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Human Swine Influenza Outbreak Investigation - Symptoms

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Guest LAW_*

:unsure:Swine Flu symptoms

 

The flu is characterized by a collection of symptoms that can often occur suddenly, including:

 

Fever (higher than 100° F)

A fever occurs when your body temperature increases in response to illness or injury. Your temperature is considered elevated when it is higher than 100°F.

 

Chills

Body chills that are not related to a cold environment can be a sign of the flu.

 

Headache

A headache associated with the flu may appear suddenly, and be related to body aches or nasal congestion you're experiencing.

 

Extreme tiredness

It's normal to feel tired at the end of a long day or when you don't get adequate sleep, but unexplained tiredness can be a sign of the flu.

 

Dry cough

Know your cough. A productive cough (coughing up mucus) is common with a cold, while a non-productive or dry cough (with no mucus) is associated with the flu.

 

Sore throat

Swelling in the throat can lead to a sore throat.

 

Runny nose

Runny nose may also occur but is more common in children than adults.

 

Muscle aches

While it is normal to feel body aches from physical overexertion, body aches that are sudden and unexplained can be a sign of the flu.

 

Stomach symptoms

Stomach symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are more common in children than in adults

 

Chest discomfort

Chest discomfort is often severe with the flu.

 

 

Think you might have the flu? Or does someone you know have it?

 

FDA 1-888-INFO-FDA

 

CDC 1-800-CDC-INFO

 

cdcinfo@cdc.gov

 

The typical incubation period, the time between when a person is first exposed to an infectious disease to when signs and symptoms develop, for seasonal influenza is 1-4 days, with an average of 2 days.

 

Adults can be infectious from the day before symptoms begin through approximately 5-7 days after illness onset.

 

Children can be infectious for more than 10 days after the onset of symptoms.

 

Severely immunocompromised persons can be infectious for weeks or months.

 

Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in the U.S. in San Diego County and Imperial County, California as well as in San Antonio, Texas and Kansas. Internationally, human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in Mexico. Investigations are ongoing to determine the source of the infection and whether additional people have been infected with similar swine influenza viruses.

 

In the Federal District of Mexico, surveillance began picking up cases of influenza-like-illnesses starting on March 18th, 2009. The number of cases has risen steadily through April and as of April 23rd, there were more than 854 cases of pneumonia from the capital. Of those, 59 have died. In San Luis Potosi, located in central Mexico, 24 cases of influenza-like-illness, with three deaths, have been reported. And from Mexicali, near the border with the United States, four cases of influenza-like-illness, with no deaths, have been reported.

 

The majority of these cases have occurred in otherwise healthy young adults. Seasonal influenza normally affects the very young and the very old, but these age groups have not been heavily affected in Mexico based on the information above.

 

CDC has confirmed that seven of 14 respiratory specimens sent to the CDC by the Mexican National Influenza Center are positive for swine influenza virus and are similar to the swine influenza viruses recently identified in the US among residents of California and Texas.

 

The Swine Influenza A/H1N1 viruses characterized in this outbreak have not been previously detected in pigs or humans. The viruses so far characterized have been sensitive to oseltamivir, but resistant to both amantadine and rimantadine.

 

Oseltamivir is indicated for the treatment of infections due to influenza A and B virus in people at least one year of age, and prevention of influenza in people at least one year and older.

 

LIMIT SOCIAL INTERACTION

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Guest Guest

"California 7 cases

Texas 2 cases

Kansas 2 cases

TOTAL COUNT 11 cases"

 

Nothing to get alarmed about.

 

But this?

 

Killed by Car Accidents

 

Highway fatalities account for more than 94% of all transportation deaths. There were an estimated 6,289,000 car accidents in the US in 1999. There were about 3.4 million injuries and 41,611 people killed in auto accidents in 1999. The total number of people killed in highway crashes in 2001 was 42,116, compared to 41,945 in 2000. An average of 114 people die each day in car crashes in the U.S. more... and 1999 pdf... [PDF Document - 2.5M]

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Guest LAW_*

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS SWINE AND HUMAN CASES OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1)

 

Do any swine have the virus that has infected humans?

 

There is no evidence at this time that swine in the United States are infected with this virus strain.

 

Can I get this new strain of virus from eating pork or pork products?

 

According to USDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food so you cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills all viruses.

The USDA suggests, as it has in the past, cooking pork and pork products to the proper internal temperature and preventing cross-contamination between raw and cooked food is the key to safety. You should:

Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling raw pork;

Prevent cross-contamination by keeping raw pork away from other foods;

After cutting raw meat, wash cutting board, knife, and countertops with hot, soapy water;

Sanitize cutting boards by using a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water; and

Use a food thermometer to ensure pork has reached the safe internal temperature of at least 160 °F to kill foodborne germs that might be present.

Can I get this flu by touching pork that is not yet cooked?

 

There is no evidence at this time that the virus is in swine or that touching uncooked pork could infect someone with the virus.

 

What is this flu that people are talking about in the news?

 

It is a new strain of flu that consists of a mixture of genetic material from swine, avian and human influenza viruses.

Is USDA testing and monitoring to make sure swine are not infected with the virus and if so, how?

 

A network of Federal veterinarians, state animal health officials and private practitioners are regularly involved with monitoring U.S. swine for signs of significant disease.

To date, there have been no reports that the influenza virus currently causing illness in humans is circulating anywhere in the U.S. swine herd.

As a proactive measure, USDA is reaching out to all state animal health officials to affirm they have no signs of this virus type in their state.

USDA has put U.S. pork producers on a high alert for safety.

 

How will the public be notified if the government finds that people should not eat swine?

 

Delivering factual, timely information is a priority for USDA. Should there be a detection of influenza in the U.S. swine herd, those results would be shared with the public in a timely fashion.

 

Can you get this flu from being around or touching swine?

 

The CDC says that the spread of swine flu can occur in two ways:

Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses.

Through contact with a person with swine flu. Human-to-human spread of swine flu has been documented also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

 

Is my potbelly pig in danger?

Can I get it from my pet?

 

There is no evidence at this time that the virus is in U.S. swine.

 

Swine owners should learn the warning signs of swine influenza. Signs of swine flu in pigs can include sudden onset of fever, depression, coughing (barking), discharge from the nose or eyes, sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and going off feed. If your pig is showing any of these signs, call your veterinarian.

Buy your animals from reputable sources and ensure that you have documentation of your new pet's origin. Be sure that you get your new animals checked by a veterinarian.

 

Keep your pigs and areas around them clean. If you have been around other animals, make sure that you clean your shoes, clothing, and other items. And don't forget to wash your hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling your pet.

 

How do we ensure that we take the appropriate measures to protect our swine?

 

We encourage commercial pork producers to intensify the bio-security practices they've long had in place. They should not loan equipment or vehicles to or borrow them from other farms. Swine from outside sources, such as live bird markets should not be brought back to the farm.

They should permit only essential workers and vehicles to enter the farm. Swine workers should disinfect their shoes, clothes and hands. They should thoroughly clean and disinfect equipment and vehicles entering and leaving the farm and avoid visiting other livestock farms without proper cleaning and disinfection.

Also, they should report sick animals immediately. The industry understands the importance of eradicating the virus as quickly as possible to protect the industry.

Is there a vaccine for humans for this new strain?

 

The CDC should answer any questions about a vaccine. According to the CDC, there is no vaccine to protect humans from this new variant swine flu. Go to www.cdc.gov for more information.

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Guest Steph

The federal government has declared a public health emergency as a result of several confirmed cases of swine flu in the United States. This declaration is described as "standard operating procedure" to free up federal resources to combat the virus. It is expected that more cases will be confirmed in the coming days. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has also issued a travel advisory recommending individuals avoid all nonessential travel to Mexico.

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Guest CDC

The human swine flu outbreak continues to grow in the United States and internationally. Today, CDC reports additional cases of confirmed swine influenza and a number of hospitalizations of swine flu patients. Internationally, the situation is more serious too, with additional countries reporting confirmed cases of swine flu. In response to the intensifying outbreak, the World Health Organization raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 4. A Phase 4 alert is characterized by confirmed person-to-person spread of a new influenza virus able to cause “community-level” outbreaks.” The increase in the pandemic alert phase indicates that the likelihood of a pandemic has increased.

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Guest GLEN NOWAK

DON′T GO OUT IN THE COMMUNITY DURING THE PERIOD OF YOUR INFECTION WHICH IS ABOUT SEVEN DAYS, BUT YOU SHOULD STAY HOME UNTIL AT LEAST ONE DAY PAST YOUR SYMPTOM PERIOD.

 

IF YOU DO GO OUT, IT PROVIDES GUIDANCE INTO HOW YOU CAN INTERACT SAFELY IN THE COMMUNITY.

IT PROVIDES RECOMMENDATIONS IN TERMS OF CONTACT, AVOIDING CROWDED PLACES AND TRYING TO STAY HOME AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. IT TALKS ABOUT THE CLOSURE OF A SCHOOL OR DISMISSAL OF STUDENTS AT A TIME WHEN THERE′S AN IDENTIFIED CASE IN THE SCHOOL. AGAIN, THIS IS OUT OF AN ABUNDANCE OF WHERE THERE′S BEEN ADDITIONAL TRANSMISSION AND IT TALKS ABOUT OTHER GATHERINGS. WE KNOW THAT IN SOME COMMUNITIES WHERE THERE′S BEEN A CASE, THEY′VE CANCELED SCHOOL FUNCTIONS RELATED TO THAT AFFECTED SCHOOL. WE THINK THAT MAKES SENSE.

 

ALL OF THESE GUIDELINES NEED TO BE TAILORED BASED ON THE LOCAL SITUATION AND WE EXPECT TO SEE AND IT′S APPROPRIATE TO SEE DIFFERENT APPLICATION OF THESE GUIDANCES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

 

I -- I ALWAYS LIKE TO MAKE THE POINT THAT CONTROL OF AN OUTBREAK OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IS A SHARED RESPONSIBILITY AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT INDIVIDUALS NEED TO DO AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT COMMUNITIES NEED TO DO AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT THE GOVERNMENT NEEDS TO DO AND IT′S IMPORTANT THAT INDIVIDUALS REALIZE THEY HAVE A KEY ROLE TO PLAY IN REDUCING THEIR OWN LIKELIHOOD OF GETTING INFECTED. THOSE ARE THE TYPICAL GUIDELINES FOR RESPIRATORY INFECTION. FREQUENT HAND WASHING IF YOU DON′T HAVE ACCESS TO SOAP AND WATER AND ALCOHOL GEL AND COVERING YOUR COUGH OR YOUR SNEEZE, THAT′S VERY IMPORTANT.

 

IF YOU′RE SICK, AND IF YOU HAVE A FEVER AND YOU′RE SICK OR YOUR CHILDREN ARE SICK, DON′T GO TO WORK AND DON′T GO TO SCHOOL. THAT CAN HELP REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD THAT YOU WILL SHARE THAT INFECTION, BUT IT′S ALSO TIME FOR PEOPLE TO BE THINKING ABOUT,

 

WHAT WOULD I DO IF MY CHILD′S SCHOOL WERE CLOSED?

 

WHAT WOULD I DO FOR CHILD CARE?

 

WOULD I BE ABLE TO WORK FROM HOME?

 

IT′S TIME TO THINK ABOUT THAT SO THAT YOU′RE READY IN THE EVENT THAT THERE WERE A CASE IN YOUR CHILD′S SCHOOL. IT′S TIME FOR BUSINESSES TO REVIEW THEIR PLANS AND THINK ABOUT WHAT WOULD I DO IF SOME OF MY WORKERS COULDN′T COME TO WORK? HOW WOULD MY BUSINESS FUNCTION? THINK ABOUT THAT.

 

THERE′S BEEN TREMENDOUS PLANNING THAT′S BEEN GOING ON AROUND THE COUNTRY OVER THE PAST NUMBER OF YEARS. IT′S TIME FOR PEOPLE TO REVIEW THOSE PLANS AND THINK ABOUT WHAT THEY WOULD DO.

 

IT′S TIME FOR SCHOOLS AND FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS TO THINK ABOUT AS WELL, WHAT WOULD I DO IF THERE WERE AN ONGOING OUTBREAK IN MY COMMUNITY.

 

HOPEFULLY THIS OUTBREAK WOULD NOT PROGRESS, BUT LEANING FORWARD AND THINKING ABOUT WHAT YOU WOULD DO IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES CAN UNDERTAKE RIGHT NOW. IT MATTERS LESS WHAT WE CALL THIS THAN WHAT ACTIONS WE TAKE, AND WE ARE ACTING AGGRESSIVELY BASED ON WHAT WE KNOW TODAY AND WHETHER THE TERM CHANGES, THAT′S NOT GOING TO CHANGE OUR APPROACH TO THAT SITUATION AND THAT′S A VERY IMPORTANT POINT. WE TRIGGER OUR ACTIONS BASED ON WHAT′S GOING ON IN THE COMMUNITY AND NOT BASED ON WHAT LABEL IS PUT ON A PARTICULAR OUTBREAK. THERE′S NO SINGLE ACTION THAT WILL CONTROL AN OUTBREAK, BUT THE COMBINED ACTIONS THAT WE ARE PROPOSING AND THEY′RE BEING UNDERTAKEN AROUND THE COUNTRY WILL HELP TO STEM THE TIDE OF ANY INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAK AND THIS ONE IN PARTICULAR. I WANT TO REITERATE THAT EVERYONE HAS A RESPONSIBILITY AND IT′S BEEN ABSOLUTELY INCREDIBLE TO SEE PEOPLE AROUND THE COUNTRY STANDING UP AND TAKING RESPONSIBILITY AND DOING THE THINGS THAT THEY NEED TO DO TO HELP REDUCE THE IMPACT OF THIS OUTBREAK. I WANT TO RECOGNIZE THAT MUCH IS UNKNOWN.

 

I KNOW SOME PEOPLE FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE HAVING A MASK AND THERE ARE CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE THAT MAY BE OF VALUE, BUT I WOULD RATHER PEOPLE REALLY FOCUS HAND WASHING, NOT GIVING THAT LITTLE KISS OF GREETING WHEN YOU′RE MEETING SOMEBODY RIGHT NOW. DOING THOSE SORTS OF THINGS AND COVERING YOUR COUGH AND YOUR SNEEZE AND THEN IF YOU FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE WITH A MASK, IF YOU′RE IN A COMMUNITY OR SETTING WHERE THERE′S ONGOING DISEASE TRANSMISSION AND THEN YOU CAN THINK ABOUT THAT, BUT THE OTHER THINGS WHERE THERE IS THAT EVIDENCE ARE THE THINGS WE′RE REALLY TRYING TO PUSH.

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Guest Human_*

http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/

 

By the way;

 

Closing the Borders will not do any good, it already has left "Point of Origin".

 

OH!!!!I took the subway home today, and I sneezed and you should have seen the folks step away from me real fast. One of the few times I didn't feel crowded on the metro.

 

Just don't get paranoid about it. We ARE getting to the beginning of Allergy Season "Spring".

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Guest LAW_*

The acting head of the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention says the confirmed death of a toddler in Texas is a tragic development, but that it's too soon to say just how fast the swine flu virus is spreading.

 

Dr. Richard Besser said Wednesday health authorities had been anticipating that the virus would cause deaths, and said that "as a pediatrician and a parent, my heart goes out to the family."

 

But Besser said in a nationally broadcast network interview that it's too soon to say if the death in Texas suggests the virus is spreading to more states. Nor would he say whether officials think it will become a nationwide problem.

 

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health officials are investigating swine influenza cases in people in several U.S. states, including Texas. Investigations are ongoing to determine the source of the infection and whether additional people have been infected with swine influenza viruses.

 

Case Count: DSHS has confirmed six human cases of swine influenza this year in Texas.

Counties with cases are: Dallas (3) and Guadalupe (3)

Earliest Known Onset Date: April 11

Latest Known Onset Date: April 24

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Guest CDC

When crowded settings or close contact with others cannot be avoided, the use of facemasks1 or respirators2 in areas where transmission of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus has been confirmed should be considered as follows:

 

1.Whenever possible, rather than relying on the use of facemasks or respirators, close contact with people who might be ill and being in crowded settings should be avoided.

 

2.Facemasks should be considered for use by individuals who enter crowded settings, both to protect their nose and mouth from other people's coughs and to reduce the wearers' likelihood of coughing on others; the time spent in crowded settings should be as short as possible.

 

3.Respirators2 should be considered for use by individuals for whom close contact with an infectious person is unavoidable. This can include selected individuals who must care for a sick person (e.g., family member with a respiratory infection) at home.

 

California 10 cases

Kansas 2 cases

New York City 45 cases

Ohio 1 case

Texas 6 cases

TOTAL COUNT 64 cases

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Guest Macy

In swine, 3 influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world. Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to 3 commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests that current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses.

 

Swine Flu is going to hit major population centers where there is greater density of people. A 1968 "Hong Kong" flu pandemic killed about 1 million people globally. The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate. In the United States, approximately 33,800 people died.

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Guest JM1Springfield

It's sad that a baby died. Babies aren't supposed to die but it's also strange that the authorities didn't release any specific information such as where the death occurred, where and how it may have contracted the disease, or if the child may have been a member of an identifiable community. Was it from El Paso or Texarkana? Had the parents or child been in Mexico in the last week or so? How long had it been sick before the parents sought medical treatment. I think these are things the public, especially parents of toddlers and infants, need and deserve to know, political correctness be damned.

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Guest tahitian

The CDC has approved and recommended using N95 particulate respirator masks for adequate protection against the Swine Flu. Protect yourself and your family from Swine Flu infection with these official 3M brand N95 respirators.

 

 

The 3M 8511 N95 Particulate Respirator is uniquely designed to help provide protection against certain non-oil based particles. It is ideally suited for work settings that involve heat, humidity, or long periods of wear.

 

Workplace applications include grinding, sanding, sweeping, bagging and other dusty/hot operations. It features the 3M Cool Flow Exhalation Valve, braided headbands, soft inner materials, and adjustable M-noseclip to help provide a custom fit and secure seal.

 

 

 

Help defend you and your family against airborne particles with these 3M N95 8511 disposable respirators. These masks are recommended by The Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They state that "every care worker who handles contagious patients, including those infected by SARS and the avian flu, should wear masks that meet the N95 rating under the CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health." 3M N95 Respirator Masks were even shown on the Oprah Winfry Show to be the best line of defense should a pandemic outbreak of H5N1 Avian Bird Flu occur.

These 3M 8511 disposable respirators are rated as an N95 filter and are recommended as sufficient protection against many infectious particles including the H5N1 Avian Bird Flu and SARS. This disposable respirator features 3M's Cool Flow exhalation valve for easier breathing and an adjustable noseclip to help provide a custom fit and secure seal. This disposable respirator is great, affordable protection. Excellent, economical and maintenance-free protection that workers are quick to accept. Custom fit, secure seal and reduced potential for eyewear fogging promote greater worker comfort and increase wear time.

8511 disposable respirators by 3M meet or exeed the CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for flu prevention and offer a filtration efficiency of at least 95% against solid and liquid particulates that do not contain oil.

 

These NIOSH approved N95 particulate respirators offer at least 95% filtration efficiency against solid and liquid aerosols not containing oil

Features of these 3M 8511 particulate respirators include: Patented one-way Cool Flow Exhalation Valve that offers cool dry comfort and easy exhalation, and an M-Nose Clip that easily adjusts for fewer pressure points and greater comfort

Custom fit and secure seal reduces the potential for eyewear fogging, while the light-weight construction contributes to increased wear time

All filter design provides economical protection and no parts to clean

Use these 3M 8511 N95 particulate respirators for grinding, sanding, bagging, dusty hot operations, etc.

10 respirators per box

 

http://www.gallawayb2b.com/Products/Swine-...xhalation-Valve

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Guest wikichicki

The outbreak, which started in Mexico, has now spread across the globe, with confirmed cases having been reported in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain, New Zealand and Israel. Mexican health officials have raised the death toll from the virus to 152, with at least 1,614 suspected cases being under observation. However, no other country has yet reported any fatalities from the disease.

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Guest WHO

The situation continues to evolve rapidly. As of 18:00 GMT, 29 April 2009, nine countries have officially reported 148 cases of swine influenza A/H1N1 infection. The United States Government has reported 91 laboratory confirmed human cases, with one death. Mexico has reported 26 confirmed human cases of infection including seven deaths.

 

The following countries have reported laboratory confirmed cases with no deaths - Austria (1), Canada (13), Germany (3), Israel (2), New Zealand (3), Spain (4) and the United Kingdom (5).

 

Further information on the situation will be available on the WHO website on a regular basis.

 

WHO advises no restriction of regular travel or closure of borders. It is considered prudent for people who are ill to delay international travel and for people developing symptoms following international travel to seek medical attention, in line with guidance from national authorities.

 

There is also no risk of infection from this virus from consumption of well-cooked pork and pork products. Individuals are advised to wash hands thoroughly with soap and water on a regular basis and should seek medical attention if they develop any symptoms of influenza-like illness.

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Guest christen

Current Swine Flu Antiviral Drugs

 

Oseltamivir

Zanamivir

Amantadine

Rimantadine

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Guest christen

Oseltamivir was widely used during the H5N1 avian influenza epidemic in Southeast Asia in 2005. In response to the epidemic, various governments – including those of the United Kingdom, Canada, United States and Australia – stockpiled quantities of oseltamivir in preparation for a possible pandemic. Although large, the quantities stockpiled would not have been sufficient to protect the entire population of these countries.

 

In October 2005, the Indian drug company Cipla announced their plan to begin manufacture of generic oseltamivir without license from Roche. Most patent laws allow governments to authorise supply from generic companies, subject to remuneration to patent owners to address public health problems, including emergencies, although Roche has announced its intention to remain the sole supplier of the drug. Cipla argues that it can legally sell oseltamivir to India and 49 other developing countries.

 

In November 2005, U.S. President George W. Bush requested that Congress fund US$7.1 billion in emergency spending for flu pandemic preparedness (the Senate had already passed an US$8.1 billion bill). Bush's plan included US$1.4 billion for government purchases of antiviral drugs.

 

There are concerns that oseltamivir may cause dangerous psychological, neuropsychiatric side effects including self harm in some users. These dangerous side effects occur more commonly in children than in adults.

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Guest MACE

Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. It is currently marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Relenza.

 

This medication was designed to attack the infected host cells, preventing the virus from spreading throughout other cells in the body and thus reducing the amount of time the virus can survive.

 

Relenza is a safe and effective treatment for influenza, but must be administered soon after the first symptoms appear. Six to 12 hours is ideal. In most countries the drugs can only be obtained with a doctor's prescription, and usually the time taken to get a prescription renders them ineffective (Professor Graeme Laver,2007)

 

A further limitation is the poor oral bioavailability of zanamivir. This meant that oral dosing was impossible, limiting dosing to the parenteral (that is, intravenous) routes. This restricted its usage when treating the elderly because it may induce bronchospasm (F.G. Hayden, 2001). Zanamivir, therefore, is administered by inhalation - a route that was chosen for patient compliance with therapy. But this route of administration is not acceptable to many in the community.

 

Zanamivir is specific to the influenza virus, has not been known to cause toxic effects, and does not spread around through the body's systemic circulation. It also shows no signs of viral resistance. However, due to a lack of reports or evidence about its toxicity, the FDA does not license it for use in children under 7 years of age.

 

The FDA has issued a Public Health Advisory warning that it has received reports of respiratory problems following inhalation of Relenza by patients with underlying asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Relenza package insert contains precautionary information regarding risk of bronchospasm in patients with respiratory disease.

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Guest christen

Here is some info I found...

 

It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1966 as a prophylactic agent against Asian influenza and eventually received approval for the treatment of Influenzavirus A in adults.

 

Amantadine has been associated with several central nervous system side effects, likely due to amantadine's dopaminergic and adrenergic activity, and to a lesser extent, its activity as an anticholinergic. CNS side effects include nervousness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and exacerbations of pre-existing seizure disorders and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease.

 

In 2005, Chinese poultry farmers were reported to have used amantadine to protect birds against avian influenza. In western countries and according to international livestock regulations, amantadine is approved only for use in humans. Chickens in China have received an estimated 2.6 billion doses of amantadine. Avian flu (H5N1) strains in China and southeast Asia are resistant to amantadine, but strains circulating elsewhere seem to be sensitive. If amantadine-resistant strains of the virus spread, the drugs of choice in an avian flu outbreak will probably be restricted to the scarcer and costlier oseltamivir and zanamivir, which work by a different mechanism and are less likely to trigger resistance.

 

Early in the 2005/2006 flu season, the United States' Center for Disease Control [CDC] found rates of amantadine resistance to be much higher than in previous seasons. Looking at samples from 26 states yielded the following findings:

 

A total of 193 (92.3%) of 209 influenza A(H3N2) and 2 (25%) of 8 influenza A(H1N1) viruses analyzed contained point mutations resulting in a serine-to-asparagine change at amino acid 31 (S31N) of the M2 protein that conferred amantadine resistance.

 

A resistance rate of 92% for the major flu strain was called "alarmingly high". The CDC issued an alert to doctors not to prescribe amantadine any more for the season.[17] Among some Asian countries, A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 resistance has reached 100%.

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Guest christen

Thanks Mace :P Where are you from?

 

Rimantadine (INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug[1] used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. When taken within one to two days of developing symptoms, rimantadine can shorten the duration and moderate the severity of influenza. Both rimantadine and the similar drug amantadine are derivates of adamantane. Rimantadine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994.

 

Rimantadine can produce gastrointestinal and central nervous system adverse effects. Studies have shown it produces fewer side effects than other anti-viral influenza treatments

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Guest Karen Black

Governor Martin O'Malley and the Maryland Department of Health and Ment6al Hygiene (DHMH) announced today that six "probable" swine flu cases have been identified in Maryland and sent to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for testing. The samples have been tested by the State Public Health Laboratories at DHMH and have been identified as influenza but require further testing for confirmation by the CDC.

 

The definition of a "probable" swine flu case is an individual with flu-like symptoms who has a recent history of travel to an area affected by swine flu or contact with another person who has.

 

“The State of Maryland is doing everything it can at this time to prepare for and respond to any circumstance that arises regarding swine flu," said Governor Martin O’Malley. "Our health officials have trained for this and we have established a command center for exactly this purpose. This is not a time for alarm, but rather heightened awareness and care for our families, ourselves and each other."

 

Of the six cases, three are from Anne Arundel County. They are members of the same family with no history of foreign travel, although a family member did recently return from an affected area. The other 3 cases are from Baltimore County. They include two members of the same family, one of whom recently returned from travel to an affected area. The third case is a Baltimore County resident who recently traveled out of Maryland to a place that is not considered an affected area.

 

All patients are recovering from their illness and none have been hospitalized. Due to confidentiality considerations, no further information about the patients will be released.

 

"This development is what we have expected and prepared for since news of the H1N1 swine flu broke last week," said DHMH Secretary John M. Colmers. "Governor Martin O'Malley asked DHMH to set up our command center on Monday and as a result, we are working together with local health officials and health care providers in every corner of the state to detect and respond rapidly to this serious health care concern."

 

As with any other seasonal flu, Marylanders should are being advised to exercise precautionary measures to avoid becoming ill or spreading an illness to others.

 

For more information on swine flu Marylanders can go to: http://www.swineflu.maryland.gov

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Guest colt21

Ninety percent of flu deaths and more than half of hospitalizations occur in people 65 years and older. People in this age group are at high risk for serious flu complications because they have weaker immune systems.

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Guest Carol Wittman

On Monday, a child suffering from acute respiratory illness passed away at Texas Children's Hospital. The patient originated from Mexico City and the CDC confirmed to us early this morning that the patient's case was North American flu (swine flu). Texas Children’s first wanted to share this information with the family before making it public. Our sympathies are with them.

 

While this patient was in the care of Texas Children's Hospital, all appropriate infection control measures were employed by our doctors, nurses and other care givers. Further, the patient did not come in contact with other Texas Children's Hospital patients.

 

The team at Texas Children's Hospital includes nationally recognized experts in pediatric infectious disease and they have been instrumental in shaping our established plan for managing patient care situations such as this. Since the earliest indications of a flu outbreak, Texas Children’s Hospital has been taking the appropriate infection control measures and will continue to expand on these according to our plan and as the situation warrants.

 

About Texas Children's Hospital

 

Texas Children's Hospital is committed to a community of healthy children by providing the finest pediatric patient care, education and research. Renowned worldwide for its expertise and breakthrough developments in clinical care and research, Texas Children’s is ranked in the top ten best children’s hospitals by U.S.News & World Report. Texas Children’s also operates the nation's largest primary pediatric care network, with over 40 offices throughout the greater Houston community. Texas Children’s has embarked on a $1.5 billion expansion, Vision 2010, which includes a comprehensive neurological research institute, the formation of a maternity center, and the development of the new West Campus, Texas Children’s first pediatric community hospital. For more information on Texas Children's Hospital, visit www.texaschildrens.org.

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Guest phac

Cases of Human Swine Influenza in Canada

 

The Public Health Agency is committed to sharing information about the human swine influenza cases with Canadians. This page will be updated as PHAC receives confirmation of human swine influenza cases from provinces and territories.

 

Province

Confirmed cases of human swine influenza

 

Alberta 2

 

British Columbia 6

 

Nova Scotia 4

 

Ontario 7

 

Total 19

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