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Pharisees were members of one of the most important and influential religious and political parties of Jewish theocracy. But, the Pharisees were not respected by Sadducee priests who considered themselves to be divinely guided and maintained and performed sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem.. The religious beliefs and social status of both Pharisees and Sadducees were mutually reinforcing, as the Priesthood often represented the highest class in Judean society.


The conflicted and cooperative relationship of the Shia and Sunni in Islam would be similar to the Pharisee and Sadducee teachings of Yahweh.


If one takes away the aspect of divinity, the Sadducees and Pharisees would be similar to the Democrat (Liberal) and Republican (Conservative) parties of today in the United States.


Luke 11


11:33 No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a secret place, nor under the measure, but upon the lamp-stand, that those who come in may see the light.


34 The lamp of the body is thy eye. When thy eye is simple, thy whole body also is full of light; but whenever it is evil, thy body also is full of darkness.


35 Take heed therefore lest the light that is in thee is darkness.


36 If thus thy whole body is full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the lamp by its brightness gives thee light.


37 But while he spoke, a Pharisee asked him to dine with him; and he went in and reclined at table.


38 And the Pharisee seeing it wondered that he had not first immersed himself before dinner.


39 But the Lord said to him: Now, you Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the dish, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness.


40 Senseless men; did not he that made the outside make the inside also?


41 But give the contents as charity, and behold, all things are clean to you.


42 But alas for you Pharisees, for you pay tithes of mint and rue and every herb, and pass by the judgment and the love of God: these ought you to have done and not leave those undone.


43 Alas for you Pharisees, for you love the chief seat in the synagogues and salutations in the markets.


44 Alas for you, for you are as graves that appear not, and the men that walk over them know it not.


45 And some one of the lawyers answering said to him: Teacher, saying these things, thou reproachest us also.


46 He replied: Alas for you lawyers also, for you burden men with burdens hard to be borne, and yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.


47 Alas for you, for you build the sepulchers of the prophets, and your fathers killed them.


48 Therefore you are witnesses and you consent to the deeds of your fathers, for they indeed killed them, but you build.


49 Wherefore also the wisdom of God said: I will send to them prophets and apostles, and of them they will kill and persecute,


50 that the blood of all the prophets, which has been shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation;


51 from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the house: yes, I say to you, it shall be required of this generation.


52 Alas for you lawyers, for you have taken away the key of knowledge: you went not in yourselves, and those that were entering you hindered.


53 And when he had gone out thence the scribes and the Pharisees began to be very angry, and to press him to speak of many things,


54 lying in wait to catch something I from his mouth.


12:1 In the meantime, when myriads of the multitude had come together, so that they trod one upon another, he began to say to his disciples first: Beware you of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.


2 But nothing is concealed which shall not be revealed, and hid which shall not be made known.


3 Wherefore, whatever things you have said in darkness, shall be heard in the light, and what you have spoken in the ear in closets, shall be proclaimed on the housetops.


4 But I say to you, my friends, be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after this have no more that they can do.


5 But I will show you whom you shall fear: Fear him who after he has killed has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I say to you, fear him.


6 Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings? And yet not one of them is forgotten before God.


7 But even the hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not: you are of more value than many sparrows.






Mark 8



8:1 In those days, the multitude again being great, and they having nothing to eat, he called his disciples to him and said to them:


2 I have pity on the multitude, because they have now continued with me three days, and have nothing to eat.


3 And if I send them away to their homes fasting, they will faint on the way; and some of them have come from far.


4 And his disciples answered him: Whence shall any one be able to satisfy these with bread here in the wilderness?


5 And he asked them: How many loaves have you? They said: Seven.


6 And he commanded the multitude to recline on the ground; and taking the seven loaves, he gave thanks, broke, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they set them before the multitude.


7 And they had a few little fishes; and he blessed and set them before them.


8 And they ate and were satisfied, and took up what remained of the broken pieces, seven provision-baskets.


9 And they were about four thousand; and he sent them away.


10 And immediately entering the ship with his disciples, he came into the regions of Dalmanutha.


11 And the Pharisees came out and began to dispute with him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, tempting him.


12 And sighing deeply in his spirit, he said: Why does this generation seek for a sign? Verily I say to you: No sign shall be given to this generation.


13 And leaving them he again embarked, and went to the other side.


14 And they had forgotten to take bread, and except one loaf they had nothing with them in the ship.


15 And he charged them, saying: Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the leaven of Herod.


16 And they reasoned one with another: Because we have no bread.


17 And perceiving it he said to them: Why reason because you have no bread? Do you not yet perceive, neither understand? Have you your heart yet hardened?


18 Having eyes see you not, and having ears hear you not, and do you not remember,


19 when I broke the five loaves among the five thousand, and how many traveling-baskets full of broken pieces you took up? They say to him: Twelve.


20 When the seven also among the four thousand, how many provision-baskets full of broken pieces did you take up? And they say: Seven.


21 And he said to them: Do you not yet understand?


Matthew 16 reveals the same story of Mark but specifically mentions Christ's warning on the biblical teaching of both the Pharisees and Sadducees.


16:1 And the Pharisees and Sadducees came, and tempting, asked him to show them a sign from heaven.


2 But he answered and said to them:


4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, and no sign shall be given it but the sign of Jonah. And he left them and departed.


5 And the disciples having come to the other side had forgotten to take bread.


6 And Jesus said to them: Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.


7 And they reasoned among themselves, saying: Because we took no bread.


8 But Jesus perceiving it, said: Why reason among yourselves, O you of little faith, because you took no bread?


9 Do you not yet understand, and do you not remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many traveling baskets you took up?


10 nor the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many provision baskets you took up?


11 How is it that you do not understand that I spoke not to you of bread? But beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.


12 Then they understood that he did not bid them beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.




Ezra 6:19


6:19 The exiles observed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month.


6:20 The priests and the Levites had purified themselves, every last one, and they all were ceremonially pure. They sacrificed the Passover lamb for all the exiles, for their colleagues the priests, and for themselves.


6:21 The Israelites who were returning from the exile ate it, along with all those who had joined them in separating themselves from the uncleanness of the nations of the land to seek the Lord God of Israel.


6:22 They observed the Feast of Unleavened Bread for seven days with joy, for the Lord had given them joy and had changed the opinion of the king of Assyria toward them, so that he assisted them in the work on the temple of God, the God of Israel.


The Festival of the Unleavened Bread" Matzo (flat unleavened bread) is a symbol of the holiday. Matzo is eaten by Jews as an obligation during the Passover Seder meal. Leavening is an agent such as yeast that causes bread dough to rise. And the leavening process takes time. The Israelites had no time to spare when they left Egypt, so they baked and ate flat bread.


Leviticus 23


23:4 “‘These are the Lord’s appointed times, holy assemblies, which you must proclaim at their appointed time.


23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, is a Passover offering to the Lord.


23:6 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month will be the festival of unleavened bread to the Lord; seven days you must eat unleavened bread.


23:7 On the first day there will be a holy assembly for you; you must not do any regular work.


23:8 You must present a gift to the Lord for seven days, and the seventh day is a holy assembly; you must not do any regular work.’”


Exodus 12


12:37 The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 men on foot, plus their dependants.


12:38 A mixed multitude also went up with them, and flocks and herds – a very large number of cattle.


12:39 They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast – because they were thrust out of Egypt and were not able to delay, they could not prepare food for themselves either.


In 1986 the Isreali Knesset created the law of 'Prohibition of Leaven' also known as the Law of Chametz, stating that during the holiday Passover "business owners will not publicly produce leavened for sale or consumption. "- under Article 1 of the Law," leavened product "is: bread, roll, pita, or any other leavened flour products. On April 3, 2008 Court Judge mimics Jerusalem Municipal, Tamar Bar - which Zaban, charges were filed against four restaurant owners in Jerusalem, which according to the state broke the law when selling chametz on Pesach. In its decision the judge relied on criminal law , which the legislature differentiated between "public place" L"fumbi "emphasizing that" no distinction was made ​​in the case. " That is, the law does not prohibit the sale of leavened or displaying in a shop, but the presentation in public, ie outside the store, only. This was the first charge filed under this Act.

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Had a great conversation with one of my neighbors who is a practicing Jew about the Pharisees. He gave me information that I never knew. When he told me that Jesus was Pharisees I was floored and now found that there were actually two competing schools of thought in the Pharisees community. School of Hillel and the School of Shammai,


I found this article that Time magazine did about this very subject.


Orthodox Rabbi Harvey Falk of Brooklyn believes that much interreligious tension need never have existed at all. His current book, Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, just issued by a Roman Catholic publisher (Paulist Press; 175 pages; $8.95), contends that Jews and Christians alike fail to grasp Jesus' ties to the competing Jewish factions of his time. Christians, says Falk, have misunderstood some of the teachings of Jesus, while Jews have been needlessly hostile toward "Yeshua ha Notzri" (Jesus of Nazareth). Falk's book offers a provocative and controversial theory on Christian origins.


Falk examines two factions of the Pharisees, a group of pious Jews who believed in the resurrection of the dead, rewards and punishments for this life in the next and rabbinic authority to interpret Jewish law. These two parties, the School of Hillel and the School of Shammai, clashed shortly before Jesus' birth. Jewish tradition records that the rigid Shammaites held religious control throughout Jesus' life and during the founding decades of the Christian Church. But by A.D. 70 the more flexible Hillel school had become pre-eminent and the predecessor of today's traditional Judaism. In Falk's theory, Jesus was a Pharisee of the Hillel school, so that his denunciations ("Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!") were aimed at the Shammai school, not Jews in general, and not even at all Pharisees.


The House of Shammai (or Beth Shammai, or in Modern Hebrew Beit Shammai. Beth is Hebrew for house of) was the school of thought of Judaism founded by Shammai, a Jewish scholar of the 1st century. A non literal translation that perhaps gives a better flavor of the expression would be The Academy of Shammai.


After Menahem the Essene had resigned the office of Av Beit Din (or vice-president) of the Sanhedrin, Shammai was elected to it, Hillel being at the time president. After Hillel died, circa 20 CE, Shammai took his place as president but no vice-president from the minority was elected so that the school of Shammai attained complete ascendancy, during which Shammai passed "18 ordinances" in conformity with his ideas. The Talmud states that when he passed one of the ordinances, contrary to the opinion of Hillel, the day "was as grievous to Israel as the day when the [golden] calf was made" (Shabbat, 17a). The exact content of the ordinances is not known, but they seem to have been designed to strengthen Jewish identity by insisting on stringent separation between Jews and gentiles, an approach that was regarded as divisive and misanthropic by Shammai's opponents.

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