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  1. wiley

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Hammurabi referred to himself as a white king who knew of Shamash (Utu), son of the moon god Sin, and god of the Sun. Shamash was known for riding his sun chariot all day watching enforcing justice, and teaching morality and truth to mortals. Shamash established and guarded the cities of Sippara and Larsa. He then made the temple dedicated to him like Heaven. Shamash clothed the gravestones of his Malkat (Queen and consort) with green representing the resurrection of nature. With the help of Shamash, Hammurabi was able to restore and bring water to the ancient city of Uruk; raise the temple of E-Anna (Inanna, Istar), Queen of Heaven (twin sister of Shamash), perfectly depicted the beauty of the sky god Anu and the warrior and reproduction goddess Nana (Nanaya), who guard the kingdom of Babylon and reunited the people of the city of Isin. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Like the god Shamash bringing green life over death to Babylon, the Creator brought green life over death to Israel. Most Jewish scholars believe this to be prophecy of when Israel will rise to power over those that control it. Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 17 Hammurabi donated to money to the temple of E-gal-mach and protected the cities he controlled. He considered himself to be brother of the war god Zamama (Zababa, Ashtabi) protector of the city of Kish . Hammurabi glorified Zamama's temple E-me-te-ursag and established farms around the city of Kish. He also increased the treasury of the temple of the warrior god Nana (Nanaya) and the Temple Harsagkalama dedicated to the love and war goddess, Inanna, (Inana, Ishtar), daughter of the sky god Anu, and mother of the warrior goddess Nanaya Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 King Hammurabi used the a grave metaphor to define the destruction and subjection of his enemy. He increased the power of the city of Cuthah. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 According to the Tanakh, Cuthah was one of the five Syrian and Mesopotamian cities from which Sargon II, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites. These settlers would later be known as "Cuthim" in Hebrew and as "Samaritans" to the Greeks. The Assyrian King advisers marginalized God of the Israelites from the Creator of all mankind to just a regional God with power to kill unrespectful settlers. The Samaritans incorporated the Creator into their former pantheon of gods. 2 KINGS 17 In modern history, like the Cuthim, the Yoruba African slaves were coerced to accept the Catholic faith in Cuba. The masked their ancestral belief by syncretizing (combing) their Orisha (Orichás, orixá) spirits with the human form of Catholic saints. In the picture below King Hammurabi 'The Lawgiver' and 'Unifier of Babylonia' raises his right arm in worship. Detail of a votive monument. Limestone. Old Babylonian Period, reign of Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE. From Sippar, Iraq. The British Museum, London. In the book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches writes that inscription is dedicated for the saving of his life. In this he bears the title (incomplete) of “King of Amoria” (the Amorites), lugal Mar[tu], Semitic Babylonian sar mât Amurrî Theophilus Goldridge Pinches M.R.A.S. (1856 – 6 June 1934 Muswell Hill, London), was a pioneer British assyriologist and staff member of the Egyptian and Assyrian Department, British Museum, he gave assistance to scholars including Abraham Sachs and taught at London University. It was largely due to his "painstaking work" during his time as assistant keeper at the British Museum between 1895 and 1900, that many pieces acquired by the museum were joined together again. He also translated some Babylonian tablets which related to the Battle of the Vale of Siddim and was one of the editors of The Babylonian and Oriental Record from 1886. In 1890, Pinches discovered and published the correct reading of the name of Gilgamesh, instead of Izdubar. CUNEIFORM TEXTS FROM BABYLONIAN TABLETS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM PART 51 MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS EDITED BY C. B. F. WALKER Below is one plate that Pinches transcribed. Any scholar who attempted a translation between any two languages knows that it is never a straightforward matter of linguistic equivalence. In Pinches Plates 45 - 65 transcription and translation of Spartoli III, 2: Spartol; II, 987: Spartoli I, 58; and Spartoli II, 962. Spartoli III, 2 contains the names of Rudbula (Tidal), of Eri-aku's son, Durmah-ilani, and Kudur-lahmil (Chedorlaomer) we can see that there is no clear method of translation, but linguistic artifacts can be found that give us clues to understanding. The more linguistic artifacts in the data we find, the clearer the translation becomes. Jefferson would completely understand how even present translations can be changed to make the work more popular with foreign readers. Francois André Michaux to Thomas Jefferson, 10 August 1810 In translating the second Spartoli collection Theophilus Pinches identifies the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku, and Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal to be names Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer that are given in Genesis with Abraham. The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches pg 224 The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches pg 227 In Volume 7, The Doorway Papers, The Hidden Things of God's Revelation, Arthur C. Custance also point sout Umman-Mandu by using the controversial Spartoli tablets found in mutilated form by Pinches. In the book, Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Author Gerard Gertoux abstract expands on Custance and Pinches work Abram with 318 soldiers retaliated with a surprise night attack and recovered Lot and the possessions the victorious kings had taken. National Gallery of Art Antonio Tempesta Florentine, 1555 - 1630 Abraham makes the enemies flee who hold his nephew 161 Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 14 Many scholars believe during the time of King Hammurabi, Abraham, ‘father of the faithful Hebrews, Christians, and Muslims' is said to have migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran, the chief city and commercial capital of Mesopotamia, and then into Palestine. The Biblical World notes that some of the Mari tablets use words from the Amorite tribes that are also found in Abraham's story, such as his father's name, Terah, and his brothers' names, Nahor and Haran (also ironically the name for their destination). From these artifacts and others, some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamia around 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C. It is now the prevailing view among both Assyriologists and Old Testament scholars that King Hammurabi and King Amraphel of Shinar are the same person. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia a partial clue to transformation of the name Hammurabi into the Hebrew form Amraphel is furnished by the explanation of the name in a cuneiform letter as equivalent to Kimta-rapashtu (great people or family). On this basis "'am" = "Kimta" and "raphel" = "rapaltu" = "rapashtu." Shinar is a general synonym for the region of Babylonia (Mesopotamia). The Expository Times identifies King Arioch of Ellasar of Genesis with King Eri-Aku (Eri-E-kua, servant of the moon god E-kua, Aku [Sin]) of Larsa. It is known that Eri-aku, king of Larsa was conquered by King Hammurabi (Amraphel), and later became subject to him. The city of Ellasar (Sumerian name Ararwa, Arauruwa, now known as Senqara) was known as Larsa a city of ancient Babylonia (Chaldea). The city was at first governed by its own kings, but became a part of the Babylonian empire some time after the reign of Hammurabi. In the article, Light on Scriptural Texts From Recent Discoveries, author William Hayes Ward states that the translation from the Semitic Rim-Sin to Akkadian is Eri-Agu or Eri-Aku. The Mari letters throw light are the dealings of Hammurabi with with Rim-Sin of Larsa, in the early and middle periods of his reign. He was not always, as the letters reveal the two neighboring kingdoms co-existed for thirty years on excellent terms, and standing in alliance of mutual defense. https://www.scribd.com/document/248006684/Rama-of-Larsa-libre THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY THIRD EDITION VOLUME II PART 1 HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE AEGEAN REGION c. 1800-1380 B.C. EDITED BY I. E. S. EDWARDS F.B.A. Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum EVENTS OF HAMMURABI'S REIGN page 179 In 1880 Book, The Chaldean Account of Genesis, George Smith speculates that the Semetic Chedorlaomer is translated to Kudar Lagamar, meaning 'servant of a god of Elam. The Chaldean Account of Genesis George Smith
  2. wiley

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    From John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 8 December 1818 Πάν (Pan) the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs. From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 15 August 1820 https://books.google.com/books?id=tvhKDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT80&ots=Qxx8kFfKmp&dq=Deus reapse corporalis est%3B sed graviorum tantum corporum ratione. incorporeus&pg=PT80#v=onepage&q=Deus reapse corporalis est; sed graviorum tantum corporum ratione. incorporeus&f=false Jefferson uses the writings of Origen to support his argument that human soul, angels, God have a material existence. In his work De Principlis (Book 1) Chapter 1., Origen properly distinguishes our Creator from a shadow or image that has no lasting substance. He then correctly states the Creator is incomprehensible and cannot be measured. He considers the Spirit of God to be an intellectual existence and source of natural world. Origen further defines this Divine Intellect to be one species within itself; and without the properties of matter that would impede its movements and operations within the laws of Nature. Origen proposes a second argument, that the Creator consists of composite of all matter and is bound within the limits of a material body that exists in all of His Creation. As a naturalist, Jefferson accepts this reasoning that is our Creator is made up of a composition of all elements in His creation. Using Plato's logic that everything that becomes or changes must do so owing to some cause; for nothing can come to be without a cause. The traditional view has been that God is timeless in the sense of being outside time altogether; that is, he exists but does not exist at any point in time and he does not experience temporal succession. God alone has causal power Torah explains that before Creation there was only God and nothing else as is seen in the highest Name the letter "Yud". When it came time for Creation the want and will of God to Create a universe which meant expansion of the Holy Name the Holy Name Yud-Hey-Vav-Hey how this Creation came about by G-D's use of the 10 Sefirot would be too great a task to explain here but basically we find "And God said let there be..." The Creation made no change in the Creator God was, is and always will be but the Creation is available to those Created as an order always vivified by God since God must know the Creation in order to keep it as it is, yet allow for His change according to his will. The body sees a Creation while the soul sees only The Infinite One God. Having the gift from God, "the Freedom to choose" to serve God and always do God's Will here on earth makes us partners in creation. Being that God's Will was revealed to the People of Israel on Mount Sinai and spread to the world in the Torah we have Freedom to choose to do so. If a human does the opposite of God's Will it is in God's realm to alter the cosmic plan of Creation that He Himself devised, that He Himself wants but since nothing exists but God, including the universe and this "nothing" is not above the knowledge that "nothing is too hard for God" and "Our wisdom is not His Wisdom", it is a fundamental theme in Torah that we must do God's will yet we have Freedom to serve or not and if we go against God's will, it is still a lack on our part as partners with God here on earth but this itself is God's Will and will not upset the cosmic original plan. They regard God as a creative agent in the sense that his activity presupposes nothing outside of him, not even matter. everything that becomes or changes must do so owing to some cause; for nothing can come to be without a cause. — Plato in Timaeus Origen argues against a composite God, unless before the beginning there was a composition of elements. He then proposes an idea the God may not be invisible to himself. Like the Jefferson the Naturalist and Origen the Christian Philosopher, the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic communities believe that there is a Creator of the Universe. Their mistake is that they try to comprehend the Creator by likening Him to creatures. who is the Lord, and Power to the Truth of His Living Word and Breath of eternal life through His Grace of selfless Love. the breath of God which disperses His life-force, His energy and His intentions/mind. It is Yahweh's Spirit which is is omnipresent, but also can be directed in specific ways for specific purposes. It is not His actual Person (which remains incorporeal and outside of the physical dimension) that manifests itself in the world, or which comes to dwell in the hearts and lives of His people. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 1. On God. The ad 543 Synod of Constantinople was a local synod convened to condemn Origen and his views, which was accompanied by an edict of Justinian I in 543 or 544. It was then ratified by the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553. THE ANATHEMAS AGAINST ORIGEN (1) The Fifth Ecumenical Council The Second Council of Constantinople A.D. 553 Shemot - Exodus - Chapter 25 Shemot - Exodus - Chapter 40 Bamidbar - Numbers - Chapter 7 Iyov - Job - Chapter 33 Iyov - Job - Chapter 34 Iyov - Job - Chapter 35 Iyov - Job - Chapter 36 No one can understand how or why He deals with nature as He does God’s dwelling place in the spiritual realm of the heaven of heavens is filled with “unapproachable light” Iyov - Job - Chapter 36 The "silver cord" joins a person's physical body to its spirit body consciousness permanently withdraws from the physical body never to return again Ecclesiastes 12 The Bible describes that a Righteous Spirit (Saint, Child of God) is similar to an angel that eternal, indestructible, shines bright white like the sun. But God will give a righteous spirit the authority to judge nations. In the end, the Righteous Spirit will receive the truth and power of God. Isaiah (Yeshayahu) prophesied that a righteous servant with an outward marred appearance would be exalted by the Creator as his right hand man. The servant's abasement (shame and humiliation) is given by those who considered him struck down by God. These oppressors condemn God's servant to suffer and death. Without opposition, He received and accepted his persecutions as an intercession for the sins of many. In the end, the Righteous Servant was rewarded with fruit of peace and a spirit as bright as a star in the Heavens. And many people saved from sin and death. The Great Isaiah Scroll Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 2 Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 3 Daniel - Chapter 7 Daniel - Chapter 12 Wisdom 3 Matthew 13 Matthew 22 The phrase will overshadow is a reference to God’s glorious presence at work Luke 1 Luke 20 Metaphorically the daylight hours represented the Father’s will. Jesus was safe as long as He did the Father’s will. For the disciples, as long as they continued to follow Jesus, the Light of the World, they would not stumble. Walking in the night pictures behaving without divine illumination or authorization. Living in the realm of darkness (i.e., evil) is dangerous (cf. 1 John 1:6). John 11 Acts 9 Romans 8 1 Corinthians 15 1 Corinthians 15 The “man” of whom Paul spoke in the third person was himself (cf. vv. 7-9). He referred to himself this way probably out of reluctance to speak of this matter. Moreover he wanted to minimize the effect of boasting, which citing such a spectacular experience would have produced. Paul could not tell (did not know) whether God had transported him physically into the third heaven (cf. Acts 8:39; 1 Thess. 4:17) or whether his experience had been a vision (cf. Gen. 15:12-21; Ezek. 1:1). The third heaven probably represents the presence of God. It could be a technical description of God’s abode above the cloudy heavens overhead and beyond the farthest reaches of space that man can perceive. “Paradise” 2 Corinthians 12 2 Corinthians 4 1 Thessalonians 5 Hebrews 4 Seven Spirits of God (the seven principal angels of God?). That is, they communicate to Christ all that transpires. The Lamb is omniscient as well as omnipotent. Amesha Spenta is a Zoroastrian meaning 'furthering, strengthening, bounteous, holy'. 1. Vohu Manah -Middle Persian -'Good Mind' - Vahman or Bahman of cattle (and all animal creation) 2. Asha Vahista - Middle Persian - 'Supreme Truth - Ardwahisht of fire (and all other luminaries) 3. Kshathra Vairya - Middle Persian - 'Excellent Dominion' - Shahrevar of metals (and minerals) 4. Spenta Armaiti - Middle Persian - 'Benign Thought' - Spendarmad of earth 5. Haurvatat - Middle Persian - 'Perfection' - Hordad or Khordad of water 6. Ameretat - Middle Persian - 'Deathlessness' - Amurdad of plants 7. Ahura Mazda - Middle Persian - the guardian of humankind Chakras Chakras, otherwise knows as the energy centers of the human body, have the function of grounding spiritual energies into the physical plane. There are seven chakras altogether, and these are: The Root Chakra –is our connection to the earth and the physical plane and a symbol of our basic survival needs (location: base of the spine) The Second Chakra –is representative of our creative and procreative urges and drives, including sexuality (location: the genitals) The Third Chakra –is the energy center for power and manifestation (location: solar plexus) The Fourth Chakra – is the energy center for love, both human and divine (location: heart) The Fifth Chakra – is the center for expression and communication (location: throat) The Sixth Chakra – is the center for our psychic powers (location: third eye just above and between the eyebrows) The Crown Chakra – otherwise known as he 1,000 petaled lotus flower is our connection with the Cosmic or the divine (location: top of the head) In the New Testament, the Greek term "Dynamis" (translated by some as "Virtues") suggests a class of exalted spiritual beings; perhaps parallel to the "chief Princes" (Sar rishown) in the Old Testament, of which the Archangel Michael is stated to be one (Daniel 10:13) Seven Virtues Faith is belief in the right things (including the virtues!). Hope is taking a positive future view, that good will prevail. Charity is concern for, and active helping of, others. Fortitude is never giving up. Justice is being fair and equitable with others. Prudence is care of and moderation with money. Temperance is moderation of needed things and abstinence from things which are not needed. In physics, there is absolute frame of reference when it comes to light or any object moving in space. And simultaneous observations of light or any object to not have identical viewpoints. Only light has a constant speed. Other objects speed is variable. 1 Timothy 6 Revelation 1 Revelation 2 1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: Revelation 3 Revelation 4 Revelation 5 Revelation 7 Revelation 1 Revelation 1 Revelation 21 To the people of many ancient civilizations, the planets were thought to be deities He has used his observations of their movements to shape his beliefs in his gods, whose stability and everlasting power were manifested in the stars and planets. Thus, �The sky was a text from which one could get information if one were skilled at asking the right questions� (2). unclothed-eye astronomical observations and calculations by ancient civilizations were used to develop their religious practices and integrate them into everyday life. This was seen in the gods that they worshipped, the structure of their places of worship, how they buried their dead, when they celebrated religious festivals, in telling what the future held, and how the reigns of their rulers were justified. the Catholic Church supported the Big Bang theory even before most cosmologists did. This "day without yesterday" was seen as being consistent with the creation ex nihilo (out of nothing) as described in the Book of Genesis. "[Galileo] was convinced that God has given us two books, the book of Sacred Scripture and the book of Nature. And the language of Nature -- this was his conviction -- was mathematics, so it is the language of God, a language of the Creator. The surprising thing is that this invention of our human intellect is truly key to understanding Nature, that Nature is truly structured in a mathematical way, and that our mathematics, invented by our human mind, is truly the instrument for working with Nature, to put it at our service, to use it through technology." Greek astronomers employed the term asteres planetai (ἀστέρες πλανῆται), "wandering stars",to describe those star like lights in the heavens that moved over the course of the year, in contrast to the asteres aplaneis (ἀστέρες ἀπλανεῖς), the "fixed stars", which stayed motionless relative to one another. The five bodies currently called "planets" that were known to the Greeks were those visible to the unclothed eye: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. An Incorporeal existence is without a physical body, presence or form that can readily observed or measured. In science there exists and incorporeal substance known as dark matter and an incorporeal force known as dark energy causing our visible universe to spread out. Right now mankind is creating an artificial super intelligence in hopes of re-engineering our known universe and answering our most profound question of why do we exist. Many creatures in nature use chemical pheromones to communicate. One cell bacteria communicates energy sources with other bacteria. the soul as emphatically more definitive than the scientific concept. It's considered the incorporeal essence of a person, and is said to be immortal and transcendent of material existence. the idea of a self that is founded on the soul and extends beyond the physical and could survive after the body dies. A soul has no extension. It is an 'immaterial particular', to use an old-fashioned philosophical term. It does, of course, have characteristics, properties. It has thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and so on. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 7. On Incorporeal and Corporeal Beings Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 27 Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 4 Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 5 Psalms 33 1 Kings 22 2 Kings 21 Job 1 Isaiah 24 The Great Isaiah Scroll Chapter 45 : The Queen of Heaven is probably a reference to the goddess known as Ishtar in Mesopotamia, Anat in Canaan, and Ashtoreth in Israel. She was the goddess of love and fertility. Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 7 Storm Dove Anger Love Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 23 Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 31 Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 44 "prince of Persia" is the "guardian spirit of the kingdom." George Otis says that Daniel 10 is "a well-defined case of an evil spiritual being ruling over an area with explicitly defined boundaries Asmodeus is a powerful demon or fallen angel. His name means “Creature of Judgment”. Asmodeus is more present in Persian and Arabic lore, than Jewish or Christian. Daniel 10 Sikkuth, your king,” probably refers to Sakkut, the Assyrian war god also known as Adar. “Kiyyun, your images,” probably refers to the Assyrian astral deity also known as Kaiwan or Saturn. Amos evidently ridiculed these gods by substituting the vowels of the Hebrew word for “abomination,” (shiqqus) in their names.[85] “The star of your gods [or god]” probably refers to the planet Saturn that represented Kiyyun. Israel had turned from the Creator to idolatry, and her high priest had helped her do so. Amos - Chapter 5 Tobit 3 Tobit 6 In both of these contexts, the heavenly hosts are God’s holy angels who dwell in God’s presence. Basically, the word host refers to a great number of individuals or to an army. Modified by the word heavenly, hosts becomes a great number of angelic beings forming a celestial army under God’s command. There is a suggestion of rank and orderliness, of companies and divisions within that heavenly army. The heavenly hosts were created by God and are controlled by God. Zephaniah 1 Acts 7 Acts 17 Ephesians 2 Colossians 1 Philippians 2 The Acts of Paul From "The Apocryphal New Testament" M.R. James-Translation and Notes Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924 Chapter 2 The Acts of Paul Chapter 5 The Acts of Paul III Origen De Principiis (Book II) Chapter 1. On the World Matthew 5 The Shepard of Hermas The First Book of HERMAS VISION I. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 33 Origen De Principiis (Book II) Chapter 2. On the Perpetuity of Bodily Nature https://archive.org/details/sevenecumenicalc00perc/page/318 In post-Resurrection, Anathema (excommunication) was a Christian and Jewish sanction of God's displeasure with a person(s) because of their heresy of false teaching with established beliefs of the faithful. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him. Their were 15 teachings that the council fathers found heretical in Origen's discourse. THE ANATHEMAS AGAINST ORIGEN (1) The Fifth Ecumenical Council The Second Council of Constantinople A.D. 553 I II III IV If anyone shall say that the reasonable creatures in whom the divine love had grown cold have been hidden in gross bodies such as ours, and have been called men, while those who have attained the lowest degree of wickedness have shared cold and obscure bodies and are become and called demons and evil spirits: let him be anathema. V VI If anyone shall say that there is a twofold race of demons, of which the one includes the souls of men and the other the superior spirits who fell to this, and that of all the number of reasonable beings there is but one which has remained unshaken in the love and contemplation of God, and that that spirit is become Christ and the king of all reasonable beings, and that he has created all the bodies which exist in heaven, on earth, and between heaven and earth; and that the world which has in itself elements more ancient than itself, and which exist by themselves, viz: dryness, damp, heat and cold, and the image to which it was formed, was so formed, and that the most holy and consubstantial Trinity did not create the world, but that it was created by the working intelligence which is more ancient than the world, and which communicates to it its being: let him be anathema. VII Philippians 2 VIII If anyone shall not acknowledge that God the Word, of the same substance with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and who was made flesh and became man, one of the Trinity, is Christ in every sense of the word, but [shall affirm] that he is so only in an inaccurate manner, and because of the abasement, as they call it, of the intelligence; if anyone shall affirm that this intelligence united to God the Word, is the Christ in the true sense of the word, while the Logos is only called Christ because of this union with the intelligence, and e converso that the intelligence is only called God because of the Logos: let him be anathema. IX If anyone shall say that it was not the Divine Logos made man by taking an animated body with a rational spirit (anima rationalis) and VOEPA, that he descended into hell and ascended into heaven, but shall pretend that it is the NOUS which has done this, that NOUS of which they say (in an impious fashion) he is Christ, properly called, and that he is become so by knowledge of the Monad: let him be anathema. X If anyone shall say that after the resurrection the body of the Lord was ethereal, having the form of a sphere, and that such shall be the bodies of all after the resurrection; and that after the Lord himself shall have rejected his true body and after the others who rise shall have rejected theirs, the nature of their bodies shall be annihilated: let him be anathema. XI If anyone shall say that the future judgment signifies the destruction of the body and that the end of the story will be an immaterial [false appearance?] and that thereafter there will no longer be any matter, but only spirit: let him be anathema. XII If anyone shall say that the heavenly Powers and all men and the Devil and evil spirits are united with the Word of God in all respects, as the NOUS which is by them called Christ and which is in the form of God, and which humbled itself as they say; and [if anyone shall say] that the kingdom of Christ shall have an end: let him be anathema. XIII If anyone shall say that Christ [i.e., the NOUS] is in no wise different from other reasonable beings, neither substantially nor by wisdom nor by his power and might over all things but that all will be placed at the right hand of God, as well as he that is called by them Christ [the NOUS], as also they were in the feigned pre-existence of all things: let him be anathema. XIV If anyone shall say that all reasonable beings will one day be united in one, when the hypostases as well as the numbers and the bodies shall have disappeared, and that the knowledge of the world to come will carry with it the ruin of worlds, and the rejection of bodies as also the abolition of [all] names, and that there shall be finally an identity ... of the hypostasis; moreover, that in this pretended apocatastasis, spirits only will continue to exist, as it was in the feigned pre-existence; let him be anathema. XV If anyone shall say that the life of the spirits shall be like to the life which was in the beginning while as yet the spirits had not come down or fallen, so that the end and the beginning shall be alike, and that the end shall be the true measure of the beginning; let him be anathema.
  3. The 176th Article Of the use of fearfulness. As for fearfulness or affright, I see not how it can ever be laudable, or useful. Neither is it one particular passion, but only an excess of cowardice, astonishment, and fear, which is always vicious as boldness is an excel of courage, ever good, provided the end proposed be good. And because the chief cause of fearfulness is surprise, there is no better way to be rid of it than to use premeditation, and prepare oneself against all events, the fear whereof may cause them. The 177th Article Of remorse. Remorse of conscience is a sort of sadness, which comes from the scruple a man has, that a thing he has done, or has not done, is not good. And it necessarily presupposes doubt. For if he had been absolutely assured that what he did had been evil, he had refrained from doing it; since the will inclines us not to any things but such as have an appearance of goodness. And if he were assured that what he has already done were evil it would breed repentance, and not only remorse. Now, the use of this passion is to make him examine whether the thing he doubts of be good or not, and to hinder him from doing it another time, if he be not assured that it is good. But because it presupposes an evil, the best way were never to be subject to feel it; and it may be prevented the same way, as a man may be exempted of irresolution. The 178th Article Of derision. Derision is a sort of joy mingled with hatred which proceeds from this, that a man perceives some little evil in a person, whereof he thinks him worthy. He hates this evil, and rejoices to see it in one that is worthy of it. And when this comes unexpectedly, the surprise of admiration causes him to break out into laughter, according to what has formerly been said of the nature of laughter. But this evil must be a small one: for if it be great, it cannot be thought that he who has it is worthy of it, unless one be of a very ill nature, or bear him a great deal of hatred. contemptuous ridicule or mockery Job 3:20 “Why does God give light to one who is in misery, and life to those whose soul is bitter, 3:21 to those who wait for death that does not come, and search for it more than for hidden treasures, 3:22 who rejoice even to jubilation, and are exultant when they find the grave? 3:23 Why is light given to a man whose way is hidden, and whom God has hedged in? 3:24 For my sighing comes in place of my food, and my groanings flow forth like water. 3:25 For the very thing I dreaded has happened to me, and what I feared has come upon me. 3:26 I have no ease, I have no quietness; I cannot rest; turmoil has come upon me.” Job 4 4:12 “Now a word was secretly 39 brought 40 to me, and my ear caught 41 a whisper 42 of it. 4:13 In the troubling thoughts 43 of the dreams 44 in the night when a deep sleep 45 falls on men, 4:14 a trembling 46 gripped me – and a terror! – and made all my bones shake. 47 4:15 Then a breath of air 48 passes 49 by my face; it makes 50 the hair of my flesh stand up. 4:16 It stands still, 51 but I cannot recognize 52 its appearance; an image is before my eyes, and I hear a murmuring voice: 53 4:17 “Is 54 a mortal man 55 righteous 56 before 57 God? Or a man pure 58 before his Creator? 59 4:18 If 60 God 61 puts no trust in 62 his servants 63 and attributes 64 folly 65 to his angels, 4:19 how much more to those who live in houses of clay, 66 whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed 67 like 68 a moth? 4:20 They are destroyed 69 between morning and evening; 70 they perish forever 71 without anyone regarding it. 72 4:21 Is not their excess wealth 73 taken away from them? 74 They die, 75 yet without attaining wisdom. 76 5:1 “Call now! 1 Is there anyone who will answer you? 2 To which of the holy ones 3 will you turn? 4 5:2 For 5 wrath kills the foolish person, 6 and anger 7 slays the silly one. 5:3 I myself 8 have seen the fool 9 taking root, but suddenly I cursed his place of residence. 10 5:4 His children are far 11 from safety, and they are crushed 12 at the place where judgment is rendered, 13 nor is there anyone to deliver them. 14 5:5 The hungry 15 eat up his harvest, 16 and take it even from behind the thorns, 17 and the thirsty 18 swallow up 19 their fortune. 20 5:6 For evil does not come up from the dust, 21 nor does trouble spring up from the ground, 5:7 but people 22 are born 23 to trouble, as surely as the sparks 24 fly 25 upward. 5:8 “But 28 as for me, 29 I would seek 30 God, 31 and to God 32 I would set forth my case. 33 5:9 He does 34 great and unsearchable 35 things, marvelous things without 36 number; 37 5:10 he gives 38 rain on the earth, 39 and sends 40 water on the fields; 41 5:11 he sets 42 the lowly 43 on high, that those who mourn 44 are raised 45 to safety. 5:12 He frustrates 46 the plans 47 of the crafty 48 so that 49 their hands cannot accomplish what they had planned! 50 5:13 He catches 51 the wise in their own craftiness, 52 and the counsel of the cunning 53 is brought to a quick end. 54 5:14 They meet with darkness in the daytime, 55 and grope about 56 in the noontime as if it were night. 57 5:15 So he saves 58 from the sword that comes from their mouth, 59 even 60 the poor from the hand of the powerful. 5:16 Thus the poor have hope, and iniquity 61 shuts its mouth. 62 5:17 “Therefore, 63 blessed 64 is the man whom God corrects, 65 so do not despise the discipline 66 of the Almighty. 67 5:18 For 68 he 69 wounds, 70 but he also bandages; he strikes, but his hands also heal. 5:19 He will deliver you 71 from six calamities; yes, in seven 72 no evil will touch you. 2 Timothy 1 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control.
  4. The 173rd Article How boldness depends on hope. For it is to be noted that although the object of boldness be difficulty, from whence commonly ensues fear, or even despair, so that it is in most dangerous and desperate affairs that most boldness and courage is required. Nevertheless there must be some hope, or else a man must be assured that the end he propounds to himself shall succeed to oppose himself vigorously against the difficulties he shall encounter. But this end is different from this object, for he cannot be assured and despairing of the same thing at the same time. So when the Decii flung themselves in the midst of their enemies, and ran upon a certain death, the object of their boldness was the difficulty of keeping their lives in this action, of which difficulty they utterly despaired, for they were sure to die. But their end was to animate their soldiers by their example, and make them win the victory, of which they had hope, or else their end was to get fame after their death, whereof they were assured. The 174th Article Of cowardice and fearfulness. Cowardice is directly opposite to courage, and is a languishing or coldness, which hinders the soul from addicting herself to the execution of things which she would do if she were exempted from this passion. And fearfulness or affright, the contrary to boldness, is not only a coldness, but a distraction and astonishment of the soul that robs her of the power to resist evils which she thinks are near her. The 175th Article Of the use of cowardice. Now, although I cannot be persuaded that nature has bestowed on man any passion that is always vicious, and has not some good and laudable use; yet I am very much puzzled to divine what these two are good for. Only, me thinks, cowardice is of some use when it causes a man to be free from pains he might be incited to take, for reasons like truths, if other more certain truths which make them be judged unprofitable, had not invited this passion in him. For besides her exemption of the soul from these pains, it is then also very useful to the body, for that retarding the motion of the spirits, it hinders the forces thereof from being dissipated. But is commonly very hurtful, because it diverts the will from profitable actions. And because it proceeds from hence, that a man has not hope, or desire enough to correct it, he need only augment these two passions in himself. Job 6 6:14 “To the one in despair, kindness should come from his friend even if he forsakes the fear of the Almighty. Job 15 15:20 All his days the wicked man suffers torment, throughout the number of the years that are stored up for the tyrant. 15:21 Terrifying sounds fill his ears; in a time of peace marauders attack him. 15:22 He does not expect to escape from darkness; he is marked for the sword; 15:23 he wanders about – food for vultures; he knows that the day of darkness is at hand. 15:24 Distress and anguish terrify him; they prevail against him like a king ready to launch an attack, 15:25 for he stretches out his hand against God, and vaunts himself against the Almighty, 15:26 defiantly charging against Him with a thick, strong shield! 15:27 Because he covered his face with fat, and made his hips bulge with fat, 15:28 he lived in ruined towns and in houses where no one lives, where they are ready to crumble into heaps. 15:29 He will not grow rich, and his wealth will not endure, nor will his possessions spread over the land. 15:30 He will not escape the darkness; a flame will wither his shoots and he will depart by the breath of God’s mouth. Psalms 82 82:6 I thought, ‘You are gods; all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 82:7 Yet you will die like mortals; you will fall like all the other rulers.” Isaiah 14:12 Look how you have fallen from the sky, O shining one, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the ground, O conqueror of the nations! 14:13 You said to yourself, “I will climb up to the sky. Above the stars of El I will set up my throne. I will rule on the mountain of assembly on the remote slopes of Zaphon. 14:14 I will climb up to the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High!” 14:15 But you were brought down to Sheol, to the remote slopes of the pit. 14:16 Those who see you stare at you, they look at you carefully, thinking: “Is this the man who shook the earth, the one who made kingdoms tremble? 14:17 Is this the one who made the world like a desert, who ruined its cities, and refused to free his prisoners so they could return home?”’ 4:18 As for all the kings of the nations, all of them lie down in splendor, each in his own tomb. 14:19 But you have been thrown out of your grave like a shoot that is thrown away. You lie among the slain, among those who have been slashed by the sword, among those headed for the stones of the pit, as if you were a mangled corpse. 14:20 You will not be buried with them, because you destroyed your land and killed your people. The offspring of the wicked will never be mentioned again. Jeremiah 17 17:5 The Lord says, “I will put a curse on people who trust in mere human beings, who depend on mere flesh and blood for their strength, and whose hearts have turned away from the Lord. 17:6 They will be like a shrub in the desert. They will not experience good things even when they happen. It will be as though they were growing in the desert, in a salt land where no one can live. 17:7 My blessing is on those people who trust in me, who put their confidence in me. 17:8 They will be like a tree planted near a stream whose roots spread out toward the water. It has nothing to fear when the heat comes. Its leaves are always green. It has no need to be concerned in a year of drought. It does not stop bearing fruit. 17:9 The human mind is more deceitful than anything else. It is incurably bad. Who can understand it? 17:10 I, the Lord, probe into people’s minds. I examine people’s hearts. I deal with each person according to how he has behaved. I give them what they deserve based on what they have done. 17:11 The person who gathers wealth by unjust means is like the partridge that broods over eggs but does not hatch them. Before his life is half over he will lose his ill-gotten gains. At the end of his life it will be clear he was a fool.” 2 Timothy 1 1:6 Because of this I remind you to rekindle God’s gift that you possess through the laying on of my hands. 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control. 1:8 So do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord or of me, a prisoner for his sake, but by God’s power accept your share of suffering for the gospel. 1:9 He is the one who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not based on our works but on his own purpose and grace, granted to us in Christ Jesus before time began, 1:10 but now made visible through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus. He has broken the power of death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel! 1:11 For this gospel I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher. 19 1:12 Because of this, in fact, I suffer as I do. But I am not ashamed, because I know the one in whom my faith is set and I am convinced that he is able to protect what has been entrusted to me until that day. 1:13 Hold to the standard of sound words that you heard from me and do so with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 25 1:14 Protect that good thing entrusted to you, through the Holy Spirit who lives within us. Hebrews 10 10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for the Son of God, and profanes the blood of the covenant that made him holy, and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
  5. Human I will Pray for you.
  6. The 170th Article Of irresolution. Irresolution also is a sort of fear, which causing the soul to waver between several actions that she may do is the cause she cannot execute any, and thereby she has time to choose before she determines on them. Whereof, truly, some good use may be made but when it lasts longer than it ought, and it takes up that time to debate which is required to act, it is very evil. Now, I say it is a sort of fear, though it may so fall out, when a man has choice of many things whose goodness is equally apparent, that he may be at a stand and irresolute, and yet not be afraid. For this sort of irresolution comes only from the subject presented, and not from any emotion of the spirits. Wherefore it is not a passion, unless the fear of failing in his choice increase the uncertainty. But this fear is so usual, and so strong in some, that oftentimes although they have not any choice, and though they see only one thing to take or leave, yet it seizes on them and causes them unprofitably to stop there and search after others. And then it is any excess of irresolution, which proceeds from too great a desire to do well, and an imbecility in the understanding, which having no clear and distinct notions, has only a great company of confused ones. Wherefore the remedy against this excess is to accustom a man's self to frame certain and determinate judgments concerning all things that present themselves, and conceive he does always do his duty when he does what he conceives to be best, though it may be he conceive amiss. The 171st Article Of courage and boldness. Courage, when it is a passion and not a habit or natural inclination, is a certain heat or agitation which disposes the soul to addict her powerfully to the execution of the things she will do, of what nature so ever they be. And boldness is a sort of courage that disposes the soul to the execution of things most dangerous. The 172nd Article Of emulation. And emulation also is a sort of it, but in another sense, for courage may be considered as a kind (or genus) that is divided into as may sorts (or species) as there are several objects, and as many more as it has causes. In the first sense boldness is a sort, in the other emulation; and this last is nothing else but a heat, which disposes the soul to undertake things that she hopes may succeed with her, because she sees them succeed with others. And so it is a sort of courage whose external cause is example. I say the external cause because it ought ever (besides that) to have an internal one which consists in this: that the body is so disposed, as desire and hope are stronger to drive abundance of blood to the heart than fear or despair to hinder it. DEUTERONOMY Chapter 18 15 A prophet like me* will the LORD, your God, raise up for you from among your own kindred; that is the one to whom you shall listen. 16 This is exactly what you requested of the LORD, your God, at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when you said, “Let me not again hear the voice of the LORD, my God, nor see this great fire any more, or I will die.” 17 And the LORD said to me, What they have said is good. 18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kindred, and will put my words into the mouth of the prophet; the prophet shall tell them all that I command. 19 Anyone who will not listen to my words which the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will hold accountable for it. 20 But if a prophet presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded, or speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die. Psalm 38 38:7 ...I am overcome with shame and my whole body is sick. 38:8 I am numb with pain and severely battered; I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel. 38:9 O Lord, you understand my heart’s desire; my groaning is not hidden from you. 38:10 My heart beats quickly; my strength leaves me; I can hardly see. 38:11 Because of my condition, even my friends and acquaintances keep their distance; my neighbors stand far away. 38:12 Those who seek my life try to entrap me; those who want to harm me speak destructive words; all day long they say deceitful things. 38:13 But I am like a deaf man – I hear nothing; I am like a mute who cannot speak. 38:14 I am like a man who cannot hear and is incapable of arguing his defense. 38:15 Yet I wait for you, O Lord! You will respond, O Lord, my God! 38:16 I have prayed for deliverance, because otherwise they will gloat over me; when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me. 38:17 For I am about to stumble, and I am in constant pain. 38:18 Yes, I confess my wrongdoing, and I am concerned about my sins. 38:19 But those who are my enemies for no reason are numerous; those who hate me without cause outnumber me. 38:20 They repay me evil for the good I have done; though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me. 38:21 Do not abandon me, O Lord! My God, do not remain far away from me! 38:22 Hurry and help me, O Lord, my deliverer! Proverbs 3 3:31 Do not envy a violent man, and do not choose to imitate any of his ways; 3:32 for one who goes astray is an abomination to the Lord, but he reveals his intimate counsel to the upright. Proverbs 12 12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down, but an encouraging word brings him joy. Isaiah 32 32:6 ...a fool speaks disgraceful things; his mind plans out sinful deeds. He commits godless deeds and says misleading things about the Lord; he gives the hungry nothing to satisfy their appetite and gives the thirsty nothing to drink. 32:7 A deceiver’s methods are evil; he dreams up evil plans to ruin the poor with lies, even when the needy are in the right. 32:8 An honorable man makes honorable plans; his honorable character gives him security. Micah 3 3:8 But I 21 am full of the courage that the Lord’s Spirit gives, and have a strong commitment to justice. 22 This enables me to confront Jacob with its rebellion, and Israel with its sin. 23 Matthew 10 10:16 “I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. 10:17 Beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils and flog you in their synagogues. 35 10:18 And you will be brought before governors and kings because of me, as a witness to them and the Gentiles. 10:19 Whenever they hand you over for trial, do not worry about how to speak or what to say, for what you should say will be given to you at that time. 10:20 For it is not you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 10:21 “Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against parents and have them put to death. 10:22 And you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 10:23 Whenever they persecute you in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through all the towns Israel before the Son of Man comes. 10:24 “A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave greater than his master. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much more will they defame the members of his household! 10:26 “Do not be afraid of them, for nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 10:27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the housetops. 51 10:28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Instead, fear the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. Mark 1 1:21 ...When the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 1:22 The people there were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, not like the experts in the law. 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1:24 “Leave us alone, Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are the Holy One of God!” 1:25 But Jesus rebuked him: “Silence! Come out of him!” 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee. Luke 12 1 ...so many people were crowding together that they were trampling one another underfoot.a He began to speak, first to his disciples, “Beware of the leaven—that is, the hypocrisy—of the Pharisees. 2 “There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 3 Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered behind closed doors will be proclaimed on the housetops. 4 I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body but after that can do no more. 5 I shall show you whom to fear. Be afraid of the one who after killing has the power to cast into Gehenna;* yes, I tell you, be afraid of that one. Acts 9 9:26 When he arrived in Jerusalem, 59 he attempted to associate 60 with the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe 61 that he was a disciple. 9:27 But Barnabas took 62 Saul, 63 brought 64 him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, that 65 the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out boldly 66 in the name of Jesus. 9:28 So he was staying with them, associating openly with them 67 in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord. 1 CORINTHIANS 7 32 I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord. 33 But a married man is anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife, 34 and he is divided. An unmarried woman or a virgin is anxious about the things of the Lord, so that she may be holy in both body and spirit. A married woman, on the other hand, is anxious about the things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35 I am telling you this for your own benefit, not to impose a restraint upon you, but for the sake of propriety and adherence to the Lord without distraction. 1 Corinthians 13 13:8 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 13:10 but when what is perfect comes, the partial will be set aside. 13:11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But when I became an adult, I set aside childish ways. 13:12 For now we see in a mirror indirectly, but then we will see face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I have been fully known. 13:13 And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love. Galations 5 5:19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: 33 sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 34 hostilities, strife, 36 jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 37 factions, 5:21 envying, 38 murder, 39 drunkenness, carousing, 40 and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God! 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 41 is love, 42 joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 43 5:23 gentleness, and 44 self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45 have crucified the flesh 46 with its passions 47 and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48 the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49 provoking 50 one another, being jealous 51 of one another. Ephesians 5 5:1 Therefore, be 1 imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live 2 in love, just as Christ also loved us 3 and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering 4 to God. 5:3 But 5 among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, 6 or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7 5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: 8 that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God. Hebrews 6 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 11 but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.
  7. The 165th Article Of hope and fear. Hope is a disposition of the soul to persuade her that what she desires shall come to pass, which is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, to wit, by those of joy and desire mixed together. And fear is another disposition of the soul which persuades her that it shall not come to pass. And it is to be noted that though these two passions be contrary to one another, yet a man may have them both together, to wit, when he fancies to himself several reasons whereof some make him conceive the accomplishment of his desire is easy, the other make it seem difficult. The 166th Article Of security and despair. And one of these passions never accompanies desire, but it leaves room for the other. For when hope is so strong that it utterly expels fear, it alters the nature thereof and is called security. And when a man is sure that what he desires shall come to pass, though he still wishes that it would come, yet he nevertheless ceases to be agitated with the passion of desire which made him seek after the event with anxiety. In like manner when fear is so extreme that it takes away all kind of hope, it converts into despair; and this despair fancying the thing impossible, clearly extinguishes desire, which only is bent on things possible. The 167th Article Of jealousy. Jealousy is a sort of fear relating to the desire a man has to keep the possession of some good; and it proceeds not so much from strength of reason, which makes him conjecture he may lose it, as the great value he sets on it, which causes him to dive into the least occasions of suspicion and take them for very considerable arguments. PROVERBS 10 10:19 When words abound, transgression is inevitable, 71 but the one who restrains 72 his words 73 is wise. 10:20 What the righteous say 74 is like 75 the best 76 silver, but what the wicked think 77 is of little value. 78 10:21 The teaching 79 of the righteous feeds 80 many, but fools die 81 for lack of wisdom. 82 10:22 The blessing 83 from the Lord 84 makes a person rich, 85 and he adds no sorrow 86 to 87 it. 10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme 88 is enjoyable 89 to a fool, and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment. 90 10:24 What the wicked fears 91 will come on him; what the righteous desire 92 will be granted. 93 10:25 When the storm 94 passes through, the wicked are swept away, 95 but the righteous are an everlasting foundation. 96 10:26 Like vinegar to the teeth and like smoke to the eyes, 97 so is the sluggard to those 98 who send him. 10:27 Fearing the Lord 99 prolongs life, 100 but the life span 101 of the wicked will be shortened. 102 10:28 The hope 103 of the righteous is joy, but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled. 104 PROVERBS 27 27:4 Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming, 9 but who can stand before jealousy? LUKE 12 12:4 “I 12 tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 13 and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 14 you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 15 has authority to throw you 16 into hell. 17 Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 18 Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 19 you are more valuable than many sparrows. 12:8 “I 20 tell you, whoever acknowledges 21 me before men, 22 the Son of Man will also acknowledge 23 before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 24 will not be forgiven. 25 12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 26 the 27 rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 28 or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 29 what you must say.” 30 ROMANS 11 11:17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among them and participated in 13 the richness of the olive root, 11:18 do not boast over the branches. But if you boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you. 11:19 Then you will say, “The branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 11:20 Granted! 14 They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but fear! 11:21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare you. 11:22 Notice therefore the kindness and harshness of God – harshness toward those who have fallen, but 15 God’s kindness toward you, provided you continue in his kindness; 16 otherwise you also will be cut off. 11:23 And even they – if they do not continue in their unbelief – will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11:24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree? 11:25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, 17 so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel 18 until the full number 19 of the Gentiles has come in. 11:26 And so 20 all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. 11:27 And this is my covenant with them, 21 when I take away their sins.” 22 Romans 15 15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you believe in him, 11 so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit. 1 John 4 4:15 If anyone 37 confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God resides 38 in him and he in God. 4:16 And we have come to know and to believe 39 the love that God has in us. 40 God is love, and the one who resides 41 in love resides in God, and God resides in him. 4:17 By this 42 love is perfected with 43 us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment, because just as Jesus 44 is, so also are we in this world. 4:18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love drives out fear, because fear has to do with punishment. 45 The 46 one who fears punishment 47 has not been perfected in love. 4:19 We love 48 because he loved us first.
  8. The 162nd Article Of veneration. Veneration, or respect, is an inclination of the soul not only to esteem the object it reverences, but also to submit to it with some kind of fear, to endeavor to make it become gracious to her. So that we bear only a veneration to free causes, which we conceive able to do good or evil to us, without knowing which of the two they will do. For we bear love and devotion rather than mere veneration to those from whom we only expect good, and we bear hatred to none but such as we only expect evil from. And if we conceive the cause of the good or evil not to be free, we do not submit ourselves thereunto to get the goodwill of it. So when the Pagans bore a veneration to woods, springs, mountains, they did not properly reverence these inanimate things, but the divinities which they thought presided over them. And the motion of the spirits that excite this passion is compounded of that which excites admiration and that which excites fear, whereof I will speak hereafter. The 163rd Article Of Disdain. Just so, that which I call disdain is an inclination of the soul to condemn a free cause by judging that though of its own nature it be able to do either good or evil, yet it is so far beneath us that it can do us neither; and the motion of the spirits that excite it is compounded of those that excite admiration and security or boldness. Deification - The act of deifying; exaltation to divine honors; apotheosis; excessive praise. The 164th Article Of the use of these two passions. And it is either generosity or deification and weakness of spirit that determine the good or ill use of the two passions. For by how much a man's soul is more noble or generous, so much the more inclination he has to give every one his own. And so [he] has not only an extraordinary humility towards God, but without reluctance bestows all the honor and respect which are due to men, to each according to the rank and authority he holds in the world, and condemns nothing but vice. On the contrary, they who are of a mean and weak spirit are apt to sin in excess, sometimes by reverencing and fearing things only worthy of contempt, sometimes by insolently disdaining such as deserve to be reverenced. And they often slip suddenly from extreme in piety to superstition, thence again from superstition to impiety, so that there is no vice nor irregularity of spirit which they are not subject to. PROVERBS 18 18:14 A person’s spirit 47 sustains him through sickness – but who can bear 48 a crushed spirit? 49 18:15 The discerning person 50 acquires knowledge, and the wise person 51 seeks 52 knowledge. MALACHI 3 3:16 Then those who respected 28 the Lord spoke to one another, and the Lord took notice. 29 A scroll 30 was prepared before him in which were recorded the names of those who respected the Lord and honored his name. 3:17 “They will belong to me,” says the Lord who rules over all, “in the day when I prepare my own special property. 31 I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him. 3:18 Then once more you will see that I make a distinction between 32 the righteous and the wicked, between the one who serves God and the one who does not. EPHESIANS 5 5:15 Therefore be very careful how you live – not as unwise but as wise, 5:16 taking advantage of every opportunity, because the days are evil. 5:17 For this reason do not be foolish, but be wise 22 by understanding 23 what the Lord’s will is. 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, which 24 is debauchery, 25 but be filled by the Spirit, 26 5:19 speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music 27 in 28 your hearts to the Lord, 5:20 always giving thanks to God the Father for each other 29 in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5:21 and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ. 1 PETER 2 2:13 Be subject to every human institution 34 for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 2:14 or to governors as those he commissions 35 to punish wrongdoers and praise 36 those who do good. 2:15 For God wants you 37 to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 2:16 Live 38 as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves. 39 2:17 Honor all people, love the family of believers, 40 fear God, honor the king. 2:18 Slaves, 41 be subject 42 to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 2:19 For this finds God’s favor, 43 if because of conscience toward God 44 someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 2:20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God. 45 2:21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 2:22 He 46 committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. 47 2:23 When he was maligned, he 48 did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened 49 no retaliation, 50 but committed himself to God 51 who judges justly. 2:24 He 52 himself bore our sins 53 in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning 54 and live for righteousness. By his 55 wounds 56 you were healed. 57 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep 58 but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
  9. https://selfdefinition.org/magic/Paracelsus-Essential-Theoretical-Writings.pdf Dejection - A state of melancholy or depression; low spirits, the blues. The 159th Article Of dejection. For dejection, or vicious humility it consists chiefly in this: that a man perceives himself weak, or little resolute, and, as if he had not the absolute use of his free disposition, he cannot refrain from doing things whereof he knows not whether he shall repent or no afterwards than besides; that he believes he cannot subsist of himself, nor forgo many things, whose acquisition depends from without him. So it is directly opposite to generosity, and it oft befalls that men of a mean spirit are most arrogant and proud, just as the most generous are most modest, and humble. But whereas those of a generous spirit alter not their nature by any prosperity or adversity that befalls them, those who are weak and abject are only guided by fortune and prosperity does not puff up so high, but adversity brings them down as low. Yea, it is often seen that they abase themselves shamefully to such as they expect profit or fear evil from, and at the same time lift themselves up insolently over those from whom they neither hope, nor fear anything. The 160th Article What the motions of the spirits in these passions is. Moreover, it is easy to understand that pride and dejection are not only vices but passions, because their emotion is very palpable exteriorly in those who are suddenly puffed up or brought down by any new occasion. But it may be doubted whether generosity and humility, which are virtues, may also be passions, because their motions appear less, and it seems, virtue does not so much symbolize with passions, as vice does. Yet I see no reason why the same motion of the spirits which serves to fortify a thought when it has an ill ground, should not also fortify it when it has a just one. And because pride and generosity consist only in the good opinion a man has of himself, and differ only herein that the opinion in one is unjust in the other just, me thinks they may be attributed to one and the same passion, which is excited by a motion compounded of admiration, joy, and love, as well that a man bears to himself as to the thing for which he does esteem himself. As on the contrary, the motion that excites humility, whether virtuous or vicious, is composed of admiration, sadness, and self love, mixed with hatred of those defects which cause one to be condemned. And all the difference that I observe in these motions is that that of admiration has two properties. The first, that the surprise makes it strong from the very beginning. The other, that it is equal in its continuance. That is, the spirits continue moving at the same rate in the brain. Of which properties, the first is found more often in pride and dejection than in generosity or virtuous humility. And on the other side the last is more observed in these than in the others. The reason whereof is, that vice proceeds commonly from ignorance, so that they who least understand themselves are most apt to grow more proud, or become more abject than they ought to be, because every new thing that befalls them surprises them, and causes them, that attributing it to themselves, they admire and esteem or condemn themselves, as they judge that which is befallen them advantageous to them or not. But because as soon as one thing has elated them comes another that dejects them, the motion of their passion is various. Contrarily, there is nothing in generosity, incompatible with virtuous humility, nor anything extraneous that can alter it. Wherefore the motions thereof are firm, constant, and ever like themselves. But they proceed not so much from surprise, because they who in this manner esteem themselves, do very well understand the reason why they so esteem themselves. Yet it may be said that these causes are so wonderful (to wit, the power of their free disposition, which makes them prize them themselves and the infirmities of the subject in which this power is, which makes them not to value themselves too high) that as often as they are presented new, they will cause new admiration. The 161st Article How generosity may be acquired. And it is to be noted that what commonly are called virtues are habits in the soul which dispose it to certain thoughts, so that they are different from these thoughts but they may produce them, and reciprocally be produced by them. It is also to be noted, that these thoughts may be produced only by the soul, but it oft befalls that some motion of the spirits fortifies them, and then they are at the same time actions of virtue and passions of the soul. So though there be no virtue whereunto (me thinks) good birth so much contributes, as that which causes a man to esteem himself according to his just value; and it be easy to believe that all souls which God puts into our bodies are not equally noble and strong (wherefore I called this virtue generosity, according to the acceptation* of our language, rather than magnanimity, the school terms that it may be the more unknown) yet it is certain that good education much conduces to correct the defects of our birth. And that if a man busy himself frequently to consider what this free disposition is, and how great advantages accrue from a steadfast resolution to use it well, as on the other side, how vain and unprofitable all the cares that puzzle the ambitious are, a man may by exciting the passion in himself, acquire the virtue of generosity, which being as the key of all the other virtues, and a general remedy against all the irregularities of passions, me thinks this consideration ought to be very seriously noted. Proverbs 13 13:10 With pride 32 comes only 33 contention, but wisdom is with the well-advised. Luke 9 9:37 Now on 125 the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126 a man from the crowd cried out, 127 “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128 my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129 spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130 it throws him into convulsions 131 and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132 him severely. 9:40 I 133 begged 134 your disciples to cast it out, but 135 they could not do so.” 136 9:41 Jesus answered, 137 “You 138 unbelieving 139 and perverse generation! How much longer 140 must I be with you and endure 141 you? 142 Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143 the boy 144 was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145 and shook him with convulsions. 146 But Jesus rebuked 147 the unclean 148 spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149 they were all astonished at the mighty power 150 of God. Luke 11 11:24 “When an unclean spirit 71 goes out of a person, 72 it passes through waterless places 73 looking for rest but 74 not finding any. Then 75 it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 76 11:25 When it returns, 77 it finds the house 78 swept clean and put in order. 79 11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 80 the last state of that person 81 is worse than the first.” 82 11:27 As 83 he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!” COLOSSIANS 2 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you 17 through an empty, deceitful philosophy 18 that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits 19 of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives 20 in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence NOTE The emphases of these false teachers are still with us today. The first is “higher” knowledge (Gnosticism). The second is the observance of laws to win God’s love (legalism). The third is the belief that beings other than Christ must mediate between people and God (mysticism). The fourth is the practice of abstaining from things to earn merit with God (asceticism). “When we make Jesus Christ and the Christian revelation only part of a total religious system or philosophy, we cease to give Him the preeminence. When we strive for ‘spiritual perfection’ or ‘spiritual fullness’ by means of formulas, disciplines, or rituals, we go backward instead of forward. Christian believers must beware of mixing their Christian faith with such alluring things as yoga, transcendental meditation, Oriental mysticism, and the like. We must also beware of ‘deeper life’ teachers who offer a system for victory and fullness that bypasses devotion to Jesus Christ. In all things, He must have the preeminence!”[147] Reformed theology has historically taught that a true Christian will never renounce faith in Christ. The fact that Paul wrote this epistle to Christians who were in danger of doing precisely that should prove that this teaching is wrong. Nowhere in the epistle did he make a distinction between professing Christians, who were supposedly the objects of his warnings, and true Christians. Rather he appealed to the Colossians as genuine Christians to watch out for this real danger. Genuine Christians can be deceived by false teaching, even teaching concerning Christ. 2 TIMOTHY 2 2:14 Remind people 24 of these things and solemnly charge them 25 before the Lord 26 not to wrangle over words. This is of no benefit; it just brings ruin on those who listen. 27 2:15 Make every effort to present yourself before God as a proven worker who does not need to be ashamed, teaching the message of truth accurately. 28 2:16 But avoid profane chatter, 29 because those occupied with it will stray further and further into ungodliness, 2 TIMOTHY 3 3:1 But understand this, that in the last days difficult 1 times will come. 3:2 For people 2 will be lovers of themselves, 3 lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3:3 unloving, irreconcilable, slanderers, without self-control, savage, opposed to what is good, 3:4 treacherous, reckless, conceited, loving pleasure rather than loving God. 3:5 They will maintain the outward appearance 4 of religion but will have repudiated its power. So avoid people like these. 5 JAMES 1 1:10 But the rich person’s pride should be in his humiliation, because he will pass away like a wildflower in the meadow. 11 1:11 For the sun rises with its heat and dries up the meadow; the petal of the flower falls off and its beauty is lost forever. 12 So also the rich person in the midst of his pursuits will wither away. 1:12 Happy is the one 13 who endures testing, because when he has proven to be genuine, he will receive the crown of life that God 14 promised to those who love him. 1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, 15 and he himself tempts no one. 1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires. 1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death. 1:16 Do not be led astray, my dear brothers and sisters. 16 1:17 All generous giving and every perfect gift 17 is from above, coming down 18 from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or the slightest hint of change. 19 1:18 By his sovereign plan he gave us birth 20 through the message of truth, that we would be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. MARK 7 7:18 He said to them, “Are you so foolish? Don’t you understand that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him? 7:19 For it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and then goes out into the sewer.” 22 (This means all foods are clean.) 23 7:20 He said, “What comes out of a person defiles him. 7:21 For from within, out of the human heart, come evil ideas, sexual immorality, theft, murder, 7:22 adultery, greed, evil, deceit, debauchery, envy, slander, pride, and folly. 7:23 All these evils come from within and defile a person.” JUDE 1 1:3 Dear friends, although I have been eager to write to you 7 about our common salvation, I now feel compelled 8 instead to write to encourage 9 you to contend earnestly 10 for the faith 11 that was once for all 12 entrusted to the saints. 13 1:4 For certain men 14 have secretly slipped in among you 15 – men who long ago 16 were marked out 17 for the condemnation I am about to describe 18 – ungodly men who have turned the grace of our God into a license for evil 19 and who deny our only Master 20 and Lord, 21 Jesus Christ. 1:5 Now I desire to remind you (even though you have been fully informed of these facts 22 once for all 23 ) that Jesus, 24 having saved the 25 people out of the land of Egypt, later 26 destroyed those who did not believe. 1:6 You also know that 27 the angels who did not keep within their proper domain 28 but abandoned their own place of residence, he has kept 29 in eternal chains 30 in utter 31 darkness, locked up 32 for the judgment of the great Day. 1:7 So also 33 Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighboring towns, 34 since they indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire 35 in a way similar to 36 these angels, 37 are now displayed as an example by suffering the punishment of eternal fire. 1:8 Yet these men, 38 as a result of their dreams, 39 defile the flesh, reject authority, 40 and insult 41 the glorious ones. 42 1:9 But even 43 when Michael the archangel 44 was arguing with the devil and debating with him 45 concerning Moses’ body, he did not dare to bring a slanderous judgment, but said, “May the Lord rebuke you!” 1:10 But these men do not understand the things they slander, and they are being destroyed by the very things that, like irrational animals, they instinctively comprehend. 46 1:11 Woe to them! For they have traveled down Cain’s path, 47 and because of greed 48 have abandoned themselves 49 to 50 Balaam’s error; hence, 51 they will certainly perish 52 in Korah’s rebellion. 1:12 These men are 53 dangerous reefs 54 at your love feasts, 55 feasting without reverence, 56 feeding only themselves. 57 They are 58 waterless 59 clouds, carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit 60 – twice dead, 61 uprooted; 1:13 wild sea waves, 62 spewing out the foam of 63 their shame; 64 wayward stars 65 for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness 66 have been reserved. 1:14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, 67 even prophesied of them, 68 saying, “Look! The Lord is coming 69 with thousands and thousands 70 of his holy ones, 1:15 to execute judgment on 71 all, and to convict every person 72 of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds 73 that they have committed, 74 and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” 75 1:16 These people are grumblers and 76 fault-finders who go 77 wherever their desires lead them, 78 and they give bombastic speeches, 79 enchanting folks 80 for their own gain.
  10. The 156th Article What the properties of generosity are and how it serves for a remedy against all unruliness of the passions. They who thus are generous are naturally addicted to do great things, and yet to undertake nothing they are not capable of. And because they esteem nothing greater than to do good to other men, and to condemn their own interest on such an occasion, they are exquisitely courteous, affable, and officious to everyone. Withal, they are absolutely masters of their passions, especially of their desires, jealousy and envy, because there is nothing, the acquisition whereof depends not on them, whose worth they suppose can countervail a hearty desire of them, and of hatred against men, because they esteem them all; and of fear, because the confidence of their own virtue secures them; and lastly of wrath, because little valuing all things without themselves they never give their enemies so much advantage as to acknowledge that they are angry with them. The 157th Article Of pride. All such as have a good conceit of themselves for anything else whatsoever, have not a real generosity but only pride, which is always very vicious, though it be so much the more as the cause for which a man esteems himself, is more unjust. And the most unjust of all, is, when he is proud for no reason, that is, though no man can see (for all this) any desert in him for which he should be prized, but only because worth is trampled on, and he imagines renown is nothing but mere usurpation, he believes that they who attribute most to themselves have most. This vice is so unreasonable and absurd that I should scarce believe there were any such men who gave themselves up thereunto, if nobody had ever been praised unjustly. But flattery is so common everywhere that there is no man so deficient, but he oft sees himself esteemed for things which merit not any praise, yea, that even deserve blame, which gives occasion to the more ignorant and stupid to fall into this sort of pride. The 158th Article That the effects thereof are contrary to those of generosity. But whatsoever be the cause for which a man esteems himself, if it be ought else but the will he perceives in himself always to use well his free disposition, from whence I said generosity came, it ever produces a pride exceeding blame-worthy, and so different from this true generosity, that the effects whereof are absolutely contrary. For all other goods, as wit, beauty, riches, honors, &c. using to be the more esteemed, for being found in fewer persons, and being for the most part of such a nature, that they cannot be communicated to many, therefore proud men endeavor to abase all other men, and being slaves to their desire, their souls are incessantly agitated with hatred, envy, jealousy, or wrath. HEBREWS 13 13:16 do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for God is pleased with such sacrifices. ROMANS 8 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 8:2 For the law of the life-giving Spirit in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death. 8:3 For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh. By sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, 8:4 so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 8:5 For those who live according to the flesh have their outlook shaped by the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit have their outlook shaped by the things of the Spirit. 8:6 For the outlook of the flesh is death, but the outlook of the Spirit is life and peace, 8:7 because the outlook of the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able to do so. 8:8 Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. 8:9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. 8:10 But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. 8:11 Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the One who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through His Spirit who lives in you. 8:12 So then, brothers and sisters, we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh 8:13 (for if you live according to the flesh, you will die), but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God. 8:15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery leading again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, “Abba, Father.” 8:16 The Spirit himself bears witness to our spirit that we are God’s children. 8:17 And if children, then heirs (namely, heirs of God and also fellow heirs with Christ) – if indeed we suffer with him so we may also be glorified with him. 8:18 For I consider that our present sufferings cannot even be compared 23 to the glory that will be revealed to us. 8:19 For the creation eagerly waits for the revelation of the sons of God. 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility – not willingly but because of God 24 who subjected it – in hope 8:21 that the creation itself will also be set free from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of God’s children. 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now. 8:23 Not only this, but we ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoption, the redemption of our bodies. 8:24 For in hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope, because who hopes for what he sees? 8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with endurance. 8:26 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness, for we do not know how we should pray, 29 but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with inexpressible groanings. 8:27 And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes on behalf of the saints according to God’s will. 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose, 8:29 because those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that his Son would be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. 8:30 And those he predestined, he also called; and those he called, he also justified; and those he justified, he also glorified. 8:31 What then shall we say about these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 8:32 Indeed, he who 35 did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all – how will he not also, along with him, freely give us all things? 8:33 Who will bring any charge against God’s elect? 36 It is God who justifies. 8:34 Who is the one who will condemn? Christ is the one who died (and more than that, he was raised), who is at the right hand of God, and who also is interceding for us. 8:35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will trouble, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 38 8:36 As it is written, “For your sake we encounter death all day long; we were considered as sheep to be slaughtered.” 39 8:37 No, in all these things we have complete victory through him who loved us! 8:38 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor heavenly rulers, nor things that are present, nor things to come, nor powers, 8:39 nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in creation will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. MARK 6 7:1 Now 1 the Pharisees 2 and some of the experts in the law 3 who came from Jerusalem 4 gathered around him. 7:2 And they saw that some of Jesus’ disciples ate their bread with unclean hands, that is, unwashed. 7:3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they perform a ritual washing, 5 holding fast to the tradition of the elders. 7:4 And when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. They hold fast to many other traditions: the washing of cups, pots, kettles, and dining couches. 6 ) 7 7:5 The Pharisees and the experts in the law asked him, “Why do your disciples not live according to the tradition of the elders, but eat 8 with unwashed hands?” 7:6 He said to them, “Isaiah prophesied correctly about you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart 9 is far from me. 7:7 They worship me in vain, teaching as doctrine the commandments of men.’ 10 7:8 Having no regard 11 for the command of God, you hold fast to human tradition.” 12 7:9 He also said to them, “You neatly reject the commandment of God in order to set up 13 your tradition. 7:10 For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ 14 and, ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’ 15 7:11 But you say that if anyone tells his father or mother, ‘Whatever help you would have received from me is corban’ 16 (that is, a gift for God), 7:12 then you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or mother. 7:13 Thus you nullify 17 the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like this.” 7:14 Then 18 he called the crowd again and said to them, “Listen to me, everyone, and understand. 7:15 There is nothing outside of a person that can defile him by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a person that defiles him.”
  11. The 153rd Article Wherein generosity consists. So, I believe true generosity, which causes a man to set himself at the highest rate he justly may, consists only partly in knowing there is nothing which truly he can call his own, unless this free disposition of his wills, nor wherefore he ought to be praised or blamed, unless for using that well or ill; and partly in feeling a constant, and firm resolution in himself to use it well, that is, his will shall never be wanting to undertake and execute such things as he shall judge to be best, which is to follow virtue absolutely. The 154th Article That it restrains a man from condemning others. Those who have this knowledge and resentment of themselves are easily persuaded that every other man has such of himself too, because there is nothing in it that depends of anything else. Wherefore they never condemn anybody. And though they oft-times see other men commit errors that make their weakness appear, yet they are evermore inclined to excuse than blame them, and to believe that they do it rather for want of knowledge than good will. And as they do not think themselves much inferior to those who have greater estates, honors, nor yet more wit, knowledge, beauty, or generally that surpass them in any other perfections, so they do not esteem themselves much above those whom they surpass because all these things seem very little considerable to them in comparison of their good will for which only they esteem themselves and which they suppose, is, or at least may be, in every other man. The 155th Article Wherein virtuous humility consists. So the most generous use to be most humble, and virtuous humility consists only in this that the reflection we make on the infirmity of our own nature, and the faults we may have formerly committed, or those we are like[ly] to commit which are no whit less than those committed by others, is the reason why we do not prefer ourselves before anybody but think that others, who have their free disposition as well as we, may use it as well. 1 CORINTHIANS 2 2:6 Now we do speak wisdom among the mature, but not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are perishing. 2:7 Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory. 2:8 None of the rulers of this age understood it. If they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 2:9 But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.” 2:10 God has revealed these to us by the Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2:11 For who among men knows the things of a man except the man’s spirit within him? So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 2:12 Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things that are freely given to us by God. 2:13 And we speak about these things, not with words taught us by human wisdom, but with those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people. 2:14 The unbeliever does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. And he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. 2:15 The one who is spiritual discerns all things, yet he himself is understood by no one. ISAIAH 63 63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord, of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds. I will tell about all the Lord did for us, the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 16 because of his compassion and great faithfulness. 63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people, children who are not disloyal.” He became their deliverer. 63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them. In his love and mercy he protected them; he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 63:10 But they rebelled and offended his holy Spirit, so he turned into an enemy and fought against them. 63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea, along with the shepherd of his flock? Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, who divided the water before them, gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 63:13 who led them through the deep water? Like a horse running on flat land they did not stumble. 63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest. In this way you guided your people, gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice, from your holy, majestic palace! Where are your zeal and power? Do not hold back your tender compassion! 63:16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not recognize us. You, Lord, are our father; you have been called our protector from ancient times. 63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray from your ways, and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? Return for the sake of your servants, the tribes of your inheritance! 63:18 For a short time your special nation possessed a land, but then our adversaries knocked down your holy sanctuary. 63:19 We existed from ancient times, but you did not rule over them, they were not your subjects. 64:1 1 If only you would tear apart the sky and come down! The mountains would tremble before you! 64:2 As when fire ignites dry wood, or fire makes water boil, let your adversaries know who you are, and may the nations shake at your presence! 64:3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise, you came down, and the mountains trembled before you. 64:4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived, no eye has seen any God besides you, who intervenes for those who wait for him. 64:5 You assist those who delight in doing what is right, who observe your commandments. Look, you were angry because we violated them continually. How then can we be saved? 64:6 We are all like one who is unclean, all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight. We all wither like a leaf; our sins carry us away like the wind. 64:7 No one invokes your name, or makes an effort to take hold of you. For you have rejected us and handed us over to our own sins. 64:8 Yet, Lord, you are our father. We are the clay, and you are our potter; we are all the product of your labor.
  12. The 149th Article On estimation and contempt. Now the six original passions are explained which are as the kinds (or genera) whereof all the rest are but sorts (or species). I will here succinctly observe what there is peculiar in every one of the rest, and I will keep still the same order wherein I have formally marshaled them. The two first are estimation and contempt. For, though they commonly signify only the opinions a man has, without any passion of the value of anything, yet because from these opinions do often spring passions which want peculiar names, me thinks these may be attributed to them. And estimation, as it is a passion, is an inclination of the soul to represent unto herself the value of the thing esteemed, which inclination is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, so conveyed into the brain that they there fortify the impressions belonging to that purpose. As, on the contrary, the passion of contempt is an inclination of the soul to consider the meanness or smallness of what it condemns, caused by the motion of the spirits, which fortify the idea of this smallness. The 151st Article That a man may esteem, or condemn himself. Now, these two passions may generally relate to all sorts of objects, but they are especially remarkable when we refer them to ourselves, that is, when it is our own merit that we either esteem or condemn, and the motion of the spirits which cause them is then so manifest that it even changes the countenance, gesture, gate and generally all the notions of those who conceive a better or worse opinion of themselves than ordinary. The 152nd Article For what cause a man may esteem himself. And because one of the chief parts of wisdom is to know in what manner & for what cause everyone ought to esteem or condemn himself, I will here endeavor to give my opinion thereof. I observe but one thing in us which may give us just cause to esteem ourselves, to wit, the use of our free disposition and our empire over our wills. For only the actions depending on this free disposition are those for which we may justly be praised or blamed. And it makes us in some manner like unto God, by making us masters of ourselves, provided we do not lose the privileges it gives us by our unworthiness. PROVERBS 6 6:16 There are six things that the Lord hates, even 31 seven 32 things that are an abomination to him: 33 6:17 haughty eyes, 34 a lying tongue, 35 and hands that shed innocent blood, 36 6:18 a heart that devises wicked plans, 37 feet that are swift to run 38 to evil, 6:19 a false witness who pours out lies, 39 and a person who spreads discord 40 among family members. PROVERBS 22 22:17 Incline your ear 45 and listen to the words of the wise, and apply your heart to my instruction. 46 22:18 For it is pleasing if 47 you keep these sayings 48 within you, and 49 they are ready on your lips. 50 22:19 So that 51 your confidence may be in the Lord, I am making them known to you today 52 – even you. 22:20 Have I not written thirty sayings 53 for you, sayings 54 of counsel and knowledge, 22:21 to show you true and reliable words, 55 so that you may give accurate answers 56 to those who sent you? 22:22 Do not exploit 57 a poor person because he is poor and do not crush the needy in court, 58 22:23 for the Lord will plead their case 59 and will rob those who are robbing 60 them. 22:24 Do not make friends with an angry person, 61 and do not associate with a wrathful person, 22:25 lest you learn 62 his ways and entangle yourself in a snare. 63 22:26 Do not be one who strikes hands in pledge or who puts up security for debts. 22:27 If you do not have enough to pay, your bed 64 will be taken 65 right out from under you! 66 22:28 Do not move an ancient boundary stone 67 which was put in place by your ancestors. 68 22:29 Do you see a person skilled 69 in his work? He will take his position before kings; he will not take his position 70 before obscure people. 71 23:1 When you sit down to eat with a ruler, consider carefully 1 what 2 is before you, 23:2 and put a knife to your throat 3 if you possess a large appetite. 4 23:3 Do not crave that ruler’s 5 delicacies, for 6 that food is deceptive. 7 23:4 Do not wear yourself out to become rich; be wise enough to restrain yourself. 8 23:5 When you gaze upon riches, 9 they are gone, for they surely make wings for themselves, and fly off into the sky like an eagle! 10 23:6 Do not eat the food of a stingy person, 11 do not crave his delicacies; 23:7 for he is 12 like someone calculating the cost 13 in his mind. 14 “Eat and drink,” he says to you, but his heart is not with you; 23:8 you will vomit up 15 the little bit you have eaten, and will have wasted your pleasant words. 16 23:9 Do not speak in the ears of a fool, 17 for he will despise the wisdom of your words. 18 23:10 Do not move an ancient boundary stone, or take over 19 the fields of the fatherless, 23:11 for their Protector 20 is strong; he will plead their case against you. 21 23:12 Apply 22 your heart to instruction and your ears to the words of knowledge. 23:13 Do not withhold discipline from a child; even if you strike him with the rod, he will not die. 23:14 If you strike 23 him with the rod, you will deliver him 24 from death. 25 23:15 My child, 26 if your heart is wise, then my heart also will be glad; 23:16 my soul 27 will rejoice when your lips speak what is right. 28 23:17 Do not let your heart envy 29 sinners, but rather be zealous in fearing the Lord 30 all the time. 23:18 For surely there is a future, 31 and your hope will not be cut off. 32 23:19 Listen, my child, 33 and be wise, and guide your heart on the right way. 23:20 Do not spend time 34 among drunkards, 35 among those who eat too much 36 meat, 23:21 because drunkards and gluttons become impoverished, and drowsiness 37 clothes them with rags. 38 23:22 Listen to your father who begot you, and do not despise your mother when she is old. 23:23 Acquire 39 truth and do not sell it – wisdom, and discipline, and understanding. 23:24 The father of a righteous person will rejoice greatly; 40 whoever fathers a wise child 41 will have joy in him. 23:25 May your father and your mother have joy; may she who bore you rejoice. 42 23:26 Give me your heart, my son, 43 and let your eyes observe my ways; 23:27 for a prostitute is like 44 a deep pit; a harlot 45 is like 46 a narrow well. 47 23:28 Indeed, she lies in wait like a robber, 48 and increases the unfaithful 49 among men. 50 23:29 Who has woe? 51 Who has sorrow? Who has contentions? Who has complaints? Who has wounds without cause? Who has dullness 52 of the eyes? 23:30 Those who linger over wine, those who go looking for mixed wine. 53 23:31 Do not look on the wine when it is red, when it sparkles 54 in the cup, when it goes down smoothly. 55 23:32 Afterward 56 it bites like a snake, and stings like a viper. 23:33 Your eyes will see strange things, 57 and your mind will speak perverse things. 23:34 And you will be like one who lies down in the midst 58 of the sea, and like one who lies down on the top of the rigging. 59 23:35 You will say, 60 “They have struck me, but I am not harmed! They beat me, but I did not know it! 61 When will I awake? I will look for another drink.” 62 24:1 Do not envy evil people, 1 do not desire 2 to be with them; 24:2 for their hearts contemplate violence, and their lips speak harm. 3 24:14 Likewise, know 22 that wisdom is sweet 23 to your soul; if you find it, 24 you will have a future, 25 and your hope will not be cut off. 24:15 Do not lie in wait like the wicked 26 against the place where the righteous live; do not assault 27 his home. 24:16 Although 28 a righteous person may fall seven times, he gets up again, but the wicked will be brought down 29 by calamity. 24:17 Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, 30 and when he stumbles do not let your heart rejoice, 24:18 lest the Lord see it, and be displeased, 31 and turn his wrath away from him. 32 24:19 Do not fret because of evil people or be envious of wicked people, 24:20 for the evil person has no future, 33 and the lamp of the wicked will be extinguished. 34 24:21 Fear the Lord, my child, 35 as well as the king, and do not associate 36 with rebels, 37 24:22 for suddenly their destruction will overtake them, 38 and who knows the ruinous judgment both the Lord and the king can bring? JOB 28 28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from? 34 Where is the place of understanding? 28:21 For 35 it has been hidden from the eyes of every living creature, and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed. 28:22 Destruction 36 and Death say, ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’ 37 28:23 God understands the way to it, and he alone knows its place. 28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth and observes everything under the heavens. 28:25 When he made 38 the force of the wind and measured 39 the waters with a gauge. 28:26 When he imposed a limit 40 for the rain, and a path for the thunderstorm, 41 28:27 then he looked at wisdom 42 and assessed its value; 43 he established 44 it and examined it closely. 45 28:28 And he said to mankind, ‘The fear of the Lord 46 – that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.’” 47
  13. Every human being needs to trust in Jesus Christ because everyone lacks the righteousness that God requires before He will accept us. the unfolding of history also reveals God’s hatred toward sin and His judgment of sin. The moral devolution of humanity is not just a natural consequence of man’s sinning but also a result of God’s judgment of sinners. The 144th Article Of desires whose events depend only on ourselves. But because these passions cannot sway us to any actions but by the interposition of the desire that they excite, it is desire which we ought peculiarly to regulate, and therein consists the principal part of morality. Now, as I said just now, it is always good when it follows a true knowledge so it cannot choose but be bad when it is grounded on an error. And me thinks, the most ordinary error committed in desire is when a man does not clearly enough distinguish the things which absolutely depend on ourselves, from those which do not. For concerning those which depend of us, that is of our free disposition, it is enough to know that they are good, [for us] not to desire them with too much vehemence, because it is a following of virtue to do the good things that depend of us. And it is certain, he cannot have too ardent a desire after virtue. Besides, what we thus desire cannot choose but be accomplished, since it depending only on us, we ever receive the plenary satisfaction we expect, but the usual fault herein is not that we desire too much, but too little, and the sovereign remedy against that is, as much as in us lies, to rid the spirit of all kind of desire less useful, than to strive to know clearly, and consider with attention, the goodness of that which is to be desired. The 145th Article Of those which depend merely on causes, and what fortune. For those things which depend not any ways of us, how good soever they be, they ought never to be desired with passion. Not only because they may not befall, and by this means afflict us so much the more, by how much more they were desired. But chiefly, because when they possess our thoughts, they divert us from bending our affection to other things, the acquisition whereof depends of ourselves. And there are two general remedies against these idle desires; the first, generosity, which I will speak of hereafter; the second is that we ought to reflect on Divine Providence, and imagine to ourselves that it is impossible that anything happen otherwise than this Providence has determined from all eternity so that there is a kind of fatality, or irresistible necessity to oppose Fortune to destroy her, as a chimera proceeding only from the error of our understandings. For we can desire nothing but what we think in some manner possible, and we cannot suppose things which depend not of us possible, seeing we think they depend not on Fortune--that is, we suppose they may happen, and the like has happened formerly. Now, this opinion is only grounded upon this, that we not understanding all the causes contributory to every effect, for when a thing which we supposed to depend on Fortune does not fall out, that shows some of the causes necessary to produce was wanting. And consequently that it was absolutely impossible and that the like did never happen, that is, where a like cause of its production was wanting. So that had we not been ignorant of that before, we should never have imagined them possible, nor consequently should ever have desired them. The 146th Article Of those that depend of us and others too. This vulgar opinion then, that there is without us a Fortune which causes things to fall out, or not to fall out, according to her pleasure, must be utterly rejected. And it must be understood that all things are guided by a Divine Providence whose eternal decree is so infallible and immutable that unless those things which the same decree has pleased to let depend on our free disposition, we ought to think, for our parts, that nothing happens but what of necessity must, as if it were fatal, so that without a crime we cannot desire it may happen otherwise. But because the most part of our desires extend to two things which depend not altogether on ourselves, nor altogether elsewhere, we ought exactly to distinguish what in them depends on ourselves, that we may not let our desire ramble any farther than that. And for what is over and above, though we should esteem the success thereof absolutely fatal and immutable that our desire busy not itself thereabout, we should not omit to consider the reasons why it ought less or more to be hoped for, that they may serve to regulate our actions. For if for example, we had any business at a place whither we might go two several ways, one whereof use[d] to be much safer than the other, although the decree of Providence may be such, that if we go that way which is conceived fastest, we shall not escape robbing. And on the contrary, we might have gone the other way without any danger, yet we ought not therefore to be indifferent which we take, nor rest upon the immutable fatality of this decree. But reason wills us to choose the way which used to be safest, and our desire herein ought to be fulfilled, whatsoever evil befall us by following it. Because this evil (or mischief) having been, as to us, inevitable we have no occasion to wish to be exempted from it but only do the best our understanding can comprehend, as, I suppose, we have done. And it is certain that when a man exercises himself so to distinguish betwixt fatality and fortune he easily habituates himself so to regulate his desires, that seeing the fulfilling of them depends only on ourselves, they may always give us an absolute satisfaction. ROMANS 7 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, 9 the sinful desires, 10 aroused by the law, were active in the members of our body 11 to bear fruit for death. 7:6 But now we have been released from the law, because we have died 12 to what controlled us, so that we may serve in the new life of the Spirit and not under the old written code. 2 PETER 1 1:3 I can pray this because his divine power 12 has bestowed on us everything necessary 13 for life and godliness through the rich knowledge 14 of the one who called 15 us by 16 his own glory and excellence. 1:4 Through these things 17 he has bestowed on us his precious and most magnificent promises, so that by means of what was promised 18 you may become partakers of the divine nature, 19 after escaping 20 the worldly corruption that is produced by evil desire. 21 1:5 For this very reason, 22 make every effort 23 to add to your faith excellence, 24 to excellence, knowledge; 1:6 to knowledge, self-control; to self-control, perseverance; 25 to perseverance, godliness; 1:7 to godliness, brotherly affection; to brotherly affection, unselfish 26 love. 27 1:8 For if 28 these things are really yours 29 and are continually increasing, 30 they will keep you from becoming 31 ineffective and unproductive in your pursuit of 32 knowing our Lord Jesus Christ more intimately. MATTHEW 7 7:24 “Everyone 27 who hears these words of mine and does them is like 28 a wise man 29 who built his house on rock. 7:25 The rain fell, the flood 30 came, and the winds beat against that house, but it did not collapse because it had been founded on rock. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. 7:27 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, and it collapsed; it was utterly destroyed!” 2 Corinthians 1:12 For our reason for confidence 23 is this: the testimony of our conscience, that with pure motives 24 and sincerity which are from God 25 – not by human wisdom 26 but by the grace of God – we conducted ourselves in the world, and all the more 27 toward you. ISAIAH 28 28:16 Therefore, this is what the sovereign master, the Lord, says: “Look, I am laying 34 a stone in Zion, an approved 35 stone, set in place as a precious cornerstone for the foundation. 36 The one who maintains his faith will not panic. 37 28:17 I will make justice the measuring line, fairness the plumb line; hail will sweep away the unreliable refuge, 38 the floodwaters will overwhelm the hiding place. GALATIANS 5 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45 have crucified the flesh 46 with its passions 47 and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48 the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49 provoking 50 one another, being jealous 51 of one another. ROMANS 1 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of people 39 who suppress the truth by their 40 unrighteousness, 41 1:19 because what can be known about God is plain to them, 42 because God has made it plain to them. 1:20 For since the creation of the world his invisible attributes – his eternal power and divine nature – have been clearly seen, because they are understood through what has been made. So people 43 are without excuse. 1:21 For although they knew God, they did not glorify him as God or give him thanks, but they became futile in their thoughts and their senseless hearts 44 were darkened. 1:22 Although they claimed 45 to be wise, they became fools 1:23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for an image resembling mortal human beings 46 or birds or four-footed animals 47 or reptiles.
  14. The 144th Article Of desires whose events depend only on ourselves. But because these passions cannot sway us to any actions but by the interposition of the desire that they excite, it is desire which we ought peculiarly to regulate, and therein consists the principal part of morality. Now, as I said just now, it is always good when it follows a true knowledge so it cannot choose but be bad when it is grounded on an error. And me thinks, the most ordinary error committed in desire is when a man does not clearly enough distinguish the things which absolutely depend on ourselves, from those which do not. For concerning those which depend of us, that is of our free disposition, it is enough to know that they are good, [for us] not to desire them with too much vehemence, because it is a following of virtue to do the good things that depend of us. And it is certain, he cannot have too ardent a desire after virtue. Besides, what we thus desire cannot choose but be accomplished, since it depending only on us, we ever receive the plenary satisfaction we expect, but the usual fault herein is not that we desire too much, but too little, and the sovereign remedy against that is, as much as in us lies, to rid the spirit of all kind of desire less useful, than to strive to know clearly, and consider with attention, the goodness of that which is to be desired. The 145th Article Of those which depend merely on causes, and what fortune. For those things which depend not any ways of us, how good soever they be, they ought never to be desired with passion. Not only because they may not befall, and by this means afflict us so much the more, by how much more they were desired. But chiefly, because when they possess our thoughts, they divert us from bending our affection to other things, the acquisition whereof depends of ourselves. And there are two general remedies against these idle desires; the first, generosity, which I will speak of hereafter; the second is that we ought to reflect on Divine Providence, and imagine to ourselves that it is impossible that anything happen otherwise than this Providence has determined from all eternity so that there is a kind of fatality, or irresistible necessity to oppose Fortune to destroy her, as a chimera proceeding only from the error of our understandings. For we can desire nothing but what we think in some manner possible, and we cannot suppose things which depend not of us possible, seeing we think they depend not on Fortune--that is, we suppose they may happen, and the like has happened formerly. Now, this opinion is only grounded upon this, that we not understanding all the causes contributory to every effect, for when a thing which we supposed to depend on Fortune does not fall out, that shows some of the causes necessary to produce was wanting. And consequently that it was absolutely impossible and that the like did never happen, that is, where a like cause of its production was wanting. So that had we not been ignorant of that before, we should never have imagined them possible, nor consequently should ever have desired them. The 146th Article Of those that depend of us and others too. This vulgar opinion then, that there is without us a Fortune which causes things to fall out, or not to fall out, according to her pleasure, must be utterly rejected. And it must be understood that all things are guided by a Divine Providence whose eternal decree is so infallible and immutable that unless those things which the same decree has pleased to let depend on our free disposition, we ought to think, for our parts, that nothing happens but what of necessity must, as if it were fatal, so that without a crime we cannot desire it may happen otherwise. But because the most part of our desires extend to two things which depend not altogether on ourselves, nor altogether elsewhere, we ought exactly to distinguish what in them depends on ourselves, that we may not let our desire ramble any farther than that. And for what is over and above, though we should esteem the success thereof absolutely fatal and immutable that our desire busy not itself thereabout, we should not omit to consider the reasons why it ought less or more to be hoped for, that they may serve to regulate our actions. For if for example, we had any business at a place whither we might go two several ways, one whereof use[d] to be much safer than the other, although the decree of Providence may be such, that if we go that way which is conceived fastest, we shall not escape robbing. And on the contrary, we might have gone the other way without any danger, yet we ought not therefore to be indifferent which we take, nor rest upon the immutable fatality of this decree. But reason wills us to choose the way which used to be safest, and our desire herein ought to be fulfilled, whatsoever evil befall us by following it. Because this evil (or mischief) having been, as to us, inevitable we have no occasion to wish to be exempted from it but only do the best our understanding can comprehend, as, I suppose, we have done. And it is certain that when a man exercises himself so to distinguish betwixt fatality and fortune he easily habituates himself so to regulate his desires, that seeing the fulfilling of them depends only on ourselves, they may always give us an absolute satisfaction. PROVERBS 1 1:7 Fearing the Lord is the beginning of moral knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction. 1:8 Listen, my child, to the instruction from your father, and do not forsake the teaching from your mother. 1:9 For they will be like an elegant garland on your head, and like pendants around your neck. JAMES 3 3:13 Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct he should show his works done in the gentleness that wisdom brings. 3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfishness in your hearts, do not boast and tell lies against the truth. 3:15 Such wisdom does not come from above but is earthly, natural, demonic. 3:16 For where there is jealousy and selfishness, there is disorder and every evil practice. 3:17 But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, accommodating, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial, and not hypocritical. 3:18 And the fruit that consists of righteousness is planted in peace among those who make peace. COLOSSIANS 3 3:5 So put to death whatever in your nature belongs to the earth: sexual immorality, impurity, shameful passion, evil desire, and greed which is idolatry. 3:6 Because of these things the wrath of God is coming on the sons of disobedience. 3:7 You also lived your lives in this way at one time, when you used to live among them. 3:8 But now, put off all such things as anger, rage, malice, slander, abusive language from your mouth. 3:9 Do not lie to one another since you have put off the old man with its practices 3:10 and have been clothed with the new man that is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of the one who created it. 3:11 Here there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all and in all.
  15. The 141st Article Of desire, joy, and sadness. For desire, it is evident that when it proceeds from a true knowledge, it cannot be evil, provided it be not immoderate, and that this knowledge regulate it. It is evident also, that joy cannot choose but be good, nor sadness but be evil, in respect of the soul: because in the last consist all the inconveniences that the soul receives by evil, and in the first all the enjoyment of good belonging to her. So that, if we had no bodies, I dare say, we could not give ourselves up too much to love, and joy, nor too much shun hatred, and sadness. But the corporeal motions that accompany them, may be all hurtful to the health, when they are very violent, and on the other side useful when they are but moderate. The 142nd Article Of joy and love, compared with sadness and hatred. Furthermore, since hatred and sadness ought to be rejected by the soul, even then when they proceed from a true knowledge, much more ought they to be when they come from any false opinion. But it may be doubted whether love and joy are good or no, when they likewise are ill grounded. And me thinks, if it be only considered what they are precisely in themselves, in respect of the soul, it may be said that although the joy be less solid and the love less advantageous than when they have a better foundation, they are at the worst to be preferred before sadness and hatred as ill grounded, so that in the occurrences of life, where we cannot avoid the hazard of being deceived, we do always best to lean to those passions which tend towards good than those which have relation to evil, although it be to shun it. Nay, sometimes a false joy is better than a sadness from a true cause. But I dare not say the same of love, in relation to hatred, for when hatred is just, it removes us not from anything but the subject which contains the evil from which it is good to be separated. Whereas unjust love joins us to hurtful things, or at least to such as desire not to be so much considered by us as they are, which devours and abases us. The 143rd Article Of the same passions as they relate to desire. And it must be exactly noted that what I now speak of these four passions takes place only when they are considered precisely in themselves, and incline us not to any action. For seeing they excite desire in us, by whose interposition they regulate our manners, it is certain that all those that come from a wrong cause may hurt, and on the other side, those that come of a just cause may be useful. And further, that when they are both equally ill grounded, joy is commonly more hurtful than sadness, because this, enduing a man with reserve and wariness, does in some sort incline him to prudence, whereas the other render those who give themselves up thereunto inconsiderate and rash. MATTHEW 7 7:15 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves. 20 7:16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered 21 from thorns or figs from thistles, are they? 22 7:17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad 23 tree bears bad fruit. 7:18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit. 7:19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 7:20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit. ROMANS 12 12:17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil; consider what is good before all people. 12 12:18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all people. 13 12:19 Do not avenge yourselves, dear friends, but give place to God’s wrath, 14 for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 15 says the Lord. 12:20 Rather, if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in doing this you will be heaping burning coals on his head. 16 12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 1 PETER 3 3:9 Do not return evil for evil or insult for insult, but instead bless 14 others 15 because you were called to inherit a blessing. 3:10 For the one who wants to love life and see good days must keep 16 his tongue from evil and his lips from uttering deceit. 3:11 And he must turn away from evil and do good; he must seek peace and pursue it. 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are 17 upon the righteous and his ears are open to their prayer. But the Lord’s face is against those who do evil. 18 3:13 For 19 who is going to harm you if you are devoted to what is good? 3:14 But in fact, if you happen to suffer 20 for doing what is right, 21 you are blessed. But do not be terrified of them 22 or be shaken. 23 3:15 But set Christ 24 apart 25 as Lord in your hearts and always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess. 26 3:16 Yet do it with courtesy and respect, 27 keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse you. 28 3:17 For it is better to suffer for doing good, if God wills it, 29 than for doing evil.
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