,Charging me to give voice to the dictates of his heart,Saying:

'Tiamat, she who bore us, detests us. She has set up the Assembly and is furious with rage. All the gods have rallied to her,Even those whom you brought forth march at her side. They throng and march at the side of Tiamat. Enraged, they plot without cease night and day. They are set for combat, growling, raging, They have formed a council to prepare for the fight.

Mother Hubur, she who fashions all things,Has added matchless weapons, has born monster serpents, Sharp of tooth, unsparing of fang. With venom for blood she has filled their bodies, Roaring dragons she has clothed with terror, Has crowned them with haloes, making them like gods,So that he who beholds them shall perish abjecdy,(And) that, with their bodies reared up, none mightturn them back.She has set up vipers, dragons, and sphinxes, Great-lions, mad-dogs, and scorpion-men, Mighty lion-demons, dragon-flies, and centaurs. Bearing weapons that spare not, fearless in battle. Firm are decrees, past withstanding are they. With alk eleven of this kind she has brought forth.From among the gods, her first-born, who formed her Assembly, She has elevated Kingu, has made him chief among them.The leading of the ranks, command of the Assembly,The raising of weapons for the encounter, advancing tocombat,In batde the command-in-chief—These to his hands she has entrusted as she seated him in the Council:

'I have cast the spell for thee, exalting thee in the Assembly of the gods.To counsel all the gods I have given thee full power. Verily, thou art supreme, my only consort art thou! Thy utterance shall prevail over all the Anunnaki!'

She has given him the Tablet of Destinies, [fastened onhis breast]:'As for thee, thy command shall be un [changeable,Thy word shall endure]!'

As soon as Kingu was elevated, possessed of the rank of Anu,For the gods, her sons, they decreed the fate:

'Your word shall make the fire subside, Shall humble the "Power Weapon," so potent in its sweep.'

I sent forth Anu; he could not [face her].Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. Forth came Marduk, the wisest of gods, your son, His heart having prompted him to set out to face Tiamat.He opened his mouth, saying unto me]:

'If I indeed, as your avenger, Am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives,Set up the Assembly, proclaim supreme my destiny! When in Ubshukinna joindy you sit down rejoicing, Let my word, instead of you, determine the fates. Unalterable shall be what I may bring into being; Neither recalled nor changed shall be the command of my lips!'

Now hasten hither and prompdy fix for him your decrees, That he may go forth to face your mighty foe!" When Lahmu and Lahamu heard this, they cried out aloud, All the Igigi wailed in distress:

"How strange that they should have made this decision! We cannot fathom the doings of Tiamat!"

They made ready to leave on their journey, All the great gods who decree the fates.

They entered before Anshar, filling Ubshukinna.They kissed one another in the Assembly. They held converse as they sat down to the banquet.They ate festive bread, poured the wine, They wetted their drinking tubes with sweet intoxicant. As they drank the strong drink, their bodies swelled.They became very languid as their spirits rose. For Marduk, their avenger, they fixed the decrees.

They erected for him a princely throne.Facing his fathers, he sät down, presiding.

"Thou art the most honored of the great gods,Thy decree is unrivaled, thy command is Anu. Thou, Marduk, art the most honored of the great gods,Thy decree is unrivaled, thy word is Anu. From this day unchangeable shall be thy pronouncement. To raise or bring low—these shall be (in) thy hand.Thy utterance shall be true, thy command shall be un-impeachable. No one among the gods shall transgress thy bounds! Adornment being wanted for the seats of the gods,Let the place of their shrines ever be in thy place.O Marduk, thou art indeed our avenger. We have granted thee kingship over the universe entire. When in Assembly thou sittest, thy word shall besupreme.Thy weapons shall not fail; they shall smash thy foes!O lord, spare the life of him who trusts thee,But pour out the life of the god who seized evil."

Having placed in their midst the Images, They addressed themselves to Marduk, their first-born:

"Lord, truly thy decree is first among gods. Say but to wreck or create; it shall be. Open thy mouth:

the Images will vanish! Speak again, and the Images shall be whole!"

At the word of his mouth the Images vanished. He spoke again, and the Images were restored. When the gods, his fathers, saw the fruit of his word, Joyfully they did homage:

"Marduk is king!"

They conferred on him scepter, throne, and vestment; They gave him matchless weapons that ward off the foes:

"Go and cut off the life of Tiamat.May the winds bear her blood to places undisclosed."Bel's destiny thus fixed, the gods, his fathers,Caused him to go the way of success and attainment.He constructed a bow, marked it as his weapon, Attached thereto the arrow, fixed its bow-cord.He raised the mace, made his right hand grasp it; Bow and quiver he hung at his side. In front of him he set the lightning, With a blazing flame he filled his body.

He then made a net to enfold Tiamat therein.The four winds he stationed that nothing of her mightescape,The South Wind, the North Wind, the East Wind, the West Wind.Close to his side he held the net, the gift of his father, Anu. He brought forth Imhullu "the Evil Wind," the Whirlwind, the Hurricane, The Fourfold Wind, the Sevenfold Wind, the Cyclone,the Matchless Wind;Then he sent forth the winds he had brought forth, the seven of them.To stir up the inside of Tiamat they rose up behind him.Then the lord raised up the flood-storm, his mighty weapon. He mounted the storm chariot irresistible and terrifying.

He harnessed (and) yoked to it a team-of-four, The Killer, the Relentless, the Trampler, the Swift.(Their) lips were parted, their teeth bore poison.They were tireless and skilled in destruction. On his right he posted the Smiter, fearsome in battle, On the left the Combat, which repels all the zealous. For a cloak he was wrapped in an armor of terror; With his fearsome halo his head was turbaned.

The lord went forth and followed his course,Towards the raging Tiamat he set his face. In his lips he held a spell; A plant to put out poison was grasped in his hand.Then they milled about him, the gods milled about him, The gods, his fathers, milled about him, the gods milled about him.The lord approached to scan the inside of Tiamat,(And) of Kingu, her consort, the scheme to perceive. As he looks on, his course becomes upset, His will is distracted and his doings are confused. And when the gods, his helpers, who marched at his side, Saw the valiant hero, blurred became their vision.

Tiamat emitted a cry, without turning her neck, Framing savage defiance in her lips:

"Too important art thou for the lord of the gods to rise up against thee! Is it in their place that they have gathered, or in thy place?"

Thereupon the lord, having raised the flood-storm, his mighty weapon, To enraged Tiamat he sent word as follows:

"Why art thou risen, art haughtily exalted, Thou hast charged thine own heart to stir up conflict,. . . sons reject their own fathers, Whilst thou, who hast born them, hast foresworn love! Thou hast appointed Kingu as thy consort,Conferring upon him the rank of Anu, not rightfully his. Against Anshar, king of the gods, thou seekest evil; Against the gods, my fathers, thou hast confirmed thy wickedness. Though] drawn up be thy forces, girded on thy weapons, Stand thou up, that I and thou meet in single combat!"

When Tiamat heard this,She was like one possessed; she took leave of her senses. In fury Tiamat cried out aloud. To the roots her legs shook both together.

She recites a charm, keeps casting her spell, While the gods of battle sharpen their weapons. Then joined issue Tiamat and Marduk, wisest of gods. They strove
in single combat, locked in battle.The lord spread out his net to enfold her,The Evil Wind, which followed behind, he let loose in her face. When Tiamat opened her mouth to consume him,He drove in the Evil Wind that she close not her lips. As the fierce winds charged her belly, Her body was distended and her mouth was wide open.

He released the arrow, it tore her belly, It cut through her insides, splitting the heart. Having thus subdued her, he extinguished her life. He cast down her carcass to stand upon it After he had slain Tiamat, the leader, Her band was shattered, her troupe broken up; And the gods, her helpers who marched at her side, Trembling with terror, turned their backs about, In order to save and preserve their lives. Tightly encircled, they could not escape. He made them captives and he smashed their weapons.Thrown into the net, they found themselves ensnared;Placed in cells, they were filled with wailing;Bearing his wrath, they were held imprisoned.

And the eleven creatures which she had charged with awe,The whole band of demons that marched on her right, He cast into fetters, their hands he bound. For
all their resistance, he trampled (them) underfoot And Kingu, who had been made chief among them,He bound and accounted him to Uggae. He took from him the Tablet of Destinies, not rightfully his,Sealed (them) with a seal and fastened (them) on his breast When he had vanquished and subdued his adversaries,Had . . . the vainglorious foe,Had wholly established Anshar's triumph over the foe,Nudimmud's desire had achieved, valiant Marduk Strengthened his hold on the vanquished gods, And turned back to Tiamat whom he had bound.The lord trod on the legs of Tiamat, With his unsparing mace he crushed her skull.

When the arteries of her blood he had severed,The North Wind bore (it) to places undisclosed. On seeing this, his fathers were joyful and jubilant,They brought gifts of homage, they to him.Then the lord paused to view her dead body,That he might divide the monster and do artful works. He split her like a shellfish into two parts:

Half of her he set up and ceiled it as sky, Pulled down the bar and posted guards. He bade them to allow not her waters to escape.

He crossed the heavens and surveyed the regions. He squared Apsu's quarter,
the abode of Nudimmud, As the lord measured the dimensions of Apsu.The Great Abode, its likeness, he fixed as Esharra, The Great Abode, Esharra, which he made as the firmament Anu, Enlil, and Ea he made occupy their places.

He constructed stations for the great gods,Fixing their astral likenesses as the Images.He determined the year by designating the zones:He set up three constellations for each of the twelvemonths. After defining the days of the year [by means] of (heavenly) figures, He founded the station of Nebiru to determine their(heavenly) bands,That none might transgress or fall short. Alongside it he set up the stations of Enlil and Ea.Having opened up the gates on both sides,He strengthened the locks to the leftand the right In her belly he established the zenith. The Moon he caused to shine, the night (to him) en-trusting.He appointed him a creature of the night to signify thedays:"Monthly, without form designs with a crown. At the month's very start, rising over the land,Thou shalt have luminous horns to signify six days,On the seventh day reaching a [half]-crown. At full moon stand in opposition in mid-month. When the sun [overtakes] thee at the base of heaven, Diminish thy crown and retrogress in light. At the time of disappearance] approach thou the course of the sun, And on the thirtieth thou shalt again stand inopposition to the sun."

When Marduk hears the words of the gods, His heart prompts (him) to fashion artful works.Opening his mouth, he addresses Ea to impart the plan he had conceived in his heart:

"Blood I will mass and cause bones to be.I will establish a savage, 'man' shall be his name. Verily, savage-man I will create. He shall be charged with the service of the gods, that they might be at ease! The ways of the gods I will artfully alter. Though alike revered, into two (groups) they shall be divided."

Ea answered him, speaking a word to him, Giving him another plan for the relief of the gods:

"Let but one of their brothers be handed over;He alone shall perish that mankind may be fashioned. Let the great gods be here in Assembly, Let the guilty be handed over that they may endure."Marduk summoned the great gods to Assembly; Presiding graciously, he issues instructions.To his utterance the gods pay heed.
The king addresses a word to the Anunnaki:

"If your former statement was true, Do (now) the truth on oath by me declare!
Who was it that contrived the uprising, And made Tiamat rebel, and joined battle? Let him be handed over who contrived the uprising. His guilt I will make him bear. You shall dwell in
peace."

The Igigi, the great gods, replied to him, To Lugaldimmerankia, counselor of the gods, their lord:

"It was Kingu who contrived the uprising, And made Tiamat rebel, and joined batdei."

They bound him, holding him before Ea. They imposed on him his guilt and severed his blood vessels. Out of his blood they fashioned mankind.

He imposed the service and let free the gods. After Ea, the wise, had created mankind, Had imposed upon it the service of the gods. That work was beyond comprehension; As artfully planned by Marduk, did Nudimmud create it. Marduk, the king of the gods divided all the Anunnaki above and below.

He assigned (them) to Anu to guard his instructions.Three hundred in the heavens he stationed as a guard.In like manner the ways of the earth he defined.In heaven and on earth six hundred (thus) he settled. After he had ordered all the instructions,To the Anunnaki of heaven and earth had allotted their portions, The Anunnaki opened their mouths And said to Marduk, their lord:

"Now, O lord, thou who hast caused our deliverance, What shall be our homage to thee?

Let us build a shrine whose name shall be called' Lo, a chamber for our nightly rest'; let us repose in it. Let us build a throne, a recess for his abode! On the day that we arrive we shall repose in it" When Marduk heard this, Brightly glowed his features, like the day:

"Construct Babylon, whose building you have requested,Let its brickwork be fashioned. You shall name it 'The Sanctuary.'"

The Anunnaki applied the implement; For one whole year they molded bricks. When the second year arrived, They raised high the head" of Esagila equaling Apsu.Having built a stage-tower as high as Apsu, They set up in it
an abode for Marduk, Enlil, (and) EaIn their presence he was seated in grandeur.To the base of Esharra its horns look down. After they had achieved the building of Esagila, All the Anunnaki erected their shrines.The three hundred Igigi all of them gathered,The lord being on the lofty dais which they had built as his abode The gods, his fathers, at his banquet he seated:

"This is Babylon, the place that is your home! Make merry in its precincts, occupy its broad [places].'


A connection to Tiamat has been suggested with parallels to her description as "Ummu-Hubur". Hubur is also referred to in the Enuma Elish as "mother sea Hubur, who fashions all things". The river Euphrates has been identified with Hubur as the source of fertility in Sumer. This Babylonian "river of creation" has been linked to the later Hebrew "river of paradise".

From conservative estimates the Enuma Elish and Genesis were written approximately the same time. At some point the creation story became corrupted.

Here we see what God thinks of Marduk.

Jeremiah 50

50:1 The Lord spoke concerning Babylon and the land of Babylonia through the prophet Jeremiah.

50:2 “Announce the news among the nations! Proclaim it!

Signal for people to pay attention!

Declare the news! Do not hide it! Say:

‘Babylon will be captured.

Bel will be put to shame.

Marduk will be dismayed.

Babylon’s idols will be put to shame.

Her disgusting images will be dismayed.



Was Ashur the son of Shem, grandson of Noah considered to be the same Ashur who was head of the Assyrian pantheon of gods in Mesopotamian religion? If so, this could be the origin of the corruption of Genesis.

The-table-of-Nations1-1024x797.jpg

The Antiquities of the Jews, by Flavius Josephus (Written 93-94 A.D.)

BOOK I. Containing The Interval Of Three Thousand Eight Hundred And Thirty-Three Years. — From The Creation To The Death Of Isaac.

CHAPTER 6. How Every Nation Was Denominated From Their First Inhabitants.

4. Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others.

 

Ashur_god.jpg

Over time the image of Ashur became the symbol of Faravahar of the Zoroastrian religion.


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Aša "cannot be precisely rendered by some single word in another tongue,"but may be summarized as follows:

It is, first of all, 'true statement'. This 'true statement', because it is true, corresponds to an objective, material reality. This reality embraces all of existence. Recognized in it is a great cosmic principle since all things happen according to it.

"This cosmic [...] force is imbued also with morality, as verbal Truth, 'la parole conforme', and Righteousness, action conforming with the moral order."

Asha Vahishta is closely associated with fire. Fire is "grandly conceived as a force informing all the other Amesha Spentas, giving them warmth and the spark of life.

Asa in Sanskrit means hope

There was a prophecy against Asshur made by Balaam.

Numbers 24

24:20 Then Balaam looked on Amalek and delivered this oracle:

“Amalek was the first of the nations,

but his end will be that he will perish.”

24:21 Then he looked on the Kenites and uttered this oracle:

“Your dwelling place seems strong,

and your nest is set on a rocky cliff.

24:22 Nevertheless the Kenite will be consumed.

How long will Asshur take you away captive?”

24:23 Then he uttered this oracle:

“O, who will survive when God does this!

24:24 Ships will come from the coast of Kittim,

and will afflict Asshur, and will afflict Eber,

and he will also perish forever.”

24:25 Balaam got up and departed and returned to his home, and Balak also went his way.


Kittim was a settlement in present-day Larnaca on the west coast of Cyprus, known in ancient times as Kition, or (in Latin) Citium. On this basis, the whole island became known as "Kittim" in Hebrew, including the Hebrew Bible.

1 Maccabees 1

1 Now turn we to Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, that was the first to reign over all Greece. This Alexander marched out from his own land of Cethim , and overcame Darius, king of the Medes and Persians.

2 Battles he waged a many; nor any fortress might hold out against him, nor any king escape with his life;

3 and so he journeyed on to the world’s end, spoiling the nations everywhere; at his coming, silence fell on the earth.

4 So great the power of him, so valiant his armies, what wonder if his heart grew proud? All those lands conquered, all those kings his tributaries!

6 Then, all at once, he took to his bed, and the knowledge came to him he must die.

7 Whereupon he summoned the noblest of his courtiers, men that had shared his own upbringing, and to these, while he had life in him yet, divided up his kingdom.

8 So reigned Alexander for twelve years, and so died.


Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim.

http://youtu.be/524NsuNR-l0

Then comes Nimrod.

Genesis 10

10:8 Cush was the father of Nimrod; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth.

10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord. (That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”)

10:10 The primary regions of his kingdom were Babel, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

10:11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah,

10:12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah.


Genesis 11

11:1 The whole earth had a common language and a common vocabulary.

11:2 When the people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

11:3 Then they said to one another, “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” (They had brick instead of stone and tar instead of mortar.)

11:4 Then they said, “Come, let’s build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens so that we may make a name for ourselves. Otherwise we will be scattered across the face of the entire earth.”

11:5 But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the people had started building.

11:6 And the Lord said, “If as one people all sharing a common language they have begun to do this, then 17 nothing they plan to do will be beyond them.

11:7 Come, let’s go down and confuse their language so they won’t be able to understand each other.”

11:8 So the Lord scattered them from there across the face of the entire earth, and they stopped building the city.

11:9 That is why its name was called Babel – because there the Lord confused the language of the entire world, and from there the Lord scattered them across the face of the entire earth.


Babylon (Arabic: بابل‎, Bābil; Akkadian: Bābili(m); Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bāḇel;Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: Bābiru) was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC.

In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם‎, translated as "name") was first used to refer to a language family of West Asian origin, now called Semitic, which includes: the ancient and modern forms of Ahlamu, Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian), Amharic, Ammonite, Amorite, Arabic, Aramaic/Syriac, Canaanite/Phoenician/Carthaginian, Chaldean, Eblaite, Edomite, Ge'ez, Hebrew, Maltese, Mandaic, Moabite, Sutean, Tigre and Tigrinya, and Ugaritic, and others.

Here is a Wikipedia map that shows approximate historical distribution of Semitic languages.

712px-Semitic_languages.svg.png

Book of Jubilees

Chapter 7

1 And in the seventh week in the first year [1317 A.M.] thereof, in this jubilee, Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year, [1320 A.M.] and he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the

2 seventh month. And he made wine therefrom and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth

3 year, [1321 A.M.] until the first day, on the new moon of the first month. And he celebrated with joy the day of this feast, and he made a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, that he might make atonement thereby for himself

4 and his sons. And he prepared the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt sacrifice,

5 and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. And he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the altar and caused a sweet savour to

6 ascend acceptable before the Lord his God. And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his

7 children with joy. And it was evening, and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down

8 and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept. And Ham saw Noah his father unclothed, and

9 went forth and told his two brethren without. And Shem took his garment and arose, he and Japheth, and they placed the garment on their shoulders and went backward and covered the shame

10 of their father, and their faces were backward. And Noah awoke from his sleep and knew all that his younger son had done unto him, and he cursed his son and said:

'Cursed be Canaan; an

11 enslaved servant shall he be unto his brethren.' And he blessed Shem, and said:

'Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and God shall

13 dwell in the dwelling of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant.' And Ham knew that his father had cursed his younger son, and he was displeased that he had cursed his son. and he parted from

14 his father, he and his sons with him, Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan. And he built for

15
himself a city and called its name after the name of his wife Ne'elatama'uk. And Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built for himself a city, and he called its name after

16 the name of his wife 'Adataneses. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on the mountain, and he too called its name after the name of his wife Sedeqetelebab.

17 And behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain on its

18 east; and Na'eltama'uk on the south; 'Adatan'eses towards the west. And these are the sons of Shem:

Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad -this (son) was born two years after the flood- and

19 Lud, and Aram. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and

20 Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah.


We know that Asshur was the son of Shem. Asshur lived at the city Nineveh that Genesis states he (or depending on biblical translation his cousin Cush or Nimrod) built, Nevertheless, Nineveh was rightfully given to Asshur by his father Shem who given the land by Noah in Book of Jubilees. Nineve is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nineve was the largest city in the world for some fifty years until, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria itself, it was sacked by an unusual coalition of former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Chaldeans, Scythians and Cimmerians in 612 BC. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate of Iraq.

 

Ushpia was an early Assyrian king who ruled circa 2030 BC, according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Like most other of the "kings who lived in tents", his name is not regarded as Semitic, but more likely Hurrian. The Hurrians were a people of the Bronze Age Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian, and lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia. The Hurrians are known in the Bible as the Horites.

 

Ushpia is also alleged to have founded the temple of Ashur at the city of Assur, according to the much later inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (13th century BC) and Esarhaddon (8th century BC). However, he has yet to be confirmed by contemporary artifacts and nothing else of him is known.

 

In the Babylonian creation myth Enuma Elish, Anshar (also spelled Anshur), which means "sky pivot" or "sky axle", is a sky god. He is the husband of his sister Kishar. They might both represent heaven (an) and earth (ki). Both are the second generation of gods; their parents being the serpents Lahmu and Lahamu and grandparents Tiamat and Abzu. They, in turn, are the parents of Anu, another sky god.During the reign of Sargon II, Assyrians started to identify Anshar with their Assur in order to let him star in their version of Enuma Elish.

 

Temple of Ashur (right) was founded by the king of Assyrian, Ushpia.

 

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ninevehmap.jpg

 

Asshur was also city capital of Assyria

 

1280px-Flickr_-_The_U.S._Army_-_www.Army

 

U.S. Soldiers from Crazy Horse Troop, 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment provide security for the Provincial Reconstruction Team and representatives of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization visiting the ancient city of Ashur, the site is now known as Qalat Shergat, Iraq, Nov. 21. Ashur is one of three areas in Iraq that is a World Heritage site.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;




Genesis 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre

8 And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: 'Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.'

10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah,

12 and Resen between Nineveh and Calah--the same is the great city.


Genesis / Chapter 10 / New Jerusalem Bible (NJB)

8 Cush fathered Nimrod who was the first potentate on earth.

9 He was a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh, hence the saying, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh'.

10 The mainstays of his empire were Babel, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

11 From this country came Asshur, and he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah,

12 and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (this being the capital).


Catholics and Jews believe that Asshur built Niveneh. Later descendants of Asshur angered Hashem for not following His commands. He forced the prophet Jonah to deliver his message to repent before it was too late.

Jonah 1

1:1 The Lord said to Jonah son of Amittai,

1:2 “Go immediately to Nineveh, that large capital city, and announce judgment against its people because their wickedness has come to my attention.”

1:3 Instead, Jonah immediately headed off to Tarshish to escape from the commission of the Lord. He traveled to Joppa and found a merchant ship heading to Tarshish. So he paid the fare and went aboard it to go with them to Tarshish far away from the Lord.

1:4 But the Lord hurled a powerful wind on the sea. Such a violent tempest arose on the sea that the ship threatened to break up!

1:5 The sailors were so afraid that each cried out to his own god and they flung the ship’s cargo overboard to make the ship lighter. Jonah, meanwhile, had gone down into the hold below deck, had lain down, and was sound asleep.

1:6 The ship’s captain approached him and said, “What are you doing asleep? Get up! Cry out to your god! Perhaps your god might take notice of us so that we might not die!”

1:7 The sailors said to one another, “Come on, let’s cast lots to find out whose fault it is that this disaster has overtaken us. ” So they cast lots, and Jonah was singled out.

1:8 They said to him, “Tell us, whose fault is it that this disaster has overtaken us? What’s your occupation? Where do you come from? What’s your country? And who are your people?”

1:9 He said to them, “I am a Hebrew! And I worship the Lord, the God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land.”

1:10 Hearing this, the men became even more afraid and said to him, “What have you done?” (The men said this because they knew that he was trying to escape from the Lord, because he had previously told them.)

1:11 Because the storm was growing worse and worse, they said to him, “What should we do to you to make the sea calm down for us?”

1:12 He said to them, “Pick me up and throw me into the sea to make the sea quiet down, because I know it’s my fault you are in this severe storm.”

1:13 Instead, they tried to row back to land, but they were not able to do so because the storm kept growing worse and worse.

1:14 So they cried out to the Lord, “Oh, please, Lord, don’t let us die on account of this man! Don’t hold us guilty of shedding innocent blood. After all, you, Lord, have done just as you pleased.”

1:15 So they picked Jonah up and threw him into the sea, and the sea stopped raging.

1:16 The men feared the Lord greatly, and earnestly vowed to offer lavish sacrifices to the Lord.

1:17 The Lord sent a huge fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the stomach of the fish three days and three nights.

2:1 Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the stomach of the fish

2:2 and said,
“I called out to the Lord from my distress,
and he answered me;
from the belly of Sheol I cried out for help,
and you heard my prayer.

2:3 You threw me into the deep waters,
into the middle of the sea;
the ocean current engulfed me;
all the mighty waves you sent swept over me.

2:4 I thought I had been banished from your sight,
that I would never again see your holy temple!

2:5 Water engulfed me up to my neck;
the deep ocean surrounded me;
seaweed was wrapped around my head.

2:6 I went down to the very bottoms of the mountains;
the gates of the netherworld barred me in forever;
but you brought me up from the Pit, O Lord, my God.

2:7 When my life was ebbing away, I called out to the Lord,
and my prayer came to your holy temple.

2:8 Those who worship worthless idols forfeit the mercy that could be theirs.

2:9 But as for me, I promise to offer a sacrifice to you with a public declaration of praise;
I will surely do what I have promised.
Salvation belongs to the Lord!”

2:10 Then the Lord commanded the fish and it disgorged Jonah on dry land.

3:1 The Lord said to Jonah a second time,

3:2 “Go immediately to Nineveh, that large city, and proclaim to it the message that I tell you.”

3:3 So Jonah went immediately to Nineveh, as the Lord had said. (Now Nineveh was an enormous city – it required three days to walk through it!)

3:4 When Jonah began to enter the city one day’s walk, he announced, “At the end of forty days, Nineveh will be overthrown!”

3:5 The people of Nineveh believed in God, and they declared a fast and put on sackcloth, from the greatest to the least of them.

3:6 When the news reached the king of Nineveh, he got up from his throne, took off his royal robe, put on sackcloth, and sat on ashes.

3:7 He issued a proclamation and said, “In Nineveh, by the decree of the king and his nobles: No human or animal, cattle or sheep, is to taste anything; they must not eat and they must not drink water.

3:8 Every person and animal must put on sackcloth and must cry earnestly to God, and everyone must turn from their evil way of living and from the violence that they do.

3:9 Who knows? Perhaps God might be willing to change his mind and relent and turn from his fierce anger so that we might not die.”

3:10 When God saw their actions – they turned from their evil way of living! – God relented concerning the judgment he had threatened them with and he did not destroy them.


Luke 11

11:29 As the crowds were increasing, Jesus began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.

11:30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh, so the Son of Man will be a sign to this generation.

11:31 The queen of the South will rise up at the judgment with the people of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now, something greater than Solomon is here!

11:32 The people of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them – and now, something greater than Jonah is here!


If you believe the Book of Luke is true, then the Assyrians will judge and condemn the generation of Israel that rebuked the Wisdom of Jesus and His Message from Hashem.

What about Cush and his descendants? Was building Babylon within his offspring Nimrod's rights? Ezekiel reveals that the Babylonians native land was Chaldea.

Ezekiel 23

23:15 wearing belts on their waists and flowing turbans on their heads, all of them looking like officers, the image of Babylonians whose native land is Chaldea.

 

Jubilees states that Arpachshad (Arphaxad, Arphacsad, Hebrew: אַרְפַּכְשַדֿ / אַרְפַּכְשָדֿ, Modern Arpakhshad Tiberian ʾArpaḵšaḏ / ʾArpaḵšāḏ, Arabic: 'أرفخشذ', Ārfakhshad‎) was given the land of Chaldees.

 

Jubilees 9

 

And for Arpachshad came forth the third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to the east of the Euphrates, bordering on the Red Sea, and all the waters of the desert close to the tongue of the sea which looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and Sanir and 'Amana to the border of the Euphrates.

 

Genesis 10

 

10:22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.

10:23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

10:24 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber.

10:25 Two sons were born to Eber:

One was named Peleg because in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan.

 

Arphaxad son of Shem was given the land of Chaldea, which included Babylon. What was Nimrod doing in Chaldea? Nimrod is the son of Cush and his land should be around the Gihon river which no longer exists.

 

Genesis 2

2:10 Now a river flows from Eden to water the orchard, and from there it divides into four headstreams.

 

2:11 The name of the first is Pishon; it runs through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.

 

2:12 (The gold of that land is pure; pearls and lapis lazuli are also there).

 

2:13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it runs through the entire land of Cush.

 

Genesis 10

 

8 Cush fathered Nimrod who was the first potentate on earth.

9 He was a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh, hence the saying, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh'.

10 The mainstays of his empire were Babel, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

 

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Peopling_of_eurasia.jpg

In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-MRCA) is a hypothetical name given to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living people are descended patrilineally (tracing back only along the paternal or male lines of their family tree). The hypothetical "Y-chromosomal Adam" can be considered its founder. Haplogroup A and Haplogroup BT represented the lineages of the two male descendants of Y-chromosomal Adam.

Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000–50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup N. Its highest frequencies are among Indigenous peoples of the Americas, its largest overall population is in East Asia, and its greatest variety (which suggests its origin point) is in East Asia. Thus, it might have originated in and spread from the Far East.

Torroni et al. 2006 state that Haplogroups M, N and R occurred somewhere between East Africa and the Persian Gulf.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Genesis 14

14:1 At that time Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations

14:2 went to war 4 against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar).

14:3 These last five kings joined forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).

14:4 For twelve years they had served Kedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled.

14:5 In the fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer and the kings who were his allies came and defeated the Rephaites in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzites in Ham, the Emites in Shaveh Kiriathaim,

14:6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran, which is near the desert.

14:7 Then they attacked En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh) again, 14 and they conquered all the territory of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who were living in Hazazon Tamar.

14:8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and prepared for battle. In the Valley of Siddim they met

14:9 Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of nations, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought against five.

14:10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits. When the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into them, but some survivors fled to the hills.

14:11 The four victorious kings took all the possessions and food of Sodom and Gomorrah and left.

14:12 They also took Abram’s nephew Lot and his possessions when they left, for Lot was living in Sodom.


123086846.png

There is a theory that tectonic shifting along the Jordan-Gihon rift may have caused this valley's further submersion under the Dead Sea, and that the "divine fire and brimstone" was an explosion of natural gas released by a ground movement.



The Book of Jasher (Book of the Just Man) mentions that the subjects and princes of Nimrod called him by the name Amraphel. Published in November 1751, the title page of the book says: "translated into English by Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus, of Britain, Abbot of Canterbury, who went on a pilgrimage into the Holy Land and Persia, where he discovered this volume in the city of Gazna." The book claims to be written by Jasher, son of Caleb, one of Moses' lieutenants, who later judged Israel at Shiloh. Jasher covers Biblical history from the creation down to Jasher's own day and was represented as being the Lost Book of Jasher mentioned in the Bible.

Jasher [sefer ha-yashar] Chapter 11

Translation of: Sefer ha-yashar

Reprint. Previously published: Salt Lake City : J.H. Parry, 1887

Book from the collections of: Harvard University
Collection: americana

1 And Nimrod son of Cush was still in the land of Shinar, and he reigned over it and dwelt there, and he built cities in the land of Shinar.

2 And these are the names of the four cities which he built, and he called their names after the occurrences that happened to them in the building of the tower.

3 And he called the first Babel, saying, Because the Lord there confounded the language of the whole earth; and the name of the second he called Erech, because from there God dispersed them.

4 And the third he called Eched, saying there was a great battle at that place; and the fourth he called Calnah, because his princes and mighty men were consumed there, and they vexed the Lord, they rebelled and transgressed against him.

5 And when Nimrod had built these cities in the land of Shinar, he placed in them the remainder of his people, his princes and his mighty men that were left in his kingdom.

6 And Nimrod dwelt in Babel, and he there renewed his reign over the rest of his subjects, and he reigned securely, and the subjects and princes of Nimrod called his name Amraphel, saying that at the tower his princes and men fell through his means.

7 And notwithstanding this, Nimrod did not return to the Lord, and he continued in wickedness and teaching wickedness to the sons of men; and Mardon, his son, was worse than his father, and continued to add to the abominations of his father.

8 And he caused the sons of men to sin, therefore it is said, From the wicked goeth forth wickedness.

9 At that time there was war between the families of the children of Ham, as they were dwelling in the cities which they had built.

10 And Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, went away from the families of the children of Ham, and he fought with them and he subdued them, and he went to the five cities of the plain and he fought against them and he subdued them, and they were under his control.

11 And they served him twelve years, and they gave him a yearly tax.

12 At that time died Nahor, son of Serug, in the forty-ninth year of the life of Abram son of Terah.

13 And in the fiftieth year of the life of Abram son of Terah, Abram came forth from the house of Noah, and went to his father's house.

14 And Abram knew the Lord, and he went in his ways and instructions, and the Lord his God was with him.

15 And Terah his father was in those days, still captain of the host of king Nimrod, and he still followed strange gods.

16 And Abram came to his father's house and saw twelve gods standing there in their temples, and the anger of Abram was kindled when he saw these images in his father's house.

17 And Abram said, As the Lord liveth these images shall not remain in my father's house; so shall the Lord who created me do unto me if in three days' time I do not break them all.

18 And Abram went from them, and his anger burned within him. And Abram hastened and went from the chamber to his father's outer court, and he found his father sitting in the court, and all his servants with him, and Abram came and sat before him.

19 And Abram asked his father, saying, Father, tell me where is God who created heaven and earth, and all the sons of men upon earth, and who created thee and me. And Terah answered his son Abram and said, Behold those who created us are all with us in the house.

20 And Abram said to his father, My lord, shew them to me I pray thee; and Terah brought Abram into the chamber of the inner court, and Abram saw, and behold the whole room was full of gods of wood and stone, twelve great images and others less than they without number.

21 And Terah said to his son, Behold these are they which made all thou seest upon earth, and which created me and thee, and all mankind.

22 And Terah bowed down to his gods, and he then went away from them, and Abram, his son, went away with him.

23 And when Abram had gone from them he went to his mother and sat before her, and he said to his mother, Behold, my father has shown me those who made heaven and earth, and all the sons of men.

24 Now, therefore, hasten and fetch a kid from the flock, and make of it savory meat, that I may bring it to my father's gods as an offering for them to eat; perhaps I may thereby become acceptable to them.

25 And his mother did so, and she fetched a kid, and made savory meat thereof, and brought it to Abram, and Abram took the savory meat from his mother and brought it before his father's gods, and he drew nigh to them that they might eat; and Terah his father, did not know of it.

26 And Abram saw on the day when he was sitting amongst them, that they had no voice, no hearing, no motion, and not one of them could stretch forth his hand to eat.

27 And Abram mocked them, and said, Surely the savory meat that I prepared has not pleased them, or perhaps it was too little for them, and for that reason they would not eat; therefore tomorrow I will prepare fresh savory meat, better and more plentiful than this, in order that I may see the result.

28 And it was on the next day that Abram directed his mother concerning the savory meat, and his mother rose and fetched three fine kids from the flock, and she made of them some excellent savory meat, such as her son was fond of, and she gave it to her son Abram; and Terah his father did not know of it.

29 And Abram took the savory meat from his mother, and brought it before his father's gods into the chamber; and he came nigh unto them that they might eat, and he placed it before them, and Abram sat before them all day, thinking perhaps they might eat.

30 And Abram viewed them, and behold they had neither voice nor hearing, nor did one of them stretch forth his hand to the meat to eat.

31 And in the evening of that day in that house Abram was clothed with the spirit of God.

32 And he called out and said, Wo unto my father and this wicked generation, whose hearts are all inclined to vanity, who serve these idols of wood and stone which can neither eat, smell, hear nor speak, who have mouths without speech, eyes without sight, ears without hearing, hands without feeling, and legs which cannot move; like them are those that made them and that trust in them.

33 And when Abram saw all these things his anger was kindled against his father, and he hastened and took a hatchet in his hand, and came unto the chamber of the gods, and he broke all his father's gods.

34 And when he had done breaking the images, he placed the hatchet in the hand of the great god which was there before them, and he went out; and Terah his father came home, for he had heard at the door the sound of the striking of the hatchet; so Terah came into the house to know what this was about.

35 And Terah, having heard the noise of the hatchet in the room of images, ran to the room to the images, and he met Abram going out.

36 And Terah entered the room and found all the idols fallen down and broken, and the hatchet in the hand of the largest, which was not broken, and the savory meat which Abram his son had made was still before them.

37 And when Terah saw this his anger was greatly kindled, and he hastened and went from the room to Abram.

38 And he found Abram his son still sitting in the house; and he said to him, What is this work thou hast done to my gods?

39 And Abram answered Terah his father and he said, Not so my lord, for I brought savory meat before them, and when I came nigh to them with the meat that they might eat, they all at once stretched forth their hands to eat before the great one had put forth his hand to eat.

40 And the large one saw their works that they did before him, and his anger was violently kindled against them, and he went and took the hatchet that was in the house and came to them and broke them all, and behold the hatchet is yet in his hand as thou seest.

41 And Terah's anger was kindled against his son Abram, when he spoke this; and Terah said to Abram his son in his anger, What is this tale that thou hast told? Thou speakest lies to me.

42 Is there in these gods spirit, soul or power to do all thou hast told me? Are they not wood and stone, and have I not myself made them, and canst thou speak such lies, saying that the large god that was with them smote them? It is thou that didst place the hatchet in his hands, and then sayest he smote them all.

43 And Abram answered his father and said to him, And how canst thou then serve these idols in whom there is no power to do any thing? Can those idols in which thou trustest deliver thee? can they hear thy prayers when thou callest upon them? can they deliver thee from the hands of thy enemies, or will they fight thy battles for thee against thy enemies, that thou shouldst serve wood and stone which can neither speak nor hear?

44 And now surely it is not good for thee nor for the sons of men that are connected with thee, to do these things; are you so silly, so foolish or so short of understanding that you will serve wood and stone, and do after this manner?

45 And forget the Lord God who made heaven and earth, and who created you in the earth, and thereby bring a great evil upon your souls in this matter by serving stone and wood?

46 Did not our fathers in days of old sin in this matter, and the Lord God of the universe brought the waters of the flood upon them and destroyed the whole earth?

47 And how can you continue to do this and serve gods of wood and stone, who cannot hear, or speak, or deliver you from oppression, thereby bringing down the anger of the God of the universe upon you?

48 Now therefore my father refrain from this, and bring not evil upon thy soul and the souls of thy household.

49 And Abram hastened and sprang from before his father, and took the hatchet from his father's largest idol, with which Abram broke it and ran away.

50 And Terah, seeing all that Abram had done, hastened to go from his house, and he went to the king and he came before Nimrod and stood before him, and he bowed down to the king; and the king said, What dost thou want?

51 And he said, I beseech thee my lord, to hear me--Now fifty years back a child was born to me, and thus has he done to my gods and thus has he spoken; and now therefore, my lord and king, send for him that he may come before thee, and judge him according to the law, that we may be delivered from his evil.

52 And the king sent three men of his servants, and they went and brought Abram before the king. And Nimrod and all his princes and servants were that day sitting before him, and Terah sat also before them.

53 And the king said to Abram, What is this that thou hast done to thy father and to his gods? And Abram answered the king in the words that he spoke to his father, and he said, The large god that was with them in the house did to them what thou hast heard.

54 And the king said to Abram, Had they power to speak and eat and do as thou hast said? And Abram answered the king, saying, And if there be no power in them why dost thou serve them and cause the sons of men to err through thy follies?

55 Dost thou imagine that they can deliver thee or do anything small or great, that thou shouldst serve them? And why wilt thou not sense the God of the whole universe, who created thee and in whose power it is to kill and keep alive?

56 0 foolish, simple, and ignorant king, woe unto thee forever.

57 I thought thou wouldst teach thy servants the upright way, but thou hast not done this, but hast filled the whole earth with thy sins and the sins of thy people who have followed thy ways.

58 Dost thou not know, or hast thou not heard, that this evil which thou doest, our ancestors sinned therein in days of old, and the eternal God brought the waters of the flood upon them and destroyed them all, and also destroyed the whole earth on their account? And wilt thou and thy people rise up now and do like unto this work, in order to bring down the anger of the Lord God of the universe, and to bring evil upon thee and the whole earth?

59 Now therefore put away this evil deed which thou doest, and serve the God of the universe, as thy soul is in his hands, and then it will be well with thee.

60 And if thy wicked heart will not hearken to my words to cause thee to forsake thy evil ways, and to serve the eternal God, then wilt thou die in shame in the latter days, thou, thy people and all who are connected with thee, hearing thy words or walking in thy evil ways.

61 And when Abram had ceased speaking before the king and princes, Abram lifted up his eyes to the heavens, and he said, The Lord seeth all the wicked, and he will judge them.


The Sefer haYashar (first edition 1552) is a Hebrew midrash also known as the Toledot Adam and Dibre ha-Yamim be-'Aruk. The Hebrew title may be translated Sefer haYashar - "Book of the Upright Man" - but it is known in English translation mostly as The Book of Jasher following English tradition. The book is named after the Book of Jasher mentioned in Joshua and 2 Samuel.

The earliest extant version of this Hebrew midrash was printed in Venice in 1625, and the introduction refers to an earlier 1552 "edition" in Naples, of which neither trace nor other mention has been found. The printer Joseph ben Samuel claimed the work was copied by a scribe named Jacob the son of Atyah, from an ancient manuscript whose letters could hardly be made out.

This work is also not to be confused with an ethical text by the same name, which, according to the Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 14, p. 1099, was "probably written in the 13th century." Scholars have proposed various dates between the 9th century and 16th century.

The Venice 1625 text was heavily criticised as a forgery by Leon Modena, as part of his criticisms of the Zohar as a forgery, and of Kabbalah in general. Modena was a member of the Venetian rabbinate that supervised the Hebrew press in Venice, and Modena prevented the printers from identifying Sefer ha-Yashar with the Biblical lost book.

Behold, it [the Zohar] is like Sefer ha-Yashar, which they printed (without my knowledge and without the knowledge of the sages here in Venice, about twenty years ago). Although I removed the fantasies and falsehoods from it, [eg,] that it is the Sefer ha-Yashar mentioned in Scripture, there are still those who claim that it was discovered during the time of the destruction [of the temple]. But who can stop those who imagine in their minds whatever they wish.

— Leon Modena, Ari Nohem, before 1648


Despite Modena's intervention, the preface to the 1625 version still claims that its original source book came from the ruins of Jerusalem in AD 70, where a Roman officer named Sidrus allegedly discovered a Hebrew scholar hiding in a hidden library. The officer Sidrus reportedly took the scholar and all the books safely back to his estates in Seville, Spain (in Roman known as Hispalis, the provincial capital of Hispania Baetica). The 1625 edition then claims that at some uncertain point in the history of Islamic Spain, the manuscript was transferred or sold to the Jewish college in Cordova. The 1625 edition further claims that scholars preserved the book until its printings in Naples in 1552 and in Venice in 1625. Apart from the preface to the 1625 work, there is no evidence to support any of this story. The work was used extensively, but not especially more than many other sources, in Louis Ginzberg's Legends of the Jews.

Although there remains doubt about whether the 1552 "edition" in Naples was ever truly printed, the study of Joseph Dan, professor of Kabbalah at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in the preface to his 1986 critical edition of the 1625 text concludes, from the Hebrew used and other indicators, that the work was in fact written in Naples in the early sixteenth century. The Arabic connections suggest that if the preface to the 1625 version is an "exaggeration", it was then probably written by a Jew who lived in Spain or southern Italy.

Chapter 10

19 And the children of Ham were Cush, Mitzraim, Phut and Canaan according to their generation and cities.

20 All these went and built themselves cities as they found fit places for them, and they called their cities after the names of their fathers Cush, Mitzraim, Phut and Canaan.

21 And the children of Mitzraim are the Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuchim, Pathrusim, Casluchim and Caphturim, seven families.

22 All these dwell by the river Sihor, that is the brook of Egypt, and they built themselves cities and called them after their own names.

23 And the children of Pathros and Casloch intermarried together, and from them went forth the Pelishtim, the Azathim, and the Gerarim, the Githim and the Ekronim, in all five families; these also built themselves cities, and they called their cities after the names of their fathers unto this day.

24 And the children of Canaan also built themselves cities, and they called their cities after their names, eleven cities and others without number.

25 And four men from the family of Ham went to the land of the plain; these are the names of the four men, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim.

26 And these men built themselves four cities in the land of the plain, and they called the names of their cities after their own names.

27 And they and their children and all belonging to them dwelt in those cities, and they were fruitful and multiplied greatly and dwelt peaceably.

28 And Seir the son of Hur, son of Hivi, son of Canaan, went and found a valley opposite to Mount Paran, and he built a city there, and he and his seven sons and his household dwelt there, and he called the city which he built Seir, according to his name; that is the land of Seir unto this day.

29 These are the families of the children of Ham, according to their languages and cities, when they were scattered to their countries after the tower.

30 And some of the children of Shem son of Noah, father of all the children of Eber, also went and built themselves cities in the places wherein they were scattered, and they called their cities after their names.

31 And the sons of Shem were Elam, Ashur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram, and they built themselves cities and called the names of all their cities after their names.

32 And Ashur son of Shem and his children and household went forth at that time, a very large body of them, and they went to a distant land that they found, and they met with a very extensive valley in the land that they went to, and they built themselves four cities, and they called them after their own names and occurrences.

33 And these are the names of the cities which the children of Ashur built, Ninevah, Resen, Calach and Rehobother; and the children of Ashur dwell there unto this day.

34 And the children of Aram also went and built themselves a city, and they called the name of the city Uz after their eldest brother, and they dwell therein; that is the land of Uz to this day.

35 And in the second year after the tower a man from the house of Ashur, whose name was Bela, went from the land of Ninevah to sojourn with his household wherever he could find a place; and they came until opposite the cities of the plain against Sodom, and they dwelt there.

36 And the man rose up and built there a small city, and called its name Bela, after his name; that is the land of Zoar unto this day.

37 And these are the families of the children of Shem according to their language and cities, after they were scattered upon the earth after the tower.

38 And every kingdom, city, and family of the families of the children of Noah built themselves many cities after this.

39 And they established governments in all their cities, in order to be regulated by their orders; so did all the families of the children of Noah forever.


1906 Jewish Encyclopedia

YASHAR, SEFER HA

One of the latest works of the midrashic Haggadah; known also under the titles "Toledot Adam" and "Dibre ha-Yamim be-'Aruk." It is written in correct and fluent Hebrew, and treats of the history of the Jews from the time of Adam to that of the Judges. Three-fourths of the work is devoted to the pre-Mosaic period, one-fifth to the Mosaic period, and only three pages to later history. In his endeavors to explain all Biblical subjects the author invented entire narratives, interweaving them with certain passages of the Bible.

Contents.

Among such narratives and additions originating with the author may be especially mentioned an explanation of the murder of Abel by Cain, and also an extended and ingenious genealogy of the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. In this genealogy the origin of Seir, which Ibn Ezra states to be shrouded in obscurity, is explained by the assertion that Seir was the son of Hur, the grandson of Hori, and the great-grandson of Cainan. The life of Abraham is described at great length, the account beginning with his birth and the appearance of the star (viii. 1-35), and including the smallest details, such as, for example, his two journeys to his son Ishmael (xxi. 22-48). Similar minuteness is displayed with regard to the last days of Sarah and her funeral, which, according to the author, was attended not only by Shem, Eber, Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre, but also by Canaanitish kings with their retinues (xxii. 41-44). The enumeration of the doctrines which the three Patriarchs received through Shem and Eber also occupies considerable space; and the life of Joseph is depicted in an especially impressive manner (xxxvii.-xli.).

In connection with the different "blessings" which Jacob before his death gave to his sons, the author depicts the bloody warfare waged between the kings of Canaan and the sons of Israel on account of the violation of Dinah, the war ending with the victory of Israel (xxxiv.-xxxv.). In the history of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt and of their exodus from that country are also interwoven several legends, though these lack the completeness that marks the narratives of the pre-Mosaic history (part ii.). The author, moreover, gives an entire song of Joshua, which is merely indicated in the book of that prophet (x. 13); but this consists only of Biblical passages artistically put together.

Sources.

In the compiling of the work the following sources were made use of, namely: the Babylonian Talmud; Bereshit Rabbah; Pirḳe R. Eliezer; the Yalḳut; the Chronicle of Moses; Yosippon; Midrash Abkir; and various Arabic legends. As to the place and time of the work's origin various legendary accounts are given in the preface of the first edition (Naples, 1552).


Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah

Folio 53b

MISHNAH. AN IDOL WHICH ITS WORSHIPERS ABANDONED IN TIME OF PEACE IS PERMITTED, IN TIME OF WAR IS PROHIBITED. PEDESTALS OF KINGS ARE PERMITTED BECAUSE [THE HEATHENS ONLY] SET THEM UP AT THE TIME THE KINGS PASS BY.

GEMARA. R. Jeremiah b. Abba said in the name of Rab:

The Temple of Nimrod is to be regarded the same as an idol which its worshipers abandoned in time of peace and is permitted; for although, due to the fact that the All-merciful dispersed them, it was like a time of war, if they had wished to return [and claim the idols] they could have returned; but since they did not, they must have annulled them.

PEDESTALS OF KINGS ARE PERMITTED. Because [the heathens only] set them up at the time the kings pass by they are permitted! Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan:

The meaning is — because they only set them up at the time kings pass by and the kings may abandon that road and proceed by another road. When 'Ulla came he seated himself on a damaged pedestal. Rab Judah said to him: Behold both Rab and Samuel declared that a damaged pedestal is prohibited; and even according to him who said that [heathens] do not worship fragments [of idols], that applies only to an idol because it is an act of contempt to worship fragments but with this [pedestal] one does not care!

— He replied to him:

Who would give me some of the dust [from the bodies] of Rab and Samuel that I might fill my eyes with it! [Nevertheless] both R. Johanan and R. Simeon b. Lakish declared that a damaged pedestal is permitted; and even according to him who said that [heathens] do worship fragments, that applies only to an idol because from the fact that they worship it, they would regard it a desecration to annul it; but as for these [pedestals] they throw them aside [when damaged] and bring another.

There is a teaching in agreement with R. Johanan and R. Simeon b. Lakish, viz.: A damaged pedestal is permitted — a damaged altar is prohibited until the greater part of it is demolished.

What constitutes a pedestal and what an altar? — R. Jacob b. Idi said in the name of R. Johanan:

A pedestal consists of a single stone, an altar of several stones.


Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah

Folio 3a

The release from those commands only means that even if they observed them they would not be rewarded. But why should they not? Is it not taught:

R. Meir used to say. 'Whence do we know that even an idolater who studies the Torah is equal to a High Priest? From the following verse:

Ye shall therefore keep My statutes and My ordinances which, if a man do, he shall live by them. It does not say "If a Priest, Levite, or Israelite do, he shall live by them," but "a man"; here, then, you can learn that even a heathen who studies the Torah is equal to a High Priest!'

— What is meant, then, is that they are rewarded not as greatly as one who does a thing which he is bidden to do, but as one who does a thing unbidden. For, R. Hanina said:

He who is commanded and does, stands higher then he who is not commanded and does. )

The nations will then say, 'Sovereign of the Universe, has Israel, who accepted the Torah, observed it? The Holy One, blessed be He, will reply, 'I can give evidence that they observed the Torah.' 'O Lord of the Universe,' they will argue, 'can a father give evidence in favor of his son? For it is written, Israel is My son, My firstborn.' Then will the Holy One, blessed be He, say: 'Heaven and Earth can bear witness that Israel has fulfilled the entire Torah.' But they will [object], saying: 'Lord of the Universe, Heaven and Earth are partial witnesses, for it is said, If not for My covenant with day and with night. I should not have appointed the ordinances of Heaven and Earth. (And R. Simeon b. Lakish further said:

What is conveyed by the phrase. And there was evening and there was morning the sixth day? It teaches us that God made a condition with the works of creation, saying:

'If Israel accept my Law it will be well, but if not, I shall reduce you to a state of chaos'; which accords with the comment of R. Hezekiah on the verse, Thou didst cause sentence to be heard from Heaven, the earth trembled and was still:

If the earth trembled, how could it be still, and if it was still, how could it tremble? But at first it trembled, and subsequently it became still.)8 Then the Holy One, blessed be He, will say, 'Some of yourselves shall testify that Israel observed the entire Torah. Let Nimrod come and testify that Abraham did not [consent to] worship idols; let Laban come and testify that Jacob could not be suspected of theft; let Potiphar's wife testify that Joseph was above suspicion of immorality; let Nebuchadnezzar come and testify that Hanania, Mishael and Azariah did not bow down to an image; let Darius come and testify that Daniel never neglected the [statutory] prayers; let Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and Eliphaz the Temanite [and Elihu11 the son of Barachel the Buzite]12 testify that Israel has observed the whole Torah; as it is said, Let them [the nations] bring their [own] witnesses, that they [israel] may be justified.'

The nations will then plead. 'Offer us the Torah anew and we shall obey it.' But the Holy One, blessed be He, will say to them, 'You foolish ones among peoples, he who took trouble [to prepare] on the eve of the Sabbath can eat on the Sabbath, but he who has not troubled on the eve of the Sabbath, what shall he eat on the Sabbath? Nevertheless, I have an easy command which is called Sukkah; go and carry it out.' (But how can you say so: does not R. Joshua b. Levi say:

What is [the meaning of] the verse, The ordinances which I command thee this day to do them? It is that this day only [the present] is the time to do them,' they cannot be done tomorrow [in times to come]:

this day is the time in which to do them, but not in which to be rewarded for them. [Why then should they be offered this observance in the Messianic time?] — Because the Holy One, blessed be He, does not deal imperiously with His creatures.17 And why does He term it an easy command? — Because it does not affect one's purse.) Straightaway will every one of them betake himself and go and make a booth on the top of his roof; but the Holy One, blessed be He, will cause the sun to blaze forth over them as at the Summer Solstice. and every one of them will trample down his booth and go away, as it is said, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. (But you have just said 'The Holy One, blessed be He, does not deal imperiously with his creatures? — True! but with the Israelites, too, it occasionally happens


The Talmud reveals that it was Nimrod who created false idols. And Nimrod witnessed Abraham rejecting them for one true God.

http://youtu.be/dXcZYAtGg7o

I find this video disturbing. It claims it was Semiramis (Greek: Σεμίραμις, Armenian: Շամիրամ Shamiram), wife of Nimrod and queen of Babylon that started the ideas of reincarnation, sun worship, and mother and child worship.

 

The idea of this video originated with Protestant minister Alexander Hislop who wrote the "The Two Babylons" (1853) claimed that Semiramis was an actual person in ancient Mesopotamia who invented polytheism and, with it, goddess worship.

 

Hislop believed that Semiramis was a consort of Nimrod, builder of the Bible's Tower of Babel, though Biblical mention of consorts to Nimrod is lacking.

 

According to Hislop, Semiramis invented polytheism in an effort to corrupt her subjects' original faith in the God of Genesis. She deified herself as Ishtar and her son as Gilgamesh, as well as various members of her court and her then deceased husband.

 

In support of his claim, Hislop talked about legends of Semiramis being raised by doves. He referred to the writings by the church's Ante-Nicene Fathers to suggest that these stories began as propaganda invented and circulated by Semiramis herself, so her subjects would ascribe to her the status of Queen of Heaven and view her child as divine.

 

Hislop believed Semiramis' child to be the Akkadian deity Tammuz, a god of vegetation as well as a life-death-rebirth deity.

 

He maintained that all divine pairings in religions e.g. Isis/Osiris, Aphrodite/Cupid, and others, are retellings of the tale of Semiramis and Tammuz, and that this was then applied to Mary/Jesus in Catholicism, even though Christianity does not support a special divinity of Mary rather the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The figure of Semiramis was later developed into the Blessed Virgin Mary, according to Hislop's book. Hislop used this in support of his claim that Roman Catholicism is in fact paganism.

 

Hislop took literary references to Osiris and Orion as "seed of woman" as evidence in support of his thesis. The legends already existing in his day about Semiramis, he claimed, were distortions of history.

 

Hislop's claims continue to be circulated among some fundamentalist Christians today, in the form of Jack Chick tracts, comic books, and related media.

 

Author and conspiracy theorist David Icke also incorporates Hislop's claims about Semiramis into his book The Biggest Secret, claiming that Semiramis also had a key role in the Reptilian alien conspiracy that he asserts is secretly controlling humanity.

 

However, Ralph Woodrow, Evangelical Christian minister, speaker and presently the author of sixteen books believes that Alexander Hislop was an exceptionally poor researcher who "picked, chose and mixed" portions of various unrelated myths from many different cultures.

Woodrow formerly supported Hishop's thesis that Roman Catholicism is a syncretistic pagan religion in his book Babylon Mystery Religion and gained a certain notoriety when he changed his view and pulled the work from circulation. His new viewpoint is documented in The Babylon Connection.

 

Statue of Semiramis displayed at the Dallas Museum of Art. The statue was designed and sculpted by William Wetmore Story, (February 12, 1819 – October 7, 1895) an American sculptor, art critic, poet, and editor.

 

semiramis.jpg

The name of Semiramis came to be applied to various monuments in Western Asia and Asia Minor, the origin of which was forgotten or unknown. Nearly every stupendous work of antiquity by the Euphrates or in Iran seems to have ultimately been ascribed to her, even the Behistun Inscription of Darius. Herodotus ascribes to her the artificial banks that confined the Euphrates and knows her name as borne by a gate of Babylon. However, Diodorus stresses that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built long after Semiramis had reigned and not in her time.

According to the legend as related by Diodorus, Semiramis was of noble parents, the daughter of the fish-goddess Derketo of Ascalon in Syria and a mortal. Derketo abandoned her at birth and drowned herself. Doves fed the child until Simmas, the royal shepherd, found and raised her.

She then married Onnes or Menones, one of Ninus' generals. Ninus was so struck by her bravery at the capture of Bactra that he married her, forcing Onnes to commit suicide.

She and Ninus had a son named Ninyas. After King Ninus conquered Asia, including the Bactrians, he was fatally wounded by an arrow. Semiramis then masqueraded as her son and tricked her late husband's army into following her instructions because they thought these came from their new ruler. After Ninus's death she reigned as queen regnant for 42 years, conquering much of Asia.

She restored ancient Babylon and protected it with a high brick wall that completely surrounded the city. Then she built several palaces in Persia, including Ecbatana. Diodorus also attributes the Behistun inscription to her, now known to have been done under Darius I of Persia. She not only reigned Asia effectively but also added Libya and Aethiopia to the empire. She then went to war with king Stabrobates of India, having her artisans create an army of false elephants to deceive the Indians into thinking she had acquired real elephants. This succeeded at first, but then she was wounded in the counterattack and her army again retreated west of the Indus.

She is also credited with inventing the chastity belt. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus credits her as the first person to castrate a male youth into eunuch-hood: "Semiramis, that ancient queen who was the first person to castrate male youths of tender age" (Lib. XIV).

The association of the fish and dove is found at Hierapolis Bambyce (Mabbog), the great temple at which, according to one legend, was founded by Semiramis, where her statue was shown with a golden dove on her head.

Armenian tradition portrays her as a homewrecker and a harlot. These facts are partly to be explained by observing that, according to the legends, in her birth as well as in her disappearance from earth, Semiramis appears as a goddess, the daughter of the fish-goddess Atargatis, and herself connected with the doves of Ishtar or Astartë.

One of the most popular legends in Armenian tradition involves Semiramis and an Armenian king, Ara the Beautiful. In the 20th century, the poet Nairi Zarian retold the story of Ara the Beautiful and Shamiram, in a work considered to be a masterpiece of Armenian literary drama.

According to the legend, Semiramis had heard about the fame of the handsome Armenian king Ara, and she lusted after his image. She asked Ara to marry her, but he refused; upon hearing this, she gathered the armies of Assyria and marched against Armenia.

During the battle, which may have taken place in the Ararat valley, Ara was slain. To avoid continuous warfare with the Armenians, Semiramis, reputed to be a sorceress, took his body and prayed to the gods to raise Ara from the dead. When the Armenians advanced to avenge their leader, she disguised one of her lovers as Ara and spread the rumor that the gods had brought Ara back to life, ending the war.

Although many different versions of the legend exist, they agree that Ara never came back to life.

While the achievements of Semiramis are clearly in the realm of mythical Greek historiography, the historical Assyrian queen Shammuramat (Shamiram, Semiramis), wife of Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria, certainly existed. After her husband's death, she served as regent from 810 - 806 BC for her son, Adad-nirari III.

 

Shammuramat's stela (memorial stone) has been found at Assur, while an inscription at Nimrud indicates that she was dominant there after the death of her husband and before the rule of her son.

 

640px-Stele_of_Sammuramat%2C_from_Assur.

 

Below is Shammuramat's husband, Shamshi-Adad V, King of Assyria from 824 to 811 BC. He was named after god Adad, who is also known as Hadad

 

1280px-Shamshi-Adad_V-1.jpg

 

Below is Shammuramat's son, Adad-nirari III, King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. Like his father, he was named after god Adad, who is also known as Hadad. the first five years of his reign his mother Shammuramat was highly influential, which may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis.

Adad-Nirari_stela.jpg

 

Shammuramat would have thus been briefly in control of the vast Neo Assyrian Empire, which 150 years later stretched from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to the Arabian Peninsula in the south, and western Iran in the east to Cyprus in the west.

In Shammuramat's time, however, Assyria only ruled over parts of neighboring areas in Mesopotamia, Syria, Asia Minor and Iran.

Georges Roux speculated that the later Greek and Indo-Iranian (Persian and Median) flavored myths surrounding Semiramis stem from successful campaigns she waged against these peoples, and the novelty of a woman ruling such an empire.

 

She built such an inuring reputation that queen Margaret of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway (1353-1412 A.D.) And Catherine II the Great of Russia (1729-1796) were both labeled as the Semiramis of the North.

In The Divine Comedy, Dante sees Semiramis among the souls of the lustful in the Second Circle of Hell:

 

And as the cranes go chanting forth their lays,
Making in air a long line of themselves,
So saw I coming, uttering lamentations,
Shadows borne onward by the aforesaid stress.

Whereupon said I: "Master, who are those People, whom the black air so castigates?"
"The first of those, of whom intelligence Thou fain wouldst have", then said he unto me,
"The empress was of many languages. To sensual vices she was so abandoned,
That lustful she made licit in her law,

To remove the blame to which she had been led.
She is Semiramis. . .
She succeeded Ninus, and was his spouse;
She held the land which now the Sultan rules.

 

She married her son after Ninus' death and lived with him.

Semiramis appears in many plays and operas, for example Voltaire's tragedy Semiramis and operas with the title Semiramide by Domenico Cimarosa, Marcos Portugal, Josef Mysliveček, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Pedro Calderón de la Barca and Gioachino Rossini. Arthur Honegger composed music for Paul Valéry's eponymous 'ballet-pantomime' in 1934 that was only revived in 1992 after many years of neglect. In Eugène Ionesco's play The Chairs, the Old Woman is referred to as Semiramis.

In 1910 Camille de Morlhon directed a film about Semiramis for Pathé, starring Yvonne Mirval.

She has also appeared in several sword and sandal films, including the 1954 film Queen of Babylon in which she was played by Rhonda Fleming, and the 1963 film I am Semiramis in which she was played by Yvonne Furneaux. An Italian progressive rock group named Semiramis released one album in 1973.

In John Myers Myers's novel Silverlock (chaps.17-18), Semiramis appears as a lustful, commanding queen, who stops her procession to try to seduce young Lucius (who has been transformed into a donkey).

In William Faulkner's Snopes Trilogy, Eula Varner is her modern incarnation. Faulkner quite likely[citation needed] got the name from Inferno V, where she appears in the same list as Helen of Troy as those punished for uncontrolled passion.

One level of Resident Evil Revelations is set aboard an ocean liner named the Queen Semiramis.

In 2008 the Italian company Menoventi created Semiramis, a play about the Assyrian queen.

The Assyrian people indigenous to Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran still retain Semiramis or Shammuramat as a given name for female children to this day.

Semiramis of the North was a designation given to powerful female monarchs Margaret I of Denmark and Catherine the Great.

 

Good Assyria and Babylonia resources

 

http://rbedrosian.com/Classic/Mobaa.htm

 

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17328/17328-h/17328-h.htm

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Luke_Wilbur    5

The Didache

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


During Shammuramat's reign Hazael (/ˈheɪziəl/; Hebrew: חֲזָהאֵל or חזאל[1]ḤaZa'eL‎; Aramaic, from the triliteral Semitic root h-z-y, "to see"; his full name meaning, "God has seen") was King of the Aram-Damascus empire that ruled over large parts of Syria and Palestine. During his approximately 46-year reign (c. 842 BC-796 BC), King Hazael led the Arameans in battle against the forces of King Jehoram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah. After defeating them at Ramoth-Gilead, Hazael repelled two attacks by the Assyrians, seized Israelite territory east of the Jordan, the Philistine city of Gath, and sought to take Jerusalem as well.

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In 842 BC God tells the prophet Elijah to anoint Hazael king over Syria.

1 Kings 19

19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”

19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake.

19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper.

19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

19:14 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”

19:15 The Lord said to him, “Go back the way you came and then head for the Desert of Damascus. Go and anoint Hazael king over Syria.

19:16 You must anoint Jehu son of Nimshi king over Israel, and Elisha son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to take your place as prophet.

19:17 Jehu will kill anyone who escapes Hazael’s sword, and Elisha will kill anyone who escapes Jehu’s sword.

19:18 I still have left in Israel seven thousand followers who have not bowed their knees to Baal or kissed the images of him.”


2 Kings 8

8:7 Elisha traveled to Damascus while King Ben Hadad of Syria was sick. The king was told, “The prophet has come here.”

8:8 So the king told Hazael, “Take a gift and go visit the prophet. Request from him an oracle from the Lord. Ask him, ‘Will I recover from this sickness?’”

8:9 So Hazael went to visit Elisha. He took along a gift, as well as forty camel loads of all the fine things of Damascus. When he arrived, he stood before him and said, “Your son, King Ben Hadad of Syria, has sent me to you with this question, ‘Will I recover from this sickness?’”

8:10 Elisha said to him, “Go and tell him, ‘You will surely recover,’ but the Lord has revealed to me that he will surely die.”

8:11 Elisha just stared at him until Hazael became uncomfortable. Then the prophet started crying.

8:12 Hazael asked, “Why are you crying, my master?” He replied, “Because I know the trouble you will cause the Israelites. You will set fire to their fortresses, kill their young men with the sword, smash their children to bits, and rip open their pregnant women.”

8:13 Hazael said, “How could your servant, who is as insignificant as a dog, accomplish this great military victory?” Elisha answered, “The Lord has revealed to me that you will be the king of Syria.”

8:14 He left Elisha and went to his master. Ben Hadad asked him, “What did Elisha tell you?” Hazael replied, “He told me you would surely recover.”

8:15 The next day Hazael took a piece of cloth, dipped it in water, and spread it over Ben Hadad’s face until he died. Then Hazael replaced him as king.


2 Kings 10

10:29 However, Jehu did not repudiate the sins which Jeroboam son of Nebat had encouraged Israel to commit; the golden calves remained in Bethel and Dan.

10:30 The Lord said to Jehu, “You have done well. You have accomplished my will and carried out my wishes with regard to Ahab’s dynasty. Therefore four generations of your descendants will rule over Israel.”

10:31 But Jehu did not carefully and wholeheartedly obey the law of the Lord God of Israel. He did not repudiate the sins which Jeroboam had encouraged Israel to commit.

10:32 In those days the Lord began to reduce the size of Israel’s territory. Hazael attacked their eastern border.

10:33 He conquered all the land of Gilead, including the territory of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh, extending all the way from the Aroer in the Arnon Valley through Gilead to Bashan.


whose_kingdom.jpg

2 Kings 13

13:14 Now Elisha had a terminal illness. King Joash of Israel went down to visit him. He wept before him and said, “My father, my father! The chariot and horsemen of Israel!"

13:15 Elisha told him, “Take a bow and some arrows,” and he did so.

13:16 Then Elisha told the king of Israel, “Aim the bow.” He did so, and Elisha placed his hands on the king’s hands.

13:17 Elisha said, “Open the east window,” and he did so. Elisha said, “Shoot!” and he did so. Elisha said, “This arrow symbolizes the victory the Lord will give you over Syria. You will annihilate Syria in Aphek!"

13:18 Then Elisha said, “Take the arrows," and he did so. He told the king of Israel, "Strike the ground!" He struck the ground three times and stopped.

13:19 The prophet got angry at him and said, “If you had struck the ground five or six times, you would have annihilated Syria! But now, you will defeat Syria only three times."

13:20 Elisha died and was buried. Moabite raiding parties invaded the land at the beginning of the year.

13:21 One day some men were burying a man when they spotted a raiding party. So they threw the dead man into Elisha’s tomb. When the body touched Elisha’s bones, the dead man came to life and stood on his feet.

13:22 Now King Hazael of Syria oppressed Israel throughout Jehoahaz’s reign.

13:23 But the Lord had mercy on them and felt pity for them. He extended his favor to them because of the promise he had made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He has been unwilling to destroy them or remove them from his presence to this very day.

13:24 When King Hazael of Syria died, his son Ben Hadad replaced him as king.

13:25 Jehoahaz’s son Jehoash took back from Ben Hadad son of Hazael the cities that he had taken from his father Jehoahaz in war. Joash defeated him three times and recovered the Israelite cities.


2 Kings 17

17:1 In the twelfth year of King Ahaz’s reign over Judah, Hoshea son of Elah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for nine years.

17:2 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but not to the same degree as the Israelite kings who preceded him.

17:3 King Shalmaneser of Assyria threatened him; Hoshea became his subject and paid him tribute.

17:4 The king of Assyria discovered that Hoshea was planning a revolt. Hoshea had sent messengers to King So of Egypt and had not sent his annual tribute to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria arrested him and imprisoned him.

17:5 The king of Assyria marched through the whole land. He attacked Samaria and besieged it for three years.

17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea’s reign, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the people of Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor (the river of Gozan), and in the cities of the Medes.


Hoshea (Hebrew: הושע, Modern Hoshea Tiberian Hôšēăʻ ; "salvation"; Latin: Osee) was the last king of the Israelite Kingdom of Israel and son of Elah (who may or may not be the Israelite king Elah). William F. Albright dated reign to 732–721 BC, while E. R. Thiele offered the dates 732–723 BC.

Ezekiel (622 - 570 BC) at the age of 25, was amongst 3,000 upper class Jews who were exiled to Babylon.

Ezekiel on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican between 1508 to 1512, fresco, restored.

800px-Ezekiel_by_Michelangelo%2C_restore

Ezekiel 24

24:1 The word of the Lord came to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month 1 :

24:2 “Son of man, write down the name of this day, this very day. The king of Babylon has laid siege to Jerusalem this very day.






Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל, Modern Daniyyel Tiberian Dāniyyêl ; Arabic: دانيال) is the protagonist in the Book of Daniel of the Hebrew Bible (628 - 537 BC). In the narrative, Daniel was one of several children taken into Babylonian captivity where they were educated in Chaldean thought. Daniel was then taken into the court of the king of Babylon and had become his prime minister.

Daniel 1

1:1 In the third year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon advanced against Jerusalem and laid it under siege.

1:2 Now the Lord delivered King Jehoiakim of Judah into his power, along with some of the vessels of the temple of God. He brought them to the land of Babylonia to the temple of his god and put the vessels in the treasury of his god.

1:3 The king commanded Ashpenaz, who was in charge of his court officials, to choose some of the Israelites who were of royal and noble descent

1:4 young men in whom there was no physical defect and who were handsome, well versed in all kinds of wisdom, well educated and having keen insight, and who were capable of entering the king’s royal service – and to teach them the literature and language of the Babylonians.

1:5 So the king assigned them a daily ration from his royal delicacies and from the wine he himself drank. They were to be trained for the next three years. At the end of that time they were to enter the king’s service.

1:6 As it turned out, among these young men were some from Judah:

Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.


1:7 But the overseer of the court officials renamed them. He gave Daniel the name Belteshazzar, Hananiah he named Shadrach, Mishael he named Meshach, and Azariah he named Abednego.


Ezekiel knew of Daniel and considered him to be righteous. He dwelled with the captives who had been brought down to the rivers of Babylon.

Ezekiel 14

14:1 Then some men from Israel’s elders came to me and sat down in front of me.

14:2 The word of the Lord came to me:

14:3 “Son of man, these men have erected their idols in their hearts and placed the obstacle leading to their iniquity right before their faces. Should I really allow them to seek me?

14:4 Therefore speak to them and say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

When any one from the house of Israel erects his idols in his heart and sets the obstacle leading to his iniquity before his face, and then consults a prophet, I the Lord am determined to answer him personally according to the enormity of his idolatry.

14:5 I will do this in order to capture the hearts of the house of Israel, who have alienated themselves from me on account of all their idols.’

14:6 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

Return! Turn from your idols, and turn your faces away from your abominations.

14:7 For when anyone from the house of Israel, or the foreigner who lives in Israel, separates himself from me and erects his idols in his heart and sets the obstacle leading to his iniquity before his face, and then consults a prophet to seek something from me, I the Lord am determined to answer him personally.

14:8 I will set my face against that person and will make him an object lesson and a byword and will cut him off from among my people. Then you will know that I am the Lord.

14:9 "‘As for the prophet, if he is made a fool by being deceived into speaking a prophetic word – I, the Lord, have made a fool of that prophet, and I will stretch out my hand against him and destroy him from among my people Israel.

14:10 They will bear their punishment; the punishment of the one who sought an oracle will be the same as the punishment of the prophet who gave it

14:11 so that the house of Israel will no longer go astray from me, nor continue to defile themselves by all their sins. They will be my people and I will be their God, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

14:12 The word of the Lord came to me:

14:13 “Son of man, suppose a country sins against me by being unfaithful, and I stretch out my hand against it, cut off its bread supply, cause famine to come on it, and kill both people and animals.

14:14 Even if these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they would save only their own lives by their righteousness, declares the sovereign Lord.

14:15 “Suppose I were to send wild animals through the land and kill its children, leaving it desolate, without travelers due to the wild animals.

14:16 Even if these three men were in it, as surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, they could not save their own sons or daughters; they would save only their own lives, and the land would become desolate.

14:17 “Or suppose I were to bring a sword against that land and say, ‘Let a sword pass through the land,’ and I were to kill both people and animals.

14:18 Even if these three men were in it, as surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, they could not save their own sons or daughters – they would save only their own lives.

14:19 “Or suppose I were to send a plague into that land, and pour out my rage on it with bloodshed, killing both people and animals.

14:20 Even if Noah, Daniel, and Job were in it, as surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, they could not save their own son or daughter; they would save only their own lives by their righteousness.


Did winged spirits and the Tree of Life originate in Assyria?

According to Professor Simo Parpola of the University of Helsinki, the Assyrian
Tree of Life (left), which was depicted on palace walls in Northern Iraq, is the direct ancestor of the Jewish Tree of Life. He regards this diagram as a Family Tree of the major Assyrian Gods, and the Hebrew names given to Sefiroth on the Tree are direct translations of the relevant Assyrian words. (It should be noted that the Assyrians and Babylonians took many Jews into captivity in Iraq when their Empires ruled the Middle East. Consequently there was a sizeable Jewish community in Mesopotamia for many centuries thereafter, which produced the Babylonian Talmud.) Although many Assyriologists are not persuaded of the truth of the theory, it has found a following among Kabbalists.
http://www.wordworks-uk.com/Kabbalah.html


02xg5.jpg

Angel-Sacred-Tree.jpeg

Image Title
: Winged females standing before the sacred tree. (Nimroud) [Calah]
Additional Name(s)
: Layard, Austen Henry, Sir, 1817-1894 -- Author
New York Public Library

img_5998.jpg

The above stele reminds me of a Christmas tree with an angel on the top.

PC282203.2.jpg

Did Ezekiel’s vision of Hashem on a throne chariot come from a Babylon temple float?

Babylon_Float.jpg

Knights of Babylon

The Knights of Babylon pay homage to the splendor of this fabled ancient city by annually presenting a Mardi Gras parade in New Orleans.

http://www.knightsofbabylon.com/home.html

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http://www.bibleorigins.net/EzekielsCherubim.html

 

Akitu (or Akītum; Sumerian ezen á-ki-tum, akiti-šekinku (á-ki-ti-še-gur10-ku5) "cutting of barley", akiti-šununum "sowing of barley", Babylonian akitu, also rêš-šattim "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia. In Babylonian religion it came to be dedicated to Marduk's victory over Tiamat.

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Luke_Wilbur    5

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


The Akitu Festival: Religious Continuity and Royal Legitimation in Mesopotamia

By Julye Bidmead

Page 98

During the akitu procession, as the sun reflected the statue of the god, it would naturally "shine," thus ensuring Marduk's happiness.

The participation of the general public in the Akitu was limited to the role of spectator. On an everyday basis, common people of ancient Mesopotamia were not normally admitted to the temple.

The parade was a momentous religious and political experience, and the public would be present for the elaborate procession. Seeing the gods in splendid attire was awe-inspiring. Only on holidays like the Akitu festival was personal contact with the god permitted. "The city god left his temple...on such days people thronged around the temple area and at the sides of the procession road there were musicians, acrobats and wrestling contests; the inhabitants of the city had a few days off; the met and had acquaintances.


Knights of Babylon 2012 Mardi Gras Parade New Orleans

 

 

The Knights of Babylon king waves to the crowd

KnightsBabylon-0001.jpg

I visited Hampi, India during their New Year celebration in 1993. I remember Indians putting orange dots on celebrants heads from a giant wooden temple cart.

Banashankari_Car.jpg

Assyrian New Year 6759 - Nohadra, Iraq - Crowd singing with Ashur Bet Sargis



There are Annual Hare Krisha parades throughout the world.

parade2.jpg

Hashem's Chariot in Ezekiel's vision would have put awe in Babylon's parade.

34273.jpg

When Hashem was living within the Ark he did not want to be placed on a cart with wheels. Unfortunately David did not take heed and move the Ark according to the specifications of the Mosaic Law but according to customary practice of other nations like Babylon.

2 Samuel 6

6:1 David again assembled all the best men in Israel, thirty thousand in number.

6:2 David and all the men who were with him traveled to Baalah in Judah to bring up from there the ark of God which is called by the name of the Lord of hosts, who sits enthroned between the cherubim that are on it.

6:3 They loaded the ark of God on a new cart and carried it from the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill. Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, were guiding the new cart.

6:4 They brought it with the ark of God up from the house of Abinadab on the hill. Ahio was walking in front of the ark,

6:5 while David and all Israel were energetically celebrating before the Lord, singing and playing various stringed instruments, tambourines, rattles, and cymbals.

6:6 When they arrived at the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah reached out and grabbed hold of the ark of God, because the oxen stumbled.

6:7 The Lord was so furious with Uzzah, he killed him on the spot for his negligence. He died right there beside the ark of God.

6:8 David was angry because the Lord attacked Uzzah; so he called that place Perez Uzzah, which remains its name to this very day.

6:9 David was afraid of the Lord that day and said, “How will the ark of the Lord ever come to me?”

6:10 So David was no longer willing to bring the ark of the Lord to be with him in the City of David. David left it in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite.

6:11 The ark of the Lord remained in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite for three months. The Lord blessed Obed-Edom and all his family.

6:12 David was told, “The Lord has blessed the family of Obed-Edom and everything he owns because of the ark of God.” So David went and joyfully brought the ark of God from the house of Obed-Edom to the City of David.

6:13 Those who carried the ark of the Lord took six steps and then David sacrificed an ox and a fatling calf.

6:14 Now David, wearing a linen ephod, was dancing with all his strength before the Lord.

6:15 David and all Israel were bringing up the ark of the Lord, shouting and blowing trumpets.

6:16 As the ark of the Lord entered the City of David, Saul’s daughter Michal looked out the window. When she saw King David leaping and dancing before the Lord, she despised him.

6:17 They brought the ark of the Lord and put it in its place in the middle of the tent that David had pitched for it. Then David offered burnt sacrifices and peace offerings before the Lord.

6:18 When David finished offering the burnt sacrifices and peace offerings, he pronounced a blessing over the people in the name of the Lord of hosts.

6:19 He then handed out to each member of the entire assembly of Israel, both men and women, a portion of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake. Then all the people went home.

6:20 When David went home to pronounce a blessing on his own house, Michal, Saul’s daughter, came out to meet him. She said, “How the king of Israel has distinguished himself this day! He has exposed himself today before his servants’ slave girls the way a vulgar fool might do!”

6:21 David replied to Michal, “It was before the Lord! I was celebrating before the Lord, who chose me over your father and his entire family and appointed me as leader over the Lord’s people Israel.

6:22 I am willing to shame and humiliate myself even more than this! But with the slave girls whom you mentioned let me be distinguished!”

6:23 Now Michal, Saul’s daughter, had no children to the day of her death.


469A-Image+Ark+of+Covenant.jpg

The one parade I would have like to have seen is Jesus entering His Father's city.

 

Hashem allowed the Philistines to bring back the Ark in a cart pulled by oxen. They did not understand Mosaic law or make a covenant with Hashem. Therefore they were not bound by it. They also made an offering to Hashem of gold that was placed in the cart.

1 Samuel 6

6:1 When the ark of the Lord had been in the land of the Philistines for seven months,

6:2 the Philistines called the priests and the omen readers, saying, “What should we do with the ark of the Lord? Advise us as to how we should send it back to its place.”

6:3 They replied, “If you are going to send the ark of the God of Israel back, don’t send it away empty. Be sure to return it with a guilt offering. Then you will be healed, and you will understand why his hand is not removed from you.”

6:4 They inquired, “What is the guilt offering that we should send to him?”

They replied, “The Philistine leaders number five. So send five gold sores and five gold mice, for it is the same plague that has afflicted both you and your leaders.

6:5 You should make images of the sores and images of the mice that are destroying the land. You should honor the God of Israel. Perhaps he will release his grip on you, your gods, and your land.

6:6 Why harden your hearts like the Egyptians and Pharaoh did? When God treated them harshly, didn’t the Egyptians send the Israelites on their way?

6:7 So now go and make a new cart. Get two cows that have calves and that have never had a yoke placed on them. Harness the cows to the cart and take their calves from them back to their stalls.

6:8 Then take the ark of the Lord and place it on the cart, and put in a chest beside it the gold objects you are sending to him as a guilt offering. You should then send it on its way.

6:9 But keep an eye on it. If it should go up by the way of its own border to Beth Shemesh, then he has brought this great calamity on us. But if that is not the case, then we will know that it was not his hand that struck us; rather, it just happened to us by accident.”

6:10 So the men did as instructed. They took two cows that had calves and harnessed them to a cart; they also removed their calves to their stalls.

6:11 They put the ark of the Lord on the cart, along with the chest, the gold mice, and the images of the sores.

6:12 Then the cows went directly on the road to Beth Shemesh. They went along, mooing as they went; they turned neither to the right nor to the left. The leaders of the Philistines were walking along behind them all the way to the border of Beth Shemesh.

6:13 Now the residents of Beth Shemesh were harvesting wheat in the valley. When they looked up and saw the ark, they were pleased at the sight.

6:14 The cart was coming to the field of Joshua, who was from Beth Shemesh. It paused there near a big stone. Then they cut up the wood of the cart and offered the cows as a burnt offering to the Lord.

6:15 The Levites took down the ark of the Lord and the chest that was with it, which contained the gold objects. They placed them near the big stone. At that time the people of Beth Shemesh offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices to the Lord.

6:16 The five leaders of the Philistines watched what was happening and then returned to Ekron on the same day.

6:17 These are the gold sores that the Philistines brought as a guilt offering to the Lord – one for each of the following cities: Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron.

6:18 The gold mice corresponded in number to all the Philistine cities of the five leaders, from the fortified cities to hamlet villages, to greater Abel, where they positioned the ark of the Lord until this very day in the field of Joshua who was from Beth Shemesh.

6:19 But the Lord struck down some of the people of Beth Shemesh because they had looked into the ark of the Lord; he struck down 50,070 12 of the men. The people grieved because the Lord had struck the people with a hard blow.

6:20 The residents of Beth Shemesh asked, “Who is able to stand before the Lord, this holy God? To whom will the ark go up from here?”

6:21 So they sent messengers to the residents of Kiriath Jearim, saying, “The Philistines have returned the ark of the Lord. Come down here and take it back home with you.”

7:1 Then the people of Kiriath Jearim came and took the ark of the Lord; they brought it to the house of Abinadab located on the hill. They consecrated Eleazar his son to guard the ark of the Lord.


Cowspullingcart.jpg

Priests were to carry the Ark by hand gripping poles made of acacia wood.

"They are to make an ark of acacia wood – its length is to be three feet nine inches, its width two feet three inches, and its height two feet three inches.

25:11 You are to overlay it with pure gold – both inside and outside you must overlay it, and you are to make a surrounding border of gold over it.

25:12 You are to cast four gold rings for it and put them on its four feet, with two rings on one side and two rings on the other side.

25:13 You are to make poles of acacia wood, overlay them with gold,

25:14 and put the poles into the rings at the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark with them.

25:15 The poles must remain in the rings of the ark; they must not be removed from it.

25:16 You are to put into the ark the testimony that I will give to you.

25:17 “You are to make an atonement lid of pure gold; its length is to be three feet nine inches, and its width is to be two feet three inches.

25:18 You are to make two cherubim of gold; you are to make them of hammered metal on the two ends of the atonement lid.

25:19 Make one cherub on one end and one cherub on the other end; from the atonement lid you are to make the cherubim on the two ends.

25:20 The cherubim are to be spreading their wings upward, overshadowing the atonement lid with their wings, and the cherubim are to face each other, 35 looking toward the atonement lid.

25:21 You are to put the atonement lid on top of the ark, and in the ark you are to put the testimony I am giving you.

25:22 I will meet with you there, and from above the atonement lid, from between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the testimony, I will speak with you about all that I will command you for the Israelites.


Only the Kohathites were allowed to transport the Ark. But, even they were not allowed to see or touch it.This differs from pagan idols that people touched.

Numbers 4

4:1 Then the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron:

4:2 “Take a census of the Kohathites from among the Levites, by their families and by their clans,

4:3 from thirty years old and upward to fifty years old, all who enter the company to do the work in the tent of meeting.

4:4 This is the service of the Kohathites in the tent of meeting, relating to the most holy things.

4:5 When it is time for the camp to journey, Aaron and his sons must come and take down the screening curtain and cover the ark of the testimony with it.

4:6 Then they must put over it a covering of fine leather and spread over that a cloth entirely of blue, and then they must insert its poles.

4:7 “On the table of the presence they must spread a bluecloth, and put on it the dishes, the pans, the bowls, and the pitchers for pouring, and the Bread of the Presence must be on it continually.

4:8 They must spread over them a scarlet cloth, and cover the same with a covering of fine leather; and they must insert its poles.

4:9 “They must take a blue cloth and cover the lampstand of the light, with its lamps, its wick-trimmers, its trays, and all its oil vessels, with which they service it.

4:10 Then they must put it with all its utensils in a covering of fine leather, and put it on a carrying beam.

4:11 “They must spread a blue cloth on the gold altar, and cover it with a covering of fine leather; and they must insert its poles.

4:12 Then they must take all the utensils of the service, with which they serve in the sanctuary, put them in a blue cloth, cover them with a covering of fine leather, and put them on a carrying beam.

4:13 Also, they must take away the ashes from the altar and spread a purple cloth over it.

4:14 Then they must place on it all its implements with which they serve there – the trays, the meat forks, the shovels, the basins, and all the utensils of the altar – and they must spread on it a covering of fine leather, and then insert its poles.

4:15 “When Aaron and his sons have finished covering the sanctuary and all the furnishings of the sanctuary, when the camp is ready to journey, then the Kohathites will come to carry them; but they must not touch any holy thing, or they will die. These are the responsibilities of the Kohathites with the tent of meeting.

4:16 “The appointed responsibility of Eleazar son of Aaron the priest is for the oil for the light, and the spiced incense, and the daily grain offering, and the anointing oil; he also has the appointed responsibility over all the tabernacle with all that is in it, over the sanctuary and over all its furnishings.”

4:17 Then the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron:

4:18 “Do not allow the tribe of the families of the Kohathites to be cut off from among the Levites;

4:19 but in order that they will live and not die when they approach the most holy things, do this for them:

Aaron and his sons will go in and appoint each man to his service and his responsibility.

4:20 But the Kohathites are not to go in to watch while the holy things are being covered, or they will die.”


ark_covenant_blue-skins.jpg


Although we like festivals and parades and seasonal festivals. Hashem detests any celebration of false idols, moon, stars, animals, and the material world.

Isaiah 1

1:2 Listen, O heavens,

pay attention, O earth!

For the Lord speaks:

“I raised children, I brought them up,

but 6 they have rebelled against me!

1:3 An ox recognizes its owner,

a donkey recognizes where its owner puts its food;

but Israel does not recognize me,

my people do not understand.”

1:4 The sinful nation is as good as dead,

the people weighed down by evil deeds.

They are offspring who do wrong,

children who do wicked things.

They have abandoned the Lord,

and rejected the Holy One of Israel.

They are alienated from him.

1:5 Why do you insist on being battered?

Why do you continue to rebel?

Your head has a massive wound,

your whole body is weak.

1:6 From the soles of your feet to your head,

there is no spot that is unharmed.

There are only bruises, cuts,

and open wounds.

They have not been cleansed or bandaged,

nor have they been treated with olive oil.

1:7 Your land is devastated,

your cities burned with fire.

Right before your eyes your crops

are being destroyed by foreign invaders.

They leave behind devastation and destruction.

1:8 Daughter Zion is left isolated,

like a hut in a vineyard,

or a shelter in a cucumber field;

she is a besieged city.

1:9 If the Lord who commands armies had not left us a few survivors,

we would have quickly become like Sodom,

we would have become like Gomorrah.

1:10 Listen to the Lord’s word,

you leaders of Sodom!

Pay attention to our God’s rebuke,

people of Gomorrah!

1:11 “Of what importance to me are your many sacrifices?”

says the Lord.

“I am stuffed with burnt sacrifices

of rams and the fat from steers.

The blood of bulls, lambs, and goats

I do not want.

1:12 When you enter my presence,

do you actually think I want this –

animals trampling on my courtyards?

1:13 Do not bring any more meaningless offerings;

I consider your incense detestable!

You observe new moon festivals, Sabbaths, and convocations,

but I cannot tolerate sin-stained celebrations!

1:14 I hate your new moon festivals and assemblies;

they are a burden

that I am tired of carrying.

1:15 When you spread out your hands in prayer,

I look the other way;

when you offer your many prayers,

I do not listen,

because your hands are covered with blood.

1:16 Wash! Cleanse yourselves!

Remove your sinful deeds

from my sight.

Stop sinning!

1:17 Learn to do what is right!

Promote justice!

Give the oppressed reason to celebrate!

Take up the cause of the orphan!

Defend the rights of the widow!

1:18 Come, let’s consider your options,” says the Lord.

“Though your sins have stained you like the color red,

you can become white like snow;

though they are as easy to see as the color scarlet,

you can become white like wool.

1:19 If you have a willing attitude and obey,

then you will again eat the good crops of the land.

1:20 But if you refuse and rebel,

you will be devoured by the sword.”

Know for certain that the Lord has spoken.

1:21 How tragic that the once-faithful city

has become a prostitute!

She was once a center of justice,

fairness resided in her,

but now only murderers.

1:22 Your 55 silver has become scum,

your beer is diluted with water.

1:23 Your officials are rebels,

they associate with thieves.

All of them love bribery,

and look for payoffs.

They do not take up the cause of the orphan,

or defend the rights of the widow.

1:24 Therefore, the sovereign Lord who commands armies,

the powerful ruler of Israel, says this:

“Ah, I will seek vengeance against my adversaries,

I will take revenge against my enemies.

1:25 I will attack you;

I will purify your metal with flux.

I will remove all your slag.

1:26 I will reestablish honest judges as in former times,

wise advisers as in earlier days.

Then you will be called, ‘The Just City,

Faithful Town.’”

1:27 Zion will be freed by justice,

and her returnees by righteousness.

1:28 All rebellious sinners will be shattered,

those who abandon the Lord will perish.

1:29 Indeed, they will be ashamed of the sacred trees

you find so desirable;

you will be embarrassed because of the sacred orchards

where you choose to worship.

1:30 For you will be like a tree whose leaves wither,

like an orchard that is unwatered.

1:31 The powerful will be like a thread of yarn,

their deeds like a spark;

both will burn together,

and no one will put out the fire.

The Parade for Jesus was just. He was the lamb to be sacrificed for atonement of our sins. People were allowed the opportunity to glimpse and touch the greatest prophet of mankind. Although, those in power did not want to believe what they saw and heard. They wanted to control the voice of Hashem.

Matthew 21

21:1 Now when they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples,

21:2 telling them, “Go to the village ahead of you. Right away you will find a donkey tied there, and a colt with her. Untie them and bring them to me.

21:3 If anyone says anything to you, you are to say, ‘The Lord needs them,’ and he will send them at once.”

21:4 This took place to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet:

21:5 “Tell the people of Zion,

‘Look, your king is coming to you,

unassuming and seated on a donkey,

and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.’"

21:6 So 11 the disciples went and did as Jesus had instructed them.

21:7 They brought the donkey and the colt and placed their cloaks on them, and he sat on them.

21:8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road. Others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road.

21:9 The crowds that went ahead of him and those following kept shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!”

21:10 As he entered Jerusalem the whole city was thrown into an uproar, saying, “Who is this?”

21:11 And the crowds were saying, “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth in Galilee.”

21:12 Then Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all those who were selling and buying in the temple courts, and turned over the tables of the money changers and the chairs of those selling doves.

21:13 And he said to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be called a house of prayer,’ but you are turning it into a den of robbers!"

21:14 The blind and lame came to him in the temple courts, and he healed them.

21:15 But when the chief priests and the experts in the law saw the wonderful things he did and heard the children crying out in the temple courts, "Hosanna to the Son of David,” they became indignant

21:16 and said to him, “Do you hear what they are saying?” Jesus said to them, “Yes. Have you never read, ‘Out of the mouths of children and nursing infants you have prepared praise for yourself’?”

21:17 And leaving them, he went out of the city to Bethany and spent the night there.


Jesus+on+donkey.jpg


In addition to the earth and the heavens, even the weakest human beings bring praise to their Creator. David’s point was that even small children acknowledge and honor God whereas older, more sophisticated adults often deny Him.

Psalm 8

8:1 O Lord, our Lord,

how magnificent is your reputation throughout the earth!

You reveal your majesty in the heavens above!

8:2 From the mouths of children and nursing babies

you have ordained praise on account of your adversaries,

so that you might put an end to the vindictive enemy.

8:3 When I look up at the heavens, which your fingers made,

and see the moon and the stars, which you set in place,

8:4 Of what importance is the human race, that you should notice them?

Of what importance is mankind, that you should pay attention to them,

8:5 and make them a little less than the heavenly beings?

You grant mankind honor and majesty;

8:6 you appoint them to rule over your creation;

you have placed everything under their authority,

8:7 including all the sheep and cattle,

as well as the wild animals,

8:8 the birds in the sky, the fish in the sea

and everything that moves through the currents of the seas.

8:9 O Lord, our Lord,

how magnificent is your reputation throughout the earth!


children-worship.jpg

 

1 Corinthians 1

1:18 For the message about the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.

1:19 For it is written, “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will thwart the cleverness of the intelligent.”

1:20 Where is the wise man? Where is the expert in the Mosaic law? Where is the debater of this age? Has God not made the wisdom of the world foolish?

1:21 For since in the wisdom of God the world by its wisdom did not know God, God was pleased to save those who believe by the foolishness of preaching.

1:22 For Jews demand miraculous signs and Greeks ask for wisdom,

1:23 but we preach about a crucified Christ, a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles.

1:24 But to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God.

1:25 For the foolishness of God is wiser than human wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than human strength.

1:26 Think about the circumstances of your call, brothers and sisters. Not many were wise by human standards, not many were powerful, not many were born to a privileged position.

1:27 But God chose what the world thinks foolish to shame the wise, and God chose what the world thinks weak to shame the strong.

1:28 God chose what is low and despised in the world, what is regarded as nothing, to set aside what is regarded as something,

1:29 so that no one can boast in his presence.

1:30 He is the reason you have a relationship with Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,

1:31 so that, as it is written, “Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord.”

2:1 When I came 1 to you, brothers and sisters, I did not come with superior eloquence or wisdom as I proclaimed the testimony of God.

2:2 For I decided to be concerned about nothing among you except Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

2:3 And I was with you in weakness and in fear and with much trembling.

2:4 My conversation and my preaching were not with persuasive words of wisdom, but with a demonstration of the Spirit and of power,

2:5 so that your faith would not be based on human wisdom but on the power of God.

 

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Luke_Wilbur    5

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


The fourth beast fighting the Holy Ones in the vision of the prophet Daniel is similar to Humbaba, Tiamat, and Anzud fighting against the assembly of Gods.

Daniel 7

7:7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions a fourth beast appeared one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. It had two large rows of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns.

7:8 “As I was contemplating the horns, another horn – a small one – came up between them, and three of the former horns were torn out by the roots to make room for it.This horn had eyes resembling human eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant things.

 

7:11 “Then I kept on watching because of the arrogant words of the horn that was speaking. I was watching until the beast was killed and its body destroyed and thrown into the flaming fire.

 

7:19 “Then I wanted to know the meaning of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others. It was very dreadful, with two rows of iron teeth and bronze claws, and it devoured, crushed, and trampled anything that was left with its feet.

7:20 I also wanted to know the meaning of the ten horns on its head, and of that other horn which came up and before which three others fell. This was the horn that had eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant things, whose appearance was more formidable than the others.

7:21 While I was watching, that horn began to wage war against the holy ones and was defeating them,

7:22 until the Ancient of Days arrived and judgment was rendered in favor of the holy ones of the Most High. Then the time came for the holy ones to take possession of the kingdom.

7:23 “This is what he told me:

‘The fourth beast means that there will be a fourth kingdom on earth

that will differ from all the other kingdoms.

It will devour all the earth

and will trample and crush it.

7:24 The ten horns

mean that ten kings will arise from that kingdom.

Another king will arise after them,

but he will be different from the earlier ones.

He will humiliate three kings.

7:25 He will speak words against the Most High.

He will harass the holy ones of the Most High continually.

His intention will be to change times established by law.

They will be delivered into his hand

For a time, times, and half a time.

7:26 But the court will convene, and his ruling authority will be removed

destroyed and abolished forever!

7:27 Then the kingdom, authority,

and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven

will be delivered to the people of the holy ones of the Most High.

His kingdom is an eternal kingdom;

all authorities will serve him and obey him.’

7:28 “This is the conclusion of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts troubled me greatly, and the color drained from my face. But I kept the matter to myself.”


https://www.academia.edu/3984334/_The_Monsters_Gaze_Vision_as_Mediator_Between_Time_and_Space_in_the_Art_of_Mesopotamia._In_L._Feliu_et_al_Time_and_History_in_the_Ancient_Near_East_Proceedings_of_the_56th_Rencontre_Assyriologique_Internationale_at_Barcelona_26-30_July_10_285-300._Winona_Lake_Eisenbrauns_2013

One can imagine how the forth beast would look like. Star Wars ten horned Sith Lord, Darth Maul is described by George Lucas as "a figure from your worst nightmare."

SWMythos_DarthMaul_WIP6.jpg


In Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Humbaba (Assyrian spelling) or Huwawa (Sumerian spelling), also Humbaba the Terrible, was a monstrous giant of immemorial age raised by Utu, the Sun.

Utu (Akkadian rendition of Sumerian UD "Sun", Assyro-Babylonian Shamash "Sun") is the Sun god in Sumerian mythology, the son of the moon god Nanna and the goddess Ningal. His brother and sisters are Ishkur and the twins Inanna and Ereshkigal.

Utu is the god of the sun, justice, application of law, and the lord of truth. He is usually depicted as wearing a horned helmet and carrying a saw-edged weapon not unlike a pruning saw. It is thought that every day, Utu emerges from a mountain in the east, symbolizing dawn, and travels either via chariot or boat across the Earth, returning to a hole in a mountain in the west, symbolizing sunset. Every night, Utu descends into the underworld to decide the fate of the dead. He is also depicted as carrying a mace, and standing with one foot on a mountain. Its symbol is "sun rays from the shoulders, and or sun disk or a saw".

Stele of Utu

utu.jpg

Clay mask of the demon Huwawa

06_Uruk_Maske_Humbaba.jpg

From Sippar, southern Iraq, about 1800-1600 BC

One method for predicting the future in ancient Mesopotamia was the study of the shape and colour of the internal organs of a sacrificed animal. Experts compiled records of these signs or omens together with the events they were believed to predict. A cuneiform inscription on the back of this clay mask suggests that the intestines might be found in the shape of Huwawa's face in this mask. Huwawa (also called Humbaba in some texts) was a monster who appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh. He was guardian of the Cedar Forest (probably referring to the Lebanon in the late version of the tale) but was defeated by Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

The mask is formed of coiled intestines represented by one continuous line. Such an omen would mean 'revolution'. The divination expert who made the mask is named in the inscription as Warad-Marduk. It was found at Sippar, the cult centre for the sun-god Shamash, who was responsible for omens.

https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/c/clay_mask_of_the_demon_huwawa.aspx


humbaba.gif

There is a George Burckhardt's translation of Gilgamesh describes Humbaba, "he had the paws of a lion and a body covered in horny scales; his feet had the claws of a vulture, and on his head were the horns of a wild bull; his tail and phallus each ended in a snake's head."

Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.

The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirmed in the text Nanna-Suen's Journey to Nippur (ETCSL 1.5.1: 18), when Nanna brings the "first fruit offerings" to Enlil, the head of the early Mesopotamian pantheon (Black et al. 2004: 147).

The primary symbol of the moon god was as a bull, the result of the horizontal crescent of the waxing moon appearing similar to the horns of that animal. This symbolism led to a consideration of the moon god as a cowherd, which is celebrated most clearly in the composition The Herds of Nanna (ETCSL 4.13.06), the longest section of which enumerates the cattle in Nanna's herd.

An association with fertility may come from the moon god's connection to cattle, and also, perhaps, from the clear link to the menstrual cycle, roughly similar to the timing of the moon's transformations. The connection with fertility is demonstrated in the Old Babylonian (early second-millennium) birth incantations (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367; Veldhuis 1991). The magical-medical text A Cow of Sin relates the story of the moon god's beautiful and pregnant cow, Geme-Sin. The birthing-pains of Geme-Sin are eased by Sin, and the incantation ends with a 'supplication: "may this woman give birth as easily as Geme-Sin" suggesting this text's role in human child-birth (Veldhuis 1991: 1).

http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/nannasuen/


sin01.jpg

From the earliest times, the bull was lunar in Mesopotamia its horns representing the crescent moon.



Nandi (Sanskrit: नन्दी, Tamil: நந்தி, Telugu: న౦ది) is the name for the bull which serves as the mount (Sanskrit: Vahana) of the god Shiva and as the gate keeper of Shiva and Parvati. In Hindu Religion, he is the chief guru of eighteen masters (18 siddhas) including Patanjali and Thirumular.emples venerating Shiva display stone images of a seated Nandi, generally facing the main shrine. There are also a number of temples dedicated solely to Nandi.

Nandibull.jpg

Nandi Hills or Nandidurg (Anglicised forms include Nandidrug and Nandydroog) is an ancient hill fortress of southern India, in the Chikkaballapur district of Karnataka state. It is located just 10 km from Chickballapur town and approximately 60 km from the city of Bangalore. The hill gets its name from an ancient, 1300 year old Dravidian style Nandi temple situated on this hill. The temple was originally constructed during the 9th century AD by Bana Queen Ratnavali, in the Dravidian style of architecture.

Nandi as a separate god can be traced back to Indus Valley Civilization, where dairy farming was the most important occupation, thus explaining the appearance of various artifacts, such as the 'Pashupati Seal,' steatite seal (dating from 2600–1900 BCE) discovered at Mohenjo-daro. The seal depicts a seated, possibly ithyphallic and tricephalic, figure with a horned headdress
surrounded by animals.Pashupati and is believed to have been worshiped as the keeper of herds.

Other belive the Pashupati stele to be one of the earliest depictions of the Hindu god Shiva (The seal is named after "Pashupati", an epithet of Shiva) or Rudra, who is associated with asceticism, yoga, and linga; regarded as a lord of animal; and often depicted as having three heads.

Shiva_Pashupati.jpg

Is there a connection between the Indus Pashupati and the Sumerian Nanna? The Pashupati stele and first First Dynasty of Ur is estimated 2600 BC.

Nandini (Kamadhenu (Sanskrit: कामधेनु [kaːməˈd̪ʱeːnʊ] Kāmadhenu, also known as Surabhi, सुरभि Surabhī) is the female aspect of Shiva's bull and mother of all cows. She is a miraculous "cow of plenty" who provides her owner whatever he desires and is often portrayed as the mother of other cattle as well as the eleven Rudras. In iconography, she is generally depicted as a white cow with a female head and breasts or as a white cow containing various deities within her body. All cows are venerated in Hinduism as the earthly embodiment of the Kamadhenu. As such, Kamadhenu is not worshipped independently as a goddess, and temples are not dedicated to her honor alone; rather, she is honored by the veneration of cows in general throughout the observant Hindu population.

1024px-Batu_Caves_Kamadhenu.jpg

Sabaean Incense Burner

Sabaean-Incense-Burner.jpg

With a pyramidal pedestal base inscribed on two sides with five rows of Old South Arabian reading, "Abd-il and Dhakhirum, the sons of Nihmayan, clients servants of (the clan) Dhu-Shar'an, have [dedicate]ed to Athtar [with]in Hidrum an incense-altar and two statues for their well-being, and the well-being of their ... and their increase, for child[ren] and prosperity," the upper portion with a deep square bowl stepped along the sides, the front panel decorated in raised relief in four divided sections, rearing ibexes to the left and right with long back-curving horns, their bodies facing out, their heads turned back, the central section with a crescent moon and solar orb above a frontal bovine head, dentils below
21¾ in. (55.2 cm.) high

For a related example of similar style with a crescent moon and solar orb, from the Bar'ân temple at Mârib, see fig. 43, p. 113 in Simpson, ed., Queen of Sheba, Treasures from Ancient Yemen. For an analysis of incense burners, see p. 112, op. cit.

http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/lot/a-south-arabian-limestone-incense-circa-1st-4821518-details.aspx?intObjectID=4821518


Attar (Aramaic); Athtar (South Arabia); Astar (Abyssinia); Ashtar (Moab); Ashtar(t) (Canaan); Ishtar (Assyro-Babylonian) is the morning star and thunderstorm god, dispensing natural irrigation in the form of rain. In more southerly regions Attar is known as Dhu-Samani.

Men from the village, wearing grass skirts and headdresses fashioned from cattle horns, perform the Kambala dance.

18299_20_KambalaDance_50M_xlarge.jpg

Expedition across Africa - Kambala dance in Kadugli in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan



Ezekiel 43

43:12 “This is the law of the temple: The entire area on top of the mountain all around will be most holy. Indeed, this is the law of the temple.

43:13 “And these are the measurements of the altar:

Its base is 1¾ feet high, and 1¾ feet wide, and its border nine inches on its edge. This is to be the height 19 of the altar.

43:14 From the base of the ground to the lower edge is 3½ feet, and the width 1¾ feet; and from the smaller ledge to the larger edge, 7 feet, and the width 1¾ feet;

43:15 and the altar hearth, 7 feet, and from the altar hearth four horns projecting upward.

43:16 Now the altar hearth 23 is a perfect square, 21 feet 24 long and 21 feet wide.

43:17 The ledge is 24½ feet 25 long and 24½ feet wide on four sides; the border around it is 10½ inches, and its surrounding base 1¾ feet. Its steps face east.”

43:18 Then he said to me: “Son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says:

These are the statutes of the altar: On the day it is built to offer up burnt offerings on it and to sprinkle blood on it,

43:19 you will give a young bull for a sin offering to the Levitical priests who are descended from Zadok, who approach me to minister to me, declares the sovereign Lord.

43:20 You will take some of its blood, and place it on the four horns of the altar, on the four corners of the ledge, and on the border all around; you will cleanse it and make atonement for it.

43:21 You will also take the bull for the sin offering, and it will be burned in the appointed place in the temple, outside the sanctuary.

43:22 “On the second day, you will offer a male goat without blemish for a sin offering. They will purify the altar just as they purified it with the bull.

43:23 When you have finished purifying it, you will offer an unblemished young bull and an unblemished ram from the flock.

43:24 You will present them before the Lord, and the priests will scatter salt on them and offer them up as a burnt offering to the Lord.

43:25 “For seven days you will provide every day a goat for a sin offering; a young bull and a ram from the flock, both without blemish, will be provided.

43:26 For seven days they will make atonement for the altar and cleanse it, so they will consecrate it.

43:27 When the prescribed period is over, on the eighth day and thereafter the priests will offer up on the altar your burnt offerings and your peace offerings; I will accept you, declares the sovereign Lord.”


TEHILIM (Book of Psalms)

Chapter 75

11 All the horns of the wicked also will I cut off; but the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up. {P}


TEHILIM (Book of Psalms)

Chapter 118

27 The LORD is God, and hath given us light; order the festival procession with boughs, even unto the horns of the altar.

28 Thou art my God, and I will give thanks unto Thee; Thou art my God, I will exalt Thee.

29 O give thanks unto the LORD, for He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever. {P}


altar_of_incense.jpg

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Luke_Wilbur    5

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


TEHILIM (Book of Psalms)

Chapter 81

1 For the Leader; upon the Gittith. [A Psalm] of Asaph.

2 Sing aloud unto God our strength; shout unto the God of Jacob.

3 Take up the melody, and sound the timbrel, the sweet harp with the psaltery.

4 Blow the horn at the new moon, at the full moon for our feast-day.

5 For it is a statute for Israel, an ordinance of the God of Jacob.






A shofar is an instrument made from the horn of a ram or other kosher animal. It was used in ancient Israel to announce the New Moon (Rosh Chodesh) and call people together.

Saint Paul has a different opinion of Rosh Chodesh, Sabbath Days, circumcision, and the worship of angels and elementals..

Colossians 2

8 Take care that there shall be no one that leads you astray through philosophy and vain deceit, according to the tradition of men, according to the rudiments of the world, and not according to Christ,

9 for in him dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily,

10 and you are complete in him, who is the head of all principality and authority,

11 in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, in the putting off of the body of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ,

12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the energy of God who raised him from the dead;

13 and you being dead in the offenses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, he made alive together with him, having forgiven us all offenses;

14 having blotted out the handwriting in ordinances that was against us, which was opposed to us, he also took it out of the midst, having nailed it to the cross:

15 after spoiling principalities and authorities, he made a show of them openly, having triumphed over them in it.

16 Let no one therefore judge you in eating or in drinking or in respect of a feast or of a new moon or of sabbaths,

17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the body of Christ is the substance.

18 Let no one deprive you of your reward by delighting in humility and worship of angels, intruding into those things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by the mind of his flesh,

19 and not holding the head, from whom all the body, through joints and bands, having nourishment, ministered and being knit together, increases with the increase of God.

20 If you die with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why as living in the world are you subject to dogmas,

21 Touch not, neither taste nor handle,

22 which things are all to perish in the using, according to the commandments and teachings of men.

23 And these have indeed a show of wisdom in will-worship and humility and austerity of the body, not in any honor for the satisfying of the flesh.


We need to separate the wheat from the chaff. Meaning focusing on the commands of Hashem and letting go of human traditions and false teachers not rooted in divine revelation. Paul's words were no different than Hashem's revelations to the Prophet Isaiah. Observing Sabbaths is not bad, but what is truly important is removing evil from our lives and focusing on doing good works and putting Hashem first. We need to atone for our sins before coming into presence of Hashem.

The Great Isaiah Scroll

Chapter 1

11 What is the multitude of your sacrifices to me?' says the LORD. 'I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams and the fat of well-fed beasts; I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls or lambs or goats

12 'When you come to see my face, who has required of you this trampling of my courts?

13 Do not keep bringing meaningless offerings! Incense is detestable to me; new moon, and Sabbath, and the calling of meetings – I cannot stand iniquity with its solemn assembly.

14 Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul detests; they have become a burden to me that I am tired of carrying.

15 When you spread out your hands, I will hide my eyes from you; multiply prayers, even – I will not listen. Your hands are full of blood. your fingers with iniquity.

16 Wash yourselves, and make yourselves clean; and remove the evil of your deeds from my sight. Stop doing evil,

17 learn to do good. Seek justice, alleviate oppression; bring justice to the fatherless, plead the widow's case in court.


Philippians 2

2:3 Instead of being motivated by selfish ambition or vanity, each of you should, in humility, be moved to treat one another as more important than yourself.

2:4 Each of you should be concerned not only about your own interests, but about the interests of others as well.

2:5 You should have the same attitude toward one another that Christ Jesus had,

2:6 who though he existed in the form of God
did not regard equality with God
as something to be grasped,

2:7 but emptied himself
by taking on the form of a slave,
by looking like other men,
and by sharing in human nature.

2:8 He humbled himself,
by becoming obedient to the point of death
– even death on a cross!

2:9 As a result God exalted him
and gave him the name
that is above every name,

2:10 so that at the name of Jesus
every knee will bow
– in heaven and on earth and under the earth –

2:11 and every tongue confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord
to the glory of God the Father.


Hashem knew that other religious cults were practicing new moon festivals. In my opinion that is why He did not put as much ritual importance to them. But, Hashem also knew that it was important for his people to know the season and date they were living in. For me the strength of the flood and creation story repeated in similar cultures shows me that Judaism has a genealogical, cultural and linguistic relationship with Akkadian Semitic speakers from the family of Noah. Their concepts of Hashem became corrupted by cultural concepts of forces of nature. Zoroastrian and Judaism culture of one God survived, the other Polytheist religions with the exception of Hinduism lost their popularity are now considered satanic cults. These pagan spirits are still very much alive in our time and twisting into new media truths of whether they are good or bad. Without the power of discernment they may eventually evolve back into their former selves with a new community of believers. This is why I have taken the time to understand the spirits of the past. I apologize to the reader if my writing seems to go off on various tangents, but one understanding builds a bridge to another. God willing I will finish this section of understanding idolatry soon and come to a profound simple truth.

The main Sumerian deities are:

Anu: god of heaven, the firmament
Enlil: god of the air (from Lil = Air); patron deity of Nippur
Enki: god of freshwater, male fertility, and knowledge; patron deity of Eridu
Ereshkigal: goddess of the underworld, Kigal or Irkalla
Inanna: goddess of warfare, female fertility, and sexual love; matron deity of Uruk
Nammu was the primeval sea (Engur), who gave birth to An (heaven) and Ki (earth) and the first deities; eventually became known as the goddess Tiamat
Ninhursag: goddess of the earth
Nanna: god of the moon; one of the patron deities of Ur
Ningal: wife of Nanna
Ninlil: an air goddess and wife of Enlil; one of the matron deities of Nippur; she was believed to reside in the same temple as Enlil
Ninurta: god of war, agriculture, one of the Sumerian wind gods; patron deity of Girsu, and one of the patron deities of Lagash
Utu: god of the sun at the E-babbar temple of Sippar

Anzud was the villain of the Sumerian assembly of gods.

Is it possible that the Sumerian god Anzud over time evolved to the Assyrian Ashur and then became the symbol of Faravahar of the Zoroastrian religion?

e4d51691c8074389ffff8fadffffe417.jpg

National Museum of Iraq, Baghdad. Description: Pendant of a lion-headed eagle, thought to represent the Anzud bird from the Sumerian myth.

Pendant_of_Eagle_with_lion_s_head_from_U

Daniel 7

7:4 “The first one was like a lion with eagles’ wings. As I watched, its wings were pulled off and it was lifted up from the ground. It was made to stand on two feet like a human being, and a human mind was given to it.


daniel_7_lion_sm.jpg

Anzud (Anzû is Akkadian, before misread as Zû, also known as Imdugud in Sumerian) means (from An "heaven" and Zu "to know." Anzud is a lesser divinity or monster of Akkadian mythology, and the son of the bird goddess Siris. He was conceived by the pure waters of the Apsu and the wide Earth. Both Anzud and Siris are seen as massive birds who can breathe fire and water, although Anzudis alternately seen as a lion-headed eagle (like a reverse griffin).

Imdugud (Sumerian) or Anzû (Akkadian).

Anzud was a servant of the chief sky god Enlil, guard of the throne in Enlil's sanctuary, (possibly previously a symbol of Anu), from whom Anzud stole the Tablet of Destinies, so hoping to determine the fate of all things. In one version of the legend, the gods sent Lugalbanda to retrieve the tablets, who killed Anzu. In another, Ea and Belet-Ili conceived Ninurta for the purpose of retrieving the tablets. In a third legend, found in The Hymn of Ashurbanipal, Marduk is said to have killed Anzu.

 

Ham is the Chaldean Anzu, and both are cursed for the same allegorically described crime," which parallels the mutilation of Uranos by Kronos and of Set by Horus.

Hammurabi might actually mean "Ham the Great

Anzu and the Tablet of Destinies

From the Sumerian Gal = great, Lu = man, in Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, the Gallus (also called gallu demons or gallas [Akkadian: gallû) were great demons/devils of the underworld. Gallu demons hauled unfortunate victims off to the underworld. They were one of seven devils (or "the offspring of hell") of Babylonian theology that could be appeased by the sacrifice of a lamb at their altars.

Lilitu (Hebrew "Lilith," "Lillith," or "Lilit") was a Mesopotamian night demon with a penchant for destroying children.

 

In Akkadian mythology, Antu or Antum was the first consort of Anu, and the pair were the parents of the Anunnaki and the Utukki.

 

Aya (or Aja) in Akkadian mythology was a mother goddess, consort of the sun god Shamash.

 

Aya developed from the Sumerian goddess Šherida, consort of Utu.

TABLET 1

I sing the superb son of the king of populated lands,
I praise superb Ninurta, beloved of Mani,
The powerful god, Enlil´s son,
Eku´s child, leader of the Anunnaki, focus of Eninnu,
Who waters cattle-pens, irrigated gardens, ponds (?), in country and town.
Flood-wave of battles, who darkens the sash, warrior.
The fiercest gallu-demons, though tireless, fear his attack.
Listen to the praise of the powerful onés strength,
Who subdued, who bound the Mountain of Stones in his fury,
Who conquered soaring Anzu with his weapon,
Who slew the bull-man inside the Sea.
Strong warrior who slays with his weapon,
Powerful one, who is quick to form a battle array,
Until now, no dais had been created for the Igigi;
The Igigi would assemble for their Enlil-power.
Rivers were formed - the Tigris, the Euphrates -
But springs ahd not yet sent their water to the land.
Seas [ ]
Clouds were still far away on the horizon [ ]
All the Igigi gathered
To Enlil, their father, warrior of the gods,
They his sons, brought a report,
' Pay attention to reliable words!
On Hehe, a wooded mountain of [ ]
In the lap of (?) the Anunnaki [ ]
[ ] has given birth to Anu.
[His beak is a saw]
[ ]
Which [ ]
Eleven coats of mail (?) [ ]
The mountains [ ]
At his shout [ ]
The South Wind [ ]
The powerful [ ] wind [ ]
The mass [ ]
Whirlwinds [ ]
They met and [ ]
The four winds [ ]

Father of the gods, Duranki´s god, looked at him,
But kept his thoughts to himself.
He studied Anzu closely [ ]
He considered with (?) [ ]
´Who gave birth to [ ]
Why is this [ ]
Ea answered his heart-searching,
The far-sighted one addressed his words to Enlil,
' Surely water of the spate begot Anzu,
Holy water of the gods of Apzu.
Broad Earth conceived him,
And he was born from mountain rocks.
You have looked at Anzu himself [ ]
Let him serve you and never cease!
In the hall let him bar the way to the innermost chamber, forever.
(gap of three lines)
[ ] the words spoken to him.
He (Enlil) took a cult centre [ ]
And administered the orders of all the gods.
He made an extra fate, and Anzu administered it.
Enlil appointed him to the entrance of the chamber which he had perfected
He would bathe in holy water in his presence
His eyes would gaze at the trappings of Enlil-power;
His lordly crown, his robe of divinity,
The Tablet of Destinies in his hands, Anzu gazed,
And fixed his purpose, to usurp the Enlil-power.
Anzu often gazed at Duranki´s god, father of the gods,
And fixed his purpose to usurp the Enlil-power.
' I shall take the gods´ Tablet of Destinies for myself,
And control the orders for all the gods,
And shall possess the throne and be master of the rites!
I shall direct every one of the Igigi!'
He plotted opposition in his heart
And at the chamber´s entrance from which he often gazed,
He waited for the start of the day.
While Enlil was bathing in the holy water,
Stripped and with his crown laid down on the throne,
He gained the Tablet of Destinies for himself,
Took away the Enlil-power. Rites were abandoned,
Anzu flew off and went into
Radiance faded, silence reigned,
Father Enlil, their counsellor, was dumbstruck,
For he had stripped the chamber of its radiance.
The gods of the land searched high and low for a solution.
Anu made his voice heard, and spoke, addressed the gods his sons:
' Whichever god slays Anzu
Will make our name great in all populated lands!'
They called the canal-controller, Anu´s son,
The decision-maker spoke for him;
They called Adad, the canal controller, Anu´s son,
The decision-maker spoke to him,
' Powerful Adad, ferocious Adad, your attack cannot be deflected;
Your name shall be great in the great gods´ assembly,
You shall have no rival among the gods your brothers,
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!
Adad answered the speech, addressed his words to Anu, his father:
' Father, who could rush off to the inaccessible mountain?
Has taken away the Enlil-power: rites are abandoned!
Anzu flew off and went into hiding!
His utterance has replaced that of Duranki´s god!
He has only to command, and whoever he curses turns to clay!
At his utterance, the gods must now tremble!'
He turned away, saying he would not make the expedition.
They called Gerra, Anunitu´s son.
The decision-maker spoke to him,
' Powerful Gerra, ferocious Gerra, your attack cannot be deflected;
Burn Anzu with fire, your weapon!
Your name shall be great in the great gods´ assembly,
You shall have no rival among the gods your brothers,
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!'
Gerra answered the speech, addressed his words to Anu, his father,
' Father, who could rush off to the inaccessible mountain?
Which of the gods your sons will be Anzu´s conqueror?
For he has gained the Tablets of Destinies for himself,
Has taken away the Enlil power: rites are abandoned!
His utterance has replaced that of Duranki´s god!
He has only to command, and whoever he curses turns to clay!
At his utterance, the gods must now tremble!'
He turned away, saying he would not make the expedition.
They called Shara, Ishtar´s on,
He (Anu) proposed a solution, spoke to him,
'Powerful Shara, ferocious Shara, your attack cannot be deflected!
Strike Anzu with [ ........] your weapon!

Your name shall be great in the great gods´ assembly,
You shall have no rival among the gods your brothers,
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!'
Shara answered the speech, addressed his words to Anu his father,
' Father, who could rush off to the inaccessible mountain?
Which of the gods your sons will be Anzu´s conqueror?
For he has gained the Tablets of Destinies for himself,
Has taken away the Enlil power: rites are abandoned!
His utterance has replaced that of Duranki´s god!
He has only to command, and whoever he curses turns to clay!
At his utterance, the gods must now tremble!'
He turned away, saying he would not make the expedition.
The gods fell silent and despaired of advice.
The Lord of Intelligence wise one who dwells in the Apsu
Formed an idea in the depths of his being
Ea formed intelligence in his heart
He told Anu what he was thinking in his inmost being.
' Let me give orders and search among the gods,
And pick from the Assembly Anzu´s conqueror.
I myself shall search among the gods
And pick from the Assembly Anzu´s conqueror.'

The Igigi listened to this speech of his
The Igigi were freed from anxiety and kissed his feet
The far-sighted one made his voice heard and spoke,
Addressed his words to Anu and Dagan:
' Have them call for me Belet-ili, sister of the gods,

Wise counselor of the gods her brothers,
Have them announce her supremacy in the assembly,
Have the gods honour her in their assembly;
I shall then tell her the idea which is my heart.'
They called for Belet-ili, sister of the gods, to him,
Wise counselor of the gods her brothers,
They announced her supremacy in the assembly,
The gods honored her in their assembly.
Then Ea told the idea in the depths of his inmost being.
' Previously we used to call you Mami
But now your name shall be Mistress of all Gods.
Offer the powerful one, your superb beloved,
Broad of chest, who forms the battle array!
Give Ninurta, your superb beloved,
Broad of chest who forms the battle array,
Then shall his name be Lord in the great gods´ assembly.
Let him show prowess to the gods that his may be Powerful!
Let his name be made great in all populated lands
His cult centers….
Lord.....
(2 lines fragmentary)
Mami listened to this speech of his
And Belet-ili the supreme uttered "Yes"
The gods of the land were glad at her utterance
The Igigi were freed from anxiety and kissed her feet.
She called her son into the gods´ assembly,
And instructed her favorite, saying to him,
' In the presence of Anu and Dagan,
They announced the course of their rites in the assembly
I gave birth to all the Igigi,
I created every single one of the Anunnaki!
And I created the gods´ assembly. I Mami,
Assigned the Enlil-power to my brother.
Anzu has disrupted the kingship that I designated!
He has obtained for himself the Tablet of Destinies [ ]
He has robbed Enlil; he rejected your father,
Stole the rites and turned them to his use
(Catchline)
Make a path, fix the hour,


In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara. His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat.

http://firstlegend.info/van.html

Igigi was a term used to refer to the gods of heaven in Sumerian mythology. Though sometimes synonymous with the term "Annunaki," in one myth the Igigi were the younger gods who were servants of the Annunaki, until they rebelled and were replaced by the creation of humans.

Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts (gašam); mischief; water, seawater, lakewater (a, aba, ab), intelligence (gestú, literally "ear") and creation (Nudimmud: nu, likeness, dim mud, make beer). He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea, but also with the constellation AŠ-IKU, the Field (Square of Pegasus). Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40," occasionally referred to as his "sacred number." The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki.

Mami is a goddess in the Babylonian epic Atra-Hasis and in other creation legends. She was probably synonymous with Ninhursag. She was involved in the creation of humankind from clay and blood. As Nintu legends states she pinched off fourteen pieces of primordial clay which she formed into womb deities, seven on the left and seven on the right with a brick between them, who produced the first seven pairs of human embryos. She may have become Belet Ili ("Mistress of the Gods") when, at Enki's suggestion, the gods slew one amongst themselves and used that god's blood and flesh, mixed with clay, to create humankind. Also known as Belet-ili, or Nintu. Alternative forms of her name include Mama and Mammitum.

Belet-ili is Sumerian goddess of the womb. The gods asked her to create mankind for them. She created men, so they could till the soils and dig canals, and she created women so that they could continue to bear men. Seven of each she created, so that after 600 years the people were already too numerous. The land became so noisy that Ellil could not sleep. The people were also sinful, eating their own children, so Ellil decided to wash them away with a great flood. He meant to keep the plan a secret from the people but the god Ea (Enki) told his protege Atrahasis what would happen and how he could save himself by means of a boat. The flood lasted seven days.

In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (Ninḫursag) or Ninkharsag was a mother goddess of the mountains, and one of the seven great deities of Sumer. She is principally a fertility goddess. Temple hymn sources identify her as the 'true and great lady of heaven' (possibly in relation to her standing on the mountain) and kings of Sumer were 'nourished by Ninhursag's milk'. Her hair is sometimes depicted in an omega shape, and she at times wears a horned head-dress and tiered skirt, often with bow cases at her shoulders, and not infrequently carries a mace or baton surmounted by an omega motif or a derivation, sometimes accompanied by a lion cub on a leash. She is the tutelary deity to several Sumerian leaders.

ninhursag2.jpg

Copper Bull from the Temple of Ninhursag

ps258348_l.jpg

This bull was discovered in 1923 by Leonard Woolley at the small site of Tell al-'Ubaid, close to the remains of the city of Ur. The bull was found among a group of objects at the foot of a mud brick platform. The platform had originally supported a temple building dedicated to the goddess Ninhursag. The objects were found beside the platform-stairs. The bull had been squashed flat by the weight of the brickwork which had fallen from the temple above.

Ninhursag was a mother goddess and her name means 'lady of the steppe land' where cows were put out to pasture. It is appropriate that her temple should have been decorated with bulls and cows.

The body of the bull originally had a wooden core, now decayed, which was covered in a thin layer of bitumen. Over this was hammered thin sheet copper (probably from Iran or Oman) secured with copper nails.

Four bulls were found at the site but only two were in a good state of preservation (the second is now in the University of Phildelphia Museum). Because the copper was in such a fragile state, Leonard Woolley poured wax over the remains and covered it in bandages so that the metal was kept in place when lifted from the ground. Modern restorations include one horn, a section in the middle of the tail and part of the modelling of the hooves.

H.R. Hall and C.L. Woolley, Ur Excavations, vol. I: Al-Uba (London, Oxford University Press, 1927)

https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/c/copper_figure_of_a_bull.aspx


TABLET II

Make a path, fix the hour,
Let light dawn for the gods whom I created.
Muster your devastating battle force,
Make your evil winds flash as they march over him.
Capture soaring Anzu
And inundate the earth, which I created - wreck his dwelling.
Let terror thunder above him,
Let fear of your battle force shake in him.
Make the devastating whirlwind rise up against him
Set your arrow in the bow, coat it with poison,
Your form must keep changing, like a gallu-demon,
Send out a fog, so that he cannot recognize your features!
May your rays proceed above him,
Make a high, attacking leap; have glare
More powerful than Shamash generates,
May broad daylight turn to darkness for him
Seize him by the throat: conquer Anzu,
And let the winds bring his feathers as good news
To Ekur, to your father Enlil´s house,
Rush and inundate the mountain pastures
And slit the throat of wicked Anzu.
Then shall kingship enter Ekur again,
Then shall rites return for the father who begot you!
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!'
The warrior listened to his mother´s words,
He hunched in trepidation and went into hiding,
The Lord marshaled the Seven of Battle
The warrior marshaled the seven evil winds,
Who dance in the dust, the seven whirlwinds,
He mustered a battle array, made war with a terrifying formation,
Even the gales were silent at his side, poised for conflict.
On the mountainside, Azu and Ninurta met.
Anzu looked at him and shook with rage at him,
Bared his teeth like a lion in sudden rage,
In utter fury shouted to the warrior:
' I have taken away every single rite,
And I am in charge of al the gods´ orders!
Who are you, to come to do battle against me? Give your reasons!'
Insolently his speech rushed out at him,
The warrior Ninurta answered Anzu:
' I am the avenger of Duranki´s god,

Who established Duranki, the ..... of the broad Earth of.....Ea king of destinies'.
Anzu listened to his speech, then hurled his ahout furiously amid the mountains,
Darkness fell over the mountain, their faces were overcast,
Shamash, the light of the gods, was overcast by darkness,
Adad roared like a lion, his din joined that of Anzu,
A clash between battle arrays war imminent, the flood-weapon massed,
The armor-plated breast was bathed in blood,
Clouds of death rained down, an arrow flashed lightning,
Whizzed, the battle force roared between them
The powerful, superb one, Mami´s son, trusted of Anu and Dagan,
Beloved of the far-sighted one,
Aimed the shaft at him from the bow's curve
But it did not go near Anzu: the shaft turned back.
Anzu shouted at it,
"You, shaft that came, return to your reed thicket!
Bow frame, back to your copse!
Bow string, back to the ram´s gut! Feathers, return to the birds!"

He was holding the gods´ Tablet of Destinies in his hand,
And they influenced the string of the bow, the arrows did not come near his body.
Deadly silence came over the battle and conflict ceased.
Weapons stopped and did not capture Anzu amid the mountains
He (Ninurta) shouted out and instructed Sharur:
' Repeat to the far-sighted Ea the actions you have seen!
The Lord´s message is: Ninurta was encircling Anzu
And Ninurta was wrapped in devastation´s dust,
But when he set the shaft to the bow, drew it taut
And aimed the shaft at him from the bows curve,
It did not go near Anzu: the shaft turned back
As Anzu shouted at it:
"You, shaft that came, return to your reed thicket!
Bow frame, back to your copse!
Bow string, back to the ram´s gut! Feathers, return to the birds!"
He was holding the gods´ Tablet of Destinies in his hand,
And they influenced the string of the bow, the arrows did not come near his body.
Deadly silence came over the battle and conflict ceased.
Weapons stopped and did not capture Anzu amid the mountains.'
Sharur bowed, took the message,
Carried the battle dispatch to far-sighted Ea.

' The Lord´s message is: Ninurta was encircling Anzu
And Ninurta was wrapped in devastation´s dust,
But when he set the shaft to the bow, drew it taut
And aimed the shaft at him from the bows curve,
It did not go near Anzu: the shaft turned back
As Anzu shouted at it:
"You, shaft that came, return to your reed thicket!
Bow frame, back to your copse!
Bow string, back to the ram´s gut! Feathers, return to the birds!"
He was holding the gods´ Tablet of Destinies in his hand,
And they influenced the string of the bow, the arrows did not come near his body
Deadly silence came over the battle and conflict ceased.
Weapons stopped and did not capture Anzu amid the mountains.'
The far-sighted one listened to his son´s words,
Called out and instructed Sharur:
' Repeat to your lord what I say, and everything I tell you , repeat to him:
"Don´t let the battle slacken, press home your victory!
Tire him out so that he sheds his pinions in the clash of tempests!
Take a throw-stick to follow your arrows
And cut off his pinions, detach both right and left.
When he sees his wings and emits (?) his utterance,
Shouts "Wing to wing", don´t panic:
Draw taut from the curve of your bow
Seize him by the throat, conquer Anzu,

And let the winds bring his feathers as good news
To Ekur, to your father Enlil´s house.
Rush and inundate the mountain pastures
And slit the throat of wicked Anzu.
Then shall kingship enter Ekur again,
Then shall rites return for the father who begot you!
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!'
Sharus bowed, took the message,
Carried the battle dispatch to his lord,
Everything Ea told him, he repeated to him.
' Don´t let the battle slacken, press home your victory!

Tire him out so that he sheds his pinions in the clash of tempests!
Take a throw-stick to follow your arrows
And cut off his pinions, detach both right and left.
When he sees his wings and emits his utterance,
Shouts 'Wing to wing', don´t panic;
Draw taut from the curve of your bow, let shafts fly like lightning,
Let the wing feathers dance like butterflies.
Seize him by the throat, conquer Anzu
And let the winds bring his feathers as good news
To Kur, to your father´s Enlil house.
Rush and inundate the mountain pastures
And slit the throat of wicked Anzu.
Then shall kingship enter Ekur again,
Then shall rites return for the father who begot you!
Then surely shall shrines be created!
Establish your cult centers all over the four quarters!
Your cult centers shall enter Ekur!
Show prowess to the gods, and your name shall be Powerful!'
The Lord listened to the words of far-sighted Ea.
He hunched in trepidation, and went into hiding.
The Lord marshaled the Seven of Battle,
The warrior marshaled the seven evil winds,
Who dance in the dust, the seven whirlwinds,
He mustered a battle array, made war with a terrifying formation,
Even the gales were silent at his side, poised for conflict.


ZINI (spirit of the wind)

The shades or spirits of the deceased were known as gidim (GIDIM) in Sumerian, and as eṭemmu in Akkadian. The Sumerian word is analyzed as a compound of either gig "to be sick" and dim "a demon", or gi "black" + dim "to approach".

Evil Spirit = Gidim Xul = Evil Ghost = Idimmu

 

Lilu is a male demon while Lilitu and Ardat Lili are females.

 

Hebrew: לילית; Arabic: ليليث; Akkadian: Līlītu, are female or male nisba adjectives from the proto-Semitic root L-Y-L meaning "Night," literally translating to nocturnal "female night being/demon", although cuneiform inscriptions where Lilit and Lilitu refers to disease-bearing wind spirits exist.

http://usersites.horrorfind.com/home/horror/demon/necro-12.html

The Magan Text

The old gods had assigned to Bel what he would be and what he should do, always conquering, always succeeding; Then Marduk made a bow and strung it to be his own weapon, he set the arrow against the bow-string, in his right hand he grasped the mace and lifted it up, bow and quiver hung at his side, lightnings played in front of him, he was altogether an incandescence. He netted a net, a snare for Tiamat; the winds from their quarters held it, south wind, north, east wind, west, and no part of Tiamat could escape.

With the net, the gift of Anu, held close to his side, he himself raised up IMHULLU the atrocious wind, the tempest, the whirlwind, the hurricane, the wind of four and the wind of seven, the tumid wind worst of all. All seven winds were created and released to savage the guts of Tiamat, they towered behind him. Then the tornado ABUBA his last great ally, the signal for assault, he lifted up. He mounted the storm, his terrible chariot, reins hitched to the side, yoked four in hand the appalling team, sharp poisoned teeth, the Killer, the Pitiless, Trampler, Haste, they knew arts of plunder, skills of murder.

http://earth-history.com/bavbylon/babylonian-astrology/21-ancient-babylon/744-necronomicon

 

In Assyrian and Babylonian mythology, Pazuzu (sometimes Fazuzu or Pazuza) was the king of the demons of the wind, and son of the god Hanbi. He also represented the southwestern wind, the bearer of storms and drought.

 

640px-PazuzuDemonAssyria1stMilleniumBCE.

 

In the 1971 novel The Exorcist and the movie based on the novel, Pazuzu is supposedly the evil spirit that possesses the young girl Regan MacNeil. He reappears in the 1977 sequel Exorcist II: The Heretic.

 

1259531198158_f.jpg

 

In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology Hanbi or Hanpa (more commonly known in western text) was the father of Pazuzu, Enki and Humbaba. Hanbi is known as by some as the Lord of all evil spirits and was postulated to antagonize the entity Lamaştu in ancient Akkadian vignettes.

 

In Japanese Oni Hanabi means demon flowers of fire (fireworks). The Oni are Japanese demons, often depicted as red ogre-like creatures with red, blue, brown or black skin, two horns on its head, a wide mouth filled with fangs, and wearing nothing but a tigerskin loincloth. It often carries an iron kanabo or a giant sword. Oni are depicted as evil.

 

Yukijin’ demons carry spark-throwing columns of fire along the Demon footpath.

 

 

DSCF0806.jpg

 

Just above the town of Noboribetsu Onsen is an area called Jigokudani (Hell's Valley). In Shinto belief there lives a hot water oni demons named Yukijin, who watch over countless hot water springs and geysers throughout a Jigokudani gorge carved out by an ancient volcanic eruption of Mt. Hyoriyama around 10,000 years ago. In Japanese Jigoku (Mandarin Diyu) means "earth prison", realm of the dead, very similar to Christian, Chinese, and Judaism belief in Hell. When I visited Jigokundani my most vivid impression was the beauty of the place and getting startled by the The Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata).

 

I also visited the Shinto Yoshida Shrine (吉田神社) located in Sakyō-ku in Kyoto, during my Semester at Sea trip in 1993. At the time I never fully grasped its importance of the Yoshida Shrine to Japanese culture. The Shrine was founded in 859 AD by the Fujiwara clan, a powerful Japanese family founded by founder, Nakatomi no Kamatari statesman, courtier and politician during the Asuka period (538 – 710). Nakatomi no Kamatari fought against the was a supporter of the Shinto religion founded in in Japan approximately 660 BC and fought the introduction of Buddhism into his country. I did not realize the Yoshida Shrine is the birthplace of hand tube fireworks until I read some articles on this topic.

 

Noboribetsu Hell Festival begins with the Hell Parade with taiko drums and 1-ton mikoshi (miniature shrines), followed by the Yama (Lord of Death) Float and the massive Demon Dance.

 

In Buddhist mythology, Yama (Sanskrit: यम) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of rebirth. In Chinese mythology, Yan (Chinese: t: 閻, s: 阎, p: Yán) is the god of death and the ruler of Diyu. From Vedic Sanskrit Yama Rājā (यम राज, "King Yama"), he is also known as Yanluowang (Yan). Chinese beliefs Yan subsequently spread to Korea and Japan. In Japan, he is called Enma (閻魔, prev. "Yenma"), King Enma (閻魔王, Enma-ō), and Great King Enma (閻魔大王, Enma Dai-Ō).

 

King Enma and His Attendants

(Hoshaku-ji Temple)

 

The Jū-ō (lit. = 10 kings) concept is based on Chinese Taoism and was introduced to Japan during the Heian Period (794-1185 AD). The "Ten Kings" of Buddhist hell, venerated mainly by followers of the Shingon-shū sect. The Ten Kings - Byodo-o, Emma-o, Gokan-jo, Gotoenrin-o, Hensei-o, Shinko-o, Shoko-o, Gototenrin-o, Hensei-o, Shinko-o, Shoko-o, Sotei-o, Taizan-o, and Toshi-o are led by Emma-o

 

enma03_l.jpg

 

Shingon Buddhism (真言宗 Shingon-shū) is one of the mainstream major schools of Japanese Buddhism and one of the few surviving Esoteric Buddhist lineages that started in the 3rd to 4th century AD that originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra. The esoteric teachings would later flourish in Japan under the auspices of a Buddhist monk named Kūkai (空海), who traveled to Tang Dynasty China to acquire and request transmission of the esoteric teachings. For that reason, it is often called Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, or Orthodox Esoteric Buddhism. The word "Shingon" is the Japanese reading of the Kanji for the Chinese word Zhēnyán (真言), literally meaning "True Words", which in turn is the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit word mantra (मन्त्र).

 

Vajrabodhi was the second of three Vajrayana missionaries to eighth-century China. He was born of a South Indian brahmin family, and his father was a priest for the royal house. Vajrabodhi probably converted to Buddhism at the age of sixteen, although some accounts place him at the Buddhist institution of Nālandā at the age of ten. He studied all varieties of Buddhism and was said to have studied for a time under the famous Buddhist logician Dharmakīrti. Under Santijnana, Vajrabodhi studied Vajrayāna teachings and was duly initiated into yoga. Vajrayāna (Devanagari: वज्रयान) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Way or Thunderbolt Way. Vajrayāna is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries.

 

Leaving India, Vajrabodhi traveled to Sri Lanka and Srivijaya (present-day Sumatra), where he apparently was taught a Vajrayāna tradition distinct from that taught at Nālandā. From Srivijaya he sailed to China via the escort of thirty-five Persian merchant-vessels, and by AD 720 was ensconced in the Jianfu Temple at the Chinese capital, Chang'an (present-day Xian). Accompanying him was his soon-to-be-famous disciple, Amoghavajra (Sanskrit: अमोघवज्र amoghavajra; Chinese: 不空, pīnyīn: Bùkōng, Japanese: Fukū; Vietnamese: Bất Không, Korean: 불공) (705–774). Vajrabodhi taught his disciple the Indian Buddhist Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra (Sanskrit) text that was very important for the development of the Vajrayana Yoga tantra traditions in India, Tibet, China, Japan and Sumatra, amongst others. The Tattvasaṃgraha is extant in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.

 

Hevajra.jpg

 

Hevajra (Tibetan: ཀྱེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ kye'i rdo rje / kye rdo rje; Chinese: 喜金刚 Xǐ jīngāng;) is one of the main yidams (enlightened beings) in Tantric, or Vajrayana Buddhism. Hevajra's consort is Nairātmyā (Tibetan: bdag med ma).

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Luke_Wilbur    5

Chapter 5

5:1 But the way of death is this.
5:2 First of all, it is evil and full of a curse murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magical arts, witchcrafts, plunderings, false witnessings, hypocrisies, doubleness of heart, treachery, pride, malice, stubbornness, covetousness, foul-speaking, jealousy, boldness, exaltation, boastfulness;


Jesus said to his Apostles if you believe in the Gospel and you are baptized, then you are saved from damnation..

Mark 16

16:15 “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.

16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved, but the one who does not believe will be condemned.

16:17 These signs will accompany those who believe:

In my name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new languages;

16:18 they will pick up snakes with their hands, and whatever poison they drink will not harm them; they will place their hands on the sick and they will be well.”

16:19 After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.

16:20 They went out and proclaimed everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through the accompanying signs.


f59105ac45044a9cca6ebb1234050144.jpg



Hevajra is a popular guardian deity in Tantric Buddhism. He is shown here united with his female consort Nairatmya. The two embrace in an ecstatic dance upon a sacred lotus blossom, trampling 4 figures that represent the Hindu gods Brahma, Yama, Indra, and a yaksha or nature spirit.

Hevajra is represented with 8 heads; each face is positioned into a terrifying scowl and possesses a glaring third eye. As he dances on his 4 legs, he waves his 16 great arms. Each of the figure’s hands is occupied with objects—including a trident, a mace, and a noose—that represent destruction and release from earthly wants, needs, and emotions. Nairatmya has one arm thrown around Hevajra’s neck, and she holds the base of a curved knife in the other.

This Shastradhara, or weapon-bearing depicition of Hevajra, wears an elaborate crown upon which sits the head of the Buddha Akshobhya, who gained his buddhahood by abandoning all feelings of hatred and disgust toward others. He presides over the Eastern paradise, a realm beyond the cycle of death and rebirth.

http://www.mfah.org/art/detail/shastradhara-weapon-bearing-hevajra/


Buddhist Holy man, Jigdal Dagchen Sakya draws a line with a vajra into the Hevajra sand mandala closing the glowing deity palace, on a circular table, monks and students attending, Sakya Lamdre, Tharlam Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism, Boudha, Kathmandu, Nepal.

7043547713_bd84f5c8d5.jpg

The birthplace of Vajrayana Buddhism was located in the Swāt Valley region of present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, close to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to the State of Swat called it "the Switzerland of the East". Guru Rinpoche Padmasambhava (Lotus-Born), also known as the Second Buddha, was a sage guru from Oddiyana, northwestern Classical India (in the modern-day Swat Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). Padmasambhava is said to have transmitted Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet, Bhutan and neighboring countries in the 8th century AD. The Swāt Valley is also believed to be the homeland of the great Buddhist masters, such as Garab Dorji, Vairotsana and Tilopa.

1920px-Saidu_Sharif_in_Panorama_view.JPG

In 750, Amoghavajra joined the military governorship of Geshu Han, for whom he conducted large-scale tantric initiations at field headquarters. In 754, he translated the first portion of the Tattvasaṃgraha (T. 865), the central yoga tantra of Esoteric Buddhism, which became one of his most significant accomplishments. He regarded its teachings as the most effective method for attaining enlightenment yet devised, and incorporated its basic schema in a number of writings. Amoghavajra was captured in general An Lushan's rebellion but in 757 was freed by loyalist forces, whereupon he performed rites to purify the capital and consolidate the security of the Tang state. Two years later, he initiated the emperor Suzong as a cakravartin. In 765, Amoghavajra used his new rendition of the Scripture for Humane Kings in an elaborate ritual to counter the advance of a 200,000-strong army of Tibetans and Uyghurs which was poised to invade Changan. Its leader, Pugu Huaien, dropped dead in camp and his forces dispersed.

Amoghavajra died in 774, a greatly honored personage. Among his most prominent successors were Hui Guo and Hui Lin. Hui Guo would later accompany the Japanese monk Kukai (空海), also known posthumously as Kōbō-Daishi (弘法大師) to Japan. The three monks would establish Shingon, the Japanese form of Vajrayana Buddhism. Kūkai is famous as a calligrapher (see Japanese calligraphy) and engineer. Among the many achievements attributed to him is the invention of the kana, the syllabary with which, in combination with Chinese characters (kanji), the Japanese language is written to this day.

Japanese Emperor Saga supported Kūkai and exchanged poems and other gifts. In 810 Kūkai emerged as a public figure when he was appointed administrative head of Tōdai-ji, the central temple in Nara, and head of the Sōgō (僧綱, Office of Priestly Affairs). In 813 Kūkai outlined his aims and practices in the document called The admonishments of Konin. It was also during this period at Takaosan that he completed many of the seminal works of the Shingon School.

Kūkai (空海), founder of Shingon Buddhism in Japan is often portrayed holding a Vajra, the weapon of Indra, the god of heaven and the chief deity of the Rigvedic pantheon. Indra is described as using the vajra to kill sinners and ignorant persons

Kukai_sitting_statue.jpg

In Buddhist mythology, Yama (Sanskrit: यम) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of rebirth.

Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. He has also spread far more widely and is known in every country where Buddhism is practiced, including China and Japan.

Prince Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) founded Buddhism as an alternative to Hinduism. There was much about Hinduism he didn't like; the "caste" system for example. Huston Smith, author of the acclaimed book "The Religions of Man" describes Buddhism as a form of "Protestant Hinduism".

A link can be found between the Persian Yima and the Hindi Yuma.Yima Kshaeta (King Yima) son of Vivanghat, is the ancient king of the Aryans in the ancient homeland Airyanam Vaejahi (the seedland of the Aryans) was the firs