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Dejection - A state of melancholy or depression; low spirits, the blues.

The 159th Article

Of dejection.
dejection, or vicious humility it consists chiefly in this: that a man perceives himself weak, or little resolute, and, as if he had not the absolute use of his free disposition, he cannot refrain from doing things whereof he knows not whether he shall repent or no afterwards than besides; that he believes he cannot subsist of himself, nor forgo many things, whose acquisition depends from without him. So it is directly opposite to generosity, and it oft befalls that men of a mean spirit are most arrogant and proud, just as the most generous are most modest, and humble. But whereas those of a generous spirit alter not their nature by any prosperity or adversity that befalls them, those who are weak and abject are only guided by fortune and prosperity does not puff up so high, but adversity brings them down as low. Yea, it is often seen that they abase themselves shamefully to such as they expect profit or fear evil from, and at the same time lift themselves up insolently over those from whom they neither hope, nor fear anything.

The 160th Article

What the motions of the spirits in these passions is.
Moreover, it is easy to understand that
pride and dejection are not only vices but passions, because their emotion is very palpable exteriorly in those who are suddenly puffed up or brought down by any new occasion. But it may be doubted whether generosity and humility, which are virtues, may also be passions, because their motions appear less, and it seems, virtue does not so much symbolize with passions, as vice does. Yet I see no reason why the same motion of the spirits which serves to fortify a thought when it has an ill ground, should not also fortify it when it has a just one. And because pride and generosity consist only in the good opinion a man has of himself, and differ only herein that the opinion in one is unjust in the other just, me thinks they may be attributed to one and the same passion, which is excited by a motion compounded of admiration, joy, and love, as well that a man bears to himself as to the thing for which he does esteem himself. As on the contrary, the motion that excites humility, whether virtuous or vicious, is composed of admiration, sadness, and self love, mixed with hatred of those defects which cause one to be condemned. And all the difference that I observe in these motions is that that of admiration has two properties. The first, that the surprise makes it strong from the very beginning. The other, that it is equal in its continuance. That is, the spirits continue moving at the same rate in the brain. Of which properties, the first is found more often in pride and dejection than in generosity or virtuous humility. And on the other side the last is more observed in these than in the others. The reason whereof is, that vice proceeds commonly from ignorance, so that they who least understand themselves are most apt to grow more proud, or become more abject than they ought to be, because every new thing that befalls them surprises them, and causes them, that attributing it to themselves, they admire and esteem or condemn themselves, as they judge that which is befallen them advantageous to them or not. But because as soon as one thing has elated them comes another that dejects them, the motion of their passion is various. Contrarily, there is nothing in generosity, incompatible with virtuous humility, nor anything extraneous that can alter it. Wherefore the motions thereof are firm, constant, and ever like themselves. But they proceed not so much from surprise, because they who in this manner esteem themselves, do very well understand the reason why they so esteem themselves. Yet it may be said that these causes are so wonderful (to wit, the power of their free disposition, which makes them prize them themselves and the infirmities of the subject in which this power is, which makes them not to value themselves too high) that as often as they are presented new, they will cause new admiration.

The 161st Article

How generosity may be acquired.
And it is to be noted that
what commonly are called virtues are habits in the soul which dispose it to certain thoughts, so that they are different from these thoughts but they may produce them, and reciprocally be produced by them. It is also to be noted, that these thoughts may be produced only by the soul, but it oft befalls that some motion of the spirits fortifies them, and then they are at the same time actions of virtue and passions of the soul. So though there be no virtue whereunto (me thinks) good birth so much contributes, as that which causes a man to esteem himself according to his just value; and it be easy to believe that all souls which God puts into our bodies are not equally noble and strong (wherefore I called this virtue generosity, according to the acceptation* of our language, rather than magnanimity, the school terms that it may be the more unknown) yet it is certain that good education much conduces to correct
the defects of our birth. And that if a man busy himself frequently to consider what this free disposition is, and how great advantages accrue from a steadfast resolution to use it well, as on the other side, how vain and unprofitable all the cares that puzzle the ambitious are, a man may by exciting the passion in himself, acquire the virtue of generosity, which being as the key of all the other virtues, and a general remedy against all the irregularities of passions, me thinks this consideration ought to be very seriously noted.

Proverbs 13

13:10 With pride 32  comes only 33  contention,

but wisdom is with the well-advised.

Luke 9

9:37 Now on 125  the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126  a man from the crowd cried out, 127  “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128  my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129  spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130  it throws him into convulsions 131  and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132  him severely. 9:40 I 133  begged 134  your disciples to cast it out, but 135  they could not do so.” 136  9:41 Jesus answered, 137  “You 138  unbelieving 139  and perverse generation! How much longer 140  must I be with you and endure 141  you? 142  Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143  the boy 144  was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145  and shook him with convulsions. 146  But Jesus rebuked 147  the unclean 148  spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149  they were all astonished at the mighty power 150  of God.

Luke 11

11:24 “When an unclean spirit 71  goes out of a person, 72  it passes through waterless places 73  looking for rest but 74  not finding any. Then 75  it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 76  11:25 When it returns, 77  it finds the house 78  swept clean and put in order. 79  11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 80  the last state of that person 81  is worse than the first.” 82 

11:27 As 83  he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”  11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”


 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you 17  through an empty, deceitful philosophy 18  that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits 19  of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives 20  in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority.

2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence


The emphases of these false teachers are still with us today. The first is “higher” knowledge (Gnosticism). The second is the observance of laws to win God’s love (legalism). The third is the belief that beings other than Christ must mediate between people and God (mysticism). The fourth is the practice of abstaining from things to earn merit with God (asceticism).

“When we make Jesus Christ and the Christian revelation only part of a total religious system or philosophy, we cease to give Him the preeminence. When we strive for ‘spiritual perfection’ or ‘spiritual fullness’ by means of formulas, disciplines, or rituals, we go backward instead of forward. Christian believers must beware of mixing their Christian faith with such alluring things as yoga, transcendental meditation, Oriental mysticism, and the like. We must also beware of ‘deeper life’ teachers who offer a system for victory and fullness that bypasses devotion to Jesus Christ. In all things, He must have the preeminence!”[147]

Reformed theology has historically taught that a true Christian will never renounce faith in Christ. The fact that Paul wrote this epistle to Christians who were in danger of doing precisely that should prove that this teaching is wrong. Nowhere in the epistle did he make a distinction between professing Christians, who were supposedly the objects of his warnings, and true Christians. Rather he appealed to the Colossians as genuine Christians to watch out for this real danger. Genuine Christians can be deceived by false teaching, even teaching concerning Christ.


2:14 Remind people 24  of these things and solemnly charge them 25  before the Lord 26  not to wrangle over words. This is of no benefit; it just brings ruin on those who listen. 27  2:15 Make every effort to present yourself before God as a proven worker who does not need to be ashamed, teaching the message of truth accurately. 28  2:16 But avoid profane chatter, 29  because those occupied with it will stray further and further into ungodliness, 


3:1 But understand this, that in the last days difficult 1  times will come. 3:2 For people 2  will be lovers of themselves, 3  lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3:3 unloving, irreconcilable, slanderers, without self-control, savage, opposed to what is good, 3:4 treacherous, reckless, conceited, loving pleasure rather than loving God. 3:5 They will maintain the outward appearance 4  of religion but will have repudiated its power. So avoid people like these. 5  


1:10 But the rich person’s pride should be in his humiliation, because he will pass away like a wildflower in the meadow. 11  1:11 For the sun rises with its heat and dries up the meadow; the petal of the flower falls off and its beauty is lost forever. 12  So also the rich person in the midst of his pursuits will wither away. 1:12 Happy is the one 13  who endures testing, because when he has proven to be genuine, he will receive the crown of life that God 14  promised to those who love him. 1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, 15  and he himself tempts no one. 1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires. 1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death. 1:16 Do not be led astray, my dear brothers and sisters. 16  1:17 All generous giving and every perfect gift 17  is from above, coming down 18  from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or the slightest hint of change. 19  1:18 By his sovereign plan he gave us birth 20  through the message of truth, that we would be a kind of firstfruits of all he created.


7:18 He said to them, “Are you so foolish? Don’t you understand that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him? 7:19 For it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and then goes out into the sewer.” 22  (This means all foods are clean.) 23  7:20 He said, “What comes out of a person defiles him. 7:21 For from within, out of the human heart, come evil ideas, sexual immorality, theft, murder, 7:22 adultery, greed, evil, deceit, debauchery, envy, slander, pride, and folly. 7:23 All these evils come from within and defile a person.”


1:3 Dear friends, although I have been eager to write to you 7  about our common salvation, I now feel compelled 8  instead to write to encourage 9  you to contend earnestly 10  for the faith 11  that was once for all 12  entrusted to the saints. 13  1:4 For certain men 14  have secretly slipped in among you 15  – men who long ago 16  were marked out 17  for the condemnation I am about to describe 18  – ungodly men who have turned the grace of our God into a license for evil 19  and who deny our only Master 20  and Lord, 21  Jesus Christ.

1:5 Now I desire to remind you (even though you have been fully informed of these facts 22  once for all 23 ) that Jesus, 24  having saved the 25  people out of the land of Egypt, later 26  destroyed those who did not believe. 1:6 You also know that 27  the angels who did not keep within their proper domain 28  but abandoned their own place of residence, he has kept 29  in eternal chains 30  in utter 31  darkness, locked up 32  for the judgment of the great Day. 1:7 So also 33  Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighboring towns, 34  since they indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire 35  in a way similar to 36  these angels, 37  are now displayed as an example by suffering the punishment of eternal fire.

1:8 Yet these men, 38  as a result of their dreams, 39  defile the flesh, reject authority, 40  and insult 41  the glorious ones. 42  1:9 But even 43  when Michael the archangel 44  was arguing with the devil and debating with him 45  concerning Moses’ body, he did not dare to bring a slanderous judgment, but said, “May the Lord rebuke you!” 1:10 But these men do not understand the things they slander, and they are being destroyed by the very things that, like irrational animals, they instinctively comprehend. 46  1:11 Woe to them! For they have traveled down Cain’s path, 47  and because of greed 48  have abandoned themselves 49  to 50  Balaam’s error; hence, 51  they will certainly perish 52  in Korah’s rebellion. 1:12 These men are 53  dangerous reefs 54  at your love feasts, 55  feasting without reverence, 56  feeding only themselves. 57  They are 58  waterless 59  clouds, carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit 60  – twice dead, 61  uprooted; 1:13 wild sea waves, 62  spewing out the foam of 63  their shame; 64  wayward stars 65  for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness 66  have been reserved.

1:14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, 67  even prophesied of them, 68  saying, “Look! The Lord is coming 69  with thousands and thousands 70  of his holy ones, 1:15 to execute judgment on 71  all, and to convict every person 72  of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds 73  that they have committed, 74  and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” 75  1:16 These people are grumblers and 76  fault-finders who go 77  wherever their desires lead them, 78  and they give bombastic speeches, 79  enchanting folks 80  for their own gain.

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The 162nd Article

Of veneration.
Veneration, or respect, is an inclination of the soul not only to esteem the object it reverences, but also to submit to it with some kind of fear, to endeavor to make it become gracious to her. So that we bear only a veneration to free causes, which we conceive able to do good or
evil to us, without knowing which of the two they will do. For we bear love and devotion rather than mere veneration to those from whom we only expect good, and we bear hatred to none but such as we only expect evil from. And if we conceive the cause of the good or evil not to be free, we do not submit ourselves thereunto to get the goodwill of it. So when the Pagans bore a veneration to woods, springs, mountains, they did not properly reverence these inanimate things, but the divinities which they thought presided over them. And the motion of the spirits that excite this passion is compounded of that which excites admiration and that which excites fear, whereof I will speak hereafter.

The 163rd Article

Of Disdain.
Just so, that which I call disdain is an inclination of the soul
to condemn a free cause by judging that though of its own nature it be able to do either good or evil, yet it is so far beneath us that it can do us neither; and the motion of the spirits that excite it is compounded of those that excite admiration and security or boldness.

Deification - The act of deifying; exaltation to divine honors; apotheosis; excessive praise.

The 164th Article

Of the use of these two passions.
And it is either generosity or
deification and weakness of spirit that determine the good or ill use of the two passions. For by how much a man's soul is more noble or generous, so much the more inclination he has to give every one his own. And so [he] has not only an extraordinary humility towards God, but without reluctance bestows all the honor and respect which are due to men, to each according to the rank and authority he holds in the world, and condemns nothing but vice. On the contrary, they who are of a mean and weak spirit are apt to sin in excess, sometimes by reverencing and fearing things only worthy of contempt, sometimes by insolently disdaining such as deserve to be reverenced. And they often slip suddenly from extreme in piety to superstition, thence again from superstition to impiety, so that there is no vice nor irregularity of spirit which they are not subject to.


18:14 A person’s spirit 47  sustains him through sickness –

but who can bear 48  a crushed spirit? 49 

18:15 The discerning person 50  acquires knowledge,

and the wise person 51  seeks 52  knowledge.


3:16 Then those who respected 28  the Lord spoke to one another, and the Lord took notice. 29  A scroll 30  was prepared before him in which were recorded the names of those who respected the Lord and honored his name. 3:17 “They will belong to me,” says the Lord who rules over all, “in the day when I prepare my own special property. 31  I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him. 3:18 Then once more you will see that I make a distinction between 32  the righteous and the wicked, between the one who serves God and the one who does not.


5:15 Therefore be very careful how you live – not as unwise but as wise, 5:16 taking advantage of every opportunity, because the days are evil. 5:17 For this reason do not be foolish, but be wise 22  by understanding 23  what the Lord’s will is. 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, which 24  is debauchery, 25  but be filled by the Spirit, 26  5:19 speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music 27  in 28  your hearts to the Lord, 5:20 always giving thanks to God the Father for each other 29  in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5:21 and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ. 


2:13 Be subject to every human institution 34  for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 2:14 or to governors as those he commissions 35  to punish wrongdoers and praise 36  those who do good. 2:15 For God wants you 37  to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 2:16 Live 38  as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves. 39  2:17 Honor all people, love the family of believers, 40  fear God, honor the king.

2:18 Slaves, 41  be subject 42  to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 2:19 For this finds God’s favor, 43  if because of conscience toward God 44  someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 2:20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God. 45  2:21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 2:22 He 46  committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. 47  2:23 When he was maligned, he 48  did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened 49  no retaliation, 50  but committed himself to God 51  who judges justly. 2:24 He 52  himself bore our sins 53  in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning 54  and live for righteousness. By his 55  wounds 56  you were healed. 57  2:25 For you were going astray like sheep 58  but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.

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The 165th Article

Of hope and fear.
Hope is a disposition of the soul to persuade her that what she desires shall come to pass, which is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, to wit, by those of joy and desire mixed together.
And fear is another disposition of the soul which persuades her that it shall not come to pass. And it is to be noted that though these two passions be contrary to one another, yet a man may have them both together, to wit, when he fancies to himself several reasons whereof some make him conceive the accomplishment of his desire is easy, the other make it seem difficult.

The 166th Article

Of security and despair.
And one of these passions never accompanies desire, but it leaves room for the other. For when hope is so strong that it utterly expels
fear, it alters the nature thereof and is called security. And when a man is sure that what he desires shall come to pass, though he still wishes that it would come, yet he nevertheless ceases to be agitated with the passion of desire which made him seek after the event with anxiety. In like manner when fear is so extreme that it takes away all kind of hope, it converts into despair; and this despair fancying the thing impossible, clearly extinguishes desire, which only is bent on things possible.

The 167th Article

Of jealousy.
Jealousy is a sort of fear relating to the desire a man has to keep the possession of some good; and it proceeds not so much from strength of reason, which makes him conjecture he may lose it, as the great value he sets on it, which causes him to dive into the least occasions of suspicion and take them for very considerable arguments.


10:19 When words abound, transgression is inevitable, 71 

but the one who restrains 72  his words 73  is wise.

10:20 What the righteous say 74  is like 75  the best 76  silver,

but what the wicked think 77  is of little value. 78 

10:21 The teaching 79  of the righteous feeds 80  many,

but fools die 81  for lack of wisdom. 82 

10:22 The blessing 83  from the Lord 84  makes a person rich, 85 

and he adds no sorrow 86  to 87  it.

10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme 88  is enjoyable 89  to a fool,

and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment. 90 

10:24 What the wicked fears 91  will come on him;

what the righteous desire 92  will be granted. 93 

10:25 When the storm 94  passes through, the wicked are swept away, 95 

but the righteous are an everlasting foundation. 96 

10:26 Like vinegar to the teeth and like smoke to the eyes, 97 

so is the sluggard to those 98  who send him.

10:27 Fearing the Lord 99  prolongs life, 100 

but the life span 101  of the wicked will be shortened. 102 

10:28 The hope 103  of the righteous is joy,

but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled. 104 


27:4 Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming, 9 

but who can stand before jealousy?


12:4 “I 12  tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 13  and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 14  you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 15  has authority to throw you 16  into hell. 17  Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 18  Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 19  you are more valuable than many sparrows.

12:8 “I 20  tell you, whoever acknowledges 21  me before men, 22  the Son of Man will also acknowledge 23  before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 24  will not be forgiven. 25  12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 26  the 27  rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 28  or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 29  what you must say.” 30 


11:17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among them and participated in 13  the richness of the olive root, 11:18 do not boast over the branches. But if you boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you. 11:19 Then you will say, “The branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 11:20 Granted! 14  They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but fear! 11:21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare you. 11:22 Notice therefore the kindness and harshness of God – harshness toward those who have fallen, but 15  God’s kindness toward you, provided you continue in his kindness; 16  otherwise you also will be cut off. 11:23 And even they – if they do not continue in their unbelief – will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11:24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree?

11:25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, 17  so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel 18  until the full number 19  of the Gentiles has come in. 11:26 And so 20  all Israel will be saved, as it is written:

“The Deliverer will come out of Zion;

he will remove ungodliness from Jacob.

11:27 And this is my covenant with them, 21 

when I take away their sins.” 22 

Romans 15

15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you believe in him, 11  so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

1 John 4

4:15 If anyone 37  confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God resides 38  in him and he in God. 4:16 And we have come to know and to believe 39  the love that God has in us. 40  God is love, and the one who resides 41  in love resides in God, and God resides in him. 4:17 By this 42  love is perfected with 43  us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment, because just as Jesus 44  is, so also are we in this world. 4:18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love drives out fear, because fear has to do with punishment. 45  The 46  one who fears punishment 47  has not been perfected in love. 4:19 We love 48  because he loved us first.

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The 170th Article

Of irresolution.
Irresolution also is a sort of fear, which causing the soul to waver between several actions that she may do is the cause she cannot execute any, and thereby she has time to choose before she determines on them. Whereof, truly, some good use may be made but when it lasts longer than it ought, and it takes up that time to debate which is required to act, it is very evil. Now, I say it is a sort of fear, though it may so fall out, when a man has choice of many things whose goodness is equally apparent, that he may be at a stand and irresolute, and yet not be afraid. For this sort of irresolution comes only from the subject presented, and not from any emotion of the spirits. Wherefore it is not a passion, unless the fear of failing in his choice increase the uncertainty. But this fear is so usual, and so strong in some, that oftentimes although they have not any choice, and though they see only one thing to take or leave, yet it seizes on them and causes them unprofitably to stop there and search after others. And then it is any excess of irresolution, which proceeds from too great a desire to do well, and an imbecility in the understanding, which having no clear and distinct notions, has only a great company of confused ones. Wherefore the remedy against this excess is to accustom a man's self to frame certain and determinate judgments concerning all things that present themselves, and conceive he does always do his duty when he does what he conceives to be best, though it may be he conceive amiss.

The 171st Article

Of courage and boldness.
Courage, when it is a passion and not a habit or natural inclination, is a certain heat or agitation which disposes the soul to addict her powerfully to the execution of the things she will do, of what nature so ever they be. And boldness is a sort of courage that disposes the soul to the execution of things most dangerous.

The 172nd Article

Of emulation.
And emulation also is a sort of it, but in another sense, for
courage may be considered as a kind (or genus) that is divided into as may sorts (or species) as there are several objects, and as many more as it has causes. In the first sense boldness is a sort, in the other emulation; and this last is nothing else but a heat, which disposes the soul to undertake things that she hopes may succeed with her, because she sees them succeed with others. And so it is a sort of courage whose external cause is example. I say the external cause because it ought ever (besides that) to have an internal one which consists in this: that the body is so disposed, as desire and hope are stronger to drive abundance of blood to the heart than fear or despair to hinder it.

Chapter 18

15 A prophet like me* will the LORD, your God, raise up for you from among your own kindred; that is the one to whom you shall listen.
16 This is exactly what you requested of the LORD, your God, at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when you said, “Let me not again hear the voice of the LORD, my God, nor see this great fire any more, or I will die.”
17 And the LORD said to me, What they have said is good.
18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kindred, and will put my words into the mouth of the prophet; the prophet shall tell them all that I command.
19 Anyone who will not listen to my words which the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will hold accountable for it.
20 But if a prophet presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded, or speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.

Psalm 38

38:7 ...I am overcome with shame 

and my whole body is sick. 

38:8 I am numb with pain and severely battered

I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel. 

38:9 O Lord, you understand my heart’s desire; 

my groaning is not hidden from you.

38:10 My heart beats quickly;

my strength leaves me;

I can hardly see

38:11 Because of my condition, even my friends and acquaintances keep their distance

my neighbors stand far away

38:12 Those who seek my life try to entrap me; 

those who want to harm me speak destructive words;

all day long they say deceitful things.

38:13 But I am like a deaf man – I hear nothing;

I am like a mute who cannot speak. 

38:14 I am like a man who cannot hear

and is incapable of arguing his defense. 

38:15 Yet I wait for you, O Lord!

You will respond, O Lord, my God!

38:16 I have prayed for deliverance, because otherwise they will gloat over me

when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me. 

38:17 For I am about to stumble,

and I am in constant pain.

 38:18 Yes, I confess my wrongdoing,

and I am concerned about my sins.

38:19 But those who are my enemies for no reason are numerous;  

those who hate me without cause outnumber me

38:20 They repay me evil for the good I have done;

though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me

38:21 Do not abandon me, O Lord!

My God, do not remain far away from me!

38:22 Hurry and help me, O Lord, my deliverer!

Proverbs 3

3:31 Do not envy a violent man,  

and do not choose to imitate any of his ways;

3:32 for one who goes astray is an abomination to the Lord,

but he reveals his intimate counsel to the upright.

Proverbs 12

12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down, 

but an encouraging word brings him joy.

Isaiah 32

32:6 ...a fool speaks disgraceful things;

his mind plans out sinful deeds.

He commits godless deeds

and says misleading things about the Lord;

he gives the hungry nothing to satisfy their appetite 

and gives the thirsty nothing to drink.

32:7 A deceiver’s methods are evil

he dreams up evil plans  

to ruin the poor with lies,

even when the needy are in the right.

32:8 An honorable man makes honorable plans;

his honorable character gives him security.

Micah 3

3:8 But I 21  am full of the courage that the Lord’s Spirit gives,

and have a strong commitment to justice. 22 

This enables me to confront Jacob with its rebellion,

and Israel with its sin. 23 

Matthew 10

10:16 “I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. 10:17 Beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils and flog you in their synagogues. 35  10:18 And you will be brought before governors and kings because of me, as a witness to them and the Gentiles. 10:19 Whenever they hand you over for trial, do not worry about how to speak or what to say, for what you should say will be given to you at that time.  10:20 For it is not you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.

10:21 “Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against parents and have them put to death. 10:22 And you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 10:23 Whenever they persecute you in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth,  you will not finish going through all the towns Israel before the Son of Man comes.

10:24 “A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave greater than his master. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much more will they defame the members of his household!

10:26 “Do not be afraid of them, for nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 10:27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the housetops. 51  10:28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body  but cannot kill the soul. Instead, fear the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Mark 1

1:21 ...When the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 1:22 The people there were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, not like the experts in the law.  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1:24 “Leave us alone, Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are the Holy One of God!” 1:25 But Jesus rebuked him: “Silence! Come out of him!” 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

Luke 12

1 ...so many people were crowding together that they were trampling one another underfoot.a He began to speak, first to his disciples, Beware of the leaven—that is, the hypocrisy—of the Pharisees.
2 “There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known.
3 Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered behind closed doors will be proclaimed on the housetops.
4 I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body but after that can do no more.
5 I shall show you whom to fear. Be afraid of the one who after killing has the power to cast into Gehenna;* yes, I tell you, be afraid of that one.

Acts 9

9:26 When he arrived in Jerusalem, 59  he attempted to associate 60  with the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe 61  that he was a disciple. 9:27 But Barnabas took 62  Saul, 63  brought 64  him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, that 65  the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out boldly 66  in the name of Jesus. 9:28 So he was staying with them, associating openly with them 67  in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord.

32 I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord.
33 But a married man is anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife,
34 and he is divided. An unmarried woman or a virgin is anxious about the things of the Lord, so that she may be holy in both body and spirit. A married woman, on the other hand, is anxious about the things of the world, how she may please her husband.
35 I am telling you this for your own benefit, not to impose a restraint upon you, but for the sake of propriety and adherence to the Lord without distraction.

1 Corinthians 13

13:8 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 13:10 but when what is perfect comes, the partial will be set aside. 13:11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But when I became an adult,  I set aside childish ways. 13:12 For now we see in a mirror indirectly,  but then we will see face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I have been fully known. 13:13 And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love.

Galations 5

5:19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: 33  sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 34  hostilities, strife, 36  jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 37  factions, 5:21 envying, 38  murder, 39  drunkenness, carousing, 40  and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 41  is love, 42  joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 43  5:23 gentleness, and 44  self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45  have crucified the flesh 46  with its passions 47  and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48  the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49  provoking 50  one another, being jealous 51  of one another.

Ephesians 5

5:1 Therefore, be 1  imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live 2  in love, just as Christ also loved us 3  and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering 4  to God. 5:3 But 5  among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, 6  or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: 8  that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

Hebrews 6

 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 11  but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.

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The 173rd Article

How boldness depends on hope.
For it is to be noted that although the object of boldness
be difficulty, from whence commonly ensues fear, or even despair, so that it is in most dangerous and desperate affairs that most boldness and courage is required. Nevertheless there must be some hope, or else a man must be assured that the end he propounds to himself shall succeed to oppose himself vigorously against the difficulties he shall encounter. But this end is different from this object, for he cannot be assured and despairing of the same thing at the same time. So when the Decii flung themselves in the midst of their enemies, and ran upon a certain death, the object of their boldness was the difficulty of keeping their lives in this action, of which difficulty they utterly despaired, for they were sure to die. But their end was to animate their soldiers by their example, and make them win the victory, of which they had hope, or else their end was to get fame after their death, whereof they were assured.

The 174th Article

Of cowardice and fearfulness.
Cowardice is directly opposite to courage, and is a languishing or coldness, which hinders the soul from addicting herself to the execution of things which she would do if she were exempted from this passion. And fearfulness or affright, the contrary to boldness, is not only a coldness, but a distraction and astonishment of the soul that robs her of the power to resist evils which she thinks are near her.

The 175th Article

Of the use of cowardice.
Now, although I cannot be persuaded that nature has bestowed on man any passion that is always vicious, and has not some good and laudable use; yet I am very much puzzled to divine what these two are good for. Only, me thinks,
cowardice is of some use when it causes a man to be free from pains he might be incited to take, for reasons like truths, if other more certain truths which make them be judged unprofitable, had not invited this passion in him. For besides her exemption of the soul from these pains, it is then also very useful to the body, for that retarding the motion of the spirits, it hinders the forces thereof from being dissipated. But is commonly very hurtful, because it diverts the will from profitable actions. And because it proceeds from hence, that a man has not hope, or desire enough to correct it, he need only augment these two passions in himself.

Job 6

6:14 “To the one in despair, kindness should come from his friend 

even if he forsakes the fear of the Almighty.

Job 15

15:20 All his days the wicked man suffers torment,

throughout the number of the years

that are stored up for the tyrant.

15:21 Terrifying sounds fill his ears;

in a time of peace marauders attack him.

15:22 He does not expect to escape from darkness

he is marked for the sword;

15:23 he wanders about – food for vultures

he knows that the day of darkness is at hand

15:24 Distress and anguish terrify him;

they prevail against him

like a king ready to launch an attack

15:25 for he stretches out his hand against God

and vaunts himself against the Almighty,

15:26 defiantly charging against Him

with a thick, strong shield!

15:27 Because he covered his face with fat,

and made his hips bulge with fat

15:28 he lived in ruined towns 

and in houses where no one lives,

where they are ready to crumble into heaps.

15:29 He will not grow rich,

and his wealth will not endure,

nor will his possessions spread over the land.

15:30 He will not escape the darkness;  

a flame will wither his shoots

and he will depart

by the breath of God’s mouth

Psalms 82

82:6 I thought, ‘You are gods;

all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 

82:7 Yet you will die like mortals

you will fall like all the other rulers.”


14:12 Look how you have fallen from the sky,

O shining one, son of the dawn!  

You have been cut down to the ground,

O conqueror of the nations!

14:13 You said to yourself

I will climb up to the sky.

Above the stars of El 

I will set up my throne.

I will rule on the mountain of assembly

on the remote slopes of Zaphon

14:14 I will climb up to the tops of the clouds;

I will make myself like the Most High!” 

14:15 But you were brought down to Sheol,

to the remote slopes of the pit

14:16 Those who see you stare at you,

they look at you carefully, thinking

Is this the man who shook the earth,

the one who made kingdoms tremble?

14:17 Is this the one who made the world like a desert,

who ruined its cities,

and refused to free his prisoners so they could return home?”’ 

4:18 As for all the kings of the nations,

all of them lie down in splendor, 

each in his own tomb. 

14:19 But you have been thrown out of your grave

like a shoot that is thrown away.  

You lie among the slain,

among those who have been slashed by the sword,

among those headed for the stones of the pit,

as if you were a mangled corpse

14:20 You will not be buried with them

because you destroyed your land

and killed your people.

The offspring of the wicked

will never be mentioned again.

Jeremiah 17

17:5 The Lord says,

I will put a curse on people

who trust in mere human beings,

who depend on mere flesh and blood for their strength,

and whose hearts have turned away from the Lord.

17:6 They will be like a shrub in the desert.

They will not experience good things even when they happen.

It will be as though they were growing in the desert,

in a salt land where no one can live.

17:7 My blessing is on those people who trust in me,

who put their confidence in me. 

17:8 They will be like a tree planted near a stream

whose roots spread out toward the water.

It has nothing to fear when the heat comes.

Its leaves are always green.

It has no need to be concerned in a year of drought.

It does not stop bearing fruit.

17:9 The human mind is more deceitful than anything else.

It is incurably bad. Who can understand it?

17:10 I, the Lord, probe into people’s minds.

I examine people’s hearts. 

I deal with each person according to how he has behaved.

I give them what they deserve based on what they have done.

17:11 The person who gathers wealth by unjust means

is like the partridge that broods over eggs but does not hatch them.

Before his life is half over he will lose his ill-gotten gains.

At the end of his life it will be clear he was a fool.”

2 Timothy 1

1:6 Because of this I remind you to rekindle God’s gift that you possess through the laying on of my hands. 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control. 1:8 So do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord or of me, a prisoner for his sake, but by God’s power accept your share of suffering for the gospel. 1:9 He is the one who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not based on our works but on his own purpose and grace, granted to us in Christ Jesus before time began, 1:10 but now made visible through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus. He has broken the power of death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel! 1:11 For this gospel I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher. 19  1:12 Because of this, in fact, I suffer as I do.  But I am not ashamed, because I know the one in whom my faith is set and I am convinced that he is able to protect what has been entrusted to me until that day.  1:13 Hold to the standard of sound words that you heard from me and do so with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 25  1:14 Protect that good thing entrusted to you, through the Holy Spirit who lives within us.

Hebrews 10

10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury of fire that will consume God’s enemies.  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for the Son of God, and profanes the blood of the covenant that made him holy,  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

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The 176th Article

Of the use of fearfulness.
As for fearfulness or affright, I see not how it can ever be laudable, or useful. Neither is it one particular passion, but only an excess of
cowardice, astonishment, and fear, which is always vicious as boldness is an excel of courage, ever good, provided the end proposed be good. And because the chief cause of fearfulness is surprise, there is no better way to be rid of it than to use premeditation, and prepare oneself against all events, the fear whereof may cause them.

The 177th Article

Of remorse.
Remorse of conscience is a sort of sadness, which comes from the scruple a man has, that a thing he has done, or has not done, is not good. And it necessarily presupposes doubt. For if he had been absolutely assured that what he did had been evil, he had refrained from doing it; since the will inclines us not to any things but such as have an appearance of goodness. And if he were assured that what he has already done were evil it would breed repentance, and not only remorse. Now, the use of this passion is to make him examine whether the thing he doubts of be good or not, and to hinder him from doing it another time, if he be not assured that it is good. But because it presupposes an evil, the best way were never to be subject to feel it; and it may be prevented the same way, as a man may be exempted of irresolution.

The 178th Article

Of derision.
Derision is a sort of joy mingled with
hatred which proceeds from this, that a man perceives some little evil in a person, whereof he thinks him worthy. He hates this evil, and rejoices to see it in one that is worthy of it. And when this comes unexpectedly, the surprise of admiration causes him to break out into laughter, according to what has formerly been said of the nature of laughter. But this evil must be a small one: for if it be great, it cannot be thought that he who has it is worthy of it, unless one be of a very ill nature, or bear him a great deal of hatred.

contemptuous ridicule or mockery



3:20 “Why does God give light to one who is in misery, 

and life to those whose soul is bitter,

3:21 to those who wait for death that does not come,

and search for it 

more than for hidden treasures,

3:22 who rejoice even to jubilation, 

and are exultant when they find the grave?

3:23 Why is light given to a man

whose way is hidden,

and whom God has hedged in? 

3:24 For my sighing comes in place of my food, 

and my groanings flow forth like water. 

3:25 For the very thing I dreaded has happened to me,

and what I feared has come upon me. 

3:26 I have no ease, I have no quietness;

I cannot rest; turmoil has come upon me.”

Job 4

4:12 “Now a word was secretly 39  brought 40  to me,

and my ear caught 41  a whisper 42  of it.

4:13 In the troubling thoughts 43  of the dreams 44  in the night

when a deep sleep 45  falls on men,

4:14 a trembling 46  gripped me – and a terror! –

and made all my bones shake. 47 

4:15 Then a breath of air 48  passes 49  by my face;

it makes 50  the hair of my flesh stand up.

4:16 It stands still, 51 

but I cannot recognize 52  its appearance;

an image is before my eyes,

and I hear a murmuring voice: 53 

4:17 “Is 54  a mortal man 55  righteous 56  before 57  God?

Or a man pure 58  before his Creator? 59 

4:18 If 60  God 61  puts no trust in 62  his servants 63 

and attributes 64  folly 65  to his angels,

4:19 how much more to those who live in houses of clay, 66 

whose foundation is in the dust,

who are crushed 67  like 68  a moth?

4:20 They are destroyed 69  between morning and evening; 70 

they perish forever 71  without anyone regarding it. 72 

4:21 Is not their excess wealth 73  taken away from them? 74 

They die, 75  yet without attaining wisdom. 76 

5:1 “Call now! 1  Is there anyone who will answer you? 2 

To which of the holy ones 3  will you turn? 4 

5:2 For 5  wrath kills the foolish person, 6 

and anger 7  slays the silly one.

5:3 I myself 8  have seen the fool 9  taking root,

but suddenly I cursed his place of residence. 10 

5:4 His children are far 11  from safety,

and they are crushed 12  at the place where judgment is rendered, 13 

nor is there anyone to deliver them. 14 

5:5 The hungry 15  eat up his harvest, 16 

and take it even from behind the thorns, 17 

and the thirsty 18  swallow up 19  their fortune. 20 

5:6 For evil does not come up from the dust, 21 

nor does trouble spring up from the ground,

5:7 but people 22  are born 23  to trouble,

as surely as the sparks 24  fly 25  upward. 

5:8 “But 28  as for me, 29  I would seek 30  God, 31 

and to God 32  I would set forth my case. 33 

5:9 He does 34  great and unsearchable 35  things,

marvelous things without 36  number; 37 

5:10 he gives 38  rain on the earth, 39 

and sends 40  water on the fields; 41 

5:11 he sets 42  the lowly 43  on high,

that those who mourn 44  are raised 45  to safety.

5:12 He frustrates 46  the plans 47  of the crafty 48 

so that 49  their hands cannot accomplish

what they had planned! 50 

5:13 He catches 51  the wise in their own craftiness, 52 

and the counsel of the cunning 53  is brought to a quick end. 54 

5:14 They meet with darkness in the daytime, 55 

and grope about 56  in the noontime as if it were night. 57 

5:15 So he saves 58  from the sword that comes from their mouth, 59 

even 60  the poor from the hand of the powerful.

5:16 Thus the poor have hope,

and iniquity 61  shuts its mouth. 62 

5:17 “Therefore, 63  blessed 64  is the man whom God corrects, 65 

so do not despise the discipline 66  of the Almighty. 67 

5:18 For 68  he 69  wounds, 70  but he also bandages;

he strikes, but his hands also heal.

5:19 He will deliver you 71  from six calamities;

yes, in seven 72  no evil will touch you.

2 Timothy 1

1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control.


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The 180th Article

Of the use of jesting.
As for modest jesting, which wholesomely reprehends (finds fault) 
vices by making them appear ridiculous, so a man laugh not at them himself, nor show any hatred against persons, it is not a passion but a becoming quality in a man, that makes the liveliness of his disposition appear, and the tranquility of his soul, which are marks of virtue; and oft-times the nimblessness of his wit too, in that he knows how to set a handsome gloss on things he jests at.

The 181st Article

Of the use of laughter in jesting.
And it is not
unhandsome to laugh at the hearing of another man's jests: nay, perchance they may be such, that it were doltishness (foolish) not to laugh at them. But when a man jests himself, it is more seemly to abstain from it, that he may not seem to be surprised by the things he speaks, nor admire the dexterity of their invention; and that causes those who hear them to be surprised so much the more.

The 182nd Article

Of envy.
That which commonly is called envy is a vice that consists in a perverseness (irrational behavior) of nature, which causes certain men to fret at the good that they see befalls other men. But I here use this word to signify a passion which is not always vicious. Envy then, as it is a passion, is a sort of sadness mixed with hatred which comes from seeing good betide those we think unworthy of it; which cannot be thought with reason, but of the goods of fortune. For, as for those of the soul, yea and the body too, seeing a man has them by birth, it is to be sufficiently worthy of them, that he received them from God before he was capable to commit any evil.

Reparation means making of amends


14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,  

or you will not understand wise counsel. 

14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

but the folly of fools is deception.  

14:9 Fools mock at reparation, 

but among the upright there is favor.


10:12 The words of a wise person win him favor, 

but the words of a fool are self-destructive.

10:13 At the beginning his words are foolish

and at the end his talk is wicked madness,

10:14 yet a fool keeps on babbling.

No one knows what will happen;

who can tell him what will happen in the future? 

10:15 The toil of a stupid fool wears him out, 

because he does not even know the way to the city. 


5:1 Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. 5:3 But among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

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The 183rd Article

How it may be just or unjust.
But when fortune sends goods to anyone whereof he is
truly unworthy, and envy is not excited in us but because naturally, loving justice, we are vexed that it is not observed in the distribution of those goods, it is a zeal (passion) that may be excusable. Especially when the good a man envies others is of such a nature that it may turn to an evil in their hands, as if it be some command or office in the exercising whereof they may misdemean themselves. Yea, even when he desires that good for himself and cannot get it because others less worthy possess it. This makes this passion become the more violent; and yet it may be excusable, provided the hatred in it relate only to the ill distribution of the thing envied, and not to the persons that possess, or distribute it. But there are a few who are so just and generous as to bear no hatred against those that prevent them in the acquisition of a good that is not communicable to many, and that they desired it for themselves, though they who acquired it are as much or more worthy of it. And what is most usually envied is glory. For although that of others does not hinder us from aspiring thereunto, yet it makes the access to it more difficult, and enhances the price.

The 184th Article

From whence it comes that envious men have sallow complexions.
there is no vice so baneful (harmful) to the felicity (happiness) of man as envy. For, besides that those who are tainted with it afflict themselves, they also, to the utmost of their power trouble the delight of others. And they have commonly sallow (pasty) complexions, that is, a pale mingled with yellow and black, and like blood in a bruise. Whence, envy is called in Latin "livor," which agrees very well with what has been said here before of the motions of the blood in sadness and hatred; for this causes the yellow choler coming from the lower part of the liver, and the black coming from the spleen, to spread from the heart through the arteries into all the veins; and that causes the blood of the veins to have less heat, and flow more slowly than ordinarily, which is sufficient to make the complexion livid. But because choler, as well as yellow as black, may be also sent into the veins by many other causes, and envy may not drive enough into them to alter the colour of the complexion, unless it be exceeding[ly] great, and of long continuance it ought not to be thought that all those of this complexion are thereunto inclined.

The 185th Article

Of pity.
Pity is sort of sadness, mingled with love or goodwill towards those whom we see suffer any evil whereof we esteem them unworthy. So it is contrary to envy because of its object, and derision because it considers them in another manner.


5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 52  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56 


27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 18  whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 19  Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 20  Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 21  27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 22  27:19 As 23  he was sitting on the judgment seat, 24  his wife sent a message 25  to him: 26  “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 27  I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 28  about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 29  governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 30  They all said, “Crucify him!” 31  27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”


11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment.


10:32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 10:33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 10:34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison, 40  and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly had a better and lasting possession. 10:35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it has great reward. 10:36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised. 10:37 For just a little longer 44  and he who is coming will arrive and not delay. 10:38 But my righteous one will live by faith [Isaiah  26:20 Go, my people! Enter your inner rooms! Close your doors behind you! Hide for a little while, until his angry judgment is over! 35  26:21 For look, the Lord is coming out of the place where he lives, to punish the sin of those who live on the earth. The earth will display the blood shed on it; it will no longer cover up its slain.], and if he shrinks back, I take no pleasure in him. 10:39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls. 


3:1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and 1  authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work. 3:2 They must not slander 2  anyone, but be peaceable, gentle, showing complete courtesy to all people. 3:3 For we too were once foolish, disobedient, misled, enslaved to various passions and desires, spending our lives in evil and envy, hateful and hating one another. 3:4 3  But “when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, 3:5 he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, 3:6 whom he poured out on us in full measure 4  through Jesus Christ our Savior. 3:7 And so, 5  since we have been justified by his grace, we become heirs with the confident expectation of eternal life.

1 JOHN 1

2:3 Now 7  by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep his commandments. 2:4 The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person. 2:5 But whoever obeys his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in him. 2:6 The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk  just as Jesus walked.


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The 186th Article

Who are most pitiful.
Those who feel themselves very weak and subject to the adversities of fortune seem to be more inclined to this passion than any else, because they fancy the evil of another as possible to befall them, and so they are moved to pity rather out of the love they bear themselves than that they bear to others.

The 187th Article

How the most generous men are sensible of this passion.
But nevertheless, they who are most generous and have the greatest spirits so that they fear not any
evil to themselves, and hold themselves above the power of fortune, are not exempted from compassion when they see the infirmity of other men and hear their complaints. For it is a part of generosity to bear goodwill to every man. But the sadness of this pity is not bitter, and like that which tragic actions personated (pretended) on the stage cause, is more in the exteriors and the senses, than the interiors of the soul, which in the meanwhile is satisfied to think she has done her duty, in that she has a fellow feeling with the afflicted. And there is this difference in it, that whereas the vulgar pity those who complain because they think the ills they suffer are very grievous (serious), the principal object of great men's pity is the weakness of those that they see complain; because they esteem not any accident that may befall to be so great an evil, as is the baseness of those who cannot suffer constantly; and though they hate the vices (wickedness), yet they hate not those they see subject to them, they only pity them.

The 188th Article

Who those are that are not sensible of it.
But there are none but
malignant and envious spirits who naturally hate all men, or else those who are so belluine (brutal) and blinded by good fortune, or desperate through ill, that they think no further evil can befall them who are insensible of pity.


16:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 16:2 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem 1  with her abominable practices 16:3 and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your umbilical cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water; 2  you were certainly not rubbed down with salt, nor wrapped with blankets. 3  16:5 No eye took pity on you to do even one of these things for you to spare you; 4  you were thrown out into the open field 5  because you were detested on the day you were born.

16:6 “‘I passed by you and saw you kicking around helplessly in your blood. I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” 6  16:7 I made you plentiful like sprouts in a field; you grew tall and came of age so that you could wear jewelry. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, but you were still unclothed and bare.

16:8 “‘Then I passed by you and watched you, noticing 7  that you had reached the age for love. 8  I spread my cloak 9  over you and covered your nakedness. I swore a solemn oath to you and entered into a marriage covenant with you, declares the sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. 16:10 I dressed you in embroidered clothing and put fine leather sandals on your feet. I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 16:11 I adorned you with jewelry. I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 16:12 I put a ring in your nose, earrings on your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. 16:13 You were adorned with gold and silver, while your clothing was of fine linen, silk, and embroidery. You ate the finest flour, honey, and olive oil. You became extremely beautiful and attained the position of royalty. 16:14 Your fame 10  spread among the nations because of your beauty; your beauty was perfect because of the splendor which I bestowed on you, declares the sovereign Lord. 11 

16:15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and capitalized on your fame by becoming a prostitute. You offered your sexual favors to every man who passed by so that your beauty 12  became his. 16:16 You took some of your clothing and made for yourself decorated high places; you engaged in prostitution on them. You went to him to become his. 13  16:17 You also took your beautiful jewelry, made of my gold and my silver I had given to you, and made for yourself male images and engaged in prostitution 14  with them. 16:18 You took your embroidered clothing and used it to cover them; you offered my olive oil and my incense to them. 16:19 As for my food that I gave you – the fine flour, olive oil, and honey I fed you – you placed it before them as a soothing aroma. That is exactly what happened, declares the sovereign Lord.

16:20 “‘You took your sons and your daughters whom you bore to me and you sacrificed them 15  as food for the idols to eat. As if your prostitution not enough, 16:21 you slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 16  16:22 And with all your abominable practices and prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth when you were unclothed and bare, kicking around in your blood.


7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office,  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness,  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.


3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise.

4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians  and managers until the date set by his father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors,  were enslaved under the basic forces of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8  4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father! 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are a son, then you are also an heir through God. 

4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless basic forces? Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again?


Is stoicheia tou kosmou (“the elemental things of the world”) the worthless basic forces Paul is referencing?



2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him, 2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:11 In him you also were circumcisednot, however, with a circumcision performed by human hands, but by the removal of the fleshly body, that is, through the circumcision done by Christ. 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. 2:13 And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. 2:14 He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness 30  expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. 2:15 Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross.  

2:16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you with respect to food or drink, or in the matter of a feast, new moon, or Sabbath days – 2:17 these are only the shadow of the things to come, but the reality is Christ! 2:18 Let no one who delights in humility and the worship of angels pass judgment on you. That person goes on at great lengths about what he has supposedly seen, but he is puffed up with empty notions by his fleshly mind. 37  2:19 He has not held fast to the head from whom the whole body, supported and knit together through its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God.

2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility 45  achieved by an 46  unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence. 47 

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