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  1. The 176th Article Of the use of fearfulness. As for fearfulness or affright, I see not how it can ever be laudable, or useful. Neither is it one particular passion, but only an excess of cowardice, astonishment, and fear, which is always vicious as boldness is an excel of courage, ever good, provided the end proposed be good. And because the chief cause of fearfulness is surprise, there is no better way to be rid of it than to use premeditation, and prepare oneself against all events, the fear whereof may cause them. The 177th Article Of remorse. Remorse of conscience is a sort of sadness, which comes from the scruple a man has, that a thing he has done, or has not done, is not good. And it necessarily presupposes doubt. For if he had been absolutely assured that what he did had been evil, he had refrained from doing it; since the will inclines us not to any things but such as have an appearance of goodness. And if he were assured that what he has already done were evil it would breed repentance, and not only remorse. Now, the use of this passion is to make him examine whether the thing he doubts of be good or not, and to hinder him from doing it another time, if he be not assured that it is good. But because it presupposes an evil, the best way were never to be subject to feel it; and it may be prevented the same way, as a man may be exempted of irresolution. The 178th Article Of derision. Derision is a sort of joy mingled with hatred which proceeds from this, that a man perceives some little evil in a person, whereof he thinks him worthy. He hates this evil, and rejoices to see it in one that is worthy of it. And when this comes unexpectedly, the surprise of admiration causes him to break out into laughter, according to what has formerly been said of the nature of laughter. But this evil must be a small one: for if it be great, it cannot be thought that he who has it is worthy of it, unless one be of a very ill nature, or bear him a great deal of hatred. contemptuous ridicule or mockery Job 3:20 “Why does God give light to one who is in misery, and life to those whose soul is bitter, 3:21 to those who wait for death that does not come, and search for it more than for hidden treasures, 3:22 who rejoice even to jubilation, and are exultant when they find the grave? 3:23 Why is light given to a man whose way is hidden, and whom God has hedged in? 3:24 For my sighing comes in place of my food, and my groanings flow forth like water. 3:25 For the very thing I dreaded has happened to me, and what I feared has come upon me. 3:26 I have no ease, I have no quietness; I cannot rest; turmoil has come upon me.” Job 4 4:12 “Now a word was secretly 39 brought 40 to me, and my ear caught 41 a whisper 42 of it. 4:13 In the troubling thoughts 43 of the dreams 44 in the night when a deep sleep 45 falls on men, 4:14 a trembling 46 gripped me – and a terror! – and made all my bones shake. 47 4:15 Then a breath of air 48 passes 49 by my face; it makes 50 the hair of my flesh stand up. 4:16 It stands still, 51 but I cannot recognize 52 its appearance; an image is before my eyes, and I hear a murmuring voice: 53 4:17 “Is 54 a mortal man 55 righteous 56 before 57 God? Or a man pure 58 before his Creator? 59 4:18 If 60 God 61 puts no trust in 62 his servants 63 and attributes 64 folly 65 to his angels, 4:19 how much more to those who live in houses of clay, 66 whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed 67 like 68 a moth? 4:20 They are destroyed 69 between morning and evening; 70 they perish forever 71 without anyone regarding it. 72 4:21 Is not their excess wealth 73 taken away from them? 74 They die, 75 yet without attaining wisdom. 76 5:1 “Call now! 1 Is there anyone who will answer you? 2 To which of the holy ones 3 will you turn? 4 5:2 For 5 wrath kills the foolish person, 6 and anger 7 slays the silly one. 5:3 I myself 8 have seen the fool 9 taking root, but suddenly I cursed his place of residence. 10 5:4 His children are far 11 from safety, and they are crushed 12 at the place where judgment is rendered, 13 nor is there anyone to deliver them. 14 5:5 The hungry 15 eat up his harvest, 16 and take it even from behind the thorns, 17 and the thirsty 18 swallow up 19 their fortune. 20 5:6 For evil does not come up from the dust, 21 nor does trouble spring up from the ground, 5:7 but people 22 are born 23 to trouble, as surely as the sparks 24 fly 25 upward. 5:8 “But 28 as for me, 29 I would seek 30 God, 31 and to God 32 I would set forth my case. 33 5:9 He does 34 great and unsearchable 35 things, marvelous things without 36 number; 37 5:10 he gives 38 rain on the earth, 39 and sends 40 water on the fields; 41 5:11 he sets 42 the lowly 43 on high, that those who mourn 44 are raised 45 to safety. 5:12 He frustrates 46 the plans 47 of the crafty 48 so that 49 their hands cannot accomplish what they had planned! 50 5:13 He catches 51 the wise in their own craftiness, 52 and the counsel of the cunning 53 is brought to a quick end. 54 5:14 They meet with darkness in the daytime, 55 and grope about 56 in the noontime as if it were night. 57 5:15 So he saves 58 from the sword that comes from their mouth, 59 even 60 the poor from the hand of the powerful. 5:16 Thus the poor have hope, and iniquity 61 shuts its mouth. 62 5:17 “Therefore, 63 blessed 64 is the man whom God corrects, 65 so do not despise the discipline 66 of the Almighty. 67 5:18 For 68 he 69 wounds, 70 but he also bandages; he strikes, but his hands also heal. 5:19 He will deliver you 71 from six calamities; yes, in seven 72 no evil will touch you. 2 Timothy 1 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control.
  2. The 173rd Article How boldness depends on hope. For it is to be noted that although the object of boldness be difficulty, from whence commonly ensues fear, or even despair, so that it is in most dangerous and desperate affairs that most boldness and courage is required. Nevertheless there must be some hope, or else a man must be assured that the end he propounds to himself shall succeed to oppose himself vigorously against the difficulties he shall encounter. But this end is different from this object, for he cannot be assured and despairing of the same thing at the same time. So when the Decii flung themselves in the midst of their enemies, and ran upon a certain death, the object of their boldness was the difficulty of keeping their lives in this action, of which difficulty they utterly despaired, for they were sure to die. But their end was to animate their soldiers by their example, and make them win the victory, of which they had hope, or else their end was to get fame after their death, whereof they were assured. The 174th Article Of cowardice and fearfulness. Cowardice is directly opposite to courage, and is a languishing or coldness, which hinders the soul from addicting herself to the execution of things which she would do if she were exempted from this passion. And fearfulness or affright, the contrary to boldness, is not only a coldness, but a distraction and astonishment of the soul that robs her of the power to resist evils which she thinks are near her. The 175th Article Of the use of cowardice. Now, although I cannot be persuaded that nature has bestowed on man any passion that is always vicious, and has not some good and laudable use; yet I am very much puzzled to divine what these two are good for. Only, me thinks, cowardice is of some use when it causes a man to be free from pains he might be incited to take, for reasons like truths, if other more certain truths which make them be judged unprofitable, had not invited this passion in him. For besides her exemption of the soul from these pains, it is then also very useful to the body, for that retarding the motion of the spirits, it hinders the forces thereof from being dissipated. But is commonly very hurtful, because it diverts the will from profitable actions. And because it proceeds from hence, that a man has not hope, or desire enough to correct it, he need only augment these two passions in himself. Job 6 6:14 “To the one in despair, kindness should come from his friend even if he forsakes the fear of the Almighty. Job 15 15:20 All his days the wicked man suffers torment, throughout the number of the years that are stored up for the tyrant. 15:21 Terrifying sounds fill his ears; in a time of peace marauders attack him. 15:22 He does not expect to escape from darkness; he is marked for the sword; 15:23 he wanders about – food for vultures; he knows that the day of darkness is at hand. 15:24 Distress and anguish terrify him; they prevail against him like a king ready to launch an attack, 15:25 for he stretches out his hand against God, and vaunts himself against the Almighty, 15:26 defiantly charging against Him with a thick, strong shield! 15:27 Because he covered his face with fat, and made his hips bulge with fat, 15:28 he lived in ruined towns and in houses where no one lives, where they are ready to crumble into heaps. 15:29 He will not grow rich, and his wealth will not endure, nor will his possessions spread over the land. 15:30 He will not escape the darkness; a flame will wither his shoots and he will depart by the breath of God’s mouth. Psalms 82 82:6 I thought, ‘You are gods; all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 82:7 Yet you will die like mortals; you will fall like all the other rulers.” Isaiah 14:12 Look how you have fallen from the sky, O shining one, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the ground, O conqueror of the nations! 14:13 You said to yourself, “I will climb up to the sky. Above the stars of El I will set up my throne. I will rule on the mountain of assembly on the remote slopes of Zaphon. 14:14 I will climb up to the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High!” 14:15 But you were brought down to Sheol, to the remote slopes of the pit. 14:16 Those who see you stare at you, they look at you carefully, thinking: “Is this the man who shook the earth, the one who made kingdoms tremble? 14:17 Is this the one who made the world like a desert, who ruined its cities, and refused to free his prisoners so they could return home?”’ 4:18 As for all the kings of the nations, all of them lie down in splendor, each in his own tomb. 14:19 But you have been thrown out of your grave like a shoot that is thrown away. You lie among the slain, among those who have been slashed by the sword, among those headed for the stones of the pit, as if you were a mangled corpse. 14:20 You will not be buried with them, because you destroyed your land and killed your people. The offspring of the wicked will never be mentioned again. Jeremiah 17 17:5 The Lord says, “I will put a curse on people who trust in mere human beings, who depend on mere flesh and blood for their strength, and whose hearts have turned away from the Lord. 17:6 They will be like a shrub in the desert. They will not experience good things even when they happen. It will be as though they were growing in the desert, in a salt land where no one can live. 17:7 My blessing is on those people who trust in me, who put their confidence in me. 17:8 They will be like a tree planted near a stream whose roots spread out toward the water. It has nothing to fear when the heat comes. Its leaves are always green. It has no need to be concerned in a year of drought. It does not stop bearing fruit. 17:9 The human mind is more deceitful than anything else. It is incurably bad. Who can understand it? 17:10 I, the Lord, probe into people’s minds. I examine people’s hearts. I deal with each person according to how he has behaved. I give them what they deserve based on what they have done. 17:11 The person who gathers wealth by unjust means is like the partridge that broods over eggs but does not hatch them. Before his life is half over he will lose his ill-gotten gains. At the end of his life it will be clear he was a fool.” 2 Timothy 1 1:6 Because of this I remind you to rekindle God’s gift that you possess through the laying on of my hands. 1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit of fear but of power and love and self-control. 1:8 So do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord or of me, a prisoner for his sake, but by God’s power accept your share of suffering for the gospel. 1:9 He is the one who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not based on our works but on his own purpose and grace, granted to us in Christ Jesus before time began, 1:10 but now made visible through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus. He has broken the power of death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel! 1:11 For this gospel I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher. 19 1:12 Because of this, in fact, I suffer as I do. But I am not ashamed, because I know the one in whom my faith is set and I am convinced that he is able to protect what has been entrusted to me until that day. 1:13 Hold to the standard of sound words that you heard from me and do so with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 25 1:14 Protect that good thing entrusted to you, through the Holy Spirit who lives within us. Hebrews 10 10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for the Son of God, and profanes the blood of the covenant that made him holy, and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
  3. Human I will Pray for you.
  4. The 170th Article Of irresolution. Irresolution also is a sort of fear, which causing the soul to waver between several actions that she may do is the cause she cannot execute any, and thereby she has time to choose before she determines on them. Whereof, truly, some good use may be made but when it lasts longer than it ought, and it takes up that time to debate which is required to act, it is very evil. Now, I say it is a sort of fear, though it may so fall out, when a man has choice of many things whose goodness is equally apparent, that he may be at a stand and irresolute, and yet not be afraid. For this sort of irresolution comes only from the subject presented, and not from any emotion of the spirits. Wherefore it is not a passion, unless the fear of failing in his choice increase the uncertainty. But this fear is so usual, and so strong in some, that oftentimes although they have not any choice, and though they see only one thing to take or leave, yet it seizes on them and causes them unprofitably to stop there and search after others. And then it is any excess of irresolution, which proceeds from too great a desire to do well, and an imbecility in the understanding, which having no clear and distinct notions, has only a great company of confused ones. Wherefore the remedy against this excess is to accustom a man's self to frame certain and determinate judgments concerning all things that present themselves, and conceive he does always do his duty when he does what he conceives to be best, though it may be he conceive amiss. The 171st Article Of courage and boldness. Courage, when it is a passion and not a habit or natural inclination, is a certain heat or agitation which disposes the soul to addict her powerfully to the execution of the things she will do, of what nature so ever they be. And boldness is a sort of courage that disposes the soul to the execution of things most dangerous. The 172nd Article Of emulation. And emulation also is a sort of it, but in another sense, for courage may be considered as a kind (or genus) that is divided into as may sorts (or species) as there are several objects, and as many more as it has causes. In the first sense boldness is a sort, in the other emulation; and this last is nothing else but a heat, which disposes the soul to undertake things that she hopes may succeed with her, because she sees them succeed with others. And so it is a sort of courage whose external cause is example. I say the external cause because it ought ever (besides that) to have an internal one which consists in this: that the body is so disposed, as desire and hope are stronger to drive abundance of blood to the heart than fear or despair to hinder it. DEUTERONOMY Chapter 18 15 A prophet like me* will the LORD, your God, raise up for you from among your own kindred; that is the one to whom you shall listen. 16 This is exactly what you requested of the LORD, your God, at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when you said, “Let me not again hear the voice of the LORD, my God, nor see this great fire any more, or I will die.” 17 And the LORD said to me, What they have said is good. 18 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kindred, and will put my words into the mouth of the prophet; the prophet shall tell them all that I command. 19 Anyone who will not listen to my words which the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will hold accountable for it. 20 But if a prophet presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded, or speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die. Psalm 38 38:7 ...I am overcome with shame and my whole body is sick. 38:8 I am numb with pain and severely battered; I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel. 38:9 O Lord, you understand my heart’s desire; my groaning is not hidden from you. 38:10 My heart beats quickly; my strength leaves me; I can hardly see. 38:11 Because of my condition, even my friends and acquaintances keep their distance; my neighbors stand far away. 38:12 Those who seek my life try to entrap me; those who want to harm me speak destructive words; all day long they say deceitful things. 38:13 But I am like a deaf man – I hear nothing; I am like a mute who cannot speak. 38:14 I am like a man who cannot hear and is incapable of arguing his defense. 38:15 Yet I wait for you, O Lord! You will respond, O Lord, my God! 38:16 I have prayed for deliverance, because otherwise they will gloat over me; when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me. 38:17 For I am about to stumble, and I am in constant pain. 38:18 Yes, I confess my wrongdoing, and I am concerned about my sins. 38:19 But those who are my enemies for no reason are numerous; those who hate me without cause outnumber me. 38:20 They repay me evil for the good I have done; though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me. 38:21 Do not abandon me, O Lord! My God, do not remain far away from me! 38:22 Hurry and help me, O Lord, my deliverer! Proverbs 3 3:31 Do not envy a violent man, and do not choose to imitate any of his ways; 3:32 for one who goes astray is an abomination to the Lord, but he reveals his intimate counsel to the upright. Proverbs 12 12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down, but an encouraging word brings him joy. Isaiah 32 32:6 ...a fool speaks disgraceful things; his mind plans out sinful deeds. He commits godless deeds and says misleading things about the Lord; he gives the hungry nothing to satisfy their appetite and gives the thirsty nothing to drink. 32:7 A deceiver’s methods are evil; he dreams up evil plans to ruin the poor with lies, even when the needy are in the right. 32:8 An honorable man makes honorable plans; his honorable character gives him security. Micah 3 3:8 But I 21 am full of the courage that the Lord’s Spirit gives, and have a strong commitment to justice. 22 This enables me to confront Jacob with its rebellion, and Israel with its sin. 23 Matthew 10 10:16 “I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. 10:17 Beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils and flog you in their synagogues. 35 10:18 And you will be brought before governors and kings because of me, as a witness to them and the Gentiles. 10:19 Whenever they hand you over for trial, do not worry about how to speak or what to say, for what you should say will be given to you at that time. 10:20 For it is not you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 10:21 “Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against parents and have them put to death. 10:22 And you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 10:23 Whenever they persecute you in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through all the towns Israel before the Son of Man comes. 10:24 “A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave greater than his master. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much more will they defame the members of his household! 10:26 “Do not be afraid of them, for nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 10:27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the housetops. 51 10:28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Instead, fear the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. Mark 1 1:21 ...When the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 1:22 The people there were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, not like the experts in the law. 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1:24 “Leave us alone, Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are the Holy One of God!” 1:25 But Jesus rebuked him: “Silence! Come out of him!” 1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee. Luke 12 1 ...so many people were crowding together that they were trampling one another underfoot.a He began to speak, first to his disciples, “Beware of the leaven—that is, the hypocrisy—of the Pharisees. 2 “There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 3 Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered behind closed doors will be proclaimed on the housetops. 4 I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body but after that can do no more. 5 I shall show you whom to fear. Be afraid of the one who after killing has the power to cast into Gehenna;* yes, I tell you, be afraid of that one. Acts 9 9:26 When he arrived in Jerusalem, 59 he attempted to associate 60 with the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe 61 that he was a disciple. 9:27 But Barnabas took 62 Saul, 63 brought 64 him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, that 65 the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out boldly 66 in the name of Jesus. 9:28 So he was staying with them, associating openly with them 67 in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord. 1 CORINTHIANS 7 32 I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord. 33 But a married man is anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife, 34 and he is divided. An unmarried woman or a virgin is anxious about the things of the Lord, so that she may be holy in both body and spirit. A married woman, on the other hand, is anxious about the things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35 I am telling you this for your own benefit, not to impose a restraint upon you, but for the sake of propriety and adherence to the Lord without distraction. 1 Corinthians 13 13:8 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 13:10 but when what is perfect comes, the partial will be set aside. 13:11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But when I became an adult, I set aside childish ways. 13:12 For now we see in a mirror indirectly, but then we will see face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I have been fully known. 13:13 And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love. Galations 5 5:19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: 33 sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 34 hostilities, strife, 36 jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 37 factions, 5:21 envying, 38 murder, 39 drunkenness, carousing, 40 and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God! 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 41 is love, 42 joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 43 5:23 gentleness, and 44 self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45 have crucified the flesh 46 with its passions 47 and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48 the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49 provoking 50 one another, being jealous 51 of one another. Ephesians 5 5:1 Therefore, be 1 imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live 2 in love, just as Christ also loved us 3 and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering 4 to God. 5:3 But 5 among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, 6 or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7 5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: 8 that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God. Hebrews 6 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 11 but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.
  5. The 165th Article Of hope and fear. Hope is a disposition of the soul to persuade her that what she desires shall come to pass, which is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, to wit, by those of joy and desire mixed together. And fear is another disposition of the soul which persuades her that it shall not come to pass. And it is to be noted that though these two passions be contrary to one another, yet a man may have them both together, to wit, when he fancies to himself several reasons whereof some make him conceive the accomplishment of his desire is easy, the other make it seem difficult. The 166th Article Of security and despair. And one of these passions never accompanies desire, but it leaves room for the other. For when hope is so strong that it utterly expels fear, it alters the nature thereof and is called security. And when a man is sure that what he desires shall come to pass, though he still wishes that it would come, yet he nevertheless ceases to be agitated with the passion of desire which made him seek after the event with anxiety. In like manner when fear is so extreme that it takes away all kind of hope, it converts into despair; and this despair fancying the thing impossible, clearly extinguishes desire, which only is bent on things possible. The 167th Article Of jealousy. Jealousy is a sort of fear relating to the desire a man has to keep the possession of some good; and it proceeds not so much from strength of reason, which makes him conjecture he may lose it, as the great value he sets on it, which causes him to dive into the least occasions of suspicion and take them for very considerable arguments. PROVERBS 10 10:19 When words abound, transgression is inevitable, 71 but the one who restrains 72 his words 73 is wise. 10:20 What the righteous say 74 is like 75 the best 76 silver, but what the wicked think 77 is of little value. 78 10:21 The teaching 79 of the righteous feeds 80 many, but fools die 81 for lack of wisdom. 82 10:22 The blessing 83 from the Lord 84 makes a person rich, 85 and he adds no sorrow 86 to 87 it. 10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme 88 is enjoyable 89 to a fool, and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment. 90 10:24 What the wicked fears 91 will come on him; what the righteous desire 92 will be granted. 93 10:25 When the storm 94 passes through, the wicked are swept away, 95 but the righteous are an everlasting foundation. 96 10:26 Like vinegar to the teeth and like smoke to the eyes, 97 so is the sluggard to those 98 who send him. 10:27 Fearing the Lord 99 prolongs life, 100 but the life span 101 of the wicked will be shortened. 102 10:28 The hope 103 of the righteous is joy, but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled. 104 PROVERBS 27 27:4 Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming, 9 but who can stand before jealousy? LUKE 12 12:4 “I 12 tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, 13 and after that have nothing more they can do. 12:5 But I will warn 14 you whom you should fear: Fear the one who, after the killing, 15 has authority to throw you 16 into hell. 17 Yes, I tell you, fear him! 12:6 Aren’t five sparrows sold for two pennies? 18 Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 12:7 In fact, even the hairs on your head are all numbered. Do not be afraid; 19 you are more valuable than many sparrows. 12:8 “I 20 tell you, whoever acknowledges 21 me before men, 22 the Son of Man will also acknowledge 23 before God’s angels. 12:9 But the one who denies me before men will be denied before God’s angels. 12:10 And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the person who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit 24 will not be forgiven. 25 12:11 But when they bring you before the synagogues, 26 the 27 rulers, and the authorities, do not worry about how you should make your defense 28 or what you should say, 12:12 for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment 29 what you must say.” 30 ROMANS 11 11:17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among them and participated in 13 the richness of the olive root, 11:18 do not boast over the branches. But if you boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you. 11:19 Then you will say, “The branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 11:20 Granted! 14 They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand by faith. Do not be arrogant, but fear! 11:21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare you. 11:22 Notice therefore the kindness and harshness of God – harshness toward those who have fallen, but 15 God’s kindness toward you, provided you continue in his kindness; 16 otherwise you also will be cut off. 11:23 And even they – if they do not continue in their unbelief – will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11:24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree? 11:25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, 17 so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel 18 until the full number 19 of the Gentiles has come in. 11:26 And so 20 all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. 11:27 And this is my covenant with them, 21 when I take away their sins.” 22 Romans 15 15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you believe in him, 11 so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit. 1 John 4 4:15 If anyone 37 confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God resides 38 in him and he in God. 4:16 And we have come to know and to believe 39 the love that God has in us. 40 God is love, and the one who resides 41 in love resides in God, and God resides in him. 4:17 By this 42 love is perfected with 43 us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment, because just as Jesus 44 is, so also are we in this world. 4:18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love drives out fear, because fear has to do with punishment. 45 The 46 one who fears punishment 47 has not been perfected in love. 4:19 We love 48 because he loved us first.
  6. The 162nd Article Of veneration. Veneration, or respect, is an inclination of the soul not only to esteem the object it reverences, but also to submit to it with some kind of fear, to endeavor to make it become gracious to her. So that we bear only a veneration to free causes, which we conceive able to do good or evil to us, without knowing which of the two they will do. For we bear love and devotion rather than mere veneration to those from whom we only expect good, and we bear hatred to none but such as we only expect evil from. And if we conceive the cause of the good or evil not to be free, we do not submit ourselves thereunto to get the goodwill of it. So when the Pagans bore a veneration to woods, springs, mountains, they did not properly reverence these inanimate things, but the divinities which they thought presided over them. And the motion of the spirits that excite this passion is compounded of that which excites admiration and that which excites fear, whereof I will speak hereafter. The 163rd Article Of Disdain. Just so, that which I call disdain is an inclination of the soul to condemn a free cause by judging that though of its own nature it be able to do either good or evil, yet it is so far beneath us that it can do us neither; and the motion of the spirits that excite it is compounded of those that excite admiration and security or boldness. Deification - The act of deifying; exaltation to divine honors; apotheosis; excessive praise. The 164th Article Of the use of these two passions. And it is either generosity or deification and weakness of spirit that determine the good or ill use of the two passions. For by how much a man's soul is more noble or generous, so much the more inclination he has to give every one his own. And so [he] has not only an extraordinary humility towards God, but without reluctance bestows all the honor and respect which are due to men, to each according to the rank and authority he holds in the world, and condemns nothing but vice. On the contrary, they who are of a mean and weak spirit are apt to sin in excess, sometimes by reverencing and fearing things only worthy of contempt, sometimes by insolently disdaining such as deserve to be reverenced. And they often slip suddenly from extreme in piety to superstition, thence again from superstition to impiety, so that there is no vice nor irregularity of spirit which they are not subject to. PROVERBS 18 18:14 A person’s spirit 47 sustains him through sickness – but who can bear 48 a crushed spirit? 49 18:15 The discerning person 50 acquires knowledge, and the wise person 51 seeks 52 knowledge. MALACHI 3 3:16 Then those who respected 28 the Lord spoke to one another, and the Lord took notice. 29 A scroll 30 was prepared before him in which were recorded the names of those who respected the Lord and honored his name. 3:17 “They will belong to me,” says the Lord who rules over all, “in the day when I prepare my own special property. 31 I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him. 3:18 Then once more you will see that I make a distinction between 32 the righteous and the wicked, between the one who serves God and the one who does not. EPHESIANS 5 5:15 Therefore be very careful how you live – not as unwise but as wise, 5:16 taking advantage of every opportunity, because the days are evil. 5:17 For this reason do not be foolish, but be wise 22 by understanding 23 what the Lord’s will is. 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, which 24 is debauchery, 25 but be filled by the Spirit, 26 5:19 speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music 27 in 28 your hearts to the Lord, 5:20 always giving thanks to God the Father for each other 29 in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5:21 and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ. 1 PETER 2 2:13 Be subject to every human institution 34 for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 2:14 or to governors as those he commissions 35 to punish wrongdoers and praise 36 those who do good. 2:15 For God wants you 37 to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 2:16 Live 38 as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves. 39 2:17 Honor all people, love the family of believers, 40 fear God, honor the king. 2:18 Slaves, 41 be subject 42 to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 2:19 For this finds God’s favor, 43 if because of conscience toward God 44 someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 2:20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God. 45 2:21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 2:22 He 46 committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. 47 2:23 When he was maligned, he 48 did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened 49 no retaliation, 50 but committed himself to God 51 who judges justly. 2:24 He 52 himself bore our sins 53 in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning 54 and live for righteousness. By his 55 wounds 56 you were healed. 57 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep 58 but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
  7. https://selfdefinition.org/magic/Paracelsus-Essential-Theoretical-Writings.pdf Dejection - A state of melancholy or depression; low spirits, the blues. The 159th Article Of dejection. For dejection, or vicious humility it consists chiefly in this: that a man perceives himself weak, or little resolute, and, as if he had not the absolute use of his free disposition, he cannot refrain from doing things whereof he knows not whether he shall repent or no afterwards than besides; that he believes he cannot subsist of himself, nor forgo many things, whose acquisition depends from without him. So it is directly opposite to generosity, and it oft befalls that men of a mean spirit are most arrogant and proud, just as the most generous are most modest, and humble. But whereas those of a generous spirit alter not their nature by any prosperity or adversity that befalls them, those who are weak and abject are only guided by fortune and prosperity does not puff up so high, but adversity brings them down as low. Yea, it is often seen that they abase themselves shamefully to such as they expect profit or fear evil from, and at the same time lift themselves up insolently over those from whom they neither hope, nor fear anything. The 160th Article What the motions of the spirits in these passions is. Moreover, it is easy to understand that pride and dejection are not only vices but passions, because their emotion is very palpable exteriorly in those who are suddenly puffed up or brought down by any new occasion. But it may be doubted whether generosity and humility, which are virtues, may also be passions, because their motions appear less, and it seems, virtue does not so much symbolize with passions, as vice does. Yet I see no reason why the same motion of the spirits which serves to fortify a thought when it has an ill ground, should not also fortify it when it has a just one. And because pride and generosity consist only in the good opinion a man has of himself, and differ only herein that the opinion in one is unjust in the other just, me thinks they may be attributed to one and the same passion, which is excited by a motion compounded of admiration, joy, and love, as well that a man bears to himself as to the thing for which he does esteem himself. As on the contrary, the motion that excites humility, whether virtuous or vicious, is composed of admiration, sadness, and self love, mixed with hatred of those defects which cause one to be condemned. And all the difference that I observe in these motions is that that of admiration has two properties. The first, that the surprise makes it strong from the very beginning. The other, that it is equal in its continuance. That is, the spirits continue moving at the same rate in the brain. Of which properties, the first is found more often in pride and dejection than in generosity or virtuous humility. And on the other side the last is more observed in these than in the others. The reason whereof is, that vice proceeds commonly from ignorance, so that they who least understand themselves are most apt to grow more proud, or become more abject than they ought to be, because every new thing that befalls them surprises them, and causes them, that attributing it to themselves, they admire and esteem or condemn themselves, as they judge that which is befallen them advantageous to them or not. But because as soon as one thing has elated them comes another that dejects them, the motion of their passion is various. Contrarily, there is nothing in generosity, incompatible with virtuous humility, nor anything extraneous that can alter it. Wherefore the motions thereof are firm, constant, and ever like themselves. But they proceed not so much from surprise, because they who in this manner esteem themselves, do very well understand the reason why they so esteem themselves. Yet it may be said that these causes are so wonderful (to wit, the power of their free disposition, which makes them prize them themselves and the infirmities of the subject in which this power is, which makes them not to value themselves too high) that as often as they are presented new, they will cause new admiration. The 161st Article How generosity may be acquired. And it is to be noted that what commonly are called virtues are habits in the soul which dispose it to certain thoughts, so that they are different from these thoughts but they may produce them, and reciprocally be produced by them. It is also to be noted, that these thoughts may be produced only by the soul, but it oft befalls that some motion of the spirits fortifies them, and then they are at the same time actions of virtue and passions of the soul. So though there be no virtue whereunto (me thinks) good birth so much contributes, as that which causes a man to esteem himself according to his just value; and it be easy to believe that all souls which God puts into our bodies are not equally noble and strong (wherefore I called this virtue generosity, according to the acceptation* of our language, rather than magnanimity, the school terms that it may be the more unknown) yet it is certain that good education much conduces to correct the defects of our birth. And that if a man busy himself frequently to consider what this free disposition is, and how great advantages accrue from a steadfast resolution to use it well, as on the other side, how vain and unprofitable all the cares that puzzle the ambitious are, a man may by exciting the passion in himself, acquire the virtue of generosity, which being as the key of all the other virtues, and a general remedy against all the irregularities of passions, me thinks this consideration ought to be very seriously noted. Proverbs 13 13:10 With pride 32 comes only 33 contention, but wisdom is with the well-advised. Luke 9 9:37 Now on 125 the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126 a man from the crowd cried out, 127 “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128 my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129 spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130 it throws him into convulsions 131 and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132 him severely. 9:40 I 133 begged 134 your disciples to cast it out, but 135 they could not do so.” 136 9:41 Jesus answered, 137 “You 138 unbelieving 139 and perverse generation! How much longer 140 must I be with you and endure 141 you? 142 Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143 the boy 144 was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145 and shook him with convulsions. 146 But Jesus rebuked 147 the unclean 148 spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149 they were all astonished at the mighty power 150 of God. Luke 11 11:24 “When an unclean spirit 71 goes out of a person, 72 it passes through waterless places 73 looking for rest but 74 not finding any. Then 75 it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 76 11:25 When it returns, 77 it finds the house 78 swept clean and put in order. 79 11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so 80 the last state of that person 81 is worse than the first.” 82 11:27 As 83 he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!” COLOSSIANS 2 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you 17 through an empty, deceitful philosophy 18 that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits 19 of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives 20 in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence NOTE The emphases of these false teachers are still with us today. The first is “higher” knowledge (Gnosticism). The second is the observance of laws to win God’s love (legalism). The third is the belief that beings other than Christ must mediate between people and God (mysticism). The fourth is the practice of abstaining from things to earn merit with God (asceticism). “When we make Jesus Christ and the Christian revelation only part of a total religious system or philosophy, we cease to give Him the preeminence. When we strive for ‘spiritual perfection’ or ‘spiritual fullness’ by means of formulas, disciplines, or rituals, we go backward instead of forward. Christian believers must beware of mixing their Christian faith with such alluring things as yoga, transcendental meditation, Oriental mysticism, and the like. We must also beware of ‘deeper life’ teachers who offer a system for victory and fullness that bypasses devotion to Jesus Christ. In all things, He must have the preeminence!”[147] Reformed theology has historically taught that a true Christian will never renounce faith in Christ. The fact that Paul wrote this epistle to Christians who were in danger of doing precisely that should prove that this teaching is wrong. Nowhere in the epistle did he make a distinction between professing Christians, who were supposedly the objects of his warnings, and true Christians. Rather he appealed to the Colossians as genuine Christians to watch out for this real danger. Genuine Christians can be deceived by false teaching, even teaching concerning Christ. 2 TIMOTHY 2 2:14 Remind people 24 of these things and solemnly charge them 25 before the Lord 26 not to wrangle over words. This is of no benefit; it just brings ruin on those who listen. 27 2:15 Make every effort to present yourself before God as a proven worker who does not need to be ashamed, teaching the message of truth accurately. 28 2:16 But avoid profane chatter, 29 because those occupied with it will stray further and further into ungodliness, 2 TIMOTHY 3 3:1 But understand this, that in the last days difficult 1 times will come. 3:2 For people 2 will be lovers of themselves, 3 lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3:3 unloving, irreconcilable, slanderers, without self-control, savage, opposed to what is good, 3:4 treacherous, reckless, conceited, loving pleasure rather than loving God. 3:5 They will maintain the outward appearance 4 of religion but will have repudiated its power. So avoid people like these. 5 JAMES 1 1:10 But the rich person’s pride should be in his humiliation, because he will pass away like a wildflower in the meadow. 11 1:11 For the sun rises with its heat and dries up the meadow; the petal of the flower falls off and its beauty is lost forever. 12 So also the rich person in the midst of his pursuits will wither away. 1:12 Happy is the one 13 who endures testing, because when he has proven to be genuine, he will receive the crown of life that God 14 promised to those who love him. 1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted by evil, 15 and he himself tempts no one. 1:14 But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires. 1:15 Then when desire conceives, it gives birth to sin, and when sin is full grown, it gives birth to death. 1:16 Do not be led astray, my dear brothers and sisters. 16 1:17 All generous giving and every perfect gift 17 is from above, coming down 18 from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or the slightest hint of change. 19 1:18 By his sovereign plan he gave us birth 20 through the message of truth, that we would be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. MARK 7 7:18 He said to them, “Are you so foolish? Don’t you understand that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him? 7:19 For it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and then goes out into the sewer.” 22 (This means all foods are clean.) 23 7:20 He said, “What comes out of a person defiles him. 7:21 For from within, out of the human heart, come evil ideas, sexual immorality, theft, murder, 7:22 adultery, greed, evil, deceit, debauchery, envy, slander, pride, and folly. 7:23 All these evils come from within and defile a person.” JUDE 1 1:3 Dear friends, although I have been eager to write to you 7 about our common salvation, I now feel compelled 8 instead to write to encourage 9 you to contend earnestly 10 for the faith 11 that was once for all 12 entrusted to the saints. 13 1:4 For certain men 14 have secretly slipped in among you 15 – men who long ago 16 were marked out 17 for the condemnation I am about to describe 18 – ungodly men who have turned the grace of our God into a license for evil 19 and who deny our only Master 20 and Lord, 21 Jesus Christ. 1:5 Now I desire to remind you (even though you have been fully informed of these facts 22 once for all 23 ) that Jesus, 24 having saved the 25 people out of the land of Egypt, later 26 destroyed those who did not believe. 1:6 You also know that 27 the angels who did not keep within their proper domain 28 but abandoned their own place of residence, he has kept 29 in eternal chains 30 in utter 31 darkness, locked up 32 for the judgment of the great Day. 1:7 So also 33 Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighboring towns, 34 since they indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire 35 in a way similar to 36 these angels, 37 are now displayed as an example by suffering the punishment of eternal fire. 1:8 Yet these men, 38 as a result of their dreams, 39 defile the flesh, reject authority, 40 and insult 41 the glorious ones. 42 1:9 But even 43 when Michael the archangel 44 was arguing with the devil and debating with him 45 concerning Moses’ body, he did not dare to bring a slanderous judgment, but said, “May the Lord rebuke you!” 1:10 But these men do not understand the things they slander, and they are being destroyed by the very things that, like irrational animals, they instinctively comprehend. 46 1:11 Woe to them! For they have traveled down Cain’s path, 47 and because of greed 48 have abandoned themselves 49 to 50 Balaam’s error; hence, 51 they will certainly perish 52 in Korah’s rebellion. 1:12 These men are 53 dangerous reefs 54 at your love feasts, 55 feasting without reverence, 56 feeding only themselves. 57 They are 58 waterless 59 clouds, carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit 60 – twice dead, 61 uprooted; 1:13 wild sea waves, 62 spewing out the foam of 63 their shame; 64 wayward stars 65 for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness 66 have been reserved. 1:14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, 67 even prophesied of them, 68 saying, “Look! The Lord is coming 69 with thousands and thousands 70 of his holy ones, 1:15 to execute judgment on 71 all, and to convict every person 72 of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds 73 that they have committed, 74 and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” 75 1:16 These people are grumblers and 76 fault-finders who go 77 wherever their desires lead them, 78 and they give bombastic speeches, 79 enchanting folks 80 for their own gain.
  8. The 156th Article What the properties of generosity are and how it serves for a remedy against all unruliness of the passions. They who thus are generous are naturally addicted to do great things, and yet to undertake nothing they are not capable of. And because they esteem nothing greater than to do good to other men, and to condemn their own interest on such an occasion, they are exquisitely courteous, affable, and officious to everyone. Withal, they are absolutely masters of their passions, especially of their desires, jealousy and envy, because there is nothing, the acquisition whereof depends not on them, whose worth they suppose can countervail a hearty desire of them, and of hatred against men, because they esteem them all; and of fear, because the confidence of their own virtue secures them; and lastly of wrath, because little valuing all things without themselves they never give their enemies so much advantage as to acknowledge that they are angry with them. The 157th Article Of pride. All such as have a good conceit of themselves for anything else whatsoever, have not a real generosity but only pride, which is always very vicious, though it be so much the more as the cause for which a man esteems himself, is more unjust. And the most unjust of all, is, when he is proud for no reason, that is, though no man can see (for all this) any desert in him for which he should be prized, but only because worth is trampled on, and he imagines renown is nothing but mere usurpation, he believes that they who attribute most to themselves have most. This vice is so unreasonable and absurd that I should scarce believe there were any such men who gave themselves up thereunto, if nobody had ever been praised unjustly. But flattery is so common everywhere that there is no man so deficient, but he oft sees himself esteemed for things which merit not any praise, yea, that even deserve blame, which gives occasion to the more ignorant and stupid to fall into this sort of pride. The 158th Article That the effects thereof are contrary to those of generosity. But whatsoever be the cause for which a man esteems himself, if it be ought else but the will he perceives in himself always to use well his free disposition, from whence I said generosity came, it ever produces a pride exceeding blame-worthy, and so different from this true generosity, that the effects whereof are absolutely contrary. For all other goods, as wit, beauty, riches, honors, &c. using to be the more esteemed, for being found in fewer persons, and being for the most part of such a nature, that they cannot be communicated to many, therefore proud men endeavor to abase all other men, and being slaves to their desire, their souls are incessantly agitated with hatred, envy, jealousy, or wrath. HEBREWS 13 13:16 do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for God is pleased with such sacrifices. ROMANS 8 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 8:2 For the law of the life-giving Spirit in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death. 8:3 For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh. By sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, 8:4 so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 8:5 For those who live according to the flesh have their outlook shaped by the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit have their outlook shaped by the things of the Spirit. 8:6 For the outlook of the flesh is death, but the outlook of the Spirit is life and peace, 8:7 because the outlook of the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able to do so. 8:8 Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. 8:9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. 8:10 But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. 8:11 Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the One who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through His Spirit who lives in you. 8:12 So then, brothers and sisters, we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh 8:13 (for if you live according to the flesh, you will die), but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God. 8:15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery leading again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, “Abba, Father.” 8:16 The Spirit himself bears witness to our spirit that we are God’s children. 8:17 And if children, then heirs (namely, heirs of God and also fellow heirs with Christ) – if indeed we suffer with him so we may also be glorified with him. 8:18 For I consider that our present sufferings cannot even be compared 23 to the glory that will be revealed to us. 8:19 For the creation eagerly waits for the revelation of the sons of God. 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility – not willingly but because of God 24 who subjected it – in hope 8:21 that the creation itself will also be set free from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of God’s children. 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now. 8:23 Not only this, but we ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoption, the redemption of our bodies. 8:24 For in hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope, because who hopes for what he sees? 8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with endurance. 8:26 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness, for we do not know how we should pray, 29 but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with inexpressible groanings. 8:27 And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes on behalf of the saints according to God’s will. 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose, 8:29 because those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that his Son would be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. 8:30 And those he predestined, he also called; and those he called, he also justified; and those he justified, he also glorified. 8:31 What then shall we say about these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 8:32 Indeed, he who 35 did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all – how will he not also, along with him, freely give us all things? 8:33 Who will bring any charge against God’s elect? 36 It is God who justifies. 8:34 Who is the one who will condemn? Christ is the one who died (and more than that, he was raised), who is at the right hand of God, and who also is interceding for us. 8:35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will trouble, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 38 8:36 As it is written, “For your sake we encounter death all day long; we were considered as sheep to be slaughtered.” 39 8:37 No, in all these things we have complete victory through him who loved us! 8:38 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor heavenly rulers, nor things that are present, nor things to come, nor powers, 8:39 nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in creation will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. MARK 6 7:1 Now 1 the Pharisees 2 and some of the experts in the law 3 who came from Jerusalem 4 gathered around him. 7:2 And they saw that some of Jesus’ disciples ate their bread with unclean hands, that is, unwashed. 7:3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they perform a ritual washing, 5 holding fast to the tradition of the elders. 7:4 And when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. They hold fast to many other traditions: the washing of cups, pots, kettles, and dining couches. 6 ) 7 7:5 The Pharisees and the experts in the law asked him, “Why do your disciples not live according to the tradition of the elders, but eat 8 with unwashed hands?” 7:6 He said to them, “Isaiah prophesied correctly about you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart 9 is far from me. 7:7 They worship me in vain, teaching as doctrine the commandments of men.’ 10 7:8 Having no regard 11 for the command of God, you hold fast to human tradition.” 12 7:9 He also said to them, “You neatly reject the commandment of God in order to set up 13 your tradition. 7:10 For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ 14 and, ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’ 15 7:11 But you say that if anyone tells his father or mother, ‘Whatever help you would have received from me is corban’ 16 (that is, a gift for God), 7:12 then you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or mother. 7:13 Thus you nullify 17 the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like this.” 7:14 Then 18 he called the crowd again and said to them, “Listen to me, everyone, and understand. 7:15 There is nothing outside of a person that can defile him by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a person that defiles him.”
  9. The 153rd Article Wherein generosity consists. So, I believe true generosity, which causes a man to set himself at the highest rate he justly may, consists only partly in knowing there is nothing which truly he can call his own, unless this free disposition of his wills, nor wherefore he ought to be praised or blamed, unless for using that well or ill; and partly in feeling a constant, and firm resolution in himself to use it well, that is, his will shall never be wanting to undertake and execute such things as he shall judge to be best, which is to follow virtue absolutely. The 154th Article That it restrains a man from condemning others. Those who have this knowledge and resentment of themselves are easily persuaded that every other man has such of himself too, because there is nothing in it that depends of anything else. Wherefore they never condemn anybody. And though they oft-times see other men commit errors that make their weakness appear, yet they are evermore inclined to excuse than blame them, and to believe that they do it rather for want of knowledge than good will. And as they do not think themselves much inferior to those who have greater estates, honors, nor yet more wit, knowledge, beauty, or generally that surpass them in any other perfections, so they do not esteem themselves much above those whom they surpass because all these things seem very little considerable to them in comparison of their good will for which only they esteem themselves and which they suppose, is, or at least may be, in every other man. The 155th Article Wherein virtuous humility consists. So the most generous use to be most humble, and virtuous humility consists only in this that the reflection we make on the infirmity of our own nature, and the faults we may have formerly committed, or those we are like[ly] to commit which are no whit less than those committed by others, is the reason why we do not prefer ourselves before anybody but think that others, who have their free disposition as well as we, may use it as well. 1 CORINTHIANS 2 2:6 Now we do speak wisdom among the mature, but not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are perishing. 2:7 Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory. 2:8 None of the rulers of this age understood it. If they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 2:9 But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.” 2:10 God has revealed these to us by the Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2:11 For who among men knows the things of a man except the man’s spirit within him? So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 2:12 Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things that are freely given to us by God. 2:13 And we speak about these things, not with words taught us by human wisdom, but with those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people. 2:14 The unbeliever does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. And he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. 2:15 The one who is spiritual discerns all things, yet he himself is understood by no one. ISAIAH 63 63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord, of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds. I will tell about all the Lord did for us, the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 16 because of his compassion and great faithfulness. 63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people, children who are not disloyal.” He became their deliverer. 63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them. In his love and mercy he protected them; he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 63:10 But they rebelled and offended his holy Spirit, so he turned into an enemy and fought against them. 63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea, along with the shepherd of his flock? Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, who divided the water before them, gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 63:13 who led them through the deep water? Like a horse running on flat land they did not stumble. 63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest. In this way you guided your people, gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice, from your holy, majestic palace! Where are your zeal and power? Do not hold back your tender compassion! 63:16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not recognize us. You, Lord, are our father; you have been called our protector from ancient times. 63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray from your ways, and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? Return for the sake of your servants, the tribes of your inheritance! 63:18 For a short time your special nation possessed a land, but then our adversaries knocked down your holy sanctuary. 63:19 We existed from ancient times, but you did not rule over them, they were not your subjects. 64:1 1 If only you would tear apart the sky and come down! The mountains would tremble before you! 64:2 As when fire ignites dry wood, or fire makes water boil, let your adversaries know who you are, and may the nations shake at your presence! 64:3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise, you came down, and the mountains trembled before you. 64:4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived, no eye has seen any God besides you, who intervenes for those who wait for him. 64:5 You assist those who delight in doing what is right, who observe your commandments. Look, you were angry because we violated them continually. How then can we be saved? 64:6 We are all like one who is unclean, all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight. We all wither like a leaf; our sins carry us away like the wind. 64:7 No one invokes your name, or makes an effort to take hold of you. For you have rejected us and handed us over to our own sins. 64:8 Yet, Lord, you are our father. We are the clay, and you are our potter; we are all the product of your labor.
  10. The 149th Article On estimation and contempt. Now the six original passions are explained which are as the kinds (or genera) whereof all the rest are but sorts (or species). I will here succinctly observe what there is peculiar in every one of the rest, and I will keep still the same order wherein I have formally marshaled them. The two first are estimation and contempt. For, though they commonly signify only the opinions a man has, without any passion of the value of anything, yet because from these opinions do often spring passions which want peculiar names, me thinks these may be attributed to them. And estimation, as it is a passion, is an inclination of the soul to represent unto herself the value of the thing esteemed, which inclination is caused by a peculiar motion of the spirits, so conveyed into the brain that they there fortify the impressions belonging to that purpose. As, on the contrary, the passion of contempt is an inclination of the soul to consider the meanness or smallness of what it condemns, caused by the motion of the spirits, which fortify the idea of this smallness. The 151st Article That a man may esteem, or condemn himself. Now, these two passions may generally relate to all sorts of objects, but they are especially remarkable when we refer them to ourselves, that is, when it is our own merit that we either esteem or condemn, and the motion of the spirits which cause them is then so manifest that it even changes the countenance, gesture, gate and generally all the notions of those who conceive a better or worse opinion of themselves than ordinary. The 152nd Article For what cause a man may esteem himself. And because one of the chief parts of wisdom is to know in what manner & for what cause everyone ought to esteem or condemn himself, I will here endeavor to give my opinion thereof. I observe but one thing in us which may give us just cause to esteem ourselves, to wit, the use of our free disposition and our empire over our wills. For only the actions depending on this free disposition are those for which we may justly be praised or blamed. And it makes us in some manner like unto God, by making us masters of ourselves, provided we do not lose the privileges it gives us by our unworthiness. PROVERBS 6 6:16 There are six things that the Lord hates, even 31 seven 32 things that are an abomination to him: 33 6:17 haughty eyes, 34 a lying tongue, 35 and hands that shed innocent blood, 36 6:18 a heart that devises wicked plans, 37 feet that are swift to run 38 to evil, 6:19 a false witness who pours out lies, 39 and a person who spreads discord 40 among family members. PROVERBS 22 22:17 Incline your ear 45 and listen to the words of the wise, and apply your heart to my instruction. 46 22:18 For it is pleasing if 47 you keep these sayings 48 within you, and 49 they are ready on your lips. 50 22:19 So that 51 your confidence may be in the Lord, I am making them known to you today 52 – even you. 22:20 Have I not written thirty sayings 53 for you, sayings 54 of counsel and knowledge, 22:21 to show you true and reliable words, 55 so that you may give accurate answers 56 to those who sent you? 22:22 Do not exploit 57 a poor person because he is poor and do not crush the needy in court, 58 22:23 for the Lord will plead their case 59 and will rob those who are robbing 60 them. 22:24 Do not make friends with an angry person, 61 and do not associate with a wrathful person, 22:25 lest you learn 62 his ways and entangle yourself in a snare. 63 22:26 Do not be one who strikes hands in pledge or who puts up security for debts. 22:27 If you do not have enough to pay, your bed 64 will be taken 65 right out from under you! 66 22:28 Do not move an ancient boundary stone 67 which was put in place by your ancestors. 68 22:29 Do you see a person skilled 69 in his work? He will take his position before kings; he will not take his position 70 before obscure people. 71 23:1 When you sit down to eat with a ruler, consider carefully 1 what 2 is before you, 23:2 and put a knife to your throat 3 if you possess a large appetite. 4 23:3 Do not crave that ruler’s 5 delicacies, for 6 that food is deceptive. 7 23:4 Do not wear yourself out to become rich; be wise enough to restrain yourself. 8 23:5 When you gaze upon riches, 9 they are gone, for they surely make wings for themselves, and fly off into the sky like an eagle! 10 23:6 Do not eat the food of a stingy person, 11 do not crave his delicacies; 23:7 for he is 12 like someone calculating the cost 13 in his mind. 14 “Eat and drink,” he says to you, but his heart is not with you; 23:8 you will vomit up 15 the little bit you have eaten, and will have wasted your pleasant words. 16 23:9 Do not speak in the ears of a fool, 17 for he will despise the wisdom of your words. 18 23:10 Do not move an ancient boundary stone, or take over 19 the fields of the fatherless, 23:11 for their Protector 20 is strong; he will plead their case against you. 21 23:12 Apply 22 your heart to instruction and your ears to the words of knowledge. 23:13 Do not withhold discipline from a child; even if you strike him with the rod, he will not die. 23:14 If you strike 23 him with the rod, you will deliver him 24 from death. 25 23:15 My child, 26 if your heart is wise, then my heart also will be glad; 23:16 my soul 27 will rejoice when your lips speak what is right. 28 23:17 Do not let your heart envy 29 sinners, but rather be zealous in fearing the Lord 30 all the time. 23:18 For surely there is a future, 31 and your hope will not be cut off. 32 23:19 Listen, my child, 33 and be wise, and guide your heart on the right way. 23:20 Do not spend time 34 among drunkards, 35 among those who eat too much 36 meat, 23:21 because drunkards and gluttons become impoverished, and drowsiness 37 clothes them with rags. 38 23:22 Listen to your father who begot you, and do not despise your mother when she is old. 23:23 Acquire 39 truth and do not sell it – wisdom, and discipline, and understanding. 23:24 The father of a righteous person will rejoice greatly; 40 whoever fathers a wise child 41 will have joy in him. 23:25 May your father and your mother have joy; may she who bore you rejoice. 42 23:26 Give me your heart, my son, 43 and let your eyes observe my ways; 23:27 for a prostitute is like 44 a deep pit; a harlot 45 is like 46 a narrow well. 47 23:28 Indeed, she lies in wait like a robber, 48 and increases the unfaithful 49 among men. 50 23:29 Who has woe? 51 Who has sorrow? Who has contentions? Who has complaints? Who has wounds without cause? Who has dullness 52 of the eyes? 23:30 Those who linger over wine, those who go looking for mixed wine. 53 23:31 Do not look on the wine when it is red, when it sparkles 54 in the cup, when it goes down smoothly. 55 23:32 Afterward 56 it bites like a snake, and stings like a viper. 23:33 Your eyes will see strange things, 57 and your mind will speak perverse things. 23:34 And you will be like one who lies down in the midst 58 of the sea, and like one who lies down on the top of the rigging. 59 23:35 You will say, 60 “They have struck me, but I am not harmed! They beat me, but I did not know it! 61 When will I awake? I will look for another drink.” 62 24:1 Do not envy evil people, 1 do not desire 2 to be with them; 24:2 for their hearts contemplate violence, and their lips speak harm. 3 24:14 Likewise, know 22 that wisdom is sweet 23 to your soul; if you find it, 24 you will have a future, 25 and your hope will not be cut off. 24:15 Do not lie in wait like the wicked 26 against the place where the righteous live; do not assault 27 his home. 24:16 Although 28 a righteous person may fall seven times, he gets up again, but the wicked will be brought down 29 by calamity. 24:17 Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, 30 and when he stumbles do not let your heart rejoice, 24:18 lest the Lord see it, and be displeased, 31 and turn his wrath away from him. 32 24:19 Do not fret because of evil people or be envious of wicked people, 24:20 for the evil person has no future, 33 and the lamp of the wicked will be extinguished. 34 24:21 Fear the Lord, my child, 35 as well as the king, and do not associate 36 with rebels, 37 24:22 for suddenly their destruction will overtake them, 38 and who knows the ruinous judgment both the Lord and the king can bring? JOB 28 28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from? 34 Where is the place of understanding? 28:21 For 35 it has been hidden from the eyes of every living creature, and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed. 28:22 Destruction 36 and Death say, ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’ 37 28:23 God understands the way to it, and he alone knows its place. 28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth and observes everything under the heavens. 28:25 When he made 38 the force of the wind and measured 39 the waters with a gauge. 28:26 When he imposed a limit 40 for the rain, and a path for the thunderstorm, 41 28:27 then he looked at wisdom 42 and assessed its value; 43 he established 44 it and examined it closely. 45 28:28 And he said to mankind, ‘The fear of the Lord 46 – that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.’” 47
  11. Every human being needs to trust in Jesus Christ because everyone lacks the righteousness that God requires before He will accept us. the unfolding of history also reveals God’s hatred toward sin and His judgment of sin. The moral devolution of humanity is not just a natural consequence of man’s sinning but also a result of God’s judgment of sinners. The 144th Article Of desires whose events depend only on ourselves. But because these passions cannot sway us to any actions but by the interposition of the desire that they excite, it is desire which we ought peculiarly to regulate, and therein consists the principal part of morality. Now, as I said just now, it is always good when it follows a true knowledge so it cannot choose but be bad when it is grounded on an error. And me thinks, the most ordinary error committed in desire is when a man does not clearly enough distinguish the things which absolutely depend on ourselves, from those which do not. For concerning those which depend of us, that is of our free disposition, it is enough to know that they are good, [for us] not to desire them with too much vehemence, because it is a following of virtue to do the good things that depend of us. And it is certain, he cannot have too ardent a desire after virtue. Besides, what we thus desire cannot choose but be accomplished, since it depending only on us, we ever receive the plenary satisfaction we expect, but the usual fault herein is not that we desire too much, but too little, and the sovereign remedy against that is, as much as in us lies, to rid the spirit of all kind of desire less useful, than to strive to know clearly, and consider with attention, the goodness of that which is to be desired. The 145th Article Of those which depend merely on causes, and what fortune. For those things which depend not any ways of us, how good soever they be, they ought never to be desired with passion. Not only because they may not befall, and by this means afflict us so much the more, by how much more they were desired. But chiefly, because when they possess our thoughts, they divert us from bending our affection to other things, the acquisition whereof depends of ourselves. And there are two general remedies against these idle desires; the first, generosity, which I will speak of hereafter; the second is that we ought to reflect on Divine Providence, and imagine to ourselves that it is impossible that anything happen otherwise than this Providence has determined from all eternity so that there is a kind of fatality, or irresistible necessity to oppose Fortune to destroy her, as a chimera proceeding only from the error of our understandings. For we can desire nothing but what we think in some manner possible, and we cannot suppose things which depend not of us possible, seeing we think they depend not on Fortune--that is, we suppose they may happen, and the like has happened formerly. Now, this opinion is only grounded upon this, that we not understanding all the causes contributory to every effect, for when a thing which we supposed to depend on Fortune does not fall out, that shows some of the causes necessary to produce was wanting. And consequently that it was absolutely impossible and that the like did never happen, that is, where a like cause of its production was wanting. So that had we not been ignorant of that before, we should never have imagined them possible, nor consequently should ever have desired them. The 146th Article Of those that depend of us and others too. This vulgar opinion then, that there is without us a Fortune which causes things to fall out, or not to fall out, according to her pleasure, must be utterly rejected. And it must be understood that all things are guided by a Divine Providence whose eternal decree is so infallible and immutable that unless those things which the same decree has pleased to let depend on our free disposition, we ought to think, for our parts, that nothing happens but what of necessity must, as if it were fatal, so that without a crime we cannot desire it may happen otherwise. But because the most part of our desires extend to two things which depend not altogether on ourselves, nor altogether elsewhere, we ought exactly to distinguish what in them depends on ourselves, that we may not let our desire ramble any farther than that. And for what is over and above, though we should esteem the success thereof absolutely fatal and immutable that our desire busy not itself thereabout, we should not omit to consider the reasons why it ought less or more to be hoped for, that they may serve to regulate our actions. For if for example, we had any business at a place whither we might go two several ways, one whereof use[d] to be much safer than the other, although the decree of Providence may be such, that if we go that way which is conceived fastest, we shall not escape robbing. And on the contrary, we might have gone the other way without any danger, yet we ought not therefore to be indifferent which we take, nor rest upon the immutable fatality of this decree. But reason wills us to choose the way which used to be safest, and our desire herein ought to be fulfilled, whatsoever evil befall us by following it. Because this evil (or mischief) having been, as to us, inevitable we have no occasion to wish to be exempted from it but only do the best our understanding can comprehend, as, I suppose, we have done. And it is certain that when a man exercises himself so to distinguish betwixt fatality and fortune he easily habituates himself so to regulate his desires, that seeing the fulfilling of them depends only on ourselves, they may always give us an absolute satisfaction. ROMANS 7 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, 9 the sinful desires, 10 aroused by the law, were active in the members of our body 11 to bear fruit for death. 7:6 But now we have been released from the law, because we have died 12 to what controlled us, so that we may serve in the new life of the Spirit and not under the old written code. 2 PETER 1 1:3 I can pray this because his divine power 12 has bestowed on us everything necessary 13 for life and godliness through the rich knowledge 14 of the one who called 15 us by 16 his own glory and excellence. 1:4 Through these things 17 he has bestowed on us his precious and most magnificent promises, so that by means of what was promised 18 you may become partakers of the divine nature, 19 after escaping 20 the worldly corruption that is produced by evil desire. 21 1:5 For this very reason, 22 make every effort 23 to add to your faith excellence, 24 to excellence, knowledge; 1:6 to knowledge, self-control; to self-control, perseverance; 25 to perseverance, godliness; 1:7 to godliness, brotherly affection; to brotherly affection, unselfish 26 love. 27 1:8 For if 28 these things are really yours 29 and are continually increasing, 30 they will keep you from becoming 31 ineffective and unproductive in your pursuit of 32 knowing our Lord Jesus Christ more intimately. MATTHEW 7 7:24 “Everyone 27 who hears these words of mine and does them is like 28 a wise man 29 who built his house on rock. 7:25 The rain fell, the flood 30 came, and the winds beat against that house, but it did not collapse because it had been founded on rock. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. 7:27 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, and it collapsed; it was utterly destroyed!” 2 Corinthians 1:12 For our reason for confidence 23 is this: the testimony of our conscience, that with pure motives 24 and sincerity which are from God 25 – not by human wisdom 26 but by the grace of God – we conducted ourselves in the world, and all the more 27 toward you. ISAIAH 28 28:16 Therefore, this is what the sovereign master, the Lord, says: “Look, I am laying 34 a stone in Zion, an approved 35 stone, set in place as a precious cornerstone for the foundation. 36 The one who maintains his faith will not panic. 37 28:17 I will make justice the measuring line, fairness the plumb line; hail will sweep away the unreliable refuge, 38 the floodwaters will overwhelm the hiding place. GALATIANS 5 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 45 have crucified the flesh 46 with its passions 47 and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 48 the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 49 provoking 50 one another, being jealous 51 of one another. ROMANS 1 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of people 39 who suppress the truth by their 40 unrighteousness, 41 1:19 because what can be known about God is plain to them, 42 because God has made it plain to them. 1:20 For since the creation of the world his invisible attributes – his eternal power and divine nature – have been clearly seen, because they are understood through what has been made. So people 43 are without excuse. 1:21 For although they knew God, they did not glorify him as God or give him thanks, but they became futile in their thoughts and their senseless hearts 44 were darkened. 1:22 Although they claimed 45 to be wise, they became fools 1:23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for an image resembling mortal human beings 46 or birds or four-footed animals 47 or reptiles.
  12. The 144th Article Of desires whose events depend only on ourselves. But because these passions cannot sway us to any actions but by the interposition of the desire that they excite, it is desire which we ought peculiarly to regulate, and therein consists the principal part of morality. Now, as I said just now, it is always good when it follows a true knowledge so it cannot choose but be bad when it is grounded on an error. And me thinks, the most ordinary error committed in desire is when a man does not clearly enough distinguish the things which absolutely depend on ourselves, from those which do not. For concerning those which depend of us, that is of our free disposition, it is enough to know that they are good, [for us] not to desire them with too much vehemence, because it is a following of virtue to do the good things that depend of us. And it is certain, he cannot have too ardent a desire after virtue. Besides, what we thus desire cannot choose but be accomplished, since it depending only on us, we ever receive the plenary satisfaction we expect, but the usual fault herein is not that we desire too much, but too little, and the sovereign remedy against that is, as much as in us lies, to rid the spirit of all kind of desire less useful, than to strive to know clearly, and consider with attention, the goodness of that which is to be desired. The 145th Article Of those which depend merely on causes, and what fortune. For those things which depend not any ways of us, how good soever they be, they ought never to be desired with passion. Not only because they may not befall, and by this means afflict us so much the more, by how much more they were desired. But chiefly, because when they possess our thoughts, they divert us from bending our affection to other things, the acquisition whereof depends of ourselves. And there are two general remedies against these idle desires; the first, generosity, which I will speak of hereafter; the second is that we ought to reflect on Divine Providence, and imagine to ourselves that it is impossible that anything happen otherwise than this Providence has determined from all eternity so that there is a kind of fatality, or irresistible necessity to oppose Fortune to destroy her, as a chimera proceeding only from the error of our understandings. For we can desire nothing but what we think in some manner possible, and we cannot suppose things which depend not of us possible, seeing we think they depend not on Fortune--that is, we suppose they may happen, and the like has happened formerly. Now, this opinion is only grounded upon this, that we not understanding all the causes contributory to every effect, for when a thing which we supposed to depend on Fortune does not fall out, that shows some of the causes necessary to produce was wanting. And consequently that it was absolutely impossible and that the like did never happen, that is, where a like cause of its production was wanting. So that had we not been ignorant of that before, we should never have imagined them possible, nor consequently should ever have desired them. The 146th Article Of those that depend of us and others too. This vulgar opinion then, that there is without us a Fortune which causes things to fall out, or not to fall out, according to her pleasure, must be utterly rejected. And it must be understood that all things are guided by a Divine Providence whose eternal decree is so infallible and immutable that unless those things which the same decree has pleased to let depend on our free disposition, we ought to think, for our parts, that nothing happens but what of necessity must, as if it were fatal, so that without a crime we cannot desire it may happen otherwise. But because the most part of our desires extend to two things which depend not altogether on ourselves, nor altogether elsewhere, we ought exactly to distinguish what in them depends on ourselves, that we may not let our desire ramble any farther than that. And for what is over and above, though we should esteem the success thereof absolutely fatal and immutable that our desire busy not itself thereabout, we should not omit to consider the reasons why it ought less or more to be hoped for, that they may serve to regulate our actions. For if for example, we had any business at a place whither we might go two several ways, one whereof use[d] to be much safer than the other, although the decree of Providence may be such, that if we go that way which is conceived fastest, we shall not escape robbing. And on the contrary, we might have gone the other way without any danger, yet we ought not therefore to be indifferent which we take, nor rest upon the immutable fatality of this decree. But reason wills us to choose the way which used to be safest, and our desire herein ought to be fulfilled, whatsoever evil befall us by following it. Because this evil (or mischief) having been, as to us, inevitable we have no occasion to wish to be exempted from it but only do the best our understanding can comprehend, as, I suppose, we have done. And it is certain that when a man exercises himself so to distinguish betwixt fatality and fortune he easily habituates himself so to regulate his desires, that seeing the fulfilling of them depends only on ourselves, they may always give us an absolute satisfaction. PROVERBS 1 1:7 Fearing the Lord is the beginning of moral knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction. 1:8 Listen, my child, to the instruction from your father, and do not forsake the teaching from your mother. 1:9 For they will be like an elegant garland on your head, and like pendants around your neck. JAMES 3 3:13 Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct he should show his works done in the gentleness that wisdom brings. 3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfishness in your hearts, do not boast and tell lies against the truth. 3:15 Such wisdom does not come from above but is earthly, natural, demonic. 3:16 For where there is jealousy and selfishness, there is disorder and every evil practice. 3:17 But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, accommodating, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial, and not hypocritical. 3:18 And the fruit that consists of righteousness is planted in peace among those who make peace. COLOSSIANS 3 3:5 So put to death whatever in your nature belongs to the earth: sexual immorality, impurity, shameful passion, evil desire, and greed which is idolatry. 3:6 Because of these things the wrath of God is coming on the sons of disobedience. 3:7 You also lived your lives in this way at one time, when you used to live among them. 3:8 But now, put off all such things as anger, rage, malice, slander, abusive language from your mouth. 3:9 Do not lie to one another since you have put off the old man with its practices 3:10 and have been clothed with the new man that is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of the one who created it. 3:11 Here there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all and in all.
  13. The 141st Article Of desire, joy, and sadness. For desire, it is evident that when it proceeds from a true knowledge, it cannot be evil, provided it be not immoderate, and that this knowledge regulate it. It is evident also, that joy cannot choose but be good, nor sadness but be evil, in respect of the soul: because in the last consist all the inconveniences that the soul receives by evil, and in the first all the enjoyment of good belonging to her. So that, if we had no bodies, I dare say, we could not give ourselves up too much to love, and joy, nor too much shun hatred, and sadness. But the corporeal motions that accompany them, may be all hurtful to the health, when they are very violent, and on the other side useful when they are but moderate. The 142nd Article Of joy and love, compared with sadness and hatred. Furthermore, since hatred and sadness ought to be rejected by the soul, even then when they proceed from a true knowledge, much more ought they to be when they come from any false opinion. But it may be doubted whether love and joy are good or no, when they likewise are ill grounded. And me thinks, if it be only considered what they are precisely in themselves, in respect of the soul, it may be said that although the joy be less solid and the love less advantageous than when they have a better foundation, they are at the worst to be preferred before sadness and hatred as ill grounded, so that in the occurrences of life, where we cannot avoid the hazard of being deceived, we do always best to lean to those passions which tend towards good than those which have relation to evil, although it be to shun it. Nay, sometimes a false joy is better than a sadness from a true cause. But I dare not say the same of love, in relation to hatred, for when hatred is just, it removes us not from anything but the subject which contains the evil from which it is good to be separated. Whereas unjust love joins us to hurtful things, or at least to such as desire not to be so much considered by us as they are, which devours and abases us. The 143rd Article Of the same passions as they relate to desire. And it must be exactly noted that what I now speak of these four passions takes place only when they are considered precisely in themselves, and incline us not to any action. For seeing they excite desire in us, by whose interposition they regulate our manners, it is certain that all those that come from a wrong cause may hurt, and on the other side, those that come of a just cause may be useful. And further, that when they are both equally ill grounded, joy is commonly more hurtful than sadness, because this, enduing a man with reserve and wariness, does in some sort incline him to prudence, whereas the other render those who give themselves up thereunto inconsiderate and rash. MATTHEW 7 7:15 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves. 20 7:16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered 21 from thorns or figs from thistles, are they? 22 7:17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad 23 tree bears bad fruit. 7:18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit. 7:19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 7:20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit. ROMANS 12 12:17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil; consider what is good before all people. 12 12:18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all people. 13 12:19 Do not avenge yourselves, dear friends, but give place to God’s wrath, 14 for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 15 says the Lord. 12:20 Rather, if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in doing this you will be heaping burning coals on his head. 16 12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 1 PETER 3 3:9 Do not return evil for evil or insult for insult, but instead bless 14 others 15 because you were called to inherit a blessing. 3:10 For the one who wants to love life and see good days must keep 16 his tongue from evil and his lips from uttering deceit. 3:11 And he must turn away from evil and do good; he must seek peace and pursue it. 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are 17 upon the righteous and his ears are open to their prayer. But the Lord’s face is against those who do evil. 18 3:13 For 19 who is going to harm you if you are devoted to what is good? 3:14 But in fact, if you happen to suffer 20 for doing what is right, 21 you are blessed. But do not be terrified of them 22 or be shaken. 23 3:15 But set Christ 24 apart 25 as Lord in your hearts and always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess. 26 3:16 Yet do it with courtesy and respect, 27 keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse you. 28 3:17 For it is better to suffer for doing good, if God wills it, 29 than for doing evil.
  14. The 138th Article Of their faults, and the means to correct them. But, though this use of the passions be the most natural they can have, and all irrational creatures regulate their life only by corporeal motions resembling those which in us use to follow them, and whereunto they incite our soul to consent, yet it is not always good, seeing there are many things hurtful to the body, which at first cause not any sadness, nor yet confer joy and others beneficial to it, though at first they be incommodious. And besides, they most commonly make the evils and goods they represent to us, seem much greater and weightier than they are. So that they incite us to seek after the one, and avoid the other with more vehemence and anxiety than is convenient: as we see beasts are often entrapped by baits, and to shun little evils they precipitate themselves into greater. Wherefore, we ought to make use of our experience and reason to distinguish good from evil, and know their just value, that we may not take one for the other, nor addict ourselves to anything excessively. The 139th Article Of the use of the same passions, as they relate to the soul; and first of love. This were sufficient, if we had only a body, or if that were our better part. But seeing it is the least, we ought chiefly to consider the passions as they relate to the soul, in respect whereof love and hatred proceed from knowledge, and precede joy and sadness, except when these two last hold the place of knowledge whereof those are sorts; and when this knowledge is true, that is, when the things it inclines us to love, are truly good, and those it inclines us to hate are truly evil, then love is incomparably better than hatred, nor can it be too great, or fail to produce joy. I say, this love is extraordinar[ily] good; because joining true goods to us, it makes us so much the more perfect. I say also, that it cannot be too great, for what the most excessive can do, is but to join us so absolutely to those goods that we put distinction between the love we bear to that, and ourselves, which, I believe, cannot be evil. And it is necessarily followed by joy because it represents what we love, as a good belonging to us. The 140th Article Of hatred. Hatred, on the contrary, cannot be so small but it hurts, and it is never without sadness. I say it cannot be too small because we are not incited by hatred to any action, but what we may be by love of the good contrary to it; at least, when this good and evil are enough understood. For I confess that the hatred of evil which is not manifested but by pain, is necessary in respect of the body. But I speak here of that which proceeds from a more clear knowledge, and I attribute it only to the soul. I say also, that it is never without sadness, because evil being but a privation, it cannot be conceived without some real subject wherein it is, and there is nothing real but has some goodness in it, so that the hatred which make us refrain from evil, does also make us refrain from the good whereunto it is annexed; and the privation of this good, being represented to our soul as a defect in her, excites sadness. For example, the hatred which makes us refrain from the evil manners of anyone, does by the same means, make us refrain from his conversation, wherein we might otherwise find some good, which we are vexed to be deprived of. And so in all other kinds of hatred some subject of sadness may be observed. 1 JOHN 3 3:18 Little children, let us not love with word or with tongue but in deed and truth. 64 3:19 And by this 65 we will know that we are of the truth and will convince 66 our conscience 67 in his presence, 68 3:20 that 69 if our conscience condemns 70 us, that 71 God is greater than our conscience and knows all things. 3:21 Dear friends, if our conscience does not condemn us, we have confidence in the presence of God, 3:22 and 72 whatever we ask we receive from him, because 73 we keep his commandments and do the things that are pleasing to him. 3:23 Now 74 this is his commandment: 75 that we believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he gave 76 us the commandment. 3:24 And the person who keeps his commandments resides 77 in God, 78 and God 79 in him. Now by this 80 we know that God 81 resides in us: by the Spirit he has given us. PROVERBS 15 15:11 Death and Destruction 30 are before the Lord – how much more 31 the hearts of humans! 32 15:12 The scorner does not love 33 one who corrects him; 34 he will not go to 35 the wise. 15:13 A joyful heart 36 makes the face cheerful, 37 but by a painful heart the spirit is broken. 15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge, but the mouth of fools feeds on folly. 38 15:15 All the days 39 of the afflicted 40 are bad, 41 but one with 42 a cheerful heart has a continual feast. 43 15:16 Better 44 is little with the fear of the Lord than great wealth and turmoil 45 with it. 46 15:17 Better a meal of vegetables where there is love 47 than a fattened ox where there is hatred. 48 15:18 A quick-tempered person 49 stirs up dissension, but one who is slow to anger 50 calms 51 a quarrel. 52 15:19 The way of the sluggard is like a hedge of thorns, 53 but the path of the upright is like 54 a highway. 55 15:20 A wise child 56 brings joy to his father, but a foolish person 57 despises 58 his mother. 15:21 Folly is a joy to one who lacks sense, 59 but one who has understanding 60 follows an upright course. 61 LUKE 6 6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 91 do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 92 you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 93 offer the other as well, 94 and from the person who takes away your coat, 95 do not withhold your tunic 96 either. 97 6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 98 and do not ask for your possessions 99 back 100 from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 101 in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 102 6:32 “If 103 you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 104 love those who love them. 105 6:33 And 106 if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 107 sinners 108 do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 109 what credit is that to you? Even sinners 110 lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 111 6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 112 Then 113 your reward will be great, and you will be sons 114 of the Most High, 115 because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 116 6:36 Be merciful, 117 just as your Father is merciful. HEBREWS 12 12:11 Now all discipline seems painful at the time, not joyful. 14 But later it produces the fruit of peace and righteousness 15 for those trained by it. 12:12 Therefore, strengthen 16 your listless hands and your weak knees, 17 12:13 and make straight paths for your feet, 18 so that what is lame may not be put out of joint but be healed.
  15. The 120th Article How it is caused by love and by desire. And the passion which most commonly causes this effect is love joined to the desire of a thing, the acquisition whereof is not imagined possible for the present time for love so busies the soul in considering the object beloved that it employs all the spirits which are in the brain to represent the image of it to her, and stops all the motions of the kernel not subservient to this purpose. And it is to be noted concerning desire that the property which I have attributed to it, of rendering the body more active, agrees not to it, but when a man imagines the object desired to be such, that he may from that very time do something which may serve to acquire it. For if, on the other side, he imagines it is impossible for him at that time to do anything that may conduce thereunto, all the agitation of desire remains in the brain, not at all passing into the nerves; and being wholly employed in fortifying the idea of the object desired there, leaves the rest of the body languishing. The 121st Article That it may also be caused by other passions. It is true that hatred, sadness, yes, and joy too, may cause some kind of languishing too when they are very violent: because they wholly busy the soul in considering their objects, chiefly when the desire of a thing, to the acquisition whereof a man cannot contribute anything for the present, is joined with them. But because he fixes more on the consideration of the objects which he has joined in will to himself than those which he has separated, or any else; and because languishing depends not on a surprise but requires some time to be formed, it is more frequently found in love than any other passion. The 136th Article From whence proceed the passions which are peculiar to certain men. Furthermore, that I may here in few words supply all that may be added hereunto concerning the several effects or causes of the passions, I am content to repeat the principle, whereon all that I have written of them is grounded: to wit, that there is such a tie betwixt our soul and body that when we once have joined any corporeal action with any thought, one of them never presents itself to us without the other; and that they are not always the same actions which are joined to the same thoughts. For this is sufficient to give a reason of all that any man can observe peculiar, either in himself or others, concerning this matter, which has not been here explained. And for example, it is easy to conceive that the strange aversions of some, who cannot endure the smell of roses, the sight of a cat, or the like, come only from hence; that when they were but newly alive they were displeased with some such like objects, or else had a fellow feeling of their mother's resentment, who was so distasteful when she was with child. For it is certain there is an affinity between the motions of the mother and the child in her womb, so that whatsoever is displeasing to one, offends the other. And the smell of roses may have caused some great head-ache in the child, when it was in the cradle; or a cat may have frightened it, and none took notice of it, nor the child so much as remembered it; though the idea of that aversion he then had to roses, or a cat, remain imprinted in his brain to his life's end. The 137th Article Of the use of the five precedent passions as they relate to the body. Now the definitions of love, hatred, desire, joy, and sadness are laid down, and the corporeal motions that cause them or accompany them treated of, we have no further to do, but consider the use of them. Concerning which, it is to be observed, that according to the institution of nature they all relate to the body, and are not given to the soul, but as joined to it. So that their natural use is to incite the soul to consent and contribute to the actions, which may be useful to conserve the body, or make it in some kind more perfect. And in this sense sadness and joy are the two first that are set on work, for the soul is immediately warned of those things that are hurtful to the body by the feeling of pain, which first of all produces the passion of sadness in her, then hatred of that which causes this pain, and in the third place the desire to be rid of it. As also, the soul is not immediately advertised of things beneficial to the body, but by some kind of tickling which exciting the passion of joy in her, breeds afterwards love of that she believes to be the cause of it, and at last desire to acquire that which may either cause this joy to continue in her, or to enjoy after it, another like it; which shows that they are all five very useful in behalf of the body. And indeed, that sadness is in some sort superior to, and more necessary than joy, and hate than love. Because it is of more moment to repel things noxious and destructive, than to acquire such as add some kind of perfection, without which it is possible to subsist. JOB 35 35:2 “Do you think this to be 2 just: when 3 you say, ‘My right before God.’ 4 35:3 But you say, ‘What will it profit you,’ 5 and, ‘What do I gain by not sinning?’ 6 35:4 I 7 will reply to you, 8 and to your friends with you. 35:5 Gaze at the heavens and see; consider the clouds, which are higher than you! 9 35:6 If you sin, how does it affect God? 10 If your transgressions are many, what does it do to him? 11 35:7 If you are righteous, what do you give to God, or what does he receive from your hand? 35:8 Your wickedness affects only 12 a person like yourself, and your righteousness only other people. 13 35:9 “People 14 cry out because of the excess of oppression; 15 they cry out for help because of the power 16 of the mighty. 17 35:10 But no one says, ‘Where is God, my Creator, who gives songs in the night, 18 35:11 who teaches us 19 more than 20 the wild animals of the earth, and makes us wiser than the birds of the sky?’ 35:12 Then 21 they cry out – but he does not answer – because of the arrogance of the wicked. 35:13 Surely it is an empty cry 22 – God does not hear it; the Almighty does not take notice of it. 35:14 How much less, then, when you say that you do not perceive him, that the case is before him and you are waiting for him! 23 35:15 And further, 24 when you say that his anger does not punish, 25 and that he does not know transgression! 26 35:16 So Job opens his mouth to no purpose; 27 without knowledge he multiplies words.” COLOSSIANS 3 3:12 Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with a heart of mercy, 9 kindness, humility, gentleness, and patience, 3:13 bearing with one another and forgiving 10 one another, if someone happens to have 11 a complaint against anyone else. Just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also forgive others. 12 3:14 And to all these 13 virtues 14 add 15 love, which is the perfect bond. 16 3:15 Let the peace of Christ be in control in your heart (for you were in fact called as one body 17 to this peace), and be thankful. 3:16 Let the word of Christ 18 dwell in you richly, teaching and exhorting one another with all wisdom, singing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, all with grace 19 in your hearts to God. 3:17 And whatever you do in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. HEBREWS 8 “Look, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. 8:9 “It will not be like the covenant 18 that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my covenant and I had no regard for them, says the Lord. 8:10 “For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put 19 my laws in their minds 20 and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people. 21 8:11 “And there will be no need at all 22 for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest. 23 8:12 “For I will be merciful toward their evil deeds, and their sins I will remember no longer.” 24 8:13 When he speaks of a new covenant, 25 he makes the first obsolete. Now what is growing obsolete and aging is about to disappear. 2 PETER 3 3:14 Therefore, dear friends, since you are waiting for 48 these things, strive to be found 49 at peace, without spot or blemish, when you come into his presence. 50 3:15 And regard the patience of our Lord as salvation, 51 just as also our dear brother Paul 52 wrote to you, 53 according to the wisdom given to him, 3:16 speaking of these things in all his letters. 54 Some things in these letters 55 are hard to understand, things 56 the ignorant and unstable twist 57 to their own destruction, as they also do to the rest of the scriptures. 58 3:17 Therefore, dear friends, since you have been forewarned, 59 be on your guard that you do not get led astray by the error of these unprincipled men 60 and fall from your firm grasp on the truth. 61 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge 62 of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the honor both now and on 63 that eternal day. 64
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