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Posts posted by Luke_Wilbur

  1. The Breath of the Father (Holy Spirit) is an supernatural living force known by the movement by which he reveals the Living Word to us and disposes us to welcome him in faith


    De Principiis (Book I)
    Chapter 3. On the Holy Spirit


    Of the existence of the Holy Spirit no one indeed could entertain any suspicion, save those who were familiar with the law and the prophets, or those who profess a belief in Christ. For although no one is able to speak with certainty of God the Father, it is nevertheless possible for some knowledge of Him to be gained by means of the visible creation and the natural feelings of the human mind; and it is possible, moreover, for such knowledge to be confined from the sacred Scriptures. But with respect to the Son of God, although no one knows the Son save the Father, yet it is from sacred Scripture also that the human mind is taught how to think of the Son; and that not only from the New, but also from the Old Testament, by means of those things which, although done by the saints, are figuratively referred to Christ, and from which both His divine nature, and that human nature which was assumed by Him, may be discovered.

    Now, what the Holy Spirit is, we are taught in many passages of Scripture, as by David in the fifty-first Psalm, when he says, And take not Your Holy Spirit from me; and by Daniel, where it is said, The Holy Spirit which is in you. And in the New Testament we have abundant testimonies, as when the Holy Spirit is described as having descended upon Christ, and when the Lord breathed upon His apostles after His resurrection, saying, Receive the Holy Spirit; and the saying of the angel to Mary, The Holy Spirit will come upon you; the declaration by Paul, that no one can call Jesus Lord, save by the Holy Spirit. In the Acts of the Apostles, the Holy Spirit was given by the imposition of the apostles' hands in baptism. From all which we learn that the person of the Holy Spirit was of such authority and dignity, that saving baptism was not complete except by the authority of the most excellent Trinity of them all, i.e., by the naming of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and by joining to the unbegotten God the Father, and to His only-begotten Son, the name also of the Holy Spirit. Who, then, is not amazed at the exceeding majesty of the Holy Spirit, when he hears that he who speaks a word against the Son of man may hope for forgiveness; but that he who is guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit has not forgiveness, either in the present world or in that which is to come!

    The Spirit of God, therefore, which was borne upon the waters, as is written in the beginning of the creation of the world, is, I am of opinion, no other than the Holy Spirit, so far as I can understand; as indeed we have shown in our exposition of the passages themselves, not according to the historical, but according to the spiritual method of interpretation.

    Some indeed of our predecessors have observed, that in the New Testament, whenever the Spirit is named without that adjunct which denotes quality, the Holy Spirit is to be understood; as e.g., in the expression, Now the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, and peace; and, Seeing you began in the Spirit, are you now made perfect in the flesh? We are of opinion that this distinction may be observed in the Old Testament also, as when it is said, He that gives His Spirit to the people who are upon the earth, and Spirit to them who walk thereon. For, without doubt, every one who walks upon the earth (i.e., earthly and corporeal beings) is a partaker also of the Holy Spirit, receiving it from God. My Hebrew master also used to say that those two seraphim in Isaiah, which are described as having each six wings, and calling to one another, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God of hosts, were to be understood of the only-begotten Son of God and of the Holy Spirit. And we think that that expression also which occurs in the hymn of Habakkuk, In the midst either of the two living things, or of the two lives, You will be known, ought to be understood of Christ and of the Holy Spirit. For all knowledge of the Father is obtained by revelation of the Son through the Holy Spirit, so that both of these beings which, according to the prophet, are called either living things or lives, exist as the ground of the knowledge of God the Father. For as it is said of the Son, that no one knows the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him, the same also is said by the apostle of the Holy Spirit, when He declares, God has revealed them to us by His Holy Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God; and again in the Gospel, when the Savior, speaking of the divine and profounder parts of His teaching, which His disciples were not yet able to receive, thus addresses them: I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now; but when the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, has come, He will teach you all things, and will bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said to you. We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: For the Spirit blows where He lists. We are not, however, to suppose that the Spirit derives His knowledge through revelation from the Son. For if the Holy Spirit knows the Father through the Son's revelation, He passes from a state of ignorance into one of knowledge; but it is alike impious and foolish to confess the Holy Spirit, and yet to ascribe to Him ignorance. For even although something else existed before the Holy Spirit, it was not by progressive advancement that He came to be the Holy Spirit; as if any one should venture to say, that at the time when He was not yet the Holy Spirit He was ignorant of the Father, but that after He had received knowledge He was made the Holy Spirit. For if this were the case, the Holy Spirit would never be reckoned in the Unity of the Trinity, i.e., along with the unchangeable Father and His Son, unless He had always been the Holy Spirit. When we use, indeed, such terms as always or was, or any other designation of time, they are not to be taken absolutely, but with due allowance; for while the significations of these words relate to time, and those subjects of which we speak are spoken of by a stretch of language as existing in time, they nevertheless surpass in their real nature all conception of the finite understanding.

    I am of opinion, then, that the working of the Father and of the Son takes place as well in saints as in sinners, in rational beings and in dumb animals; nay, even in those things which are without life, and in all things universally which exist; but that the operation of the Holy Spirit does not take place at all in those things which are without life, or in those which, although living, are yet dumb; nay, is not found even in those who are endued indeed with reason, but are engaged in evil courses, and not at all converted to a better life. In those persons alone do I think that the operation of the Holy Spirit takes place, who are already turning to a better life, and walking along the way which leads to Jesus Christ, i.e., who are engaged in the performance of good actions, and who abide in God.

    at the time of the flood, when all flesh had corrupted their way before God, it is recorded that God spoke thus, as of undeserving men and sinners: My Spirit shall not abide with those men for ever, because they are flesh. By which, it is clearly shown that the Spirit of God is taken away from all who are unworthy. In the Psalms also it is written: You will take away their spirit, and they will die, and return to their earth. You will send forth Your Spirit, and they shall be created, and You will renew the face of the earth; which is manifestly intended of the Holy Spirit, who, after sinners and unworthy persons have been taken away and destroyed, creates for Himself a new people, and renews the face of the earth, when, laying aside, through the grace of the Spirit, the old man with his deeds, they begin to walk in newness of life. And therefore the expression is competently applied to the Holy Spirit, because He will take up His dwelling, not in all men, nor in those who are flesh, but in those whose land has been renewed. Lastly, for this reason was the grace and revelation of the Holy Spirit bestowed by the imposition of the apostles' hands after baptism. Our Saviour also, after the resurrection, when old things had already passed away, and all things had become new, Himself a new man, and the first-born from the dead, His apostles also being renewed by faith in His resurrection, says, Receive the Holy Spirit. This is doubtless what the Lord the Saviour meant to convey in the Gospel, when He said that new wine cannot be put into old bottles, but commanded that the bottles should be made new, i.e., that men should walk in newness of life, that they might receive the new wine, i.e., the newness of grace of the Holy Spirit. In this manner, then, is the working of the power of God the Father and of the Son extended without distinction to every creature; but a share in the Holy Spirit we find possessed only by the saints. And therefore it is said, No man can say that Jesus is Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 

    whereas he who has been deemed worthy to have a portion of the Holy Spirit, and who has relapsed, is, by this very act and work, said to be guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Let no one indeed suppose that we, from having said that the Holy Spirit is conferred upon the saints alone, but that the benefits or operations of the Father and of the Son extend to good and bad, to just and unjust, by so doing give a preference to the Holy Spirit over the Father and the Son, or assert that His dignity is greater, which certainly would be a very illogical conclusion. For it is the peculiarity of His grace and operations that we have been describing. Moreover, nothing in the Trinity can be called greater or less, since the fountain of divinity alone contains all things by His word and reason, and by the Spirit of His mouth sanctifies all things which are worthy of sanctification, as it is written in the Psalm: By the word of the Lord were the heavens strengthened, and all their power by the Spirit of His mouth. There is also a special working of God the Father, besides that by which He bestowed upon all things the gift of natural life. There is also a special ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ to those upon whom he confers by nature the gift of reason, by means of which they are enabled to be rightly what they are. There is also another grace of the Holy Spirit, which is bestowed upon the deserving, through the ministry of Christ and the working of the Father, in proportion to the merits of those who are rendered capable of receiving it. This is most clearly pointed out by the Apostle Paul, when demonstrating that the power of the Trinity is one and the same, in the words, There are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit; there are diversities of administrations, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God who works all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. From which it most clearly follows that there is no difference in the Trinity, but that which is called the gift of the Spirit is made known through the Son, and operated by God the Father. But all these works that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every one severally as He will.

     God the Father bestows upon all, existence; and participation in Christ, in respect of His being the word of reason, renders them rational beings. From which it follows that they are deserving either of praise or blame, because capable of virtue and vice. On this account, therefore, is the grace of the Holy Ghost present, that those beings which are not holy in their essence may be rendered holy by participating in it. Seeing, then, that firstly, they derive their existence from God the Father; secondly, their rational nature from the Word; thirdly, their holiness from the Holy Spirit — those who have been previously sanctified by the Holy Spirit are again made capable of receiving Christ, in respect that He is the righteousness of God; and those who have earned advancement to this grade by the sanctification of the Holy Spirit, will nevertheless obtain the gift of wisdom according to the power and working of the Spirit of God. And this I consider is Paul's meaning, when he says that to some is given the word of wisdom, to others the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit. And while pointing out the individual distinction of gifts, he refers the whole of them to the source of all things, in the words, There are diversities of operations, but one God who works all in all. Whence also the working of the Father, which confers existence upon all things, is found to be more glorious and magnificent, while each one, by participation in Christ, as being wisdom, and knowledge, and sanctification, makes progress, and advances to higher degrees of perfection; and seeing it is by partaking of the Holy Spirit that any one is made purer and holier, he obtains, when he is made worthy, the grace of wisdom and knowledge, in order that, after all stains of pollution and ignorance are cleansed and taken away, he may make so great an advance in holiness and purity, that the nature which he received from God may become such as is worthy of Him who gave it to be pure and perfect, so that the being which exists may be as worthy as He who called it into existence. For, in this way, he who is such as his Creator wished him to be, will receive from God power always to exist, and to abide forever. That this may be the case, and that those whom He has created may be unceasingly and inseparably present with Him, Who IS, it is the business of wisdom to instruct and train them, and to bring them to perfection by confirmation of His Holy Spirit and unceasing sanctification, by which alone are they capable of receiving God. In this way, then, by the renewal of the ceaseless working of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in us, in its various stages of progress, shall we be able at some future time perhaps, although with difficulty, to behold the holy and the blessed life, in which (as it is only after many struggles that we are able to reach it) we ought so to continue, that no satiety of that blessedness should ever seize us; but the more we perceive its blessedness, the more should be increased and intensified within us the longing for the same, while we ever more eagerly and freely receive and hold fast the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. But if satiety should ever take hold of any one of those who stand on the highest and perfect summit of attainment, I do not think that such an one would suddenly be deposed from his position and fall away, but that he must decline gradually and little by little, so that it may sometimes happen that if a brief lapsus take place, and the individual quickly repent and return to himself, he may not utterly fall away, but may retrace his steps, and return to his former place, and again make good that which had been lost by his negligence.

    The Great Isaiah Scroll - Digital Dead Sea Scrolls

    Chapter 6


    Verse 1
    In the year that king Uzziah died I saw my Lord sitting on his throne, high and exalted, and the skirts of his robe filled the temple.

    Verse 2
    Seraphs stood above him, each with six wings. With two they covered their face, with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew.

    Verse 3
    They called to each other: 'Holy, holy is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.'

    Verse 4
    The foundations of the thresholds shook when they called, and the house was full of smoke.

     Verse 5
    Then I said, 'Woe is me! for I am lost; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips. [In]deed my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.'

    Verse 6
    Then one of the seraphs flew to me, holding a live coal in his hand, which he had taken fr[o]m the [altar] with tongs.

    The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, volume 2

    Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Work

    The Ascension of Isaiah


    16 And he took me up into the sixth heaven, and there were none on the left, nor a throne in the middle, but all (were) of one appearance, and their praise (was) equal.

    17 And (strength) was given to me, and I also sang praises with them, and that angel also, and our praise was like theirs.

    18 And there they all named the primal Father and his Beloved, Christ, and the Holy Spirit, all with one voice,

    19 but it was not like the voice of the angels who (were) in the five heavens, 

    20 nor (was it) like their speech, but there was a different voice there, and there was much light there.

    21 And then, when I was in the sixth heaven, I thought that light which I had seen in the five heavens darkness.

    22 And I rejoiced and praised the One who has graciously given such light to those who await his promise.

    The Septuagint 

     In the midst of two living creatures you will be known 

    The Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek, the common language in Egypt at the time, but not in Hebrew.

    Habakkuk LXX - Chapter 3


    2. O Lord, I have heard of your renown and paid reverence; O Lord, I considered your works and was astonished. You will be known in the midst of two living creatures; you will be recognized when the years draw near; you will be displayed when the right time comes; you will remember mercy when my soul is troubled with wrath.

    Caesarious of Arles interpreted the two creatures t be the Old and New Testaments in the midst of which Christ is known spiritually.

    Roberts interpreted the two creatures to be the cherubim of the ark

    Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3


    2. O Lord, I heard a report of You; I feared, O Lord, Your deed. In the midst of the years, revive it; in the midst of the years, let it be known. In anger You shall remember to have mercy.

    Seraphim Wings
    by Holicia
    Digital Art / 3-Dimensional Art / Abstract


    Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3


    3 God came from Teman; yea, the Holy One from Mt. Paran, with everlasting might. His glory covered the heavens and His splendor filled the earth.

    4 And there was a brightness like the light; they had rays from His hand, and there was His strength hidden.

    Tractate Pesachim: Chapter 1

    Regulations concerning the removal of leaven from the house on the eve of Passover and the exact time when this must be accomplished.


    By the light of a candle." The Rabbis taught: Search for leavened bread must not be made by the light of the sun, of the moon, or of a flame of fire, but only by the light of a candle; because the light of a candle is efficient for search, and although we have no actual foundation for this regulation, still we are given a hint to that effect in the passage [Exod. xii. 19]: "Seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses," and it is written [Genesis xliv. 12]: "And he searched, at the eldest he began," while [in Zephaniah i. 12] it is written: "And it shall come to pass at that time that I will search Jerusalem through with lights (candles)"; [Proverbs xx. 27] it is also written: "A lamp of the Lord is the soul of man, searching all the inner chambers of the body." (Hence as it is written in the first quotation "it shall not be found," and in the latter quotations searching is mentioned in connection with lights (candles), the hint is derived from those passages.)

    Under what circumstances shall search not be made by the light of the sun? Shall we say in the case of a court? Did not Rabha say, that in a court no search need be made, because the crows consume what leavened bread may be found there? In the case of a balcony? Did not Rabha say, that on a balcony one may search by the light of the balcony itself? The injunction against using the light of the sun is applied to a window of a room, namely: At the window proper search may be made by the light entering through the window, but at the sides this cannot be relied on and a candle must be procured in order to conduct a proper search.

    Not even a flame of fire may be used? Did not Rabha say, referring to the passage [Habakkuk iii. 4]: "And (his) brightness was like the sunlight; rays streamed forth out of his hand unto them: and there was the hiding of his power." "The righteous as compared with the Shekhina appear as the light of a candle to a bright flame; and concerning the benediction to be made at the close of the Sabbath-day which is pronounced over a light, he said, that a bright flame is more conducive to the efficient fulfilment of that duty?" (Why then should a flame not be permitted for the search?) Said R. Na'hman bar Itz'hak: "A candle may be applied to a hole or a crack in the wall, whereas a flame cannot be moved to such a place."



    Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 29


    28 The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God, but the revealed things apply to us and to our children forever: that we must fulfill all the words of this Torah.

    1 Kings 3


    7 And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father; and I (am but) a little child; I do not know (how) to go out or come in.

    8 And your servant (is) in the midst of Your people which you have chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

    9 Give (therefore) Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people, that I may discern between good and bad; for who is able to judge this Your great people?"

    10 And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.

    11 And God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have you asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked the life of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment.

    12 Behold, I have done according to your word; behold, I have given you a wise and understanding heart; so that there was none like you before you, nor after you shall any arise like you.

    By referring to Jonah the same way He referred to the Queen of the South, Jesus strongly supported the view that Jonah was a historical person. The Queen of the South was the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1-13). She came from the Arabian Peninsula that for the Jews was the end of the earth (cf. Jer. 6:20; Joel 3:8). She visited Jerusalem because of reports about Solomon’s great wisdom that had reached her ears. The something greater than Solomon was Messiah, the embodiment of divine wisdom. The queen would join the Ninevites in condemning the unbelievers of Jesus’ day because they failed to acknowledge one with greater wisdom than Solomon, as well as one with a greater message than Jonah. Jesus was greater than Solomon in His wisdom, wealth, and works.

    Matthew 12


    12:42 The queen of the South will rise up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomonand now, something greater than Solomon is here!

    Luke 10


    10:21 On that same occasion Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and intelligent, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will. 10:22 All things have been given to me by my FatherNo one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides to reveal him.

    John 14


    14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34  my commandments. 35  14:16 Then 36  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate 37  to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38  because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides 39  with you and will be 40  in you.

    14:18 “I will not abandon 41  you as orphans, 42  I will come to you. 43  14:19 In a little while 44  the world will not see me any longer, but you will see me; because I live, you will live too. 14:20 You will know at that time 45  that I am in my Father and you are in me and I am in you. 14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys 46  them is the one who loves me. 47  The one 48  who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal 49  myself to him.”

    14:22 “Lord,” Judas (not Judas Iscariot) 50  said, 51  “what has happened that you are going to reveal 52  yourself to us and not to the world?” 14:23 Jesus replied, 53  “If anyone loves me, he will obey 54  my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 55  14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey 56  my words. And the word 57  you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying 58  with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, 59  the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you 60  everything, 61  and will cause you to remember everything 62  I said to you.

    John 16


    16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’  16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness 14  because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 21  16:10 concerning righteousness, 22  because 23  I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24  because 25  the ruler of this world 26  has been condemned. 27 

    16:12 “I have many more things to say to you, 28  but you cannot bear 29  them now. 16:13 But when he, 30  the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide 31  you into all truth. 32  For he will not speak on his own authority, 33  but will speak whatever he hears, and will tell you 34  what is to come. 35  16:14 He 36  will glorify me, 37  because he will receive 38  from me what is mine 39  and will tell it to you. 40  16:15 Everything that the Father has is mine; that is why I said the Spirit 41  will receive from me what is mine 42  and will tell it to you. 43  16:16 In a little while you 44  will see me no longer; again after a little while, you 45  will see me.” 46 

    16:17 Then some of his disciples said to one another, “What is the meaning of what he is saying, 47  ‘In a little while you 48  will not see me; again after a little while, you 49  will see me,’ and, ‘because I am going to the Father’?” 50  16:18 So they kept on repeating, 51  “What is the meaning of what he says, 52  ‘In a little while’? 53  We do not understand 54  what he is talking about.” 55 

    16:19 Jesus could see 56  that they wanted to ask him about these things, 57  so 58  he said to them, “Are you asking 59  each other about this – that I said, ‘In a little while you 60  will not see me; again after a little while, you 61  will see me’? 16:20 I tell you the solemn truth, 62  you will weep 63  and wail, 64  but the world will rejoice; you will be sad, 65  but your sadness will turn into 66  joy. 16:21 When a woman gives birth, she has distress 67  because her time 68  has come, but when her child is born, she no longer remembers the suffering because of her joy that a human being 69  has been born into the world. 70  16:22 So also you have sorrow 71  now, but I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you. 72  16:23 At that time 73  you will ask me nothing. I tell you the solemn truth, 74  whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you. 75  16:24 Until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive it, 76  so that your joy may be complete.



    The Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit, has become the Spirit of Jesus

    Acts 16


    16:6 They went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been prevented by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message in the province of Asia. 16:7 When they came to Mysia, they attempted to go into Bithynia,  but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them to do this,



    2:6 Now we do speak wisdom among the mature,  but not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are perishing. 2:7 Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory. 2:8 None of the rulers of this age understood it. If they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 2:9 But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.”   2:10 God has revealed these to us by the Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2:11 For who among men knows the things of a man except the man’s spirit within him? So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 2:12 Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things that are freely given to us by God. 2:13 And we speak about these things, not with words taught us by human wisdom, but with those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people. 8  2:14 The unbeliever 9  does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. And he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. 2:15 The one who is spiritual discerns 10  all things, yet he himself is understood 11  by no one. 2:16 For who has known the mind of the Lord, so as to advise him? 12  But we have the mind of Christ.

    2 Corinthians 3

    17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is present, there is freedom. 18 And we all, with unveiled faces reflecting the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another, which is from the Lord, who is the Spirit.

    Galatians 4


    4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are 11  a son, then you are also an heir through God.

    Catechism of the Catholic Church






    687 "No one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God.Now God's Spirit, who reveals God, makes known to us Christ, his Word, his living Utterance, but the Spirit does not speak of himself. The Spirit who "has spoken through the prophets" makes us hear the Father's Word, but we do not hear the Spirit himself. We know him only in the movement by which he reveals the Word to us and disposes us to welcome him in faith. The Spirit of truth who "unveils" Christ to us "will not speak on his own." Such properly divine self-effacement explains why "the world cannot receive [him], because it neither sees him nor knows him," while those who believe in Christ know the Spirit because he dwells with them.

    688 The Church, a communion living in the faith of the apostles which she transmits, is the place where we know the Holy Spirit:

    - in the Scriptures he inspired;

    - in the Tradition, to which the Church Fathers are always timely witnesses;

    - in the Church's Magisterium, which he assists;

    - in the sacramental liturgy, through its words and symbols, in which the Holy Spirit puts us into communion with Christ;

    - in prayer, wherein he intercedes for us;

    - in the charisms and ministries by which the Church is built up;

    - in the signs of apostolic and missionary life;

    - in the witness of saints through whom he manifests his holiness and continues the work of salvation.


    689 The One whom the Father has sent into our hearts, the Spirit of his Son, is truly God.10 Consubstantial with the Father and the Son, the Spirit is inseparable from them, in both the inner life of the Trinity and his gift of love for the world. In adoring the Holy Trinity, life-giving, consubstantial, and indivisible, the Church's faith also professes the distinction of persons. When the Father sends his Word, he always sends his Breath. In their joint mission, the Son and the Holy Spirit are distinct but inseparable. To be sure, it is Christ who is seen, the visible image of the invisible God, but it is the Spirit who reveals him.

    690 Jesus is Christ, "anointed," because the Spirit is his anointing, and everything that occurs from the Incarnation on derives from this fullness.11 When Christ is finally glorified,12 he can in turn send the Spirit from his place with the Father to those who believe in him: he communicates to them his glory,13 that is, the Holy Spirit who glorifies him.14 From that time on, this joint mission will be manifested in the children adopted by the Father in the Body of his Son: the mission of the Spirit of adoption is to unite them to Christ and make them live in him:

    The notion of anointing suggests . . . that there is no distance between the Son and the Spirit. Indeed, just as between the surface of the body and the anointing with oil neither reason nor sensation recognizes any intermediary, so the contact of the Son with the Spirit is immediate, so that anyone who would make contact with the Son by faith must first encounter the oil by contact. In fact there is no part that is not covered by the Holy Spirit. That is why the confession of the Son's Lordship is made in the Holy Spirit by those who receive him, the Spirit coming from all sides to those who approach the Son in faith.15





    1.The Holy Ghost is the Testifier of Truth, who can teach [us] things [we] cannot teach one another.

    2.  As we direct and teach under the influence of that Spirit, we shall bring spirituality into the lives of those for whom we are responsible.

    Sweet are the fruits of teaching done under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. They feed the spirit and nourish the soul.

    Listen to the promptings of the Spirit. Be humble. You may be led to someone by the hand of the Lord because of your spirit, your attitude, your feeling, your humility.

    3. “And after the earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in the fire: and after the fire a still small voice” (1 Kings 19:11–12).

    That is the way it is. There is a still, small voice. It comes in response to prayer. It comes by the whispering of the Spirit. It may come in the silence of the night.

    4. How do we know the things of the Spirit? How do we know that it is from God? By the fruits of it. If it leads to growth and development, if it leads to faith and testimony, if it leads to a better way of doing things, if it leads to godliness, then it is of God. If it tears us down, if it brings us into darkness, if it confuses us and worries us, if it leads to faithlessness, then it is of the devil.

    God shall give unto you knowledge by his Holy Spirit, yea, by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost.” (D&C 121:26.)

    The things of God are understood by the Spirit of God. That Spirit is real. To those who have experienced its workings, the knowledge so gained is as real as that which is acquired through the operation of the five senses.

    5. How do you keep the Spirit of the Lord with you at all times?” Well, you live worthy of it; you live worthy of the Spirit of the Lord. That is what you do. And you will have it. … Just live right. Stay away from the sleaze. Stay away from pornography. Stay away from these things that pull you down. The books you read, the magazines you read, the videos you look at, the television programs you look at, the shows you go to, all have an effect on you and will do if you subject yourself to the influence of those titillating kinds of things which are designed to make you poor and somebody else rich. Stay away from them.

    The First Book of Nephi
    Chapter 10


    17 And it came to pass after I, Nephi, having heard all the words of my father, concerning the things which he saw in a vision, and also the things which he spake by the power of the Holy Ghost, which power he received by faith on the Son of God—and the Son of God was the Messiah who should come—I, Nephi, was desirous also that I might see, and hear, and know of these things, by the power of the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God unto all those who diligently seek Him, as well in times of old as in the time that he should manifest himself unto the children of men.

    The Book of Mosiah
    Chapter 3


    19 For the natural man is an enemy to God, and has been from the fall of Adam, and will be, forever and ever, unless he yields to the enticing of the Holy Spirit, and puts off the natural man and becomes a saint through the atonement of Christ the Lord, and become as a child, submissive, meek, humble, patient, full of love, willing to submit to all things which the Lord sees fit to inflict upon him, even as a child doth submit to his father.

    Doctrine and Covenants
    Section 11


    10 Behold, thou hast a gift, or thou shalt have a gift if thou wilt desire of me in faith, with an honest heart, believing in the power of Jesus Christ, or in my power which speaketh unto thee;

    11 For, behold, it is I that speak; behold, I am the light which shineth in darkness, and by my power I give these words unto thee.

    12 And now, verily, verily, I say unto thee, put your trust in that Spirit which leadeth to do good—yea, to do justly, to walk humbly, to judge righteously; and this is my Spirit.

    13 Verily, verily, I say unto you, I will impart unto you of my Spirit, which shall enlighten your mind, which shall fill your soul with joy;

    14 And then shall ye know, or by this shall you know, all things whatsoever you desire of me, which are pertaining unto things of righteousness, in faith believing in me that you shall receive.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9


    10 The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord, and the knowledge of the holy ones is understanding.

    By personifying wisdom Solomon was able to illustrate two things about it in these verses, both of which concern the guidance that is available in wisdom (understanding, insight). Wisdom is available everywhere (vv. 2-3) and to anyone (v. 5). It does not take a superior intellect to be wise in the biblical sense.

    As Creator, God counted wisdom most important. Wisdom is older than the universe, and it was essential in its creation. Nothing came into existence without wisdom. Wisdom leads to joy because creation produces joy (vv. 30-31) both for the Creator and for the creature. God made and did nothing without wisdom. Therefore it is very important that we obtain it. That is the point.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 8


    1 Will not wisdom call out, and understanding give forth its voice?

    2 At the top of the heights upon the road; at the crossroads she stands.

    3 Beside the gates, at the entrance of the roof, at the entrance of the portals she cries,

    4 "To you, O men, I call, and my voice [is] to the children of man.

    5 O simpletons, understand cunning, and you fools, give understanding to your heart.

    6 Hearken for I will speak noble things, and the opening of my lips shall be right things.

    7 For my palate shall utter truth, and wickedness is an abomination of my lips.

    8 All the sayings of my lips are with righteousness; there is nothing twisted or crooked in them.

    9 They are all true to the understanding one, and straight to those who find knowledge.

    10 Take my discipline and not silver; knowledge is chosen above gold.

    11 For wisdom is better than pearls; all desirable things cannot be compared to it.

    12 I am wisdom; I dwelt [beside] cunning, and the knowledge of devices I will find.

    13 Fear of the Lord is to hate evil, haughtiness, pride, the way of evil, and a perverse mouth; [these] I hate.

    14 I have counsel and sound wisdom; I am understanding; I have might.

    15 Kings reign with me, and rulers legislate righteousness.

    16 Through me princes govern, and nobles, yea, all judges of righteousness.

    17 I will love those who love me, and those who seek me eagerly will find me.

    18 Riches and honor are with me, powerful wealth and charity.

    19 My fruit is better than gold-yea than fine gold- and my produce [is better] than choice silver.

    20 In the way of righteousness I will go, in the midst of the paths of justice.

    21 There is substance to give inheritance to those who love me, and I will fill their treasuries.

    22 The Lord acquired me at the beginning of His way, before His works of old.

    23 From the distant past I was enthroned, from the beginning, of those that preceded the earth.

    24 I was created when there were yet no deeps, when there were no fountains replete with water.

    25 I was created before the mountains were sunk, before the hills;

    26 when He had not yet made the land and the outsides and the beginning of the dust of the earth.

    27 When He established the heavens, there I was, when He drew a circle over the face of the deep;

    28 when He made the skies above firm, when He strengthened the fountains of the deep;

    29 when He gave the sea its boundary, and the water shall not transgress His command, when He established the foundations of the earth

    30 I was a nursling beside Him, and I was [His] delight every day, playing before Him at all times

    31 playing in the habitable world of His earth, and [having] my delights with the children of man.

    32 And now, my children, hearken to me, and fortunate are those who observe my ways.

    33 Hearken to discipline and become wise, and do not put it to naught.

    34 Fortunate is the man who listens to me to watch by my doors day by day, to watch the doorposts of my entrances.

    35 For he who has found me has found life, and he has obtained favor from the Lord.

    36 But he who sins against me robs his soul; all who hate me, love death."

    Matthew 12


    12:22 Then they brought to him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus 29  healed him so that he could speak and see. 30  12:23 All the crowds were amazed and said, “Could this one be the Son of David?” 12:24 But when the Pharisees 31  heard this they said, “He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul, 32  the ruler 33  of demons!” 12:25 Now when Jesus 34  realized what they were thinking, he said to them, 35  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 36  and no town or house divided against itself will stand. 12:26 So if 37  Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12:27 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? For this reason they will be your judges. 12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has already overtaken you. 12:29 How else can someone enter a strong man’s house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house. 12:30 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.  12:31 For this reason I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemybut the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. 12:32 Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven. But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.


    I remember in my youth thinking that God was this immense indestructible being of power with an incomprehensible plan. In the beginning God manifested Himself into a Spirit form that created all things in the Universe. At a point of time the  Spirit of God created human life in His image with attributes to see, hear, communicate, an survive in the natural world.  When God's Spirit wanted to be known to humans they feared His power, but understood the truth to His words. For a period of time the The Spirit of God choose to interact with humans who both feared and worshiped him.  The Spirit of God would come in different forms. And for a period of time the Spirit of God manifested himself into a human form divested of divine power, into the womb of a Holy woman known as Mary. It is testified that the human child of God was named Jesus, who lived and interacted with mankind for 33 years. When the mortal Jesus was ready to begin His ministry as a teacher to humankind the Spirit of God came upon him in the form of a dove.  From the Heavens, the Creator graced some human witnesses hear and bear testimony to His statement of pleasure with the righteous actions of Jesus, His human son. It was during this moment that  In time some mortal zealots who associated themselves with the Creator, but did not know or hear Him speak, perceived His son Jesus as a threat to their power over the people. The mortal zealots condemned and put Jesus to death. To let humans witness and give testimony that Jesus human form truly died, Roman guards were placed in front of Jesus tomb to make sure no one stole his corpse.  For three days the tomb was not disturbed. At that moment, the Spirit of God that creates life, resurrected Jesus dead mortal corpse to an imperishable living immortal Spirit.

  2.  Rulers established their legacy not only by building great structures, they also passed on Wisdom Sebayt  (Teaching, Didache) to their offspring and future leaders on the concepts divinity and virtue.  The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom literature in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty.  James Henry Breasted credited Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible
    Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health.  Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life.  The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. 
    Sabayt Ptahhotep


    8 (column 6, lines 3-6)
    The one who overlooks laws is punished;
    that is what is overlooked in the sight of the greedy.
    It is the small-minded that seize riches,
    but crime never managed to land its rewards.
    Whoever says 'I snare for myself'
    does not say 'I snare for my needs'.
    The final part of what is right is its endurance;
    of which a man says 'that is my father'
    14 (column 7, lines 9-10)
    Follow your heart as long as you live.
    Do not make a loss on what is said,
    do not subtract time from following the heart.
    Harming its time is an offence to the ka.
    Do not deflect the moment of every day
    beyond establishing your heart.
    As things happen, follow (your) heart.
    There is no profit in things if it is stifled.
    17 (column 8, lines 6-11)
    The great of heart is the gift of god,
    the one who obeys his body belongs to the enemy.
    22 (column 9, line 13 to column 10, line 5)
    If you wish your conduct to be good
    and to save yourself from all evil,
    resist the opportunity of greed.
    It is a sore disease of the worm,
    no advance can come of it.
    It embroils fathers and mothers,
    with mother's brothers.
    It entangles the wife and the man,
    it is a levy of all evils,
    a bundle of all hatefulness.
    The man endures whose guideline is Right,
    who proceeds according to his paces.
    He can draw up a will by it.
    There is no tomb for the greedy hearted.
    25 (column 11, lines 1-4)
    The spirit of the correct man is the spirit that brings happiness.
    28 (column 11, line 12 to column 12, line 6)
    Do not have your heart too high, or it will be brought down.
    42 (column 16, lines 3-13)

    The hearer is one whom God loves.
    The one whom God hates does not hear.
    The heart is the creator of its master.
    Do not hear from the one who does not hear.

    A man's heart is his life, prosperity and health.
    2 (column 5, lines 4-6)
    Then the Power of this god said:
    Teach him then the speech from the past
    that he may provide the example for the children of the great.
    May hearing enter into him, the measure of every heart.
    Speak to him. For none can be born wise
    44 (column 17, lines 4-9)

    As for the fool unable to hear,
    nothing can ever be done for him.
    He sees wisdom as ignorance,
    and what is good as what is painful.
    He commits every error,
    to be accused of it each day.
    He lives on what one dies of,
    corrupt speech is his food.
    His character in this is well-known to the officials,
    saying 'living death' each day.
    His faults are passed over
    from the sheer number of faults on him each day.

    The Sebayt of Amenemope (Didache of Amenomope or Teaching of Amenemope) is pharonic wisdom literature thought to have been written by the Egyptian Pharoah Usermaatre Amenemope of the 21st Dynasty. This coincided during the time when the tribes of Israel first became a unified nation.  In the prologue that Amenomope considered it extremely important for a ruler to know how to properly respond to his subjects and foreigners and follow the path of prosperity in life. 

    Sabayt Amenemope



    Beginning of the teaching for life,

    The instructions for well-being,

    Every rule for relations with elders,

    For conduct toward magistrates;

    Knowing how to answer one who speaks,

    To reply to one who sends a message,

    So as to direct him on the paths of life,

    To make him prosper upon the earth;

    To let his heart enter its shrine,

    Steering clear of evil;

    To save him from the mouth of strangers,

    To let (him) be praised in the mouth of people.

    It important that one seeking Sabayt pay strict attention to what is stated and learn how to control your tongue.

    Teaching of Amenemope

    Chapter I - The Sabayt


    He says
    ... Give your ears, hear the sayings,

    Give your heart to understand them; 

    It profits to put them in your heart,

    Woe to him who neglects them!

    Let them rest in the casket of your belly,

    May they be bolted in your heart;

    When there rises a whirlwind of words,

    They be a mooring post for your tongue.

    If you make your life with these in your heart,

    You will find it a success;

    You will find my words a storehouse for life,

    Your being will prosper upon earth 

    Give your ears and hear what is said,

     Give your mind over to their interpretation:

    The Chokhmah  (Chinukh, Didache, Teaching) Meshlei (Proverbs)  is Israelite wisdom literature thought to been written by King Solomon during his reign from 970 to 931 BCE. Solomon stressed wisdom begins with fearing our Creator. And understanding the teachings of the holy people brings insight on how to discern and respond to events around you. The knowledge you recieve it.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9


    10 The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord, and the knowledge of the holy ones is understanding.

    11 For with me shall your days increase, and they will add to you years of life.

    12 If you have become wise, you have become wise for yourself, and if you scorn, you will bear it alone.

    Similar to Amenemope,  Solomon taught that a ruler should be on guard against seductive words of flattery that can influence unwanted actions.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 5


    1 My son, hearken to my wisdom; incline your ear to my understanding,

    2 to watch [your] thoughts, and your lips shall guard knowledge.

    3 For the lips of a strange woman drip honey, and her palate is smoother than oil.

    4 But her end is as bitter as wormwood, as sharp as a two-edged sword.

    .5 Her feet descend to death; her steps come near the grave.

    6 Lest you weigh the path of life, her paths have wandered off and you shall not know.

    Solomon's father David taught that our Creator is the Shepherd of Creation like he was as a boy. It is our Creator's wisdom, not human that lead to a path of righteousness during our lives. If we stay on the Creator's path no evil shall fall upon us. 

    Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 23



    1 A song of David. The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.

    2 He causes me to lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside still waters.

    3 He restores my soul; He leads me in paths of righteousness for His name's sake.

    4 Even when I walk in the valley of darkness, I will fear no evil for You are with me; Your rod and Your staff-they comfort me.

    5 You set a table before me in the presence of my adversaries; You anointed my head with oil; my cup overflows.

    6 May only goodness and kindness pursue me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for length of days.



    In ancient Egyptian beliefs, serpents were considered both protectors and enemies of the people. The cobra is most often represented as the Uraeus, the fiercely protective serpent seen guarding the foreheads of Deities, kings, and queens. East of Alexandria,  in the city of Dep the Uraeus was known as Wadjet, the serpent goddess often depicted as a cobra. The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. Wadjet is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon.  Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a cobra's head, or as a woman wearing the Uraeus. The Uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus was the protector of the pharaoh and was believed to spit fire at enemies from its place on the forehead.

    Wadjet had a twin sister known as Nekhbet, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb) and later became the patron of Upper Egypt. She takes the form of woman with the head of a vulture, a woman with a vulture headdress or simply just white vulture symbolizing purity.


    Together, they represented the Uraeus – the two ladies (nebty) protecting the pharaoh and all of Egypt. When Egypt became one, these goddesses were believed to be present during the crowning of a pharaoh and their symbols were found the front of the crown itself. In this light, her role as a protector extended to common people as well.

    and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified.

    Apophis (Apep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. 

    Teaching of Amenemope

    Chapter 8 : speak no evil


    Set your deeds throughout the world

    That everyone may greet you;

    They make rejoicing for the Uraeus,

    And spit against the Apophis.

    Keep your tongue safe from words of detraction,

    And you will be the loved one of the people,

    Then you will find your (proper) place within the temple

    And your offerings among the bread deliveries of your lord;

    You will be revered, when you are concealed in your grave,

    And be safe from the might of God.

    Do not accuse a man,

    When the circumstance of (his) escape is unknown.

    Whether you hear something good or bad,

    Put it outside, until he has been heard;

    Set a good report on your tongue,

    While the bad thing is concealed inside you.

    The Literature Of Ancient Egypt

    The Story of Sinuhe


    The crown of Upper Egypt will go northward, and the crown of Lower Egypt will go southward that they may unite and come together at the word of Your Majesty, and the cobra goddess Wadjet will be placed on your forehead. As you have kept your subjects from evil, so may Re, Lord of the Two Lands, be compassionate toward you. Hail to you. And also to the Lady of All. Lay to rest your javelin, set aside your arrow. Give breath to the breathless. Give us this happy reward, this bedouin chief Simehyet, the bowman born in Egypt.

    Khnum was originally a water god who was thought to rule over all water, including the rivers and lakes of the underworld. He was associated with the source of the Nile, and ensured that the inundation deposited enough precious black silt onto the river banks to make them fertile. Khnum was similar to the the Creator's Holy Spirit as the Lord of Life of the body and the "ka" (spirit) of each newborn child.

    (52) his emotions & passions are constantly in a state of arousal ;

    Chapter 9 : avoid the heated 


    08  and take care not to {vex}. 

    09  Swift is speech when the heart is hurt,

    10  more than wind {over} water.

    23  If only Khnum came to him !

    25  so as to knead his {states of mind}. 50

    28  he causes brothers to quarrel,  

    32  {he gathers himself together, crouched.}

    34  A fire burns in his belly.




    Do not fraternize with the hot-tempered man,

    Nor approach him to converse.

    Safeguard your tongue from talking back to your superior,

    And take care not to offend him.

    Do not allow him to cast words only to entrap you,

    And be not too free in your replies;

    With a man of your own station discuss the reply;

    And take care of speaking thoughtlessly;

    When a man’s heart is upset, words travel faster

    Than wind over water.

    He is ruined and created by his tongue,

    When he speaks slander;

    He makes an answer deserving of a beating,

    For his freight is damaged.

    He sails among all the world,

    But his cargo is false words;

    He acts the ferryman in twisting words:

    He goes forth and comes back arguing.

    But whether he eats or whether he drinks inside,

    His accusation (waits for him) outside.

    The day when his evil deed is brought to court

    Is a disaster for his children.

    Even Khnum will straightway come against him, even Khnum will

    straightway come against him,

    The potter of the ill-tempered man,

    For he sets families to argue.

    He goes before all the winds like clouds,

    He changes his hue in the sun;

    He crocks his tail like a baby crocodile,

    He curls himself up to inflict harm,

    His lips are sweet, but his tongue is bitter,

    And fire burns inside him.

    Do not fly up to join that man

    Not fearing you will be brought to account.


    Chapter 10 : say what You think without injuring

    CHAPTER 10



    Do not address an intemperate man in your (unrighteousness)
    Nor destroy your own mind;
    Do not say to him, ‘‘May you be praised,’’ not meaning it
    When there is fear within you

    Do not converse falsely with a man,
    For it is the abomination of God.
    Do not separate your mind from your tongue,
    All your plans will succeed.
    You will be important before others,
    While you will be secure in the hand of God.
    God hates one who falsifies words,
    His great abomination is duplicity


    Chapter 11 : abuse no poor


    06  his heart is misled by his belly.60

    16  when the stick attains him.

    Chapter 17 : do not corrupt the measure


    04  nor let its belly be empty.76

    09  The bushel is the Eye of Re,77

    10  it abhors him who trims. 

    Chapter 21 : be reticent


    01  Do not say : 'Find me a strong superior, 

    05  Indeed You do not know the plans of god,92

    07  Settle in the arms of the god,93

    11  Do not empty your belly 94 to everyone,

    14  nor join with one who bares his heart.95

    15  Better is one whose speech is in his belly,96

    18  one does not create (it) to harm it.

    Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder),  In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits.  Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life.

    Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a


    R. Levi b. Hama says in the name of R. Simeon b. Lakish:
    A man should always incite the good impulse in his soul to fight against the evil impulse. For it is written: Tremble and sin not.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him study the Torah. For it is written: 'Commune with your own heart'.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him recite the Shema'. For it is written:
    'Upon your bed'. If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him remind himself of the day of death. For it is written:
    [ Tehillim - Psalms 5: 1 To the conductor with melodies, a song of David. 2 When I call, answer me, O God of my righteousness; in my distress You have relieved me, be gracious to me and hearken to my prayer. 3 Sons of man, how long will my honor be disgraced? [How long] will you love futility? [How long] will you constantly seek lies? 4 You shall know that the Lord has set apart the pious man for Himself; the Lord shall hear when I call out to Him. 5 Quake and do not sin; say [this] in your heart on your bed and be forever silent. 6 Offer up sacrifices of righteousness and trust in the Lord. 7 Many say, "Who will show us goodness?" Raise up over us the light of Your countenance, O Lord. 8. You gave joy into my heart from the time that their corn and their wine increased. 9 In peace together, I would lie down and sleep, for You, O Lord, would make me dwell alone in safety.]
    'And be still, Selah'.



    (especially the sentence literature of chs. 10ff. ) shows "a general parallelism of
    thought" with Egyptian and Babylonian Instruction. 

    Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. The word literally means 'teachings' or 'instructions'[2] and refers to formally written ethical teachings focused on the "way of living truly".

    he book of Proverbs was principally written by King Solomon, David’s son, around 900 BC. 

     Wisdom literature is
    one of the most important classes of texts from the ancient
    civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and sufficient
    examples survive to illustrate both the different national or
    cultural preferences and, at the same time, the underlying
    similarity of thought and expression

    says, "that Proverbs 22:17-23:11 is largely dependent on the
    Teaching of Amenemope is now generally accepted".27

     Erman demonstrated that the Teaching of
    Amenemope was closely parallel with the portion of Proverb
    sometimes subtitled "Words of the Wise" (22:17-24:22)

    the belly is the home of our passions, emotions, feelings and states of arousal & rest - our sage promotes tranquility ;

    He has mastered the "inner" conflict between his passions and his mind, namely between the icons of emotions and the symbols of proto-rational cognition, between "belly" and "heart".
     Egyptian Instructions (both pre-Demotic
    and Demotic) present collections of maxims and teachings on moral living, these



    Amun is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400-2300) as a local god of Thebes along with his consort Amaunet.
    Amun as "The Obscure One" left room for people to define him according to their own understanding of what they needed him to be. A god who represented darkness could not also represent light, nor a god of water stand for dryness, etc. A god who personified the mysterious hidden nature of existence, however, could lend himself to any aspect of that existence; and this is precisely what happened with Amun.  
    During the Twelfth dynasty, the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence. In the city of Thebes. Atum was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra. 
    . In his role as Amun-Ra, the god combines his invisible aspect (symbolized by the wind which one cannot see but is aware of) and his visible aspect as the life-giving sun. In Amun, the most important aspects of both Ra and Atum were combined to establish an all-encompassing deity whose aspects were literally every facet of creation.
    Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford
    This life-sized statue of a ram, the sacred animal of the god Amun, was one of a pair that flanked a threshold in Taharqa’s temple at Kawa c. 680 BC. The base is carved with a hieroglyphic inscription proclaiming the king to be the son of the god Amun. A small figure of Taharqa stands protected under the ram’s chin. 
    Wonderful Ethiopians
    of the Ancient Cushite Empire
    Drusilla Dunjee Houston


    Let us seek to trace who Amen-Ra was. He was originally the god of Ethiopia. Amen-Ra was Cush, the son of Ham from whom the Cushites sprang. He was not one of the oldest deities of Egypt because he was preceeded by the gods of the ages of Noah (Saturn) and Ham. About the time of the rise of Thebes his name from his worldwide conquests must have been entered into the cycle of gods; for Africans deified their dead kings. Undoubtedly descendants of the great Cush sat upon the throne of Egypt This is why his name and form appear in the 11th Dynasty and its line of kings assumed his name.

    His became the predominent shrine of Egypt and its enrichment became the chief object of the Pharaohs. Amen or Cush was recognized by Egypt as its chief god. All the mummery of the world which tries to resolve the gods of old into anything else presents the height of folly. The ancients looked upon Zeus, Apollo and Osiris as persons. Amen-Ra was the Zeus of Greece, that was why they said the gods banqueted with the Ethiopians. He was the Jupiter of Rome. Zeus was king of kings because he was chief ruler in Ethiopia and over the lesser kings in his wide domains stretching from India to farther Norway. Horus, Apollo, Belus and Nimrod his son, were recognized and worshipped by all Cushite colonies. In the sculptures the Negro types of Africa are the assistants at the festivals in Amen's honor. He, himself, was of the same ancestry. In the later chapters of the Egyptian ritual his name is in the language of the Negroes of Punt.


    Relief depicting the ram-headed Amun-ra on a shrine erected by Kushite King Taharqa in the court of the Temple of Amun built by him at Kawa in Nubia. Late Period, 25th Dynasty, 690-64 BC.


    Diodorus is an invaluable source on
    the history of Egypt and Ethiopia. What does he say about the Ethiopians?
    “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the fi rst of all men and proofs
    of the statement are manifest. For they did not come into their country as
    immigrants from abroad but were the natives of it and so justly bear the name
    of Autochone...Th ey that dwell beneath the noonday sun were in all likelihood
    the fi rst to be generated by the earth... it is reasonable to suppose that the region
    which was nearest was the fi rst to bring forth living creatures. And they say that
    they were taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifi ces and processions and
    festivals and other rites by which man honors the deity: and that in consequences
    their piety was published abroad among all men... they state by reason of their
    piety towards the deity they manifestly enjoy the favor of the gods, inasmuch as
    they have never experienced rule of an invader from; for from all time they have
    enjoyed a state of freedom abroad and peace with the other and though many
    powerful rulers have made war upon them, not one of them succeeded in this
    Th e fi rst Ethiopians who were mentioned in the bible
    were from the land of Kush (Cush), which according to the biblical tradition was a territory on
    the Upper Nile, south of Egypt; it was also later known as Nubia. Kush is the name of the eldest
    son of Noah and the territory inhabited by his descendants. Th e Kushites are the descendants
    of Noah who produced the sons: Shem, Ham, and Japhet, each with their own language, clan,
    and nation. According to Gen. 9:18, the three sons peopled the rest of the earth, which was
    indicative of the unity of humanity in the ancient mind. Ham’s son, Cush, went to Ethiopia;
    his son, Mizraim, went to Egypt; Canaan went to Canaan; Phut (Pwnt) went to Punt, which in
    Egyptian records, the fabulous land on the East coast of Africa, source of myrrh (which included
    present-day Somaliland, perhaps also Arabia. 
     e Nag Hammadi Library is a collection of religious texts written by early Christians, known
    as Gnostics, who were excluded from the church as heretics. It is an invaluable source of Coptic
    lore, buried since 400AD in Nag Hammadi near Luxor in Egypt and discovered in 1945. Th e 
    Apocalypse of Adam (v.5), one of the Nag Hammadi tracts cast a new light in the treatment of
    the fl ood biblical genealogy.
    “And God will say to Noah- whom all generations will call DeucalonBehold
    I have protected you in the ark. Th erefore I will give the earth to you
    and your son.”
    “Th en Noah will divide the whole earth among his sons Ham and Japhet and
    Shem. He will then say to them, “My sons listen to my words. I have divided
    the earth among you. But serve Him with all the days of your life. Let not your
    seed depart from the face of the Almighty.”
    “Th en others from the seed of Ham and Japhet will come
    Four thousand men, and enter another land and sojourn with those who come
    from the eternal knowledge. Th en the seed of Ham and Japhet will form twelve
    kingdoms of another people.”3

    Th e strength of the Ethiopians or Kushites was detested to such a great degree, the prophet
    Isaiah, an agent of Yahweh (God), issued a proclamation to all:
    Disaster! Land of the whirring locust
    beyond the rivers of Cush,
    who send ambassadors by sea,
    in little reed- boats across the waters!
    to a nation tall and bronzed,
    a mighty and masterful nation.33
    We are told in the Old Testament when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of
    Solomon concerning the name of the lord; she came to him with questions. Kings 10:11
    Th e queen, who was a virgin and pure, learning about the history of the world, heard of
    Solomon’s wisdom and was curious to see what she had heard about, set on a long journey
    from Axum to Jerusalem, in those days when land and sea were not controlled by easy
    transportation. She proved his wisdom both material and spiritual.
    4. And God gave her what she desired... and this gift was a conception of Menelik I, the
    son of Solomon who is from the tribe of Judah, the descendant of Abraham, and this
    Menelik was to rule after her, hence the motto “Th e conquering Lion of the Tribes of
    Judah” which motto is the basis of the country’s faith and key to their ancestry. I Kings
    5. We are told in the New Testament that our Lord ...has praised her journey she made to
    hear the Wisdom of Solomon. Luke 11: 13.
    The Temple of Wadi es-Sebua
    “Es Sebua (“Th e Lions”) was the third temple built by Rameses II ninety- three moles from
    Aswan. Part of the temple is cut from rock. Rameses II dedicated the temple to Re- Harakhte
    and to Amun as he considered he was a god, by this time. He also worshiped in the temple. Th e
    entrance to the temple was formed by an avenue of Sphinxes (from which es-Sebua derives its
    name) that led up to the south pylon before which stood two colossal statues of Rameses II. At
    the far end of the sanctuary and above the solar bark on which the beetle-headed Re-Harakhte,
    the solar god is seated under a canopy while he is seated under a canopy while he is being adored
    on the left by the king and on the right by three baboons. Below is a niche that still shows traces
    of the three chiseled statues of the temples. Th ree principal gods are painted over the picture of
    St. Peter.92
    Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1457) also campaigned in Nubia. Th utmose III, her youthful coregent
    and stepson supplanted her. Th e Queen ruled as a king with ceremonial beard and a fi rm
    hand for twenty years. Th e temple built at Deir el Bahri was the outstanding monument of her
    reign. Th e walls display her important trading expedition to Punt. However, it was Th utmose
    III who extended the Egyptian frontier to the foot of the Holy Mountain at Gebel Barkal at the
    Fourth Cataract in his 47th regal year. His victory stele at Napata marked his triumph and the
    extent of the Egyptian frontier and in his temple of Amun-Re, he could boast of his satisfaction
    in both Egypt and Asia.
    Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten) (1352-1336) was a coregent with his father, Amenhotep the III,
    during his later reign. Amenhotep changed his name during his reign to Akhnaten, signifying
    his new devotion to the Sun god Aten, which was in confl ict with the Th eban god Amun, and
    the priesthood. Th e center of government remained at Th ebes while Akhnaten moved to Amarna
    with his beautiful wife Nefertari, and the adherents to the new religion that was a forerunner of
    Monotheism. Akhnaten built a temple at Karnak in honor of Aten. Th e gains made abroad were
    gradually diminished by lack of attention on the home front. Th e agreement of the factions of
    Aten and Amun seem to have begun under Semenekhara (1335-1332), who was coregent with
    Akhnaten for a short period. He was succeeded by Tutankhamon (1332-23) who was successful
    in returning the splintered worship of Amun to Th ebes. Th e death of Tutankhamon while still
    a youth made a place for an elderly noble named Ay (1323-1319) who legitimized his claim by
    marrying the widow of the deceased
    Alara’s prayer preserved in the Kawa VI relief refl ects his piety and his
    belief in the providence of the God Amun:
    O benefi cent god, swift, who calls upon him, look
    Upon my sister for me, a women born with me in one womb.
    Act for her (even) as you have acted for him [Alara] that acted
    For you , as a wonder, unpremeditated, and not disregarded by refl ective people. For
    you put a stop to him that plotted evil against me after you set me up as king
    A stela from Kawa, now located in the Ny Carlsberg Glypotek in Copenhagen, shows Alara
    making off erings to the god. Th e temple B at Kawa depicts the earliest post new Kingdom
    temple and affi rms that Alara was the fi rst signifi cant restorer of the Nubian Amun cult. Th e
    fi rst surviving sculptures of the dynasty are a series of ram sphinxes of heavy cut stone placed
    by Kashta by its pylon when he enlarged the mud-brick temple of Alara (B800) at Jebel Barkal. 
    Kashta’s legitimacy as king was established through the installation of Alara’s sister as princess
    of Amun, which created the justifi cation for royal succession and facilitated the shared concepts
    of traditional Kushite practice with Egyptian concepts of kingship. 
    Kashta was married to his sister Pebtatma indicated by her Abydos stela. Her roles are also
    given as Sistrum-player of Amen Re, King of the Gods, King’s sister, king’s daughter, mother of
    the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Kashta was affi rmed king by the priests of Amun when he
    arrived in Th ebes. Adams posits that there was no suggestion of military activity connected with
    this visit.
    Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer
    It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone
    Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of
    the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King
    of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister
    of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as
    God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His
    brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and
    Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har.
    Pianhki’s genius as titular King of Egypt, liturgical wizard in the synthesis of Egyptian
    and Kushite concepts of order as priest, and military might as general is captured in his Great
    Triumphal Stela from the Gebel Barkal Temple of Amun in the year 727 B.C. which is now in
    Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer
    It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone
    Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of
    the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King
    of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister
    of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as
    God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His
    brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and
    Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har.
    It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and
    the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the fi nest horses used in
    contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia.
    Th is splendid large stela of pink granite with a rounded top has a lunette relief which gives
    a pictorial summary of the event in the text that describes his wars fought under the protection
    of Amun bringing him the victory he envisioned. At the left of the lunette is Amun sitting on
    the throne with Mut the goddess standing behind Amun and Pianhki standing before him.
    King Namlot, of Hermopolis, is leading a horse in front of Pianhki shaking a sistrum in order
    to pacify him. 
    Pianhki in the tradition of the pharaohs donated his tribute of war to the god
    Amun which was vast:
    “a mass of copper or turquoise as large as yourself, fi nest horses, gold, silver, lapislazuli,
    property of all kinds, suits of apparel made of byssus of every quality, and
    couches and coverlets of linen, and anti perfume, vases of unguent, metal vessels
    or gold ornaments for the neck, crowns for your head, gold vases for ceremonies
    of purifi cation, precious inlaid stones...”
    At Kawa, Pianhki added a colonnaded forecourt where his stelae could be erected and pylons
    to the temple of Amun and built a paved processional road. On the walls of the temple, the
    ancient thirty-year Sed festival is depicted showing the king restoring his powers. At Kurru, he
    is entombed in a pyramid with subterranean chamber accessed by a stairway, and his wife Tabiry
    is buried nearby. Th e horses that he loved were buried as well at Kurru with elaborate trappings
    of silver and gold. Th e reign of the conqueror lasted 30 years.
    Pianhki is also remembered from the Sandstone Stela by his speech:
    ‘Th e Son of Re, lord of Diadems, “beloved of Amun,
    Pi(anh)ki says:
    Amun of Napata has granted me to be ruler of every foreign country.
    He to whom I say, you are chief, he is to be chief.
    He to whom I say ‘You are not king !’ he is not King .
    Amun in Dominion (Th ebes) has granted me to be ruler of Black-land.
    ...Gods make a king, men make a king,
    But it is Amun who has made me
    Th e earliest throne name of Pianhki, as Lord of Two Lands was indicative of his godship
    and kingship.
    Shabataka assumed the reign of the Kingdom of Kush and Egypt, following the death of his
    father. His attested wife was Arty, a daughter of Pianhki. Shabataka was enthroned at Th ebes
    in the great temple of Amun. His titulary included “Whose appearances -endure, Beloved of
    Ptah and Beloved of Amun.
    Th is ‘shadowy king’ falls through the cracks of history as so little has been found to affi rm his
    reign. Th e Karnak Nile level record, year three of Shabataka, records that he arrived at Th ebes,
    the compound of Amun on the fi fth day of the fi rst month of summer in his third regal year. 


    Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I  (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I is presumed to be the Shishak (Shishak, Shishaq or Susac) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Sheshonq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited. 

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3


    1 And Solomon became allied by marriage to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had completed building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

    2Only the people sacrificed in the high places, because there was no house built unto the name of the Lord, until those days.

    3And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father; only he sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places.

    4And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that (was) the great high place; a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar.

    5In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said, "Ask what I shall give you."

    6And Solomon said, "You have done Your servant David my father great kindness, as he walked before you in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with You; and You have kept for him this great kindness, that You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as (it is) this day.

    7And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father; and I (am but) a little child; I do not know (how) to go out or come in.

    8And your servant (is) in the midst of Your people which you have chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

    9Give (therefore) Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people, that I may discern between good and bad; for who is able to judge this Your great people?"

    10And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.

    11And God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have you asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked the life of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment.

    12Behold, I have done according to your word; behold, I have given you a wise and understanding heart; so that there was none like you before you, nor after you shall any arise like you.

    13And I have also given you that which you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there shall not be any among the kings like you all your days.

    14And if you walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David did walk, then I will lengthen your days."

    All humans have been given the knowledge of good and evil. Our Creator bestowed Solomon the gift discerning whether the actions of others are good or evil. In return, the Creator had only the request that Solomon keep His statutes and My commandments.

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 5


    9 And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceedingly much, and largeness of heart, as the sand that (is) on the seashore.

    10 And Solomon's wisdom was greater than the wisdom of all the children of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt.

    11 And he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol, and his fame was in all the nations round about.

    12 And he spoke three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five.

    13 And he spoke of trees, from the cedar tree that (is) in Lebanon and to the hyssop that springs out of the wall, and he spoke of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of the creeping things, and of the fishes.

    14 And they came of all peoples to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, who had heard his wisdom. 

     Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9


    3 And the Lord spoke to him: "I have heard your prayer and your petition, which you have petitioned before Me. I have consecrated this Temple which you have built to place My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart shall be there at all times.

    4 As for You, if you go before Me, as David your father went wholeheartedly and with uprightness to do in accordance with all that I have commanded you [and] you will keep My statutes and laws.

    5 I will establish the throne of your kingdom over Israel forever as I have spoken to David your father, saying: A man will not fail you upon the throne of Israel.

    6 But if you and your children turn away from following Me, and you will not adhere to My commandments and My statutes, which I have placed before you, but go and worship other gods and bow before them.

    7 Then I will cut Israel off, from the land which I have given to them, and this house which I have made sacrosanct for My Name will I dismiss from My presence, and Israel shall be for a proverb and a byword among all nations.

    8 And this Temple [which] is exalted, [shall become forlorn] and every passerby shall be astounded and will hiss, and they will say: "Why has the Lord done this to this country and to this Temple?"

    9 They will be told, "Because they abandoned the Lord, their God, Who delivered their forefathers out of the Land of Egypt; and took hold of other gods and bowed to them and served them. Therefore, has the Lord brought all this retribution upon them. "

    Ecclesiastes is presented as an autobiography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises Solomon's wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. 

    One reason the Kohelet is identified as Solomon is that at one time Solomon was the king of Israel, and Ecclesiastes 1:1 identifies the Preacher as “king in Jerusalem.” Also in agreement with Ecclesiastes 1:1, Solomon was a “son of David.”

    Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 1


    1 The words of Koheleth son of David, king in Jerusalem.

    2 Vanity of vanities, said Koheleth; vanity of vanities, all is vanity.

    3 What profit has man in all his toil that he toils under the sun?

    4 A generation goes and a generation comes, but the earth endures forever.

     Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War

    President Abraham Lincoln

    Second Annual Message
    December 1, 1862


    On the 22d day of September last a proclamation was issued by the Executive, a copy of which is herewith submitted. In accordance with the purpose expressed in the second paragraph of that paper, I now respectfully recall your attention to what may be called "compensated emancipation."

    A nation may be said to consist of its territory, its people, and its laws. The territory is the only part which is of certain durability. "One generation passeth away and another generation cometh, but the earth abideth forever." It is of the first importance to duly consider and estimate this ever-enduring part.

    Egyptian influence on Israel was particularly strong in the reign of Solomon who became the son-in-law to an Egyptian Pharaoh. 

    It has been suggested that Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between Israel and Egypt. Neterkheperre was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means 'son of Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen).'

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9


    16 Pharaoh, king of Egypt, had gone up and conquered Gezer and burnt it with fire, and slayed the Canaanites who inhabited the city; and he gave it as a gift to his daughter, Solomon's wife.

    King  Solomon incorporated the teachings of Israel  Egypt's Vizier Ptahhotep on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions.

    Ecclesiastes 10

    10:2 A wise person’s good sense protects him, 
    but a fool’s lack of sense leaves him vulnerable.
    10:3 Even when a fool walks along the road he lacks sense,
    and shows everyone what a fool he is.
    10:4 If the anger of the ruler flares up against you, do not resign from your position, 
    for a calm response can undo great offenses.
    10:5 I have seen another misfortune on the earth: 
    It is an error a ruler makes.
    10:6 Fools are placed in many positions of authority, 
    while wealthy men sit in lowly positions.

    Scripture presents Solomon had access to Egyptian and Babylonian literature.

    King Solomon's actions caused Israel to fall from the Creator's grace.

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 11


    1 King Solomon loved many foreign women and the daughter of Pharaoh; Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites.

    2 Of the nations about which the Lord had said to the Children of Israel, "You shall not go (mingle) among them and they shall not come among you, for certainly they will sway your heart after their dieties." To these did Solomon cleave to love [them]

    3 And he had seven hundred royal wives and three hundred concubines, and his wives turned away his heart.

    4 And it was at the time of Solomon's old age, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods, and his heart was not whole with the Lord, His God, like the heart of David his father.

    5 And Solomon went after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

    6 And Solomon did what was displeasing to the Lord, and he was not completely devoted to the Lord as was David his father. 

    7 Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab on the mountain that is before Jerusalem and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.   

    8 And so he did for all of his alien wives who offered incense and slaughtered sacrifices to their deities.

    9 And the Lord became angry with Solomon because his heart had digressed from the Lord, God of Israel, Who had appeared to him twice.

    10 And had commanded him pertaining this matter, not to follow other gods; however, he did not keep what the Lord had commanded.

    11 And the Lord said to Solomon, "For as this has been with you, and you have not observed My covenant and My statutes which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you, and I shall give it to your servant.

    12 However, in your days I will not do this, for the sake of David your father; from the hands of your son I shall tear it.

    13 But I shall not tear the entire kingdom away from you; one tribe I shall grant to your son for the sake of David My servant, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen.

    14And the Lord raised up an adversary against Solomon, Hadad, the Edomite; he was of the royal lineage in Edom.

    15And it was when David was in Edom that Joab, the commander of the army had gone up to bury the slain, since he had slain every male in Edom.

    16For Joab and all of Israel remained [stationed] there for six months until he had killed every male in Edom.

    17Adad fled, he and some Edomite men, of his father's servants with him, to go to Egypt; Hadad being yet a small child.    

    18And they set out from Midian and came to Paran, and they took men with them from Paran and they arrived in Egypt and came before Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, He granted him a home and assigned him sustenance and gave him land.

    19And Hadad pleased Pharaoh very much so that he gave him in marriage the sister of his wife, the sister of Tachpenes, the queen.

    20And the sister of Tachpenes bore him Genubath his son, whom Tachpenes weaned in Pharaoh's house, and Genubath was in Pharaoh's house among Pharaoh's children.

    21Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers and that Joab, the commander of the army had died. And Hadad said to Pharaoh, "Give me leave, and I shall go to my country."

    22And Pharaoh said to him, "What do you lack with me that you desire to go to your country?" And he said, "Nevertheless, give me leave."

    23And God raised up against him an adversary, Rezon, the son of Eliada, who had fled from Hadadezer, the king of Zobah, his master.

    24And he assembled men around him, and he became commander over a battalion when David slew them, and they went to Damascus and settled there and ruled in Damascus.

    25 And he was an adversary to Israel all of Solomon's days with the evil that was caused by Hadad, and he detested Israel and ruled over Aram.

    26 And Jeroboam the son of Nabat an Ephraimite of Zeradah, whose mother's name was Zeruah, a widow; he was Solomon's servant, he raised his hand against the king.

    27And this was the matter [concerning] which he raised his hand against the king; Solomon built up the Millo and closed up the breach of the city of David, his father.

    28 And the man Jeroboam was a mighty man of valor; and Solomon saw this young man, that he was a diligent worker, and he appointed him in charge of all the burdens of the House of Joseph.

    29And it came to be at that time when Jeroboam had left Jerusalem, that Ahijah, the Shilonite, the prophet, found him on the way, and he was wearing a new garment, and the two of them were alone in the field.

    30And Ahijah grasped the new garment that was upon him and tore it into twelve pieces.

    31And he said to Jeroboam, "Take for yourself ten pieces, for so has the Lord, the God of Israel, said, "I shall tear the kingdom out of Solomon's hands and I shall give you the ten tribes.

    32But he will have one tribe, for My servant David's sake and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which I have chosen of all the tribes of Israel.

    33Since they have deserted Me and have prostrated themselves to Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, to Chemosh, the god of Moab, and Milcom, the god of the children of Ammon, and they have not walked in My ways, to do what is right in My eyes to keep My statutes and judgments as did David his father.

    34However, I will not take any part of the kingdom away from him but I will make him a king all the days of his life for the sake of David My servant, whom I chose, for he kept My commandments and My statutes.

    35However, I will take the kingdom away from his son and will give it to you, the ten tribes

    36And his son I shall give one tribe so that David My servant may have a kingdom before Me in Jerusalem, the city which I chose for Myself to place My name there.

    37And I shall take you, and you shall rule over all that your soul desires, and you shall be king over Israel.

    38And it will be, if you heed all that I shall command you and will walk in My ways and do what is righteous in My eyes, to keep My statutes and My commandments as did David My servant, and I shall be with you and build for a lasting dynasty as I have built for David My servant, and I shall give Israel to you.

    39And I shall afflict David's descendants because of this, but not for all times."

    40Solomon sought to put Jeroboam to death, but Jeroboam arose and fled to Egypt to Shishak, the king of Egypt, and remained in Egypt until Solomon's death.    

    Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 12

    While Solomon did pay for his transgressions here on earth, his last word of wisdom does offer hope for his possible Salvation.


    1 And remember your Creator in the days of your youth, before the days of evil come, and years arrive, about which you will say, "I have no desire in them."

    2 Before the sun, the light, the moon, and the stars darken, and the clouds return after the rain.

    3 On the day that the keepers of the house tremble, and the mighty men are seized by cramps, and the grinders cease since they have become few, and those who look out of the windows become darkened.

    4 And the doors shall be shut in the street when the sound of the mill is low, and one shall rise at the voice of a bird, and all the songstresses shall be brought low.

    5 Also from the high places they will fear, and terrors on the road, and the almond tree will blossom, and the grasshopper will drag itself along, and sexual desire will fail, for man goes to his everlasting home, and the mourners go about in the street.

    6 Before the silver cord snaps, and the golden fountain is shattered, and the pitcher breaks at the fountain, and the wheel falls shattered into the pit.

    7 And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God, Who gave it.

    8 "Vanity of vanities," said Koheleth; "all is vanity."

    9 And more [than this], Koheleth was wise, he also taught knowledge to the people; he listened and sought out, he established many proverbs.

    10 Koheleth sought to find words of delight and properly recorded words of truth.

    11 The words of the wise are like goads, and like well-fastened nails with large heads, given from one shepherd.

    12 And more than they, my son, beware; making many books has no end, and studying much is a weariness of the flesh.

    13 The end of the matter, everything having been heard, fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the entire man.

    14 For every deed God will bring to judgment-for every hidden thing, whether good or bad.


    Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: [ʃiʃaq], Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, translit. Sousakim) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I.

    Sheshonq I campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-12).

    According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE[2]), Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Kushites ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made;[3] Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones.

    According to Second Chronicles,

    Egyptian military conquests against Assyria and Israel, aided by Ethiopians are recorded in
    the Books of Kings, Acts, and the Chronicles. Mention is made of an Ethiopian army assisting
    Shishak ( Sheshonk) who ruled Egypt during the reign of Rehoboam, the King of Judah and the
    Son of Solomon. Shishak’s army swept across the land of Judah, with twelve hundred chariots and
    sixty thousand men, leaving in his wake fi re and destruction. Th e people of Lubim and Sukkim,
    and the Ethiopians are further described as a host with many horses and chariots. Subduing the
    Judeans in the south, Shishak continued north to Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the king
    which included all of the gold shields which Solomon had made.31

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 14


    21 And Rehoboam the son of Solomon ruled in Judah; forty-one years of age was Rehoboam when he became king and seventeen years he reigned in Jerusalem, the city that the Lord had chosen to place His Name there out of all the tribes of Israel, and his mother's name was Naamah the Amonitess.

    22 And Judah did what displeased the Lord, and they angered Him more than their forefathers had done with their sins that they sinned.

    23 And they, too, built for themselves high places, monuments and trees for idol worship on every high hill and under every green tree.

    24 And also adultery was in the land; they did as all the abominations of the nations that the Lord had driven out from before the Children of Israel.

    25 And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak, the king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem.

    26 And he took the treasures of the House of the Lord and the treasures of the king's palace, and he took everything; and he took all the golden shields that Solomon had made.

    Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 12



    1 Now it came to pass when Rehoboam's kingdom was established and when he became strong, he abandoned the Law of the Lord, and all Israel with him.

    2 And it came to pass in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, that Shishak the king of Egypt marched against Jerusalem, for they had betrayed the Lord.

    3 With a thousand and two hundred chariots and with sixty thousand horsemen, and there was no number to the people who came with him from Egypt: the Lubim, the Sukkiim, and the Cushites.

    4 And he seized Judah's fortified cities, and he came until Jerusalem.

    5 And Shemaiah the prophet came to Rehoboam and the princes of Judah who had gathered to Jerusalem because of Shishak, and he said to them, "So said the Lord: You have forsaken Me; so I too have forsaken you in the hand of Shishak."

    6 And the princes of Israel and the king humbled themselves, and they said, "The Lord is just."

    7 And when the Lord saw that they had humbled themselves, the word of the Lord came to Shemaiah, saying, "They have humbled themselves; I shall not destroy them, but I shall grant them some measure of deliverance, and My wrath will not be poured out in Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak.

    8 For they will be his slaves, and they will know My service and the service of the kingdoms of the lands.

    9 And Shishak, the king of Egypt, marched against Jerusalem, and he took the treasures of the House of the Lord and the treasures of the king's palace; everything he took, and he took the golden shields that Solomon had made.







     600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11


    1 Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord, but a perfect weight is His will.

    Proverbs 16


    16:9 A person plans his course,
    but the Lord directs his steps.
    16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,
    his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.
    16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;
    all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

    The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess that was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi  (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives.  The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality.

    300 hundred years before Solomon, the Egyptian Royal scribe, Hunefer made a copy of the funerary Egyptian Book of the Dead for Pharaoh Seti I. 

    Like the Creator in Judaism, Thoth gives long life on earth and the promise of eternal life in the after world to those who are just.  

    Book of the Dead of Hunefer
    Chapter CLXXXIII
    Papyrus of Un'neferu


    Life is with thee, abundance is attached to thee. I offer Maat before thee; grant that I may be in the train of thy majesty like one who is on the earth. May thy name be called upon, may it be found among the just ones.
    I have come to this god, to the city of god, to the region of old time; my soul, my ka, my Chu are in this land. The god of it is the lord of justice, the lord of abundance, the great and the venerable one, who is towed through the whole earth; he journeys to the South in his boat, and to the North driven by the winds, and his oars, to be entertained with gifts according to the command of the god, the lord of peace therein, who left me free of care. The god therein rejoices in who practices justice; he grants an old age to him who has done so; he is beloved, and the of it is a good burial and a sepulture in Ta-Tsert.
    I have come to thee; my hands bring Maat, my heart does not contain any falsehood, I offer thee Maat before thy face, I know her; I swear by her; I have done no evil thing on earth; I have never wronged a man of his property. I am Thoth, the perfect and pure writer; my hands are pure. I have put away all evil things; I write justice and I hate evil; for I am the writing-reed of the Inviolate god, who utters his words, and whose words are written in the two earths.
    I am Thoth, the lord of justice, who gives victory to him who is injured and who takes the defense of the oppressed, of him who is wronged in his property. I have dispelled darkness; I have driven away the storm; I have given air to Unneferu, and the sweet breezes of the North when he comes out of the womb of his mother.



    500 hundred years before Hunefer,  the Babylonian King ,Hammurabi (Khammurabi. Awil Kurda) inscribed his code of law on a stone stele. The relief portrait of Hammurabi can be found in the House Gallery in the United States Capitol Building.


    Hammurabi Code of Laws Stele.


    The Sky god Anu (An) is considered the Chief Justice of the seven gods ( Anunnaki) who reside in the underworld and judge the fate of mankind. Ea (Enki) the god of righteousness and Lord (Bel) of Heaven and Earth who assigned lesser gods to oversee and represent particular regions on earth in the council of gods. It was It was Ea who proposed to the council that a mortal man should be created to serve the gods. Anu and Ea assigned the Sky Lord Marduk (Ea's son) to oversee the decrees of Anu on the fate of mankind with his Imhullu (divine wind storm weapon). Anu and Ea who bestowed on King Hammurabi the power to rule over the mortals with righteousness judgement over the wicked. 

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 1


    When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, dominion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.

    King Hammurabi prayed at the temple of Siggil (Marduk) and asked his Lord (Bel) Marduk to increase the riches of Babylonia and the main temple of Sin (god of the moon and the one who created Hammurabi) called Gish-shir-gal ; reestablish the sacred city of Eridu dedicated Lord (Bel) Ea; and purify Apsu (a god encompasses all fresh drinking water) that eternally sleeps due to a spell Ea placed upon him. 

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 2


    Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond compare, sublime patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu; who conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk, his lord who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin made; who enriched Ur; the humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal;

    Hammurabi referred to himself as a white king who knew of Shamash (Utu), son of the moon god Sin, and god of the Sun. Shamash was known for riding his sun chariot all day watching enforcing justice, and teaching morality and truth to mortals. Shamash established and guarded the cities of Sippara  and Larsa. He then made the temple dedicated to him like Heaven. Shamash clothed the gravestones of his Malkat (Queen and consort) with green representing the resurrection of nature. With the help of Shamash, Hammurabi was able to restore and bring water to the ancient city of Uruk; raise the temple of E-Anna (Inanna, Istar), Queen of Heaven (twin sister of Shamash), perfectly depicted the beauty of the sky god Anu and the warrior and reproduction goddess Nana (Nanaya), who guard the kingdom of Babylon and reunited the people of the city of Isin. 

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 2


    the white king, heard of Shamash, the mighty, who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with Shamash as his helper; the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who reunited the scattered inhabitants of Isin;

    Like the god Shamash bringing green life over death to Babylon, the Creator brought green life over death to Israel. Most Jewish scholars believe this to be prophecy of when Israel will rise to power over those that control it.

    Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 17


    24. And all the trees of the field will recognize that I, the Lord, have lowered the high tree, have raised aloft the low tree; that I have dried up the green tree, and have made the dry tree blossom. I, the Lord, have spoken, and I will accomplish it."

    Hammurabi donated to money to the temple of E-gal-mach and protected the cities he controlled. He considered himself to be brother of the war god Zamama (Zababa, Ashtabi) protector of the city of Kish . Hammurabi glorified Zamama's temple E-me-te-ursag and established farms around the city of Kish. He also increased the treasury of the temple of the warrior god Nana (Nanaya) and the Temple Harsagkalama dedicated to the love and war goddess, Inanna, (Inana, Ishtar), daughter of the sky god Anu, and mother of the warrior goddess Nanaya 

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 3


    who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting king of the city, brother of the god Zamama; who firmly founded the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory, redoubled the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsagkalama;

    King Hammurabi used the a grave metaphor to define the destruction and subjection of his enemy. He increased the power of the city of Cuthah.

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 3


    the grave of the enemy, whose help brought about the victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in E-shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of Borsippa, the Sublime; who is indefatigable for E-zida; 

    According to the Tanakh, Cuthah was one of the five Syrian and Mesopotamian cities from which Sargon II, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites.  These settlers would later be known as "Cuthim" in Hebrew and as "Samaritans" to the Greeks. The Assyrian King advisers marginalized God of the Israelites from the Creator of all mankind to just a regional God with power to kill unrespectful settlers. The Samaritans incorporated the Creator into their former pantheon of gods.

    2 KINGS 17


    17:24 The king of Assyria brought foreigners from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim and settled them in the cities of Samaria in place of the Israelites. They took possession of Samaria and lived in its cities. 17:25 When they first moved in, they did not worship the Lord. So the Lord sent lions among them and the lions were killing them. 17:26 The king of Assyria was told, “The nations whom you deported and settled in the cities of Samaria do not know the requirements of the God of the land, so he has sent lions among them. They are killing the people because they do not know the requirements of the God of the land.” 17:27 So the king of Assyria ordered, “Take back one of the priests whom you deported from there. He must settle there and teach them the requirements of the God of the land.”  17:28 So one of the priests whom they had deported from Samaria went back and settled in Bethel. He taught them how to worship the Lord.

    17:29 But each of these nations made its own gods and put them in the shrines on the high places that the people of Samaria had made. Each nation did this in the cities where they lived. 17:30 The people from Babylon made Succoth Benoth, the people from Cuth made Nergal,  the people from Hamath made Ashima, 17:31 the Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burned their sons in the fire as an offering to Adrammelech and Anammelech, 56  the gods of Sepharvaim. 17:32 At the same time they worshiped the Lord. They appointed some of their own people to serve as priests in the shrines on the high places.  17:33 They were worshiping the Lord and at the same time serving their own gods in accordance with the practices of the nations from which they had been deported.

    In modern history, like the Cuthim,  the Yoruba African slaves were coerced to accept the Catholic faith in Cuba. The masked their ancestral belief by syncretizing (combing) their Orisha (Orichás, orixá) spirits with the human form of Catholic saints.

    In the picture below King Hammurabi 'The Lawgiver' and 'Unifier of Babylonia' raises his right arm in worship. Detail of a votive monument. Limestone. Old Babylonian Period, reign of Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE. From Sippar, Iraq. The British Museum, London.  In the book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches writes that inscription is dedicated for the saving of his life. In this he bears the title (incomplete) of “King of Amoria” (the Amorites), lugal Mar[tu], Semitic Babylonian sar mât Amurrî 


    Theophilus Goldridge Pinches M.R.A.S. (1856 – 6 June 1934 Muswell Hill, London), was a pioneer British assyriologist and staff member of the Egyptian and Assyrian Department, British Museum, he gave assistance to scholars including Abraham Sachs and taught at London University. It was largely due to his "painstaking work" during his time as assistant keeper at the British Museum between 1895 and 1900, that many pieces acquired by the museum were joined together again.  He also translated some Babylonian tablets which related to the Battle of the Vale of Siddim and was one of the editors of The Babylonian and Oriental Record from 1886. In 1890, Pinches discovered and published the correct reading of the name of Gilgamesh, instead of Izdubar.



    In the course of preparing the first volume of the Catalogue of the Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, the late Dr H. H. Figulla copied almost all of the tablets there identified as coming from the Nuzi area or from Kassite Babylonia.

    During the period 1892-8 T. G. Pinches was partly engaged in cataloguing and copying the tablets of the second Spartoli collection, which are believed mostly to have derived from Babylon. His copies of the astronomical tablets of this collection were published by A. J. Sachs in Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts (Providence, 1955), and some of the economic and literary tablets have been recopied and published by other scholars, in the present series and elsewhere.

    Below is one plate that Pinches transcribed.


    Any scholar who attempted a translation between any two languages knows that it is never a straightforward matter of linguistic equivalence. In Pinches Plates 45 -  65 transcription and translation of Spartoli III, 2: Spartol; II, 987: Spartoli I, 58; and Spartoli II, 962. Spartoli III, 2 contains the names of Rudbula (Tidal), of Eri-aku's son, Durmah-ilani, and Kudur-lahmil (Chedorlaomer) we can see that there is no clear method of translation, but linguistic artifacts can be found that give us clues to understanding. The more linguistic artifacts in the data we find, the clearer the translation becomes.

    Jefferson would completely understand how even present translations can be changed to make the work more popular with foreign readers.

    Francois André Michaux to Thomas Jefferson, 10 August 1810


    editors’ translation
    Paris 10 August 1810

    In the letter I had the honor to write you shortly after my arrival in France, I expressed my gratitude for the considerable favor you did me by facilitating my return to Europe with all my collections. Thanks to your kindness, I am now able to send you the beginning of my work on the large plants of North America, and especially those of the United States. I sincerely hope, Sir, that this work merits your approval and above all that you will think it might contribute to the education of farmers and woodsmen, classes of men so useful and numerous in your country. To make this work more popular I thought it might be advantageous to replace all the botanical designations with common names in the American edition, changes that I have marked in the copy I am sending to Mr. S. Bradford, a Philadelphia bookseller, for the translation. I am also sending him, from Paris, the colored plates to be used in this same edition. If, on the contrary, no bookseller in the United States finds it worthwhile to translate it, the French edition will be suspended after the completion of the history of walnut trees, and I will regret that the unhappy times in which we live are opposed to an enterprise that could have been of some use, and might have contributed to making rural life in America more pleasant.

    I am with Respect
    Sir Your very humble and very obedient servant
    F. Andre Michaux

    In translating the second Spartoli collection Theophilus Pinches identifies the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku, and Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal to be names   Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer that are given in Genesis with Abraham.

    The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia

    by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches

    pg 224


    when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion.

    The first document is Sp. III. 2, and contains all three names—or, rather, the names Tudḫula (Tidal), Êri-Eaku's son Durmaḫ-îlāni, and Kudur-laḫmal. The first portion of this text refers to the gods: 

    The reverse begins with a reference to Elam, and some one (perhaps the king of that country) who “spoiled from the city Aḫḫê (?) to the land of Rabbātum.” Something was made, apparently by the same personage, into heaps of ruins, and the fortress of the land of Akkad, and “the whole of Borsippa(?)” are referred to. At this point comes the line mentioning Kudur-laḫmal, supposed to be Chedorlaomer. It reads as follows—

    Kudur-laḫmal, his son, pierced his heart with the steel sword of his girdle.”

    The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia

    by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches

    pg 227


    How far the record which they contain may be true is with our present knowledge impossible to find out. The style of the writing with which they are inscribed is certainly very late—later, in all probability, than the Persian period, and the possibility that it is a compilation of that period has been already suggested. That it is altogether a fiction, however, is in the highest degree improbable. If we have in the three names which these two tablets contain the Babylonian prototypes of Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer, they must refer to the events which passed between the first and thirty-first years of the reign of Amraphel or Ḫammurabi, in which it would seem that both Durmaḫ-îlāni and Tudḫula attacked and spoiled Babylon, cutting the canals so that the town and the temple were both flooded. Both of these royal personages, who, be it noted, are not called kings, were apparently killed by their sons, and Kudur-laḫmal seems to have been a criminal of the same kind, if we may judge from the words “Kudur-laḫmal, his son, pier(ced?) his heart with the steel sword of his girdle.” That three royal personages, contemporaries, should all dispose of their fathers in the same way seems, however, in the highest degree improbable. It also seems to be in an equal degree impossible that (as has been suggested) the tablets in question should refer to Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer

    In Volume 7, The Doorway Papers,  The Hidden Things of God's Revelation,  Arthur C. Custance also point sout Umman-Mandu by using the controversial Spartoli tablets found in mutilated form by Pinches. 


    We should not close this survey of kingly names, however, without making some reference to what are sometimes referred to as the Spartoli Tablets. These tablets were first translated and reported upon by Pinches. They were found in a very mutilated form, two of them being entirely unbaked and one baked possibly in recent times by the Arabs who found them. In spite of their incompleteness, considerable portions of the text of each could be translated. When this was done, to the surprise and delight of Pinches, there appeared the names (in their original form) of Chedorlaomer, Arioch, and Tidal. Besides these names were details which seemed to refer to the events which transpired in Babylonia when the Elamites established their sovereignty over the country. Included in this information is the observation that Chedorlaomer had hired mercenaries under Tidal who were neither Elamites nor Babylonians but were referred to as the Umman-Mandu. The Mandu appear not infrequently in cuneiform texts, and they have been identified variously as the Medes or, by Sayce as the Scythians, but virtually always as Indo-Aryans. This would seem to bear out the suggestion which was made earlier that the Goiim were indeed Indo-Europeans. It is also most remarkable to find a tablet with the names of three of the kings.

    So confirmatory of Scripture were these tablets that the Higher Critics jumped on them and did everything in their power to deliberately suppress the significance of them. They pointed out that they were so mutilated as to be worthless, that they were cast in a literary form which suggested poetry rather than history, that they were dated very late (Driver suggested 300 B.C. (35)) , and that there were many phrases which were almost unintelligible even where the signs themselves were clear enough, and finally that the names of the kings were sometimes miss-spelled!

    In the book, Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence,  Author Gerard Gertoux abstract expands on Custance and Pinches work


    Historians consider the biblical account about Chedorlaomer's campaign against Sodom as a pious fiction. However, the Gospels refer to it as a real story, which is even described as essential to faith (Heb 7:1). According to the chronology drawn from the Masoretic text, Abraham's departure from Ur and his arrival in Canaan are dated in 1963 BCE when Abraham was 75 years old. The revolt of Transjordan kings against Chedorlaomer occurred in the 13th year of his dominion and the following year (1954 BCE) he was slaughtered by Abraham. A chronological reconstruction based on synchronisms shows that among dynasties from Sumerian lists the 3rd and last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). The Spartoli tablets (c. 650 BCE) describe this famous attack of Babylonia by a coalition of evil kings named Kudur-KUKUmal, king of Elam, Tudḫula, king of Gutium, and Eri-Aku [king of Larsa]. This coalition of kings (Sumer, Larsa, Gutium) united under Kutur-Lagamar is quite likely, because all these kings were vassals or allies of the king of Elam (and Akkad) at that time, moreover, they came from neighboring regions. The route of Chedorlaomer and the description of his actions show that this king came to this region near Egypt in order to maintain control over this new land trade route. This ambitious project had to have worried Amenemhat I (1975-1946) because southern Canaan was a big source of supply. In order to protect Egypt, Amenemhat I built the "Walls of the Ruler". In addition, the first Execration Texts against Canaan appear at this time. One can notice that the area of Sodom is called Šutu[m] in execration texts (then Moab after 1800 BCE).

    Abram with 318 soldiers retaliated with a surprise night attack and recovered Lot and the possessions the victorious kings had taken. 

    National Gallery of Art

    Antonio Tempesta
    Florentine, 1555 - 1630
    Abraham makes the enemies flee who hold his nephew


    Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 14


    1 Now it came to pass in the days of Amraphel the king of Shinar, Arioch the king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and Tidal the king of Goyim.

    2 That they waged war with Bera the king of Sodom and with Birsha the king of Gomorrah, Shineab the king of Admah, and Shemeber the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.

    3 All these joined in the valley of Siddim, which is the Dead Sea.

    4 For twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and for thirteen years they rebelled.

    5 And in the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer came, and the kings who were with him, and they smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim.

    6 And the Horites in their mountain Seir, until the plain of Paran, which is alongside the desert.

    7 And they returned and came to Ein Mishpat, which is Kadesh, and they smote the entire field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who dwelt in Hazezon Tamar.

    8 And the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar, came forth, and they engaged them in battle in the valley of Siddim.

    9 With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam and Tidal the king of Goyim and Amraphel the king of Shinar and Arioch the king of Ellasar, four kings against the five.

    10 Now the valley of Siddim was [composed of] many clay pits, and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled and they fell there, and the survivors fled to a mountain.

    11 And they took all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food, and they departed.

    12 And they took Lot and his possessions, the son of Abram's brother, and they departed, and he was living in Sodom.

    13 And the fugitive came and he told Abram the Hebrew, and he was living in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshkol and the brother of Aner, who were Abram's confederates.

    14 And Abram heard that his kinsman had been taken captive, and he armed his trained men, those born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and he pursued [them] until Dan.

    15 And he divided himself against them at night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them until Hobah, which is to the left of Damascus.

    16 And he restored all the possessions, and also Lot his brother and his possessions he restored, and also the women and the people.

    17 And the king of Sodom came out toward him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, to the valley of Shaveh, which is the valley of the king.

    18 And Malchizedek the king of Salem brought out bread and wine, and he was a priest to the Most High God.

    19 And he blessed him, and he said, "Blessed be Abram to the Most High God, Who possesses heaven and earth.

    20 And blessed be the Most High God, Who has delivered your adversaries into your hand," and he gave him a tithe from all.

    21 And the king of Sodom said to Abram, "Give me the souls, and the possessions take for yourself."

    22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I raise my hand to the Lord, the Most High God, Who possesses heaven and earth.

    23 Neither from a thread to a shoe strap, nor will I take from whatever is yours, that you should not say, 'I have made Abram wealthy.'

    24 Exclusive of what the lads ate, and the share of the men who went with me; Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre they shall take their share."


    Many scholars believe during the time of King Hammurabi, Abraham, ‘father of the faithful Hebrews, Christians, and Muslims' is said to have migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran, the chief city and commercial capital of Mesopotamia, and then into Palestine. The Biblical World notes that some of the Mari tablets use words from the Amorite tribes that are also found in Abraham's story, such as his father's name, Terah, and his brothers' names, Nahor and Haran (also ironically the name for their destination). From these artifacts and others, some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamia around 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C.


    It is now the prevailing view among both Assyriologists and Old Testament scholars that King Hammurabi and King Amraphel of Shinar are the same person. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia a partial clue to transformation of the name Hammurabi into the Hebrew form Amraphel is furnished by the explanation of the name in a cuneiform letter as equivalent to Kimta-rapashtu (great people or family). On this basis "'am" = "Kimta" and "raphel" = "rapaltu" = "rapashtu." Shinar  is a general synonym for the region of Babylonia (Mesopotamia).

    The Expository Times identifies King Arioch of Ellasar of Genesis with King Eri-Aku (Eri-E-kua, servant of the moon god E-kua, Aku [Sin]) of Larsa. It is known that  Eri-aku, king of Larsa was conquered by King Hammurabi (Amraphel), and later became subject to him. The city of Ellasar (Sumerian name Ararwa, Arauruwa, now known as Senqara) was known as Larsa a city of ancient Babylonia (Chaldea). The city was at first governed by its own kings, but became a part of the Babylonian empire some time after the reign of Hammurabi. In the article, Light on Scriptural Texts From Recent Discoveries, author William Hayes Ward states that the translation from the Semitic Rim-Sin to Akkadian is Eri-Agu or Eri-Aku. The Mari letters throw light are the dealings of Hammurabi with with Rim-Sin of Larsa, in the early and middle periods of his reign. He was not always, as the letters reveal the two neighboring kingdoms co-existed for thirty years on excellent terms, and standing in alliance of mutual defense. 


    PART 1
    Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum



    Two agents of Hammurabi, he writes, who have long been residing in Mashkan-shapir have now arrived back in Babylon. ' Four men of Larsa, riding on asses, came with them; I learned their business, and this is the message they were sent with.' Rim-Sin had formerly written to Hammurabi proposing that each should go to the other's aid with his army and river-boats in case of attack upon either. But it was now revealed that Rim-Sin was a shifty associate—'as touching the soldiers you are always writing to me about, I have heard [a report] that the enemy has set his face towards a different land, and that is why I did not send my soldiers'—nevertheless, he went on, if the enemy turns again upon either of us let us give each other aid. 

    In 1880 Book, The Chaldean Account of Genesis, George Smith speculates that the Semetic Chedorlaomer is translated to Kudar Lagamar, meaning 'servant of a god of Elam.

    The Chaldean Account of Genesis

    George Smith


    We learn from Genesis xiv. that the cities of the plain were among the conquests of Chedor-laomer and his allies, and there is some reason for thinking that the history of Chedor-laomer's campaign may have been derived from the Babylonian state archives. At all events Amraphel or Amarpel, the king of Sumir, is mentioned first, although Chedor-laomer was the paramount sovereign and the leader of the expedition. The expedition must have taken place during the period when, as we learn from the inscriptions. Babylonia was subject to the monarchs of Elam, though subordinate princes were ruling over the states into which it was divided at the time. Though the name of Chedorlaomer has not been found, Laomer or Lagamar appears as an Elamite god, and several of the Elamite kings bore names compounded with Kudur " a servant," as Kudur-Nankhunte, " the servant of the god Nankhunte," Kudur-Mabug," the servant of Mabug," and the like. Arioch, king of Ellasar, which probably stands for al Larsa, " the city of Larsa," has the same name as Eri-Acu ("the servant of the moon-god"), the son of the Elamite monarch Kudur-Mabug, who reigned over Larsa during his father's lifetime, and was eventually overthrown by the Cossaean conqueror Ehammuragas.

    In the 1902 book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia,  Theophilus G. Pinches, writes that the Akkadian King Kudur-laḫmal (Kutir-Lagamar, Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal), is a translation variant of the Bible's King Chedorlaomer of Elam. The Kingdom of Elam was located in present day Iran, Northeast of Babylon and Southwest of Ur. In the 2015 book Moses and the Exodus Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, author Gerard Gertoux states that Lagamar is an Elamite deity.  The 1995 article, Theology and Worship in Elam and Achaemenid Iran, Heidemarie Koch concurs with Gertoux that the name Lagamar is found in middle Elamite texts is Akkadian in meaning the god that shows "No Mercy" that accompanies the god Ishme-karab meaning "He who grants the prayer." In the 1971 book, The Cambridge Ancient History by Geredigeerd Door, two goddesses Isme-karab and Lakamar (Lakamal) supported the god of oaths In-Shushinak (Insusiank, Nin-Suvina(k), Su'inak) in his position as 'judge of the dead.' Lakamar appeared in the later Elam middle period. In a legal context Lagamal would be the prosecutor and Ishmekarub would the Defense.

    We can implicitly conclude that Chedorlaomer the king of Elam was a Servant of the god Lagamar.

    Encyclopedia Iranica

    ELAM vi. Elamite religion


    Lagamal is indeed an infernal deity, and, on the relief from Kūrāngūn, Napiriša is identifiable by his throne, formed from a human-headed serpent; he also holds as attributes of power the disk and the rod (forerunners of the orb and scepter of Western monarchies), from which gush forth the living waters. He thus seems the equivalent of Ea, Mesopotamian god of the waters...

    Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal. A few small funerary tablets (Bottéro, pp. 393-401), though very badly preserved, give some idea of the passage into the other world: The dead person, preceded by Išnikarab or Lagamal or both presents himself in the haštu (in the Akkadian texts šuttu, a synonym for haštu) before Inšušinak, who decides his fate. This scene seems to be illustrated on a number of cylinder seals, where it is commonly identified as a “presentation scene,” even though it is more probably a depiction of the last judgment (Vallat, 1989).

    A few small funerary tablets (Bottéro, pp. 393-401), though very badly preserved, give some idea of the passage into the other world: The dead person, preceded by Išnikarab or Lagamal or both presents himself in the haštu (in the Akkadian texts šuttu, a synonym for haštu) before Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, who decides his fate. This scene seems to be illustrated on a number of cylinder seals, where it is commonly identified as a “presentation scene,” even though it is more probably a depiction of the last judgment (Vallat, 1989

    The image below shows the god Lagamal holding the Disc and Rod

    Image source: Plate 6.5, p.185. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology)



    Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence
    GŽrard GERTOUX

    last Elamite king of
    the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). Ashurbanipal, after his conquest of Elam and
    Susa ransacking, exposed (in 646 BCE) the capture of the goddess Nanaya (in Uruk) by Kudur-Lagamar
    which occurred around 1300 years earlier (in 1968 BCE).


    Chedoloamer. most likely resided in the Elamite Ziggurat complex Chogha Zanbil (Dur Untash) approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa. Chogha Zanbil is one of the few existent Ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. A Ziggurat is the largest building in the center of town and part of a multi temple complex. The Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat originally measured 105.2 m on each side and about 53 m in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple

    Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient near East around 2000 BC. The "Elamites" spread their empire to west under King Chedorlaomer. The Elamites had struggled with the Assyrians for domination of Babylon. The great Babylonian dynasty of UR was brought to an end about 1950 BC by the Elamites, who destroyed the city and took its king prisoner. Many scholars believe that the Elamites empire boundaries included present day Taxila and the areas of Baluchistan and Sindh.
    Chedorlaomer’s vassal cities—Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboyim and Zoar—had become rebellious against him and it was time to exact vengeance.

    Another temple in Chogha Zanbil complex would be a "temple of the grove" (Husa. siyan husame) dedicated to either In-Shushinak, Lagamal, or other underworld deities. The temple of the dead would face east as the sun rises with a sculpture of In-Shushinak in the front of the gate adorned with with a copper-covered cedar bar (Potts, Archaeology of Elam). The temple of the grove would act as a transition passage of the dead spirit to separate from the body to the underworld through sacred grove of fragrant trees with edible fruits, flowering plants, sculptures, and tombs that would surround the Ziggurat. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world.

    The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” 

    Brick with an inscription by Šilḫak-Inšušinak dedicated to the goddess Kiririša “lady of life." (published in Grillot & Vallat 1984) 

    Collection    National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Museum no.    NSM A.1960.228

    Catalogue:    20140524 wagensonner

    CDLI no.    P464356



    I, Šilḫak-Inšušinak, son of Šutruk-Naḫḫunte, beloved servant of Kiririša and Inšušinak, king of Anzan and Susa: Ḫumban-Numena has built the temple of Kiririša-of-Liyan with fired bricks, and when it was about to collapse, I restored it. With fired brick(s) I rebuilt. And for the sake of my life and those of Naḫḫunte-Utu, Ḫuteluduš-Inšušinak, Šilḫina-ḫamru-Lakamar, Kutir-ḫuban, Išnikarab-ḫuḫun, Urutuk-el-ḫalaḫume and Utu-eḫiḫi-Pinigir, for this purpose and for our continuity I bestowed it upon my deity Kiririša.


    Kiten (Akkadian kidinnu) denotes a protective shielding power that radiates from all dieties. With legal matters the kiten of the god In-shushinak united with the ruler judge violations of the law were committed. Any Elamite breaking an agreement would forfeit the protection of In-Shushinak will be outlawed and 'he shall pass by the graven image of the god and of the king' to be executed.

    https://books.google.com/books?id=FF5-7JVj4jYC&lpg=PA276&ots=Gem9XdejaO&dq="kiten" (protection)&pg=PA275#v=onepage&q="kiten" (protection)&f=false

    The deceased are burried in ribbed, clay coffins, covered with bitumen. The head of the deceased is covered with a cloth with gold, silver and bronze sewn onto it. Burial gifts are usualy clay idols, needles, weights and for the rich also gold and silver jewelry.

    Now, what was Abraham doing hanging out near the oaks of Mamre near Jerusalem when news arrived that Lot was taken captive (v. 13)?  He was in the area because he was likely a nomadic vassal to Melchizedek, king of Jerusalem. 



    Understanding of the Elamite religion requires isolation in the Susian documentation of elements that can be compared with what is otherwise known from the Persian plateau and adjacent areas. Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal.

    death seems to have been the principal preoccupation of the Elamites. Most religious buildings were connected with the cult of the dead, and the principal gods were closely associated with the passage of the dead into the next world. The association of the grove with the funerary cult is certain from Aššurbanipal’s narration of the sack of Susa: “Their secret groves, where no foreigner had penetrated, where no foreigner had trampled the underbrush, my soldiers entered and saw their secrets; they destroyed them by fire. The tombs of their kings, ancient and recent … I have devastated, I destroyed them, I exposed them to the sun, and I carried off their bones to the country of Aššur” (Aynard, 1957, pp. 56-57). 


    .  Tidal is a Hittite name.   The original name Tudhaliya also appears in the Ugarit archives, and in Kimron’s opinion Tidal was the same as Tudhaliya II who conquered Syria.   Onkelos translated Goyim not as a specific city but as meaning various nations; Ibn Ezra wrote likewise in his second commentary.  In other words, Tidal ruled over several peoples.  Rabbi Hertz claims that Tidal is the same as Tadgula, king of the Kurdish tribes, and Goyim is Gutium in Kurdistan.  

    The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” (Grillot and Vallat, 1984, p. 22). The gods to whom these gateways were dedicated were those most closely associated with the netherworld: Inšušinak (König, nos. 35, 36, 40), Išnikarab (König, no. 37), Lagamal (König, no. 30), and Napiriša and Inšušinak together (König, no. 79). It was also at the gateway of Inšušinak that Puzur-Inšušinak ordered the sacrifice of a sheep accompanied by chants, morning and evening (Scheil, 1902, p. 5).

    Some gods, particularly Inšušinak (whose name in Sumerian means “lord of Susa”), seem to have been specifically attached to Susa or Susiana; they include Išnikarab (Išmekarab, a god, not a goddess; W. G. Lambert, 1976-80), Lagamal (Lagamar; for variant signs, see Hinz and Koch), and Manzat (W. G. Lambert, 1989).




    Around 1767 B.C.E, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak formed a coalition with Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. He led this coalition against Eshnunna, conquering it and imposed direct rule from his sukkal Kudu-zulush in Susa.[2] This coalition turned against him as he attempted to expand his power into Babylon. Hammurabi, allied with Zimri-Lim, expelled the Elamite's forces from Eshnunna[2]

    In a clay tablet, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak refers to himself as "Governor of Elam" and "Enlarger of the Empire". It is speculated that the tablet was made after Siwe-Palar-Khuppak's defeat by Hammurabi's coalition, and that the title "Enlarger of the Empire" refers to conquests made to west in modern Iran to offset his defeat.[

    Siwe-Palar-Khuppak - universally respected father of Elam

    Traces have been found on the inscribed bricks in Chaldea of a king Kudur mapula, who bears also the title of “ravager of the West.” Even nearer to the name is that of Kedar-el-Ahmar, or the red, a great hero in Arabian tradition. He was king of Elam. He appears as a settled king of great power, able to make war 2000 miles from his country, and holding other kings, among whom is the king of Babylon, under his supremacy. 

    Tidal king of Goiim Tidal has been considered to be a transliteration of Tudhaliya 

    In the Book of Genesis it is recorded that King Hammurabi (Amraphel) joined coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan and, in the process, took Lot captive. Amraphel is aligned with King Arioch (Eri-Aku),  King Chedorlaomer (Kudur-laḫmal) and King Tidal (Tudhaliya ). Like allied coalitions (ie. Desert Storm) today, it was common practice for allied tribes and city states to accompany a powerful king during their conquests.  Below is an excerpt from King Zimri-Lim of Mari.

    PART 1
    Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum



    But Zimrilim's policy was to impose his tutelage on the petty monarchs of the 'High Country', or even simply to draw them into alliance with him, rather than to annex their countries—no doubt because he had not the resources to do so. This line of conduct was fairly general.We have only to listen to the report of one of Zimrilim's correspondents:

    No king is powerful by himself: ten or fifteen kings follow Hammurabi, king of Babylon, as many follow Rim-Sin, king of Larsa, as many follow Ibalpiel, king of Eshnunna, as many follow Amutpiel, king of Qatna, twenty kings follow Iarimlim, king of Iamkhad. . .. Grouping their vassals about them, the' great powers' of the time entered in their turn into wider coalitions, aiming at supremacy, but these formed and broke up as circumstances and the interests of the moment dictated.

    Zimri-Lim was allied with Hammurabi in his wars against Elam, Eshnunna, and Larsa. Zimri-Lim lent troops to Hammurabi's campaigns, and although the two kept extensive diplomatic contacts, there are no records that ever met in person.

    After the defeat of Elam, there was no outside force to keep the precarious balance of power between the Kings of Mesopotamia. The alliance between Zimri-Lim and Hammurabi deteriorated after Babylon's conquest of Larsa.  In 1762 BC, Hammurabi unified Babylonia, he conquered and sacked Mari (though it may be that the city had surrendered without a fight), despite the previous alliance. 



    The alliance of four states would have ruled over kingdoms that were spread over a wide area: from Elam at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent to Anatolia at the western edge of this region. Because of this, there is a limited range of time periods that match the Geopolitical context of Genesis 14. In this account, Chedorlaomer is described as the king to whom the cities of the plain pay tribute. Thus, Elam must be a dominant force in the region and the other three kings would therefore be vassals of Elam and/or trading partners.

    some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamiaaround 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C.



     Zimri-Lim's court were the communications from the
    gods. During his time. the variety of paths by which th e opinion of the gods was coaxed
    multiplied dramalically, and some exceptionally creative methods were launched in

    Zimri-Lim's own household. As a result of Charpin's insight, it became possible to imagine
    that when kings were predisposed for it, gods readily dispensed advice in channels other
    t han exti!\flicy. (Something similar occurred, for example, in the court of Esarhaddon and
    Assurbanipal of Assyria and probably also in the court of Zakkur of Hamatll.) If so, then
    prophecy need not origina le in a single area or period and need not follow a linear
    development. hut it could burst spontaneously and periodically. whenever rulers had
    doubts about the stability of their rule and whenever courtiers and administrators felt
    encouraged to comment on them. Not linearity, but opportunity.
    In a paper for the Birot memorial volume [FM 2], I explored the interplay between
    a divine message and those who were asked to communicate it to Zimri-Lim: in the palace,
    in the province, and beyond Mari's border. When they are transmitted from the palace,
    mostly through his wife, his sister, and his aunt (perhaps his mother), there is a tendency
    to also comment on them, frequently betraying a heightened sense of imminent danger
    that must be deflected by the king. This sort of fervor seems to dissipate as we move to the
    provinces, where bureaucrats dutifully (and mostly lackadaisically for that matter) transmitted
    divine messages to t he king. 

    Yet we have no reason to believe that Zimri-Lim, despite his drive to know the will
    of god from as many sources as possible. ever felt obligated to follow the god's directives
    as channeled by prophets, visionary and dreamers. In fact, there is no evidence t hat he
    received their messages directly, but seemed content to ask people in diverse regional
    centers to keep their ears open (A RM 26 196), or to dispatch a trusted llpilum to investigate
    for him (via extispicy) oracles by Dagan of Terqa (ARM 26 199:8-9). But when
    Zimri-Lim really needed to learn what god wanted of h im at any particular moment, he
    turned to his resident-scholars, the b~rll-divin ers.76 And here is where I need to take a
    Durand's pages in 26/1 on Mari divin ation are rich in documents as in comments.1l
    When diviners inspected the innards of a sheep for signs, what they saw was no longer a
    cluster of bloodied orgllns, but a tapestry of divine signs. Their perspective, therefore,
    was closest to that of astrologers of later times who drew insights from the shifting
    correspondences of heavenly orbs. 


    There were periods when Elam was allied with Mari through trade.[16] Mari also had connections to Syria and Anatolia, who, in turn, had political, cultural, linguistic and military connections to Canaan.[17] The earliest recorded empire was that of Sargon, which lasted until his grandson, Naram Sin.[

    we must keep in mind the possibility, that if the Babylonian king considered that disaster had in any way overtaken his arms, he may not have recorded it at all. Then there is the fact, that the expedition was undertaken in conjunction with allies—Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch—for none of whom, in all probability, Ḫammurabi had any sympathy. The Elamite was a conqueror from a land over which the Babylonians of earlier ages had held sway, and Arioch had dominion over a neighbouring tract, to which Ḫammurabi himself laid claim, and over which, as the texts above translated show, he afterwards ruled. Ḫammurabi, moreover, claimed also the West-land—mât Amurrī, the land of Amurrū—as his hereditary possession, and he found himself obliged to aid Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch to subjugate it—indeed, it was Chedorlaomer whom the five kings had acknowledged for twelve years as their overlord, and against whom, in the thirteenth, they rebelled. It is, therefore, likely that Ḫammurabi regarded himself as having been forced by circumstances to aid Chedorlaomer to reconquer what really belonged to Babylonia, and the probability that he would cause it to be used as one of the events to date by, is on that account still less, even if the news of any success which he might have considered himself entitled to reached his own domain in time to be utilized for such a purpose.

    when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer [pg 223] was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion.

    spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian ERI.AKU, meaning "Servant of the god Aku," Aku being a variant of the name of Nannar/Sin. It is known from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name "Servant of Sin

    There's only one Hamor mentioned in the Bible and he was a Hivite ruler (נשיא, nasi') and father of Shechem (in Acts 7:16 Stephen equates Hamor with Ephron). When Jacob returned from Paddan-aram and wanted to settle in Canaan, he bought land from Hamor and built the altar named El-Elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19).

    At some point, Jacob's only daughter Dinah, the sister of the twelve tribal patriarchs of Israel, went to the nearby town of Shechem to visit the Hivite women. She was noticed by prince Shechem, who fell in love with her and decided to express his feelings by raping her (34:2). Still, Hamor went to Jacob to ask for Dinah as a wife for Shechem, but Jacob's sons told Hamor that he and his people would have to be circumcised for their two families to intermarry.

    I was curious about this expression, especially in light of the fact that it is in this city that we find the remains of the temple of Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the chief deity of Shechem during most of the Bronze Age. 

    The name Hamor is the same as the noun חמור (hamor), meaning ass or donkey, or more literal: red-one, from the root חמר (hamar III), meaning to be red:

    It appears to us here at Abarim Publications that to the Hebrews the color red denoted the rudiments or principal beginnings of civilization (and see our article on the Red Sea for a discussion on how the ancients saw the color red), whereas muddy substances metaphorized the transitional phase between ignorance (water) and understanding (dry land).

    or a meaning of the name Hamor, both NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names read Ass and BDB Theological Dictionary has He-Ass. Most literally, however, the name Hamor means Red One.

    Note that the color red signified the first stage of human civilization, and is connected to both Israel's Hivite nemesis as to Israel's national brother Edom (from Esau, Jacob's brother).

    Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/, also spelled Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכָם‬ / שְׁכֶם‬ Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[1] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[2] it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank.

    Shechem first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which says that Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.[6] According to Genesis (12:6-7) Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" at Shechem. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant he had first made with Abraham in Harran, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. In Jewish tradition, the old name was understood in terms of the Hebrew word shékém — "shoulder, saddle", corresponding to the mountainous configuration of the place.

    On a later sojourn, two sons of Jacob, Simeon (Hebrew Bible) and Levi, avenged their sister Dinah's rape by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land" of Shechem. Shimon and Levi said to the Shechemites that, if “every male among you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to ourselves.”[7] Once the Shechemites agree to the mass circumcision, however, Jacob's sons repay them by killing all of the city's male inhabitants.[8]

    Following the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan after their Exodus from Egypt, according to the biblical narrative, Joshua assembled the Israelites at Shechem and asked them to choose between serving the god who had delivered them from Egypt, the gods which their ancestors had served on the other side of the Euphrates River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land they now lived. The people chose to serve the god of the Bible, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God, and he then erected a memorial stone "under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord" in Shechem.[9] The oak is associated with the Oak of Moreh where Abram had set up camp during his travels in this area.[10]

    Shechem and its surrounding lands were given as a Levitical city to the Kohathites.[11]

    Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph's tomb (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel.[citation needed] Jerubbaal (Gideon), whose home was at Ophrah, visited Shechem, and his concubine who lived there was mother of his son Abimelech (Judges 8:31). She came from one of the leading Shechemite families who were influential with the "Lords of Shechem" (Judges 9:1-3, wording of the New Revised Standard Version and New American Bible Revised Edition).[12]

    A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem.

    —In Rabbinical Literature:
    The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision.

    “Those who were bound under the covenant having participated in this ritual became ‘sons of Hamor’ (‘sons of the ass’). The covenant of Hamor ‘was almost certainly related to Baal-Berith, who was the chief god of the city’…

     Toorn, K. Van Der, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem Van Der Horst. 1999. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids: Brill ; Eerdmans. p.143


    And given Shechem (שכם) means “shoulder”, the expression “Hamor, father of Shechem”(חמור אבי שכם), can also be read “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם). This expression therefore suggests that Shechem was the ally of Babylon when it formed a covenant with king Hammurabi. In fact, standing “shoulder to shoulder” is something one does in times of a deadly threat and against an enemy. And I do explain in the book how Hammurabi was motivated to make a covenant with Abraham in order to secure control over the remote Valley of Siddim. Finally, the name Dinah (דינה) is the feminine of “din” (דין), which means “law” in reference to the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah (i.e. the original five books of the Old Testament).

    Clearly, the Shechemites wanted to continue serving the family of “Hamor, Shechem’s father” or “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם), which presumably could be referring to the legitimate descendants of Abraham, Hammurabi’s ally, and still referred to as the “father” of the faith to this day.



     Jacob's acquisition of land at Shechem (Gen. 33:19; cf. 48:22) and the connubium between the sons of Jacob and the sons of Hamor (as the Shechemites were then called) imply certain covenant agreements. Moreover, the strange name, "sons of Hamor" ( benei hamor, "sons of the ass"), who is said to be the "father of Shechem" (Gen. 34:6), seems to have something to do with covenant making. From the *Tell-el-Amarna Letters (c. 1400 B.C.E.) it is known that there was a strong Hurrian element in Shechem. The Septuagint is therefore probably correct in reading hhry ("the Horite," i.e., the Hurrian) instead of hhwy ("the Hivite") of the Masoretic Text in describing the ethnic origin of "Shechem" (Gen. 34:2); moreover, the uncircumcised Shechemites (Gen. 34:14, 24) were most likely not Semitic Canaanites (see E. A. Speiser, op. cit., 267). It is also known that the slaughtering of an ass played a role among the Hurrians in the making of a covenant. Thus, Baal-Berith or El-Berith may have been regarded by the Shechemites as the divine protector of covenants.

    Did the early Israelites perhaps regard El-Berith as the God of the covenant made between YHWH and Israel? It is a noteworthy fact that Joshua, who had apparently been able to occupy the region of Shechem without force because Israelites who - many scholars believe - had never been in Egypt were already iiving there, renewed the Covenant of Sinai with all Israel precisely at Shcchem, the city sacred to El-Berith, " the God of the Covenant" (Josh. 8:30-35; 24:1-28). Therefore, even though the late Deuteronomist editor of the Book of Judges (it is conjectured by the adherents of the documentary hypothesis) considered Baal-Berith one of the pagan Canaanite Ba'alim, this term may well have been regarded in early Israel as one of the titles of YHWH.

     Other terms such as "killing an ass" sheds light on customs which prevailed in patriarchal times and later. The idiom "to kill an ass," khayaram qatalum, is not Akkadian at all, but both words occur in Hebrew and indicated the sacrifice which accompanied the oath of alliance. The connection between sacrificing as ass and concluding a covenant seems to have been preserved by the Shechemites, with whom Jacob and his sons had such unpleasant dealings (Gen. 33:19; 34:1-31). Called the Bene Hamor, "sons of the ass" (Josh. 24:32), their tribal deity was Baal-Berith, "Lord of the covenant" (Judg. 9:4). Later, at the time of Conquest the Bene Hamor of Shechem were, it seems, like the four towns of the Gibeonite confederacy (Josh 9:1ff.), added to Israel by treaty, to judge from various early references to them and their god Baal-Berith."


    Joseph Vicek Kozar, who reads the narrative as supporting the brothers’ actions,
    suggests that the significance of interethnic relations is substantiated by symbolic imagery
    within the story. He points out that the homonym of Hamor’s name (rwmx) is donkey, an
    animal that “lives among the herd but is not one of them, lacking cloven hooves and not
    chewing the cud.”
    486 This, coupled with the fact that “[a]t the time of Dinah’s rape, her
    brothers are out with the cattle (34:5),”
    487 illumines the resultant confrontation:
    “The…clash of cultures (and slaughter) shows that the sons of herds and flocks cannot
    conduct social intercourse with the sons of the ass. This symbolism underlies the group or
    tribal nature of the events behind the story.”
    488 Like Sternberg, Kozar also retrojects later
    narrative concerns of Israelite interethnic relations onto the clash between the ancestral
    family and the Hivites. He concludes that Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem
    represents the larger Canaanite culture, and that the story illustrates the danger of Israel’s 

    “being absorbed by the larger Canaanite culture.”
    489 Douglas Earl echoes this symbolic
    thinking in his own analysis, according to which “Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem
    the nations.”
    490 The narrative, Earl suggests, “serves to evoke affectually the disastrous
    consequences of exogamy and mingling, and the zeal with which exogamy is to be

    Shechem’s act is evaluated as disgraceful and
    unacceptable. This transfer is presented as a pretext for the text to come.”
    492 The
    narrator’s repeated use of )m+, furthermore, invokes a “cultic and ritual cognitive
    493 (again an Israelite domain) that suggests that Shechem and the Hivites threaten
    the ancestral family with their outsiders’ impurity. Finally, the continuation of the
    narrative in Gen 35, in which Jacob commands his household to rid itself of its foreign
    gods, strengthens the negative socioreligious associations of Shechem. Where Jacob goes
    next, Bethel, stands in stark contrast: “Bethel, the place where Jacob met his God,
    represents the ideal of one place, one people and one God. It is opposed to the other place,

    Shechem, with alien people and alien gods, who have to be buried.”
    494 Thus the Dinah
    interlude is the “hinge” of the ideological reversal from the preceding narrative’s “context
    of peace and mutual understanding with the Canaanites” to “a mono-ethnic position
    embedded in a mono-religious position.”
    495 Indeed, as van Wolde notes, in Gen 35 the
    ancestral blessing undergoes a notable revision, as “the blessing of other people is not
    mentioned any more,” implying that the ancestral family is now the exclusive inheritor of
    the land


    (Baʹal-beʹrith) [Owner of a Covenant; once, at Jg 9:46, El-berith, God of a Covenant].

    The Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites began worshiping after the death of Judge Gideon. (Jg 8:33) The designation “Baal-berith” may denote that this particular Baal was believed to watch the keeping of covenants.

    A kind of treasury was evidently attached to the house or temple of Baal-berith at Shechem. (Jg 9:4) In connection with the grape harvest, the Shechemites apparently held a festival in honor of Baal-berith, climaxed by a kind of sacrificial meal in the temple of their god. It was in the temple of Baal-berith on the occasion of their eating and drinking and cursing Abimelech, likely under the influence of wine, that Gaal incited the Shechemites to revolt against King Abimelech. (Jg 9:27-29) Later, when threatened by Abimelech, the landowners of the tower of Shechem (Migdal-Shechem, AT) sought refuge in the vault of the house of El-berith (Baal-berith), only to perish in the conflagration when Abimelech and his men set the vault on fire.—Jg 9:46-49.



    Solomon understood that being submissive to the Creator and generous to other will be blessed with long life. 

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22



    1 A name is chosen above great wealth; good favor over silver and gold.

    2 A rich man and a poor man were visited upon; the Lord is the Maker of them all.

    3 A cunning man saw harm and hid, but fools transgressed and were punished.

    4 In the wake of humility comes fear of the Lord, riches, honor, and life.

    5 Troops [and] snares are in the way of the perverse; he who preserves his soul will distance himself from them.

    6 Train a child according to his way; even when he grows old, he will not turn away from it.

    7 A rich man will rule over the poor, and a borrower is a slave to a lender.

    8 He who sows injustice will reap violence, and the rod of his wrath will fail.

    9 He who has a generous eye will be blessed, for he gave of his bread to the poor.

    10 Banish a scorner, and quarrel will depart, and litigation and disgrace will cease.

    11 He who loves one pure of heart with charm on his lips-the King is his friend.

    12 The eyes of the Lord preserve knowledge and He will frustrate the words of a treacherous man.

    13 The lazy man says, "There is a lion outside; I will be murdered in the middle of the streets."

    14 The mouth of strange women is [like] a deep pit; the one abhorred by the Lord will fall therein.

    15 Foolishness is bound in a child's heart; the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.

    16 He who exploits a poor man to increase for himself will give to a rich man only to want.

    17 Incline your ear and hearken to the words of the wise, and put your heart to my knowledge,

    18 for it is pleasant that you guard them in your innards; they will be established together on your lips.

    19 That your trust shall be in the Lord, I have made known to you this day, even you.

    20 Have I not written to you thirds with counsels and knowledge,

    21 to make known to you the certainty of the true words, to respond with words of truth to those who send you?

    22 Do not rob a poor man because he is poor, and do not crush the poor man in the gate.

    23 For the Lord will plead their cause and rob those who rob them, of life.

    24 Do not befriend a quick-tempered person, neither shall you go with a wrathful man;

    25 lest you learn his ways and take a snare for your soul.

    26 Do not be one of those who give their hands, who stand surety for debts.

    27 If you do not have what to pay, why should he take your bed from under you?

    28 Do not remove an ancient boundary that your forefathers set.

    29 Have you seen a man quick in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before poor men.

    Hammurabi ruled as king of Babylonia

    Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic   - Religions of The Ancient Near East

    Sīn /ˈsiːn/ or Suen (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.  - He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". Sīn was also called "He whose heart can not be read" and was told that "he could see farther than all the gods". It is said that every new moon, the gods gather together from him to make predictions about the future. - Nana - Babylonian Moon God.


    Utu[a] later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, 

    . Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers,

    The local god was Zamama, the Tammuz-like deity, who, like Nin-Girsu of Lagash, was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylon.

    Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing.


    the divine king of the city; the
    White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped
    up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come
    scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of
    Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich
    the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided
    food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial
    offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy,
    the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who
    rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted
    by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in
    Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the
    king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach;
    the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted
    life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance
    to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the
    secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from
    misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established
    pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his
    kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who
    subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway
    of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and
    Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who
    presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its
    inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon
    in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose
    deeds find favor before Anunit


    By making
    a persuasive art-historical case for beginning their study with our earliest
    civilizations, they demonstrate the cross-cultural, cross-temporal
    universality of some persistently compelling themes, such as the image of
    the scales, a judicial motif attested in both ancient Mesopotamia and
    ancient Egypt.2 Picked up as well in ancient Greece, the scales are hefted
    aloft in the hands of embodied goddesses, who in the seventeenth century
    C.E. acquired a blindfold, s

     Law Stele of Hammurabi, 

    Literally thousands of clay tablets documenting legal transactions have
    survived from ancient Mesopotamia. 

    from around 1792 to around
    1750 B.C.E. His reign is distinguished for political consolidation of
    territories neighboring his city-state of Babylon, which he brought under
    control through a combination of successful military engagements and the
    calculated making and breaking of diplomatic treaties."

    The "laws" that are probably the best known are those that seem to
    offer strong parallels to the Biblical precepts of justice, and are held up as
    exemplifying the principle of retributive justice, for example:
    § 196 If a freeman has blinded the eye of another freeman,
    his eye shall be blinded.
    § 197 If he has broken the bone of another freeman, his bone
    shall be broken.
    § 198 If he has blinded the eye of a dependent or broken the
    bone of a dependent, he shall pay sixty shekels of silver.
    § 199 If he has blinded the eye of a slave of a freeman, or
    broken the bone of a slave of freeman, he shall pay one-half his
    value in silver.22
    It is this section that generally receives the most attention from legal
    and Biblical scholarship interested in ancient legal codes and covenants.23
    Compare the Book of Exodus, 21:22: "If any harm follows, then you shall
    give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
    burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." 

    C. The Relief Sculpture
    The sculpted relief depicts Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god, seated

    facing left, and king Hammurabi, who, standing, faces right.26 Shamash is
    identified as a divinity by the stylized horned crown he wears and as the
    sun god by the wavy-line "rays" emanating from his shoulders and the
    surface detail of his footstool evoking mountainous terrain-the eastern
    and western locales of his rising and setting. As sun god, Shamash is the
    Mesopotamian deity of light and illumination, and by logical extension,
    the god of justice who illuminates the true situation. In addition to "rays,"
    his frequent attribute is a saw, with which he opens the mountains at
    daybreak and sunset and with which he separates truth from falsehood.
    Here, instead, he extends or displays to Hammurabi the so-called "Rod
    and Ring," which occupies the center of the visual field.
    Opposite the god, Hammurabi is marked by his hea

    In the voice of Hammurabi, the Epilogue summarizes Hammurabi's
    purpose in erecting the monument:
    In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways
    for the orphan and the widow, I have inscribed my precious
    pronouncements upon my stele and set [them] before my image,
    the just king, in the city of Babylon . . .. By the order of [the god]
    Marduk, my lord, may my engraved design not be confronted by
    someone who would remove it. May my name always be
    remembered faithfully in the Esagil temple which I love. 32

    Let any man who has a lawsuit come before my image, the just
    king, and have my words read out loud; let him hear my precious
    words, let my monument reveal to him the case. Let him see his
    judgment, let his heart become soothed [reciting the following
    short prayer]:
    "Hammurabi, lord, who is like a father and begetter to his people,
    submitted himself to the command of (the god) Marduk, his lord,
    and achieved victory everywhere. He gladdened the heart of
    Marduk, his lord, and he secured the eternal well-being of the
    people and provided just ways for the land. "3

    In one Akkadian period cylinder seal, Shamash sits enthroned before a set of scales, tipping the balance of justice (presumably) in accordance with the petitions of his worshippers, who bring an animal offering before the god (Black 1992: 182-4)


     throne. Shamash and his wife, Aya, had two important children. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was law. Every morning, the gates in the East open up, and Shamash appears. He travels across the sky, and enters the gate in the West. He travels through the Underworld at night in order to begin in the East the next day

     the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice".

    Holland 2009, p. 115.

    The Phoenician Sydyk was equated with Roman Jupiter, and hence it has been suggested that Sydyk was connected to the worship of the planet Jupiter as the manifestation of justice or righteousness.

    the Babylonian Shamash has two sons called respectively Kettu (which, like Sedeq, means "righteousness") and Misharu ("rectitude"). These two deities are mentioned also in the Sanchoniatho fragments of Philo Byblios under the names of Sydyk and Misor, as culture-heroes who have discovered the use of salt. Phoenician inscriptions have Sedeqyathan, "Sedeq gave," as a personal name, as well as combinations of Sedeq with Ramman and Melek. Fr. Jeremias thinks that Sydyk and Misor were respectively the spring and autumn sun in sun-worship and the waxing and waning moon in moon worship.

     translated as truth, equity, justice

    kittu as truth

    Shamas often had a special saw

    Shamash the judge of heaven and earth had 
    a special saw, call the shasharu.

    Mesopotamian Scales circa 2350

    O Sun, when though goes to rest in mid-heaven
    May the bars of bright heaven speak peace to thee,
    May the gateway of of heaven approach thee
    May Misharu, they loving herald, direct thy pathway

    Of course Babylonian and Assyrian words may not always have the same content as our words "righteousness" and "truth," but the words kittu and misharu, which we render by "righteousness" and "truth", are derived from kanu, "to be firm," and eshem, "to be straight," respectively; and judging from what was considered "right" and "true," or kittu and misharu, there is no reason for that the standard was very hight

    misharu, represented the law

    May Misharu, thy well-beloved servant, guide aright thy progress, so that ebarra

    The West Semitic name Ammi-Saduqa is translated into Akkadian as Kitum-kittum showing an equivalence of meaning between the West Semitic ṣ-d-q  and the Akkadian kittu. Kittu was similarly paired with the god Misharu whose name is a cognate of Misor, meaning "justice".

    Shamash and the mother of Misharu (god of law and order) and Kittu (god of justice). 
    Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been a local male sun god whose gender was changed when the worship of the major sun god, Shamash, took precedence, the minor god becoming the female consort of Shamash. Her attendants were Kittu (truth) and Misharu (righteousness).

    Misharu, ---, God of law. Son of Aa.

    instead he became the spokesman for the nation (kemit), heavily indebtedto fairness and truth (maat in Egypt, kittu and misharu in Mesopotamia)

    Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from the Akkadian root kanu. Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’). One or both of these deities was described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand.’ Depictions of Shamash show him holding a ring of coiled rope and a rod, objects ascribed to surveyors and therefore, when linked to rulership, denoting the act of setting things right. The Akkadian words kittu and misharu, translated into English as “truth,” “equity,” or “justice,” describe the “straightening out” of a situation whose equilibrium, put out of balance, had become “crooked.” 2

    Shamash is associated with two divinities personifying justice and equity, Kittu and Misharu, which are in fact two deified conceptions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is debated.

    According to D. Charpin, Hammu-Rabi of Babylon , Paris, 2003, p. 206-207, kittum would be "justice as guardian of public order", and mišarum "justice as restoration of equity"

    mi-ish-ri-c(!) ish-ru-16%-6-shd. Mi-ish-ri-e I take as a plural of misharu = mishru
    (ef. cpiru, epru; gimiru, gimru; Delitesch, Gram., p. 105, $45), “righteousness" (hence not of meshril, "riches," H. B. W.,
    p. F88a), and dumqi, on nceount of the pardlclism, in the sense 0

    The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice was Maat, who represented “the order which rules
    ANCIENT DEITIES 298 (Oxford Univ. Press 2001) (2000). The Sumerian god of truth was Kittu, but,
    interestingly, his job title did not include justice; that job was his brother’s, Misharu. See James W.
    Bell, Sumerian Gods, Demons & Immortals Whose Names Start with “K”,
    http://www.jameswbell.com/geog0050knames.html (last visited March 29, 2007). Addanari is the
    Hindu goddess of truth, nature, and religion. TURNER & COULTER, supra, at 14. Shiva, among her many
    other jobs, is also associated with truth. Id. at 427.

    They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means “Truth”, and the god Misharu, whose name means “Justice”. Utu’s charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period.

    n the Hebrew Bible, and Kittu in the Babylonian pantheon, who is often invoked with
     768 Both of these Babylonian deities are described as being seated before Shamash or the minister of
    Shamash’s right hand.769 M

    Shamash and his wife Sherida (Aya for Akkadians and Babylonians) had two important sons. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was the law. Its main sanctuary was in the city of Sippar. Every morning, the eastern doors opened, and Shamash appeared. He traveled around the sky, and entered the west gate

    Shamu / Kittu, Truth revealed (Shamu), Truth understood (Kittu) 
    Misharu, Justice at work in view of truth, 
    Dayyanu, Judgment that discerns truth 

    Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god
    Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from Akk root kânu, cf. Heb root KWN). Kittu was often
    invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’)… One or both of these deities

    were described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the
    minister of (Shamash’s) right hand’. . . it appears that the deity known as Kittu in
    Babylonia was known further to the West under the names Išar and Ṣidqu/
    Zedek—all three names having essentially the same meaning but operative in
    different linguistic communities… West Semitic personal names containing the
    root SDQ are attested at m

    Fortress Press, 1998] 66-67). Also, the Babylonian gods Kittu “Righteousness” and Misharu “Justice”
    parallel to the West Semitic gods Sedheq and Misor

    In this function Shamash is associated with gods personifying justice and equality, and Kittu Misharu, who actually deifies two notions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is discussed and Dayyanu god. The Great Hymn to Shamash already explicitly mentioned the role of the god of justice, the guardian of good decisions and honest behavior and punishments of unjust and dishonest behavior:

    Great Hymn to Shamash, translation MJ Seux.




    Locke, Blackstone, and Jefferson were well versed on Cicero, a Roman Philosopher that walked Earth 50 years before Jesus Christ. Cicero theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator has enabled man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil).
    Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814


    Cicero did not wield the dense logic of Demosthenes, yet he was able, learned, laborious, practiced in the business of the world, & honest. he could not be the dupe of mere style, of which he was himself the first master in the world.

    In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator as both an equitable distribution of goods and discrimination of good and evil.


    According to the Greeks, therefore, the name of law implies an equitable distribution of goods: according to the Romans, an equitable discrimination between good and evil. The true definition of law should, however, include both these characteristics. And this being granted as an almost self–evident proposition, the origin of justice is to be sought in the divine law of eternal and immutable morality. This indeed is the true energy of nature, the very soul and essence of wisdom, the test of virtue and vice.

    Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato. Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming.
    Letter to Menoeceus


    Accustom yourself to believing that death is nothing to us, for good and evil imply the capacity for sensation, and death is the privation of all sentience; therefore a correct understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable, not by adding to life a limitless time, but by taking away the yearning after immortality. For life has no terrors for him who has thoroughly understood that there are no terrors for him in ceasing to live. Foolish, therefore, is the man who says that he fears death, not because it will pain when it comes, but because it pains in the prospect. Whatever causes no annoyance when it is present, causes only a groundless pain in the expectation. Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not. It is nothing, then, either to the living or to the dead, for with the living it is not and the dead exist no longer.

     Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law.  Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates.  Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree.

    From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 15 August 1820


    let me turn to your puzzling letter of May 12. on matter, spirit, motion Etc. it’s croud of scepticisms kept me from sleep. I read it, & laid it down: read it, and laid it down, again, and again: and to give rest to my mind, I was obliged to recur ultimately to my habitual anodyne, ‘I feel: therefore I exist.’ I feel bodies which are not myself: there are other existences then. I call them matter. I feel them changing place. this gives me motion. where there is an absence of matter, I call it void, or nothing, or immaterial space. on the basis of sensation, of matter and motion, we may erect the fabric of all the certainties we can have or need. I can conceive thought to be an action of a particular organisation of matter, formed for that purpose by it’s creator, as well as that attraction is an action of matter, or magnetism of loadstone. when he who denies to the Creator the power of endowing matter with the mode of action called thinking shall show how he could endow the Sun with the mode of action called attraction, which reins the planets in the tract of their orbits, or how an absence of matter can have a will, and, by that will; put matter into motion, then the materialist may be lawfully required to explain the process by which matter exercises the faculty of thinking. when once we quit the basis of sensation all is in the wind. to talk of immaterial existences is to talk of nothings. to say that the human soul, angels, God, are immaterial, is to say they are nothings, or that there is no god, no angels, no soul. I cannot reason otherwise: but I believe I am supported in my creed of materialism by Locke, Tracy, & Stewart. at what age of the Christian church this heresy of immaterialism this masked atheism crept in, I do not know. but a heresy it certainly is. Jesus taught nothing of it. he told us indeed that God is a spirit,’ but he has not defined what a spirit is, nor said that it is not matter. and the ancient fathers generally, if not universally, held it to be matter: light and thin indeed, an ethiriel gas; but still matter. Origen says ‘Deus reapse corporalis est; sed graviorum tantum corporum ratione. incorporeus.’ [God is in very fact corporeal, but, by reason of so much heavier bodies, incorporeal]   Tertullian ‘quid enim deus nisi corpus?’ and again ‘quis negabit deum esse corpus? etsi deus spiritus, spiritus etiam corpus est, sui generis in sua effigie.’ St Justin Martyr ‘το θειον φαμεν ειναι αςωματον· ουκ ὁτι αςωματον·—επειδη δε το μη κρατειςθαι ὑπο τινος, του κρατειςθαι τιμιωτερον εςτι δια τουτο καλουμεν αυτον αςωματον.’ and St Macarius, speaking of angels, says ‘quamvis enim subtilia sint, tamen in substantiâ, formâ et figurâ, secundum tenuitatem naturae eorum, corpora sunt tenuia.’ and St. Austin, St Basil, Lactantius, Tatian, Athenagoras and others, with whose writings I pretend not a familiarity, are said by those who are, to deliver the same doctrine. turn to your Ocellus d’Argens 97. 105. and to his Timeaus 17. for these quotations. in England these Immaterialists might have been burnt until the 29. Car. 2. when the writ de haeretico comburendo was abolished: and here until the revolution, that statute not having extended to us. all heresies being now done away with us, these schismatists are merely atheists, differing from the material Atheist only in their belief that ‘nothing made something,’ and from the material deist who believes that matter alone can operate on matter.  Rejecting all organs of information therefore but my senses, I rid myself of the Pyrrhonisms with which an indulgence in speculations hyperphysical and antiphysical so uselessly occupy and disquiet the mind. a single sense may indeed be sometimes deceived, but rarely; and never all our senses together, with their faculty of reasoning. they evidence realities; and there are enough of these for all the purposes of life, without plunging into the fathomless abyss of dreams & phantasms. I am satisfied, and sufficiently occupied with the things which are, without tormenting or troubling myself about those which may indeed be, but of which I have no evidence. I am sure that I really know many, many, things, and none more surely than that I love you with all my heart, and pray for the continuance of your life until you shall be tired of it yourself.

    https://books.google.com/books?id=tvhKDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT80&ots=Qxx8kFfKmp&dq=Deus reapse corporalis est%3B sed graviorum tantum corporum ratione. incorporeus&pg=PT80#v=onepage&q=Deus reapse corporalis est; sed graviorum tantum corporum ratione. incorporeus&f=false


    Jefferson uses the writings of Origen to support his argument that human soul, angels, God have a material existence. In his work De Principlis (Book 1) Chapter 1.,  Origen properly distinguishes our Creator from a shadow or image that has no lasting substance. He then correctly states the Creator is incomprehensible and cannot be measured. He considers the Spirit of God to be an intellectual existence and source of natural world. Origen further defines this Divine Intellect to be one species within itself; and without the properties of matter that would impede its movements and operations within the laws of Nature. He also puts forth a second argument, that God consists of composite of all matter and is bound within the limits of a material body that exists in all of His Creation.  Origen argues against a composite God, unless before the beginning there was a composition of elements. He then proposes an idea the God may not be invisible to himself.

    The Jewish, Christian, and Islamic community believe that there is a Creator of the Universe, who is the Lord, and Power to the Truth of His Living Word and Breath of eternal life through His Grace of selfless Love.


    De Principiis (Book I)
    Chapter 1. On God.


     It is the custom of sacred Scripture, when it wishes to designate anything opposed to this gross and solid body, to call it spirit, as in the expression, The letter kills, but the spirit gives life, where there can be no doubt that by letter are meant bodily things, and by spirit intellectual things, which we also term spiritual

    in respect that the Holy Spirit is an intellectual existence and subsists and exists in a peculiar manner, whereas medicine is not at all of that nature.

    God is a Spirit, and they who worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. And observe how logically He has joined together the spirit and the truth: He called God a Spirit, that He might distinguish Him from bodies; and He named Him the truth, to distinguish Him from a shadow or an image. For they who worshiped in Jerusalem worshiped God neither in truth nor in spirit, being in subjection to the shadow or image of heavenly things; and such also was the case with those who worshiped on Mount Gerizim.

     Having refuted, then, as well as we could, every notion which might suggest that we were to think of God as in any degree corporeal, we go on to say that, according to strict truth, God is incomprehensible, and incapable of being measured. For whatever be the knowledge which we are able to obtain of God, either by perception or reflection, we must of necessity believe that He is by many degrees far better than what we perceive Him to be.

    Our eyes frequently cannot look upon the nature of the light itself — that is, upon the substance of the sun; but when we behold his splendor or his rays pouring in, perhaps, through windows or some small openings to admit the light, we can reflect how great is the supply and source of the light of the body. So, in like manner. the works of Divine Providence and the plan of this whole world are a sort of rays, as it were, of the nature of God, in comparison with His real substance and being. As, therefore, our understanding is unable of itself to behold God Himself as He is, it knows the Father of the world from the beauty of His works and the comeliness of His creatures. God, therefore, is not to be thought of as being either a body or as existing in a body, but as an uncompounded intellectual nature, admitting within Himself no addition of any kind; so that He cannot be believed to have within him a greater and a less, but is such that He is in all parts Μονάς, and, so to speak, ῾Ενάς, and is the mind and source from which all intellectual nature or mind takes its beginning.

    But mind, for its movements or operations, needs no physical space, nor sensible magnitude, nor bodily shape, nor color, nor any other of those adjuncts which are the properties of body or matter. Wherefore that simple and wholly intellectual nature can admit of no delay or hesitation in its movements or operations, lest the simplicity of the divine nature should appear to be circumscribed or in some degree hampered by such adjuncts, and lest that which is the beginning of all things should be found composite and differing, and that which ought to be free from all bodily inter-mixture, in virtue of being the one sole species of Deity, so to speak, should prove, instead of being one, to consist of many things. That mind, moreover, does not require space in order to carry on its movements agreeably to its nature, is certain from observation of our own mind. For if the mind abide within its own limits, and sustain no injury from any cause, it will never, from diversity of situation, be retarded in the discharge of its functions; nor, on the other hand, does it gain any addition or increase of mobility from the nature of particular places.

    for we human beings are animals composed of a union of body and soul, and in this way (only) was it possible for us to live upon the earth. But God, who is the beginning of all things, is not to be regarded as a composite being, lest perchance there should be found to exist elements prior to the beginning itself, out of which everything is composed, whatever that be which is called composite. Neither does the mind require bodily magnitude in order to perform any act or movement; as when the eye by gazing upon bodies of larger size is dilated, but is compressed and contracted in order to see smaller objects. The mind, indeed, requires magnitude of an intellectual kind, because it grows, not after the fashion of a body, but after that of intelligence. For the mind is not enlarged, together with the body, by means of corporal additions, up to the twentieth or thirtieth year of life; but the intellect is sharpened by exercises of learning, and the powers implanted within it for intelligent purposes are called forth; and it is rendered capable of greater intellectual efforts, not being increased by bodily additions, but carefully polished by learned exercises. But these it cannot receive immediately from boyhood, or from birth, because the framework of limbs which the mind employs as organs for exercising itself is weak and feeble; and it is unable to bear the weight of its own operations, or to exhibit a capacity for receiving training.

     I do not perceive, however, who shall be able to describe or state what is the color of the mind, in respect of its being mind, and acting as an intelligent existence. Moreover, in confirmation and explanation of what we have already advanced regarding the mind or soul— to the effect that it is better than the whole bodily nature — the following remarks may be added. There underlies every bodily sense a certain peculiar sensible substance, on which the bodily sense exerts itself. For example, colors, form, size, underlie vision; voices and sound, the sense of hearing; odours, good or bad, that of smell; savours, that of taste; heat or cold, hardness or softness, roughness or smoothness, that of touch. Now, of those senses enumerated above, it is manifest to all that the sense of mind is much the best.

    And if you should ask of me what is my opinion regarding the Only-begotten Himself, whether the nature of God, which is naturally invisible, be not visible even to Him, let not such a question appear to you at once to be either absurd or impious, because we shall give you a logical reason. It is one thing to see, and another to know: to see and to be seen is a property of bodies; to know and to be known, an attribute of intellectual being. Whatever, therefore, is a property of bodies, cannot be predicated either of the Father or of the Son; but what belongs to the nature of deity is common to the Father and the Son. Finally, even He Himself, in the Gospel, did not say that no one has seen the Father, save the Son, nor any one the Son, save the Father; but His words are: No one knows the Son, save the Father; nor any one the Father, save the Son. By which it is clearly shown, that whatever among bodily natures is called seeing and being seen, is termed, between the Father and the Son, a knowing and being known, by means of the power of knowledge, not by the frailness of the sense of sight.

     if any one lay before us the passage where it is said, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God, from that very passage, in my opinion, will our position derive additional strength; for what else is seeing God in heart, but, according to our exposition as above, understanding and knowing Him with the mind? For the names of the organs of sense are frequently applied to the soul, so that it may be said to see with the eyes of the heart, i.e., to perform an intellectual act by means of the power of intelligence.

    The ad 543 Synod of Constantinople was a local synod convened to condemn Origen and his views, which was accompanied by an edict of Justinian I in 543 or 544. It was then ratified by the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553.

    The Fifth Ecumenical Council 
    The Second Council of Constantinople 
    A.D. 553



    If anyone shall not acknowledge that God the Word, of the same substance with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and who was made flesh and became man, one of the Trinity, is Christ in every sense of the word, but [shall affirm] that He is so only in an inaccurate manner, and because of the abasement, as they call it, of the intelligence; if anyone shall affirm that this intelligence united to God the Word, is the Christ in the true sense of the word, while the Logos is only called Christ because of this union with the intelligence, and e converso that the intelligence is only called God because of the Logos: let him be anathema.

    The Bible describes that a Righteous Spirit (Saint, Child of God) is similar to an angel that eternal, indestructible, shines bright white like the sun. But God will give a righteous spirit the authority to judge nations. In the end, the Righteous Spirit will receive the truth and power of God.

    Isaiah (Yeshayahu) prophesied that a righteous servant with an outward marred appearance would be exalted by the Creator as his right hand man. The servant's abasement (shame and humiliation) is given by those who considered him struck down by God.  These oppressors condemn God's servant to suffer and death. Without opposition, He received and accepted his persecutions as an intercession for the sins of many.  In the end, the Righteous Servant was rewarded with fruit of peace and a spirit as bright as a star in the Heavens. And many people saved from sin and death.

    The Great Isaiah Scroll


    Chapter 52 :

    Verse 13
    See, my servant will prosper, and he will be exalted and lifted up, and will be very high.

    Verse 14
    Just as many were astonished at you-so was he marred in his appearance, more than any human, and his form beyond that of the sons of humans-

    Verse 15
    so will he startle many nations. Kings will shut their mouths at him; for what had not been told them they will see; and what they had not heard they will understand.

    Chapter 53 

    Verse 1
    Who has believed our message? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?

    Verse 2
    For he grew up before him like a tender plant, and like a root out of a dry ground; he had no form and he had no majesty that we should look at him, and had no attractiveness that we should desire him.

    Verse 3
    He was despised and rejected by others, and a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering; and like one from whom people hide their faces and we despised him, and we did not value him.

    Verse 4
    Surely he has borne our sufferings, and carried our sorrows; yet we considered him stricken, and struck down by God, and afflicted.

    Verse 5
    But he was wounded for our transgressions, and he was crushed for our iniquities, and the punishment that made us whole was upon him, and by his bruises we are healed.

    Verse 6
    All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, each of us, to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all.

    Verse 7
    He was oppressed and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, as a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth.

    Verse 8
    From detention and judgment he was taken away-and who can even think about his descendants? For he was cut off from the land of the living, he was stricken for the transgression of my people.

    Verse 9
    Then they made his grave with the wicked, and with rich people his tomb-although he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.

    Verse 10
    Yet the LORD was willing to crush him, and he made him suffer. Although you make his soul an offering for sin, and he will see his offspring, and he will prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will triumph in his hand.

    Verse 11
    Out of the suffering of his soul he will see light, and find satisfaction. And through his knowledge his servant, the righteous one, will make many righteous, and he will bear their iniquities.

    Verse 12
    Therefore will I allot him a portion with the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong; because he poured out his life to death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sins of many, and made intercession for their transgressions.

    Daniel - Chapter 12


    1 Now at that time, Michael, the great prince, who stands over the children of your people, will be silent, and it will be a time of distress that never was since a nation existed until that time, and at that time, your people will escape, everyone who is found inscribed in the book.

    And many who sleep in the dust of the earth will awaken-these for eternal life, and those for disgrace, for eternal abhorrence.

    And the wise will shine like the brightness of the sky, and those who bring the multitudes to righteousness like the stars forever and ever.

    Wisdom 3


    1 But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God, and there shall no torment touch them. 2 In the sight of the unwise they seemed to die: and their departure is taken for misery, 3 And their going from us to be utter destruction: but they are in peace. 4 For though they be punished in the sight of men, yet is their hope full of immortality. 5 And having been a little chastised, they shall be greatly rewarded: for God proved them, and found them worthy for himself. 6 As gold in the furnace hath he tried them, and received them as a burnt offering. 7 And in the time of their visitation they shall shine, and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble. 8 They shall judge the nations, and have dominion over the people, and their Lord shall reign for ever. 9 They that put their trust in him shall understand the truth: and such as be faithful in love shall abide with him: for grace and mercy is to his saints, and he hath care for his elect. 10 But the ungodly shall be punished according to their own imaginations, which have neglected the righteous, and forsaken the Lord. 

    Matthew 13


    36 Then he left the crowds and went into the house. And his disciples came to him saying, “Explain to us the parable of the darnel in the field.” 37 He answered, “The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. 38 The field is the world and the good seed are the people of the kingdom. The poisonous weeds are the people of the evil one, 39 and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 40 As the poisonous weeds are collected and burned with fire, so it will be at the end of the age. 41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather from his kingdom everything that causes sin as well as all lawbreakers. 42 They will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. The one who has ears had better listen!

    Matthew 22


    23 The same day Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) came to him and asked him, 24 “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies without having children, his brother must marry the widow and father children for his brother.’ 25 Now there were seven brothers among us. The first one married and died, and since he had no children he left his wife to his brother. 26 The second did the same, and the third, down to the seventh. 27 Last of all, the woman died. 28 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.” 29 Jesus answered them, “You are deceived, because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of GodFor in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 31 Now as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God, 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living! 33 When the crowds heard this, they were amazed at his teaching.

    Luke 20


    34 So Jesus said to them, “The people of this age marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are regarded as worthy to share in that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 36 In fact, they can no longer die, because they are equal to angels and are sons of God, since they are sons of the resurrection. 37 But even Moses revealed that the dead are raised in the passage about the bush, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. 38 Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living, for all live before him.” 

    1 Corinthians 15


    20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to him. 24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. 25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death. 27 For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. But when it says “everything” has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the one who put everything in subjection to him. 28 And when all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all.

    1 Corinthians 15


    39 All flesh is not the same: People have one flesh, animals have another, birds and fish another. 15:40 And there are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies. The glory of the heavenly body is one sort and the earthly another. 15:41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon and another glory of the stars, for star differs from star in glory.

    42 It is the same with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living person; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 However, the spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and then the spiritual. 47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 Like the one made of dust, so too are those made of dust, and like the one from heaven, so too those who are heavenly. 49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, let us also bear the image of the man of heaven.

    50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51 Listen, I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed – 52 in a moment, in the blinking of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen,

    “Death has been swallowed up in victory.”

    55 “Where, O death, is your victory?

    Where, O death, is your sting?”

    56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! 58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.

    2 Corinthians 4


    2 But we have rejected shameful hidden deeds, not behaving with deceptiveness or distorting the word of God, but by open proclamation of the truth we commend ourselves to everyone’s conscience before God. 3 But even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled only to those who are perishing, among whom the god of this age has blinded the minds of those who do not believe so they would not see the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God. 5 For we do not proclaim ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, and ourselves as your slaves for Jesus’ sake. 6 For God, who said “Let light shine out of darkness,” is the one who shined in our hearts to give us the light of the glorious knowledge of God in the face of Christ.

    Revelation 7


    13 Then one of the elders asked me, “These dressed in long white robes – who are they and where have they come from?” 14 So I said to him, “My lord, you know the answer.” Then he said to me, “These are the ones who have come out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb! 15 For this reason they are before the throne of God, and they serve him day and night in his temple, and the one seated on the throne will shelter them. 16 They will never go hungry or be thirsty again, and the sun will not beat down on them, nor any burning heat, 17 because the Lamb in the middle of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.”

    Revelation 21


    5 And the one seated on the throne said: “Look! I am making all things new!” Then he said to me, “Write it down, because these words are reliable and true.” 6 He also said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the one who is thirsty I will give water free of charge from the spring of the water of life. 7 The one who conquers will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be my son. 8 But as for the cowards, unbelievers, detestable persons, murderers, the sexually immoral, and those who practice magic spells, idol worshipers, and all those who lie, their place will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur. That is the second death.”


    De Principiis (Book I)
    Chapter 2. On Christ.


    according to the expression of Solomon: The Lord created me — the beginning of His ways, and among His works, before He made any other thing; He founded me before the ages. In the beginning, before He formed the earth, before He brought forth the fountains of waters, before the mountains were made strong, before all the hills, He brought me forth. He is also styled First-born, as the apostle has declared: who is the first-born of every creature. The first-born, however, is not by nature a different person from the Wisdom, but one and the same. Finally, the Apostle Paul says that Christ (is) the power of God and the wisdom of God.

    Let no one, however, imagine that we mean anything impersonal when we call Him the wisdom of God; or suppose, for example, that we understand Him to be, not a living being endowed with wisdom, but something which makes men wise, giving itself to, and implanting itself in, the minds of those who are made capable of receiving His virtues and intelligence. If, then, it is once rightly understood that the only-begotten Son of God is His wisdom hypostatically existing.

    And therefore we must believe that Wisdom was generated before any beginning that can be either comprehended or expressed. And since all the creative power of the coming creation was included in this very existence of Wisdom (whether of those things which have an original or of those which have a derived existence), having been formed beforehand and arranged by the power of foreknowledge; on account of these very creatures which had been described, as it were, and prefigured in Wisdom herself, does Wisdom say, in the words of Solomon, that she was created the beginning of the ways of God, inasmuch as she contained within herself either the beginnings, or forms, or species of all creation.

    Wisdom was the beginning of the ways of God, and is said to be created, forming beforehand and containing within herself the species and beginnings of all creatures, must we understand her to be the Word of God, because of her disclosing to all other beings, i.e., to universal creation, the nature of the mysteries and secrets which are contained within the divine wisdom; and on this account she is called the Word, because she is, as it were, the interpreter of the secrets of the mind. And therefore that language which is found in the Acts of Paul, where it is said that here is the Word a living being, appears to me to be rightly used. John, however, with more sublimity and propriety, says in the beginning of his Gospel, when defining God by a special definition to be the Word, And God was the Word, and this was in the beginning with God. Let him, then, who assigns a beginning to the Word or Wisdom of God, take care that he be not guilty of impiety against the unbegotten Father Himself, seeing he denies that He had always been a Father, and had generated the Word, and had possessed wisdom in all preceding periods, whether they be called times or ages, or anything else that can be so entitled.

    The Apostle Paul says, that the only-begotten Son is the image of the invisible God, and the first-born of every creature. And when writing to the Hebrews, he says of Him that He is the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person. Now, we find in the treatise called the Wisdom of Solomon the following description of the wisdom of God: For she is the breath of the power of God, and the purest efflux of the glory of the Almighty. Nothing that is polluted can therefore come upon her. For she is the splendour of the eternal light, and the stainless mirror of God's working, and the image of His goodness. Now we say, as before, that Wisdom has her existence nowhere else save in Him who is the beginning of all things: from whom also is derived everything that is wise, because He Himself is the only one who is by nature a Son, and is therefore termed the Only-begotten.

    But the image of the Son of God, of whom we are now speaking, may be compared to the second of the above examples, even in respect of this, that He is the invisible image of the invisible God, in the same manner as we say, according to the sacred history, that the image of Adam is his son Seth. The words are, And Adam begot Seth in his own likeness, and after his own image. Now this image contains the unity of nature and substance belonging to Father and Son. For if the Son do, in like manner, all those things which the Father does, then, in virtue of the Son doing all things like the Father, is the image of the Father formed in the Son, who is born of Him, like an act of His will proceeding from the mind.

    so after some such fashion is the Father to be supposed as having begotten the Son, His own image; namely, so that, as He is Himself invisible by nature, He also begot an image that was invisible. For the Son is the Word, and therefore we are not to understand that anything in Him is cognisable by the senses. He is wisdom, and in wisdom there can be no suspicion of anything corporeal. He is the true light, which enlightens every man that comes into this world; but He has nothing in common with the light of this sun. Our Saviour, therefore, is the image of the invisible God, inasmuch as compared with the Father Himself He is the truth: and as compared with us, to whom He reveals the Father, He is the image by which we come to the knowledge of the Father, whom no one knows save the Son, and he to whom the Son is pleased to reveal Him. And the method of revealing Him is through the understanding. For He by whom the Son Himself is understood, understands, as a consequence, the Father also, according to His own words: He that has seen Me, has seen the Father also.

    But since we quoted the language of Paul regarding Christ, where He says of Him that He is the brightness of the glory of God, and the express figure of His person, let us see what idea we are to form of this. According to John, God is light. The only-begotten Son, therefore, is the glory of this light, proceeding inseparably from (God) Himself, as brightness does from light, and illuminating the whole of creation. For, agreeably to what we have already explained as to the manner in which He is the Way, and conducts to the Father; and in which He is the Word, interpreting the secrets of wisdom, and the mysteries of knowledge, making them known to the rational creation; and is also the Truth, and the Life, and the Resurrection, — in the same way ought we to understand also the meaning of His being the brightness: for it is by its splendour that we understand and feel what light itself is. And this splendour, presenting itself gently and softly to the frail and weak eyes of mortals, and gradually training, as it were, and accustoming them to bear the brightness of the light, when it has put away from them every hindrance and obstruction to vision, according to the Lord's own precept, Cast forth the beam out of your eye, renders them capable of enduring the splendour of the light, being made in this respect also a sort of mediator between men and the light.

    to show that the Son of God, who was in the form of God, divesting Himself (of His glory), makes it His object, by this very divesting of Himself, to demonstrate to us the fullness of His deity. 

    the Son of God, divesting Himself of His equality with the Father, and showing to us the way to the knowledge of Him, is made the express image of His person: so that we, who were unable to look upon the glory of that marvellous light when placed in the greatness of His Godhead, may, by His being made to us brightness, obtain the means of beholding the divine light by looking upon the brightness.

    the Son of God, though placed in the very insignificant form of a human body, in consequence of the resemblance of His works and power to the Father, showed that there was in Him an immense and invisible greatness, inasmuch as He said to His disciples, He who sees Me, sees the Father also; and, I and the Father are one. And to these belong also the similar expression, "The Father is in Me, and I in the Father."

    Let us see now what is the meaning of the expression which is found in the Wisdom of Solomon, where it is said of Wisdom that it is a kind of breath of the power of God, and the purest efflux of the glory of the Omnipotent, and the splendour of eternal light, and the spotless mirror of the working or power of God, and the image of His goodness. These, then, are the definitions which he gives of God, pointing out by each one of them certain attributes which belong to the Wisdom of God, calling wisdom the power, and the glory, and the everlasting light, and the working, and the goodness of God. He does not say, however, that wisdom is the breath of the glory of the Almighty, nor of the everlasting light, nor of the working of the Father, nor of His goodness, for it was not appropriate that breath should be ascribed to any one of these; but, with all propriety, he says that wisdom is the breath of the power of God. Now, by the power of God is to be understood that by which He is strong; by which He appoints, restrains, and governs all things visible and invisible; which is sufficient for all those things which He rules over in His providence; among all which He is present, as if one individual. And although the breath of all this mighty and immeasurable power, and the vigour itself produced, so to speak, by its own existence, proceed from the power itself, as the will does from the mind, yet even this will of God is nevertheless made to become the power of God.

    Let us now examine the expression, Wisdom is the purest efflux of the glory of the Almighty; and let us first consider what the glory of the omnipotent God is, and then we shall also understand what is its efflux. As no one can be a father without having a son, nor a master without possessing a servant, so even God cannot be called omnipotent unless there exist those over whom He may exercise His power; and therefore, that God may be shown to be almighty, it is necessary that all things should exist.

     Wisdom, through which God is called omnipotent, has a share in the glory of the Almighty. For through Wisdom, which is Christ, God has power over all things, not only by the authority of a ruler, but also by the voluntary obedience of subjects. And that you may understand that the omnipotence of Father and Son is one and the same, as God and the Lord are one and the same with the Father, listen to the manner in which John speaks in the Apocalypse: Thus says the Lord God, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. For who else was He which is to come than Christ? And as no one ought to be offended, seeing God is the Father, that the Savior is also God; so also, since the Father is called omnipotent, no one ought to be offended that the Son of God is also called omnipotent. For in this way will that saying be true which He utters to the Father, All Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them. Now, if all things which are the Father's are also Christ's, certainly among those things which exist is the omnipotence of the Father; and doubtless the only-begotten Son ought to be omnipotent, that the Son also may have all things which the Father possesses. And I am glorified in them, He declares. For at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and every tongue shall confess that the Lord Jesus is in the glory of God the Father. Therefore He is the efflux of the glory of God in this respect, that He is omnipotent— the pure and limpid Wisdom herself — glorified as the efflux of omnipotence or of glory. And that it may be more clearly understood what the glory of omnipotence is, we shall add the following. God the Father is omnipotent, because He has power over all things, i.e., over heaven and earth, sun, moon, and stars, and all things in them. And He exercises His power over them by means of His Word, because at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, both of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth. And if every knee is bent to Jesus, then, without doubt, it is Jesus to whom all things are subject, and He it is who exercises power over all things, and through whom all things are subject to the Father; for through wisdom, i.e., by word and reason, not by force and necessity, are all things subject. And therefore His glory consists in this very thing, that He possesses all things, and this is the purest and most limpid glory of omnipotence, that by reason and wisdom, not by force and necessity, all things are subject. Now the purest and most limpid glory of wisdom is a convenient expression to distinguish it from that glory which cannot be called pure and sincere. But every nature which is convertible and changeable, although glorified in the works of righteousness or wisdom, yet by the fact that righteousness or wisdom are accidental qualities, and because that which is accidental may also fall away, its glory cannot be called sincere and pure. But the Wisdom of God, which is His only-begotten Son, being in all respects incapable of change or alteration, and every good quality in Him being essential, and such as cannot be changed and converted, His glory is therefore declared to be pure and sincere.

     And this is the idea conveyed by John when he says that God is light. Now His wisdom is the splendour of that light, not only in respect of its being light, but also of being everlasting light, so that His wisdom is eternal and everlasting splendour. If this be fully understood, it clearly shows that the existence of the Son is derived from the Father but not in time, nor from any other beginning, except, as we have said, from God Himself.

    But wisdom is also called the stainless mirror of the ἐνέργεια or working of God. We must first understand, then, what the working of the power of God is. It is a sort of vigour, so to speak, by which God operates either in creation, or in providence, or in judgment, or in the disposal and arrangement of individual things, each in its season. For as the image formed in a mirror unerringly reflects all the acts and movements of him who gazes on it, so would Wisdom have herself to be understood when she is called the stainless mirror of the power and working of the Father: as the Lord Jesus Christ also, who is the Wisdom of God, declares of Himself when He says, The works which the Father does, these also does the Son likewise. And again He says, that the Son cannot do anything of Himself, save what He sees the Father do. As therefore the Son in no respect differs from the Father in the power of His works, and the work of the Son is not a different thing from that of the Father, but one and the same movement, so to speak, is in all things, He therefore named Him a stainless mirror, that by such an expression it might be understood that them is no dissimilarity whatever between the Son and the Father. How, indeed, can those things which are said by some to be done after the manner in which a disciple resembles or imitates his master, or according to the view that those things are made by the Son in bodily material which were first formed by the Father in their spiritual essence, agree with the declarations of Scripture, seeing in the Gospel the Son is said to do not similar things, but the same things in a similar manner?

    For there is no other second goodness existing in the Son, save that which is in the Father. And therefore also the Saviour Himself rightly says in the Gospel, There is none good save one only, God the Father, that by such an expression it may be understood that the Son is not of a different goodness, but of that only which exists in the Father, of whom He is rightly termed the image, because He proceeds from no other source but from that primal goodness, lest there might appear to be in the Son a different goodness from that which is in the Father. Nor is there any dissimilarity or difference of goodness in the Son. And therefore it is not to be imagined that there is a kind of blasphemy, as it were, in the words, There is none good save one only, God the Father, as if thereby it may be supposed to be denied that either Christ or the Holy Spirit was good. But, as we have already said, the primal goodness is to be understood as residing in God the Father, from whom both the Son is born and the Holy Spirit proceeds, retaining within them, without any doubt, the nature of that goodness which is in the source whence they are derived. And if there be any other things which in Scripture are called good, whether angel, or man, or servant, or treasure, or a good heart, or a good tree, all these are so termed characteristically, having in them an accidental, not an essential goodness. But it would require both much time and labor to collect together all the titles of the Son of God, such, e.g., as the true light, or the door, or the righteousness, or the sanctification, or the redemption, and countless others; and to show for what reasons each one of them is so given.

    Proverbs 25



    26 Like a muddied spring and a polluted well,

    so is a righteous person who gives way before the wicked.



    Matthew 3


    3:16 After 27  Jesus was baptized, just as he was coming up out of the water, the heavens opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove 31  and coming on him. 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, “This is my one dear Son; in him I take great delight.” 


    An Incorporeal existence is without a physical body, presence or form that can readily observed or measured. In science there exists and incorporeal substance known as dark matter and an incorporeal force known as dark energy causing our visible universe to spread out.  Right now mankind is creating an artificial superintelligence in hopes of re-engineering our known universe and answering our most profound question of why do we exist. 

    Many creatures in nature use chemical pheromones to communicate. One cell bacteria communicates energy sources with other bacteria.


    De Principiis (Book I)

    Chapter 7. On Incorporeal and Corporeal Beings


    All souls and all rational natures, whether holy or wicked, were formed or created, and all these, according to their proper nature, are incorporeal; but although incorporeal, they were nevertheless created, because all things were made by God through Christ, as John teaches in a general way in his Gospel, saying, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made. The Apostle Paul, moreover, describing created things by species and numbers and orders, speaks as follows, when showing that all things were made through Christ: And in Him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by Him, and in Him: and He is before all, and He is the head. He therefore manifestly declares that in Christ and through Christ were all things made and created, whether things visible, which are corporeal, or things invisible, which I regard as none other than incorporeal and spiritual powers. But of those things which he had termed generally corporeal or incorporeal, he seems to me, in the words that follow, to enumerate the various kinds, viz., thrones, dominions, principalities, powers, influences.

    when it is said that all things were made by Him, and that in Him were all things created, both things in heaven and things on earth, there can be no doubt that also those things which are in the firmament, which is called heaven, and in which those luminaries are said to be placed, are included among the number of heavenly things. And secondly, seeing that the course of the discussion has manifestly discovered that all things were made or created, and that among created things there is nothing which may not admit of good and evil, and be capable of either, what are we to think of the following opinion which certain of our friends entertain regarding sun, moon, and stars, viz., that they are unchangeable, and incapable of becoming the opposite of what they are? Not a few have held that view even regarding the holy angels, and certain heretics also regarding souls, which they call spiritual natures

    We think, then, that they may be designated as living beings, for this reason, that they are said to receive commandments from God, which is ordinarily the case only with rational beings. I have given a commandment to all the stars, says the Lord. What, now, are these commandments? Those, namely, that each star, in its order and course, should bestow upon the world the amount of splendour which has been entrusted to it. For those which are called planets move in orbits of one kind, and those which are termed ἀπλανεῖς are different. Now it manifestly follows from this, that neither can the movement of that body take place without a soul, nor can living things be at any time without motion. And seeing that the stars move with such order and regularity, that their movements never appear to be at any time subject to derangement, would it not be the height of folly to say that so orderly an observance of method and plan could be carried out or accomplished by irrational beings? In the writings of Jeremiah, indeed, the moon is called the queen of heaven. Yet if the stars are living and rational beings, there will undoubtedly appear among them both an advance and a falling back. For the language of Job, the stars are not clean in His sight, seems to me to convey some such idea.

    And now we have to ascertain whether those beings which in the course of the discussion we have discovered to possess life and reason, were endowed with a soul along with their bodies at the time mentioned in Scripture, when God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars also, or whether their spirit was implanted in them, not at the creation of their bodies, but from without, after they had been already made. I, for my part, suspect that the spirit was implanted in them from without; but it will be worth while to prove this from Scripture: for it will seem an easy matter to make the assertion on conjectural grounds, while it is more difficult to establish it by the testimony of Scripture.

    If the soul of a man, which is certainly inferior while it remains the soul of a man, was not formed along with his body, but is proved to have been implanted strictly from without, much more must this be the case with those living beings which are called heavenly. For, as regards man, how could the soul of him, viz., Jacob, who supplanted his brother in the womb, appear to be formed along with his body? Or how could his soul, or its images, be formed along with his body, who, while lying in his mother's womb, was filled with the Holy Ghost? I refer to John leaping in his mother's womb, and exulting because the voice of the salutation of Mary had come to the ears of his mother Elisabeth. How could his soul and its images be formed along with his body, who, before he was created in the womb, is said to be known to God, and was sanctified by Him before his birth? Some, perhaps, may think that God fills individuals with His Holy Spirit, and bestows upon them sanctification, not on grounds of justice and according to their deserts; but undeservedly. And how shall we escape that declaration: Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid! or this: Is there respect of persons with God? For such is the defense of those who maintain that souls come into existence with bodies. So far, then, as we can form an opinion from a comparison with the condition of man, I think it follows that we must hold the same to hold good with heavenly beings, which reason itself and scriptural authority show us to be the case with men.

    The following is the statement of the Apostle Paul: The creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of Him who subjected the same in hope, because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. To what vanity, pray, was the creature made subject, or what creature is referred to, or how is it said not willingly, or in hope of what? And in what way is the creature itself to be delivered from the bondage of corruption? Elsewhere, also, the same apostle says: For the expectation of the creature waits for the manifestation of the sons of God. And again in another passage, And not only we, but the creation itself groans together, and is in pain until now. And hence we have to inquire what are the groanings, and what are the pains. Let us see then, in the first place, what is the vanity to which the creature is subject. I apprehend that it is nothing else than the body; for although the body of the stars is ethereal, it is nevertheless material. Whence also Solomon appears to characterize the whole of corporeal nature as a kind of burden which enfeebles the vigour of the soul in the following language: Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher; all is vanity. I have looked, and seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity. To this vanity, then, is the creature subject, that creature especially which, being assuredly the greatest in this world, holds also a distinguished principality of labour, i.e., the sun, and moon, and stars, are said to be subject to vanity, because they are clothed with bodies, and set apart to the office of giving light to the human race. And this creature, he remarks, was subjected to vanity not willingly. For it did not undertake a voluntary service to vanity, but because it was the will of Him who made it subject, and because of the promise of the Subjector to those who were reduced to this unwilling obedience, that when the ministry of their great work was performed, they were to be freed from this bondage of corruption and vanity when the time of the glorious redemption of God's children should have arrived.

    There is no nature, then, which may not admit of good or evil, except the nature of God — the fountain of all good things — and of Christ; for it is wisdom, and wisdom assuredly cannot admit folly; and it is righteousness, and righteousness will never certainly admit of unrighteousness; and it is the Word, or Reason, which certainly cannot be made irrational; nay, it is also the light, and it is certain that the darkness does not receive the light. In like manner, also, the nature of the Holy Spirit, being holy, does not admit of pollution; for it is holy by nature, or essential being. If there is any other nature which is holy, it possesses this property of being made holy by the reception or inspiration of the Holy Spirit, not having it by nature, but as an accidental quality, for which reason it may be lost, in consequence of being accidental. So also a man may possess an accidental righteousness, from which it is possible for him to fall away. Even the wisdom which a man has is still accidental, although it be within our own power to become wise, if we devote ourselves to wisdom with the zeal and effort of our life; and if we always pursue the study of it, we may always be participators of wisdom: and that result will follow either in a greater or less degree, according to the desert of our life or the amount of our zeal. For the goodness of God, as is worthy of Him, incites and attracts all to that blissful end, where all pain, and sadness, and sorrow fall away and disappear.

    Colossians 1



    1:12 giving thanks to the Father who has qualified you to share in the saints’ inheritance in the light.

    1:13 He delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of the Son He loves

    1:14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.

    1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation,

    1:16 for all things in heaven and on earth were created by Himall things, whether visible or invisible, whether thrones or dominions, whether principalities or powersall things were created through Him and for Him.

    1:17 He himself is before all things and all things are held together in Him.

    1:18 He is the head of the body, the church, as well as the beginning, the firstborn from among the dead, so that He Himself may become first in all things.

    1:19 For God was pleased to have all His fullness dwell in the Son

    1:20 and through Him to reconcile all things to himself by making peace through the blood of His cross – through Him, whether things on earth or things in heaven.




    De Principiis (Book II)

    Chapter 1. On the World


    our one body is provided with many members, and is held together by one soul, so I am of opinion that the whole world also ought to be regarded as some huge and immense animal, which is kept together by the power and reason of God as by one soul. This also, I think, is indicated in sacred Scripture by the declaration of the prophet, Do not I fill heaven and earth? Says the Lord; and again, The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; and by the Savior's words, when He says that we are to swear neither by heaven, for it is God's throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool. To the same effect also are the words of Paul, in his address to the Athenians, when he says, In Him we live, and move, and have our being. For how do we live, and move, and have our being in God, except by His comprehending and holding together the whole world by His power? And how is heaven the throne of God, and the earth His footstool, as the Savior Himself declares, save by His power filling all things both in heaven and earth, according to the Lord's own words? And that God, the Father of all things, fills and holds together the world with the fullness of His power

    If now, in the course of our discussion, it has been ascertained that these things are so, it seems to follow that we next consider the nature of corporeal being, seeing the diversity in the world cannot exist without bodies. It is evident from the nature of things themselves, that bodily nature admits of diversity and variety of change, so that it is capable of undergoing all possible transformations, as, e.g., the conversion of wood into fire, of fire into smoke, of smoke into air, of oil into fire. Does not food itself, whether of man or of animals, exhibit the same ground of change? For whatever we take as food, is converted into the substance of our body. But how water is changed into earth or into air, and air again into fire, or fire into air, or air into water, although not difficult to explain, yet on the present occasion it is enough merely to mention them, as our object is to discuss the nature of bodily matter. By matter, therefore, we understand that which is placed under bodies, viz., that by which, through the bestowing and implanting of qualities, bodies exist; and we mention four qualities — heat, cold, dryness, humidity. These four qualities being implanted in the ὕλη, or matter (for matter is found to exist in its own nature without those qualities before mentioned), produce the different kinds of bodies. Although this matter is, as we have said above, according to its own proper nature without qualities, it is never found to exist without a quality. And I cannot understand how so many distinguished men have been of opinion that this matter, which is so great, and possesses such properties as to enable it to be sufficient for all the bodies in the world which God willed to exist, and to be the attendant and slave of the Creator for whatever forms and species He wished in all things, receiving into itself whatever qualities He desired to bestow upon it, was uncreated, i.e., not formed by God Himself, who is the Creator of all things, but that its nature and power were the result of chance. And I am astonished that they should find fault with those who deny either God's creative power or His providential administration of the world, and accuse them of impiety for thinking that so great a work as the world could exist without an architect or overseer; while they themselves incur a similar charge of impiety in saying that matter is uncreated, and co-eternal with the uncreated God. According to this view, then, if we suppose for the sake of argument that matter did not exist, as these maintain, saying that God could not create anything when nothing existed, without doubt He would have been idle, not having matter on which to operate, which matter they say was furnished Him not by His own arrangement, but by accident; and they think that this, which was discovered by chance, was able to suffice Him for an undertaking of so vast an extent, and for the manifestation of the power of His might, and by admitting the plan of all His wisdom, might be distinguished and formed into a world. Now this appears to me to be very absurd, and to be the opinion of those men who are altogether ignorant of the power and intelligence of uncreated nature. 

    But that we may believe in the authority of holy Scripture that such is the case, hear how in the book of Maccabees, where the mother of seven martyrs exhorts her son to endure torture, this truth is confirmed; for she says, I ask of you, my son, to look at the heaven and the earth, and at all things which are in them, and beholding these, to know that God made all these things when they did not exist. In the book of the Shepherd also, in the first commandment, he speaks as follows: First of all believe that there is one God who created and arranged all things, and made all things to come into existence, and out of a state of nothingness. Perhaps also the expression in the Psalms has reference to this: He spoke, and they were made; He commanded, and they were created. For the words, He spoke, and they were made, appear to show that the substance of those things which exist is meant; while the others, He commanded, and they were created, seem spoken of the qualities by which the substance itself has been molded.

    Matthew 5


    5:33 “Again, you have heard that it was said to an older generation, 41  ‘Do not break an oath, but fulfill your vows to the Lord.’ 42  5:34 But I say to you, do not take oaths at all – not by heaven, because it is the throne of God, 5:35 not by earth, because it is his footstool, and not by Jerusalem, 43  because it is the city of the great King. 5:36 Do not take an oath by your head, because you are not able to make one hair white or black. 5:37 Let your word be ‘Yes, yes’ or ‘No, no.’ More than this is from the evil one. 

    The Shepard of Hermas

    The First Book of HERMAS



    6 Lady, said I, will you convince me? No, said she: but hear the words which I am about to speak unto you. God who dwells in heaven, and has made all things out of nothing, and hath multiplied them for his holy church's sake, is angry with you

    Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 33



    8 Let all the earth fear the Lord; let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him.

    9 For He said and it came about; He commanded and it endured.



    De Principiis (Book II)

    Chapter 2. On the Perpetuity of Bodily Nature


    On this topic some are wont to inquire whether, as the Father generates an uncreated Son, and brings forth a Holy Spirit, not as if He had no previous existence, but because the Father is the origin and source of the Son or Holy Spirit, and no anteriority or posteriority can be understood as existing in them; so also a similar kind of union or relationship can be understood as subsisting between rational natures and bodily matter. And that this point may be more fully and thoroughly examined, the commencement of the discussion is generally directed to the inquiry whether this very bodily nature, which bears the lives and contains the movements of spiritual and rational minds, will be equally eternal with them, or will altogether perish and be destroyed.

    that any other nature than the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit can live without a body, the necessity of logical reasoning compels us to understand that rational natures were indeed created at the beginning, but that material substance was separated from them only in thought and understanding, and appears to have been formed for them, or after them, and that they never have lived nor do live without it; for an incorporeal life will rightly be considered a prerogative of the Trinity alone. As we have remarked above, therefore, that material substance of this world, possessing a nature admitting of all possible transformations, is, when dragged down to beings of a lower order, molded into the crasser and more solid condition of a body, so as to distinguish those visible and varying forms of the world; but when it becomes the servant of more perfect and more blessed beings, it shines in the splendor of celestial bodies, and adorns either the angels of God or the sons of the resurrection with the clothing of a spiritual body, out of all which will be filled up the diverse and varying state of the one world. But if any one should desire to discuss these matters more fully, it will be necessary, with all reverence and fear of God, to examine the sacred Scriptures with greater attention and diligence, to ascertain whether the secret and hidden sense within them may perhaps reveal anything regarding these matters; and something may be discovered in their abstruse and mysterious language, through the demonstration of the Holy Spirit to those who are worthy, after many testimonies have been collected on this very point.


    In post-Resurrection, Anathema (excommunication) was a Christian and Jewish sanction of God's displeasure with a person(s) because of their heresy of false teaching with established beliefs of the faithful. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him. Their were 15 teachings that the council fathers found heretical in Origen's discourse.


    The Fifth Ecumenical Council 
    The Second Council of Constantinople 
    A.D. 553



    If anyone assert the fabulous pre-existence of souls, and shall assert the monstrous restoration which follows from it: let him be anathema.



    If anyone shall say that the creation of all reasonable things includes only intelligence without bodies and altogether immaterial, having neither number or name, so that there is unity between them all by identity of substance, force and energy, and by their union with and knowledge of God, the Word; but that no longer desiring the sight of God, they gave themselves over to worse things, each one following his own inclinations, and that they have taken bodies more or less subtile, and have received names, for among the heavenly Powers there is a difference of names as there is also a difference of bodies; and thence some became and are called Cherubims, others Seraphims, and Principalities, and Powers, and Dominations, and Thrones, and Angels, and as many other heavenly orders as there may be: let him be anathema.



    If anyone shall say that the sun, the moon, and the stars are also reasonable things, and that they have only become what they are because they turned towards evil: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that the reasonable creatures in whom the divine love had grown cold have been hidden in gross bodies such as ours, and have been called men, while those who have attained the lowest degree of wickedness have shared cold and obscure bodies and are become and called demons and evil spirits: let him be anathema.



    If anyone shall say that a psychic condition has come from an angelic or archangelic state, and moreover that a demoniac and a human condition has come from a psychic condition, and that from a human state they may become again angels and demons, and that each order of heavenly virtues is either all from those below or from those above and below: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that there is a twofold race of demons, of which the one includes the souls of men and the other the superior spirits who fell to this, and that of all the number of reasonable beings there is but one which has remained unshaken in the love and contemplation of God, and that that spirit is become Christ and the king of all reasonable beings, and that he has created all the bodies which exist in heaven, on earth, and between heaven and earth; and that the world which has in itself elements more ancient than itself, and which exist by themselves, viz: dryness, damp, heat and cold, and the image to which it was formed, was so formed, and that the most holy and consubstantial Trinity did not create the world, but that it was created by the working intelligence which is more ancient than the world, and which communicates to it its being: let him be anathema.



    If anyone shall say that Christ, of whom it is said that he appeared in the form of God, and that he was united before all time with God the Word, and humbled himself in those last days even to humanity, had (according to their expression) pity upon the divers falls which had appeared in the spirits united in the same unity (of which he himself is part), and that to restore them he passed through divers classes, had different bodies and different names, became all to all, an Angel among Angels, a Power among Powers, had clothed himself in the different classes of reasonable beings with a form corresponding to that class, and finally has taken flesh and blood like ours and is become man for man; [if anyone says all this] and does not profess that God the Word humbled himself and became man: let him be anathema.

    Philippians 2



    2:1 Therefore, if there is any encouragement in Christ, any comfort provided by love, any fellowship in the Spirit, 1  any affection or mercy, 2  2:2 complete my joy and be of the same mind, 3  by having the same love, being united in spirit, 4  and having one purpose. 2:3 Instead of being motivated by selfish ambition 5  or vanity, each of you should, in humility, be moved to treat one another as more important than yourself. 2:4 Each of you should be concerned 6  not only 7  about your own interests, but about the interests of others as well. 8  2:5 You should have the same attitude toward one another that Christ Jesus had, 9 

    2:6 who though he existed in the form of God

    did not regard equality with God

    as something to be grasped,

    2:7 but emptied himself

    by taking on the form of a slave, 

    by looking like other men,  

    and by sharing in human nature. 

    2:8 He humbled himself,

    by becoming obedient to the point of death

    – even death on a cross!

    2:9 As a result God exalted him

    and gave him the name

    that is above every name,

    2:10 so that at the name of Jesus

    every knee will bow

    – in heaven and on earth and under the earth –

    2:11 and every tongue confess

    that Jesus Christ is Lord

    to the glory of God the Father.




    If anyone shall not acknowledge that God the Word, of the same substance with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and who was made flesh and became man, one of the Trinity, is Christ in every sense of the word, but [shall affirm] that he is so only in an inaccurate manner, and because of the abasement, as they call it, of the intelligence; if anyone shall affirm that this intelligence united to God the Word, is the Christ in the true sense of the word, while the Logos is only called Christ because of this union with the intelligence, and e converso that the intelligence is only called God because of the Logos: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that it was not the Divine Logos made man by taking an animated body with a rational spirit (anima rationalis) and VOEPA, that he descended into hell and ascended into heaven, but shall pretend that it is the NOUS which has done this, that NOUS of which they say (in an impious fashion) he is Christ, properly called, and that he is become so by knowledge of the Monad: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that after the resurrection the body of the Lord was ethereal, having the form of a sphere, and that such shall be the bodies of all after the resurrection; and that after the Lord himself shall have rejected his true body and after the others who rise shall have rejected theirs, the nature of their bodies shall be annihilated: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that the future judgment signifies the destruction of the body and that the end of the story will be an immaterial [false appearance?] and that thereafter there will no longer be any matter, but only spirit: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that the heavenly Powers and all men and the Devil and evil spirits are united with the Word of God in all respects, as the NOUS which is by them called Christ and which is in the form of God, and which humbled itself as they say; and [if anyone shall say] that the kingdom of Christ shall have an end: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that Christ [i.e., the NOUS] is in no wise different from other reasonable beings, neither substantially nor by wisdom nor by his power and might over all things but that all will be placed at the right hand of God, as well as he that is called by them Christ [the NOUS], as also they were in the feigned pre-existence of all things: let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that all reasonable beings will one day be united in one, when the hypostases as well as the numbers and the bodies shall have disappeared, and that the knowledge of the world to come will carry with it the ruin of worlds, and the rejection of bodies as also the abolition of [all] names, and that there shall be finally an identity ... of the hypostasis; moreover, that in this pretended apocatastasis, spirits only will continue to exist, as it was in the feigned pre-existence; let him be anathema.


    If anyone shall say that the life of the spirits shall be like to the life which was in the beginning while as yet the spirits had not come down or fallen, so that the end and the beginning shall be alike, and that the end shall be the true measure of the beginning; let him be anathema.

    50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice.
    Nicomachean Ethics
    By Aristotle


    Now often one contrary state is recognized from its contrary, and often states are recognized from the subjects that exhibit them; for ( A ) if good condition is known, bad condition also becomes known, and ( B ) good condition is known from the things that are in good condition, and they from it. If good condition is firmness of flesh, it is necessary both that bad condition should be flabbiness of flesh and that the wholesome should be that which causes firmness in flesh. And it follows for the most part that if one contrary is ambiguous the other also will be ambiguous; e.g. if 'just' is so, that 'unjust' will be so too.

    Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. 
    Against Aristocrates Section 75


    The defendant, however, admitted no exception; he simply makes an outcast of any man who kills Charidemus, even though he kill him justly or as the laws permit. And yet to every act and to every word one of two epithets is applicable: it is either just or unjust. To no act and to no word can both these epithets be applied at the same time, for how can the same act at the same time be both just and not just? Every act is brought to the test as having the one or the other of these qualities; if it be found to have the quality of injustice, it is adjudged to be wicked, if of justice, to be good and honest.—But you, sir, used neither qualification when you wrote the words, “if any man kill.” You named the mere accusation, without any definition, and then immediately added, “let him be liable to seizure.” Thereby you have evidently ignored this tribunal and its usages as well as the other two.

    Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them.
    Olynthiac 1 Section 11


    I suppose it is with national as with private wealth. If a man keeps what he gains, he is duly grateful to fortune; if he loses it by his own imprudence, he loses along with it the sense of gratitude. So in national affairs, those who fail to use their opportunities aright, fail also to acknowledge the good that the gods have given; for every advantage in the past is judged in the light of the final issue. It is therefore our duty, men of Athens, to keep a careful eye on the future, that by restoring our prosperity we may efface the discredit of the past.

    Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality.

    To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not.
    page 22


    "If" says he "what is said to be true, we shall in another "state die no more. In death "he says to his judges "we either lose all sense of things, or as it is said, go into some other place; and if it be so, it will be much better; as we shall be out " of the power of partial judges, and come before "those that are impartial."

    Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost.



  5. The Didache - Introduction
    "Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy.  Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of Science and Faith it can be difficult is discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of man.
    I have chosen to research the Didache of the 12 Apostles because it is honored as the 'first catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church.  The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles is a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. For nonChristians the Didache is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles.The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. in life. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist the Didache is a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws give to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism  and Unitarianism.
    In humble admiration, I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) to best present the truth in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural. President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work.
    John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813


    I admire your Employment, in Selecting the Philosophy and Divinity of Jesus and Separating it from all intermixtures. If I had Eyes and Nerves, I would go through both Testaments and mark all that I understand. To examine the Mishna Gemara Cabbala Jezirah, Sohar Cosri and Talmud of the Hebrews would require the life of Methuselah, and after all, his 969 years would be wasted to very little purpose.

    I will follow the same method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to a particular Apostolic teaching. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition.
    I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it.
     In our pursuit for the truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence.


    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

    As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.'
    Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of happiness and misery. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes.
    Chapter III
    No Innate Practical Principles


    Nature, I confess, has put into man a desire of happiness and an aversion to misery: these indeed are innate practical principles which (as practical principles ought) do continue constantly to operate and influence all our actions without ceasing: these may be observed in all persons and all ages, steady and universal; but these are inclinations of the appetite to good, not impressions of truth on the understanding.

    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant.
    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    John Locke


    Chapter 3
    No Innate Practical Principles
    I grant the existence of God is so many ways manifest, and the obedience we owe him so congruous to the light of reason, that a great part of mankind give testimony to the law of nature: but yet I think it must be allowed that several moral rules may receive from mankind a very general approbation, without either knowing or admitting the true ground of morality; which can only be the will and law of a God, who sees men in the dark, has in His hand rewards and punishments and power enough to call to account the proudest offender.
    Chapter 28
    Of Other Relations
    8. Divine law the measure of sin and duty. First, the Divine Law, whereby that law which God has set to the actions of men — whether promulgated to them by the light of nature, or the voice of revelation. That God has given a rule whereby men should govern themselves, I think there is nobody so brutish as to deny. He has a right to do it; we are his creatures: he has goodness and wisdom to direct our actions to that which is best: and he has power to enforce it by rewards and punishments of infinite weight and duration in another life; for nobody can take us out of his hands. This is the only true touchstone of moral rectitude; and, by comparing them to this law, it is that men judge of the most considerable moral good or evil of their actions; that is, whether, as duties or sins, they are like to procure them happiness or misery from the hands of the ALMIGHTY.

    To understand how  Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England  by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765.
    The Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life.
    Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England
    Of the Nature of Laws in General.


    This will of his Maker is called the Law of Nature. For as God, when He created matter, and endued it with a principle of mobility, established certain rules for the perpetual direction of that motion; so, when he created man, and endued him with free will to conduct himself in all parts of life, He laid down certain immutable laws of human nature, whereby that free will is in some degree regulated and restrained, and gave him also the faculty of reason to discover the purpose of those laws.
    IF man were to live in a state of nature, unconnected with other individuals, there would be no occasion for any other laws, than the law of nature, and the law of God. Neither could any other law possibly exist; for a law always supposes some superior who is to make it; and in a state of nature we are all equal, without any other superior but him who is the author of our being. But man was formed for society; and, as is demonstrated by the writers on this subject, is neither capable of living alone, nor indeed has the courage to do it. However, as it is impossible for the whole race of mankind to be united in one great society, they must necessarily divide into many; and form separate states, commonwealths, and nations; entirely independent of each other, and yet liable to a mutual intercourse. Hence arises a third kind of law to regulate this mutual intercourse, called “the law of “nations;” which, as none of these states will acknowledge a superiority in the other, cannot be dictated by either; but depends entirely upon the rules of natural law, or upon mutual compacts, treaties, leagues, and agreements between these several communities: in the construction also of which compacts we have no other rule to resort to, but the law of nature; being the only one to which both communities are equally subject: and therefore the civil law very justly observes, that quod naturalis ratio inter omnes hominess conftituit, vocatur jus gentium.

    In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States.  But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document.
    Locke, Blackstone, Adams and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them.
    John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 9 August 1816


    Promise me eternal Life free from Pain, tho’ in all other respects no better than our present terrestrial Existence, I know not how many thousand Years of Smithfield fires I would not endure to obtain it.

    In fine, without the Supposition of a future State, Mankind and this Globe appear to me the most Sublime and beautiful Bubble and Bauble that Imagination can conceive.

    Let us then wish for Immortality at all hazards and trust the Ruler with His Skies. I do: and earnestly wish for His Commands which to the Utmost of my Power Shall be implicitly and piously obeyed.

    Smithfield, London was the location of executions of heretics and political rebels over the centuries, including Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace, and Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants' Revolt, among many other religious reformers and dissenters.

    From John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 8 December 1818


    I know not how to prove physically that We Shall meet and know each other in a future State; Nor does Revelation, As I can find give Us any positive Assurance of Such a felicity. My reasons for believing, it, as I do, most undoubtedly, are all moral and divine.

    I believe in God and in his Wisdom and Benevolence: and I cannot conceive that Such a Being could make Such a Species as the human merely to live and die on this Earth. If I did not believe a future State I Should believe in no God. This Universe; this all; this Το Παν; would appear with all its Swelling Pomp, a boyish Fire Work.

    And if there be a future State Why Should the Almighty dissolve forever all the tender Ties which Unite Us So delightfully in this World and forbid Us to See each other in the next?

     Πάν (Pan) the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.


  6. Spirits of the air that try to direct us.

    n Jewish mythology, a dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‎, from the Hebrew verb דָּבַק‬ dāḇaq meaning "adhere" or "cling") is a malicious possessing spirit believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person. It

    The Holy Spirit (Hebrew: ‬רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ‬, Modern ruach hakodesh, Tiberian ruaħ haqqodɛʃ) in Judaism, also termed "Divine Inspiration,"

    Ibbur (Hebrew: עיבור‬, "pregnancy" or "impregnation" or "incubation"), is one of the transmigration forms of the soul and has similarities with Gilgul neshamot. Ibbur is always good or positive, while dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‬‎), is negative. Ibbur is the most positive form of possession, and the most complicated. It happens when a righteous soul decides to occupy a living person's body for a time, and joins, or spiritually "impregnates" the existing soul. Ibbur is always temporary, and the living person may or may not know that it has taken place. Often the living person has graciously given consent for the Ibbur. The reason for Ibbur is always benevolent—the departed soul wishes to complete an important task, to fulfil a promise, or to perform a mitzvah (a religious duty) that can only be accomplished in the flesh. In Lurianic Kabbalah, ibbur occurs when an incomplete soul which cannot achieve tikun is completed by the addition of the soul of a tzadik,[1] or spiritual master. Luria believed this to be possible even whilst the possessor was still alive.





    particles can be created from
    nothing but energy, certain features,
    such as electrical charge, cannot

     gravitational potential energy is negative. Because a negative amount of work is done to bring an object closer to the Earth, gravitational potential energy is always a negative number when using this reference point.  

     The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Space is also filled with radiation (e.g. light and heat), magnetic fields and high energy particles (e.g. cosmic rays).


    In empty space, there is no air, and what we call "sound" is actually vibrations in the air. Now, like you've said, there are indeed light waves and radio waves in space, but these waves are not sound, but light. Light does not need air to travel, but then you don't hear it; you see it, or it is interpreted by your radio set and then translated into sound.

    You're right that there are gases in space, and it's true that these gasses can propagate sound waves just like Earth's air allows sound to travel. The difference is that interstellar gas clouds are much less dense than the Earth's atmosphere. (They have fewer atoms per cubic foot.) So if a sound wave was traveling through a big gas cloud in space and we were out there listening

    Space probably does go on forever, but the truth is we don’t know. 

    The part of space we can see is called the observable universe. 

    The observable universe can even be measured. It is 93 billion light years from one side to the other.

    Our part of space, or the observable universe, has a special shape: it is flat.

    The Universe simply expanded from a very small volume into a huge volume, and this expansion is occuring even today. 

    something of the size of an atom expanded to the size of the solar system by the end of the inflationary epoch.

    The orbits of the planets and the shapes of spiral galaxies has to do with the way they form and conservation of angular momentum, and nothing to do with the geometry of the universe as a whole. As the solar system formed from a giant spherical gas cloud, the cloud started to rotate. That meant that it was easier for material to fall in along the poles than around the 'equator', because around the equator it had to battle against the centripetal acceleration trying to push it out again. The cloud therefore slowly collapsed into a disk like structure from which the planets formed. The same exact process explains the disks of spiral galaxies.

    Outer space' begins about 100 km above the Earth, where the shell of air around our planet disappears. With no air to scatter sunlight and produce a blue sky, space appears as a black blanket dotted with stars.

    Particles are tiny bits of matter that make up everything in the universe. The space your body takes up is different from the space other matter takes up that you perceive in nature.

    Experiencing visual space is a subtle act of the human body and mind.

    Wayfinding, orientation, direction, etc. all come from visual clues. The lens of our eye, with a 22mm focal length allows us to experience perspective space in a consistent and readable way. Our neck and eyes move, completing a spherical dome of information surrounding us at any point. But, when a slight change is introduced to this formula we start to question what exactly space is.

    The awareness of the position, size, form, distance, and direction of an object, or of oneself



    Space is usually regarded as being completely empty. But this is not true. The vast gaps between the stars and planets are filled with huge amounts of thinly spread gas and dust. Even the emptiest parts of space contain at least a few hundred atoms or molecules per cubic metre.
    Space is also filled with many forms of radiation that are dangerous to astronauts. Much of this infrared and ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun. High energy X-rays, gamma rays and cosmic rays – particles travelling close to the speed of light – arrive from distant star systems.

    Since there are no molecules in the vacuum of space there are neither atmosphere nor pressure. When there is no atmosphere, all of the molecules in the area want to spread out as much as possible. If you were on a space ship and stepped outside, you would not be crushed. Instead, you would blow up like a huge balloon as your molecules began to spread out. Eventually you would pop. Very messy.

    A total, or perfect, vacuum would be a space from which all matter has been removed. This includes solids, liquids, and gases (including air). It would be a space that contains “nothing.” Since there is no method or device that can remove all matter from an enclosed space, a perfect vacuum is unknown and has only theoretical meaning.

    You take the last drink out of an orange juice container. As you put the empty container in the recycling bin, you wonder if it's really empty. Guess what? It isn't! There are still air molecules that take up space inside that orange juice container. But, if you could suck out all of those air molecules, you would have a vacuum. In science, a vacuum is defined as space without matter or air. 

    Egocentric distances are defined as the interval between the viewer and an environmental location of interest. Exocentric distances are defined as the interval between two environmental locations of interest, neither being the viewer. (The term depth perception is often implicitly taken to refer to judgments of egocentric distance.) This chapter focuses on absolute egocentric distance perception, which involves accurately scaled perceptual judgments of the distance of environmental locations from the viewer.

    Most of the work dealing with viewing from a fixed location
    has been concerned with the perception of egocentric (absolute)
    distance, exocentric (relative) distance or depth, and size.

    an observer has an
    internal representation of surrounding physical space, referred
    to as visual space or visually perceived space, and then to
    attempt to measure properties of visual space using a variety 



    Space is everything in our surrounding environment or just simply everything around us. Our spatial perception is how we see the world and understand it. As a child the physical proportions and dimensions of space for us are small. As we grow and become more active we begin to orient ourselves to the space around us. Our eyes make thousands of subconscious computations to perceive positive space (objects) and negative space (empty areas). In time our mind becomes more familiar with the types of space around us that we are able to move more independently and our world begins to greatly expand. There are many that believe that our conscious mind gives us the ability to perceive Nature and understand Natural Law. Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews), Jesus (Christians), and Mohammed (Islam) believe and testify that through the Will of the Creator (God) has given human beings a conscious mind (living spirit) to understand the world around them. There are some quantum physicists that theorize that our conscious mind is actually a four dimensional radiant field outside our physical body connected to our nerves through Quantum entanglement.  Put simply our conscious mind is comprised of both a quantifiable (measurable) Central and Peripheral nervous system connected to nonquantifiable (immeasurable) negative space.  

    As we grow our young minds learn that much of what we perceive as negative space is not completely empty and quite measurable. Every so often we may hear and/or feel a gentle wind moving in the negative space even though our eyes cannot see it. We do see the effect this breeze has on other object around us.  Watching the plants and trees sway we begin to understand there are invisible objects and active forces throughout our negative space. Every so often on a cold winter day we may see a  cloud of vapor (moisture) coming from the air we exhale out from our lungs. When we look up to the sky we notice larger clouds of vapor moving across negative space. In time we learn this vapor is called moisture and  it comes from the transformation of a liquid object we know as water we that we drink, swim, and bathe in to another object we know as gas that float through negative space. Every so often the clouds of vapor above us get larger and darker. Soon cool drops of liquid (water) we know as rain fall down and splashing on everything they land on. The sound rain makes can be heard when it lands on us or when it hits the ground. As we grow older we learn that sound is a disturbance (wave) that travels through objects and negative space. When enough rain lands on the ground a pool liquid forms what we call puddles that can be fun to play in. Every so often during the season when it is cold and our bodies shiver dark clouds pass over our heads. Soon crystal flakes called flurries gently fall from the clouds and land on the ground forming a white blanket we call snow.

    As we grow we learn that we can only see objects if they give off light or light bounces off of them. When we look up and see a bright object shining through the clouds our loved ones call the Sun. Soon the clouds and rain disappear and the Sun dries the water from our skin. In time our body and objects around us get warmer. We soon learn this bright object that radiates heat has a name our loved ones call the Sun. Later in life we learn that light and heat originate from tiny wave particles called Photons that have traveled a great distance from the sun. A wave particle has properties of both a wave and a particle. A wave is a kind of disturbance (oscillation, vibration, motion) that travels through negative space and objects (matter) transferring energy from one area to another. A particle is a tiny object that cannot be seen with our eyes. To get an idea how small a particle is imagine a 2 millimeter grain of sand being composed of unique collection of 10 Quintillion (10 to the 19th power or simply 1019) particles. Now your imagine that your body is comprised of a unique collection of over 10 Octillion (10 to the 28th power or simply 1028) particles. 

    . So we see things because light bounces off objects back towards us. We can use other
    senses to gather information about things we cannot see, such as hearing. For example, sonar involves
    bouncing sound waves off an object and observing the reflected wave. This technique is also used in echolocation.
    Dolphins and bats use echo-location to detect the location and shape of an object, by sending out a
    sound wave and observing how the reflected sound wave comes back to them

    The form of your body is different from other forms that are visible in Nature.   particles that are arranged differently from other forms that you perceive in Nature.


    Why do you matter? Because, you play a unique role in the evolution of our Nature (Universe).

     matter that make up everything in the universe

    A Photon is a type of unstructured zero mass elementary Boson (packet of energy) particle that is a carrier (transmitter) of electromagnetic (electric and magnetic waves) force (power to attract or repel anything with an electrical charge) that moves at the speed of light in the vacuum of space, but is significantly slower in air and water. Photons have limitless energy range (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays). At  At high energy levels  a photon can change knock off electrons and change chemical compositions. If a photon's energy level is high enough it can collapse and form a Black Hole (2 billion joules). In Nature, Dark Matter has not yet been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are accepted as a fundamental part of the Universe. 

    The energy Photons are dispersed by what is called electromagnetic (electric and magnetic wave) radiation. A Photon is so small that it is considered unstructured with zero mass, but has ability to carry electromagnetic force energy to Earth and other objects in space at the the speed of light. In the span of 8 minutes and 20 seconds Photons reach Earth from the Sun.  Plants, trees, and many other organisms convert the photon light energy packets into chemical energy in a process called Photosynthesis. When animals eat plants the stored chemical energy is transferred to the organism to function. Photon light energy heat the oceans, land masses, and the air. The heat makes wind and ocean currents. Photons light energy evaporates water, forms clouds, and drops rain and snow all over the place. There are Diest that believe and testify the Sun to a visible luminary (source of light) agent of the Creator which rises from the East and sets in the West, the source of all the seasons, the cause of day and night, the parent of vegetation, and a friend of man. There are many Polytheist that believe and testify the Sun to be a powerful Deity and a central figure in a pantheon of Gods. Jews and Christians believe and testify that that the Creator is not the Sun, but through a force of will God created light. 



     that disperse the energy released by the constant conversion of hydrogen to helium reaction occurring in our sun.In Nature, our Sun is one of trillions of other stars that generate visible light you see and the radiant heat you feel.  

    We notice that when the Sun disappears into the negative space our body and the objects around us become colder or darker.  

    When the space around us becomes too dark and cold our loved ones may create a small light similar to our Sun. We soon learn this bright object has a name called Fire. As we look closer at Fire we notice that it has has different bright colors glowing from pile fallen trees and branches similar to the ones we have seen standing when the Sun shining are called wood. Stretching our hands over the whitish orange flames our body warms up from the cold. If we put our hands too close to the blue flames the warmth becomes hot and painful. As the fire continues more wood is added to the existing coals glowing as they slowly break down into powder we call ash. 

    Sitting next our fire hot flashes of light shoot up into the black negative space with other bright objects (satellites, ships, asteroids, comets, planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, etc...).  Later in life we learn our ancestors were sky watchers like ourselves. These sky watchers (astronomers) thought that our home called Earth was a motionless and all objects know collectively as the Universe moved around us through negative space. 



    In time,  we learned that our Earth moves around (orbits) the Sun like other planets and objects.

    We later learn that objects are any thing that is bound together by its own gravity.

    We then learned that our   position in space was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and velocity (symbol v) as a fixed frame of reference. Velocity is the rate of motion in a specific direction. All motion is relative to the frame of reference from which it is being observed.

    When we look up at the sky at night and see


    Most of the universe is empty space, called a vacuum, but it is an imperfect vacuum. There are clouds of interstellar dust and the tiny particles that make up the solar wind. There are many isolated particles and hydrogen atoms, which sometimes form clouds over a billion kilometers wide called "nebulae."

    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference our eyes see Space consisting of 3 dimensions (coordinate symbols x,y,z). Where x, y, and z equal individual points of space. If a point in space is expanded outward in two directions with infinite (never ending) distance a line of a one dimensional plane will be created with infinite length, but no width (breadth) or height (or depth).  If that point of space is expanded outward in infinite directions and distance a two dimensional plane will be created with length and width (ex. square), but no height. Now if the two dimensional plane is expanded upwards and downwards with infinite distance then a three dimensional plane will be created with length, width and height (ex. cube).


    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we observe a constant rising and setting of the sun in the sky.  Before there were watches, time was measured by this physical process. Time is simply the rate of change happening all around us. As time progresses in a human lifespan we observe how starts as a newborn baby, a playful child, studious adolescent, mature adult parent, wise grandparent, and then death. Time  (coordinate symbol t) is the fourth dimension that measures physical change (movement) of an object in space. Spacetime is a mathematical model that joins the dimensions of space and time into a single idea called a continuum (continuous connection x,y,z,t) that contains length, width height and movement (tesseract).  Together space and time make up the four-dimension, in which all objects exist and interact with each other.  


    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we can observe that an object will move at a constant velocity unless another object or unbalanced force acts upon it.   All frames of reference moving at constant velocity with respect to inertial frame are equivalent to each other and are also inertial frames.

    Time simply the rate of change happening all around us.


    Modern astronomers believe that Creation did not start at a single point in space.


    In Classical Physics Gravitational Potential Energy is proportional to the amount of work needed to bring an outside object into the gravitational field (an area of attractive force) of another object. The strength of the gravitational force of attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other. As the two objects accelerate closer to each other the Gravitational force gets smaller. Once the smaller object is trapped in the gravitational field it cannot escape unless and outside force can provide a greater amount of energy to escape. 

    In the Gravitational Field Model, there is no gravity force of attraction, objects distort Spacetime by means of their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". 

    light travels along geodesics, which are approximately straight lines in most circumstances that humans encounter in everyday life, but are curved by gravity)

    When an object approaches the speed of light, its inertial energy (work done to resist change in state of motion) approaches infinity and therefore its inertial mass (work done to resist change in velocity) also approaches infinity.

    13.8 Billion years ago a oscillation (vibration) disturbance (quantum fluctuation) occurred that changed a true vacuum of nothing into our Universe being born as a very hot and dense singularity (point, bubble, or virtual particle) in space. Some physicist believe that a quantum fluctuation (disturbance) occurred in a Instanton (pseudoparticle that contained gravity, space, time, and mass) within a false vacuum (metastable vacuum absent of gravity, space, time, and mass) of pure energy (symbol E).  In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable (unstable) vacuum state that wants to move to either a lower energy vacuum or a true vacuum state through a process known as bubble nucleation. 

    This point in our Universe held a tremendous amount of high frequency stressed potential (stored) energy held together with a strong force of attraction.   In the fraction of a second, a Quantum Fluctuation (temporary change in the amount of energy) occurred within the Singularity. The change of state in the Singularity caused a massive wave of energy to generate a repulsive force (also known as Inflation) that expanded our Universe like a balloon over 100 trillion times its initial size. After several minutes of expansion, the temperature of the Universe became cooler, less dense and the frequency of energy lowered to form a perfect condition for the fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, and strong and weak interactions to generate the building blocks of matter known as quarks and electrons.  A quark is a tiny subatomic particle with a fractional charge



    Nucleation occurs when the concentration of the precursors exceeds a critical
    supersaturation value. Above this concentration, stable nuclei are formed which continue
    to grow as additional energy is available.

    Rather, space itself was expanding, with everything in the universe moving away from everything else.


    The Earth's axis would pierce that sphere in two places: the celestial north pole and the celestial south pole.







    the universe began cooling from the moment after the big bang, the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value at a very high temperature corresponding to when the universe was just a fraction of a second old, and when the number of spatial dimensions was approximately three.

    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-05-space-three-dimensional.html#jCp

    Frame of reference

    Something that oscillates is something that "vibrates",


    In 1811, Count Avogadro of Italy proposed that the simple
    integer coefficients in chemical reactions between gases could be explained by the rule
    that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (at the same temperature and

    physical space has three dimensions, which
    means that it takes exactly three real numbers to locate a point in space. These numbers
    are called the coordinates of the point, and the reference frame for coordinates is called the
    coordinate system. I

    This chapter paints in broad outline the transition from molecules to continuous matter,
    or mathematically speaking from point particles to fields.

    its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.

    moving a mass from infinity (i.e. outside the gravitational field

    particles statistically move where there is less resistance by collisions which is generally towards an area of lower density or lower temperature

    High entropy generally means high disorder; and low entropy low disorder; the two paradigmatic cases that illustrate these two possibilities is a gas, for the first, and a crystal for the second.

    black holes have entropy -- a lot of entropy. I

    General Relativity gives a singularity at the very beginning, one spacet time point.

    ctual phase diagram of the universe and even if you knew it, there would be no easy way to tell what time scales phase transitions to a higher entropy state will take! The next phase transition (from the phase of the universe we see, right now) to the phase of the universe that will come next, may very well happen on a time scale of 1e40-1e100 years, or so (if we believe black hole evaporation, proton decay estimates etc.). However, if you look at the time scale of that phase transition from the perspective of a "normal" time scale of the following phase, it may happen in an instant... or as quickly as inflation may have happened on the scale of human time perception.


    he entropic force is determined by the variation of energy with respect to the radius,


    In the extreme mathematical limit, material particles are taken to be truly infinitesimal and
    all physical properties of the particles as well as the forces acting on them are described by
    smooth—or at least piecewise smooth—functions of space and time.

    What is the origin of such an entropic force? The most general answer is that the effect of thermal fluctuations tends to bring a thermodynamic system toward a macroscopic (visible to the unclothed eye) state that corresponds to a maximum in the number of microscopic states (or micro-states) that are compatible with this macroscopic state. In other words,

    As the universe expands the gravity energy becomes less negative and in the case of our nearly "flat" universe will approach zero. 

    so-called “virtual particles” that constantly wink into and out of existence

    They appeal to the well-known phenomena of “virtual particle” creation and annihilation. The spontaneous (but short-lived) appearance of subatomic particles from a vacuum is called a quantum fluctuation.

    Force can be strong or weak can and can push or pull on any object. graviton particles All the forces of nature can be simplified down to four most fundamental of forces, which are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear. 

    Without a first mover, nothing could be set in motion. Thus we acknowledge the first and primary mover as God.

    Electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. 

    In empty space there are virtual quantum particles flitting in and out of existence

    The only form that can accommodate the change from nothing to something in a
    smooth transition without an infinite rate of change is the oscillatory




    In crystallization science, this level is referred to as ‘critical supersaturation.'


    The transition from ‘pure energy’ to particles is modeled as a crystallization process where the starting and end state consist of the same single entity.  

    Formation of the Universe as a... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264339506_Formation_of_the_Universe_as_a_Crystallization_Process_and_the_Evolution_of_Gravity [accessed Apr 29 2018].

     low-energy fluctuations are characterized by local increase
    in free energy density (‘bunching’) which is plotted in the positive y-direction of the plot.
    To maintain energy balance, this energy bunching must be accompanied by a local
    ‘energy-hole’ which is deficient of energy and has equal energy density.



    The energy in Light was so great that it spontaneously decayed (split) into 6 Fermion Particle types (also known as flavors) with a collective positive charge (Quark) and 6 Sfermion Antiparticle types with a collective negative charge (AntiQuark). Over 3 generations 6 flavors of Quarks and AntiQuarks have been created. The first generation: Up (symbol u) and Down (symbol d);  the second generation: Charm (symbol c) and Strange (symbol s); the third generation Top (symbol t), and Bottom (symbol b ).


    but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.


    which makes up protons and neutrons. An antiquark is a tiny subatomic antiparticle (antimatter). A Gluon is a zero mass subatomic particle that holds three quarks together forming either a larger proton (two up quarks and one down quark) or a neutron (two down quarks and one up quark) particle. In Nature a Graviton, is an unseen massless spin 2 particle that transmits gravity and travels at the speed of light.


    A tiny fraction of a second later quarks clustered together to produce protons and neutrons. Several minutes later protons and neutrons combined into nuclei. At this point, the evolution of our Universe slowed down as it took an estimated 380,000 years to for electrons to be trapped in orbits around nuclei, forming the the smallest component of matter called Atoms (Elements). The first two Atoms created were Hydrogen and Helium.

    The size of an Atom (Element) is roughly 4 billionths of an inch (0.000000004 inch) and cannot be divided chemically into a simpler substance. Every object that we can taste, smell and touch is comprised of atoms that come together and exist in the form of Matter. Atoms can come together and form into three different states of Matter: solid, liquid, or gas.  In science, Mass is the measurement of how much Matter is in an object you are observing by first counting the total number of atoms (atomic weight of elements), then counting total volume (size) of space matter takes up.

    the You the reader and I the writer are both made up of Matter.

    The term Mass (M) is defined as the measurement of how many total atoms are in an object.

      become a moving visible substance known as Primordial Light. This visible substance moved in all directions in both linear momentum (moving in a straight line)  and angular momentum (spin on an axis and orbit around an axis). Over a period of time this visible substance changed motion, divided and came together again through both collisions and scattering to form new substances with different more complex properties.  








    When one Up Quark and  

    force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

    quantum superposition

    Wavefunction of Spin One-Half Particle

    interacting according to specific laws of force. 

    When one up Quark (lightest of Quarks)  Some of these new particles grouped together to form

    quantum noise energy

     particles over time. 



    with complex phase interchanges and energy exchanges.

    Even the feel of your body is different from other solid visible objects found in nature.

    inert material body associated with inert energy 


    The actions your

      un of matter that is visible  are unique visible physical forms of substance that 


    comprised of a diverse collection of physical matter types.


     that can found in every visible object in the Universe that takes up space. I am writing to us this at a point in time moving across our known universe that is only known to you the reader after I have written it. 

     I testify that I am made of a we are in same place at the same time we can both observe and communicate with each other. Right now communication is one way. In the near future I imagine AI (Artificial Intelligence) will categorize our unique nature by recording our actions and brain waves. In the near future,   




    there will be attraction between any two or more objects that have Mass.

     weight measures the force of gravity acting on an object

    Weight and Size measurements are used to ship objects (packaged goods) from one location to another. In order to calculate the cost of shipping a package the size of the container will be needed to transport it, a transport carrier needs to know the weight of the object and the volume (size) dimensions by multiplying the width times the length times the height. Finding volume shipping cost is usually done with measuring tape and a precision scale.  Volume is also used in measuring cups to determine how much ingredients are needed in cooking and baking. Another way to measure volume is by dropping your observed object into a graduated cylinder containing a known volume of water and measuring the new volume. Gas pumps measure how much volume of fuel is going in your tank. 


    On Earth, to find the Mass (symbolized M) of an object you need to divide its weight (symbolized w) by the gravitational field strength of the our planet. Before we understand weight,  a few concepts need be defined. First, weight on our planet is a result of the Gravitational field strength (gravity or gravitation) between the Mass of Earth and the Mass of the observed object. In our everyday life people measure weight of objects to determine their value. To give an example, if apples cost one dollar per pound and you selected an apple that weighed a half pound, then the amount you would have to pay to purchase the apple would be fifty cents. In our everyday life we use symbols to better understand and measure Nature.  When you checkout groceries at the store a person or machine will read (scan) a unique product code given to every item (meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, etc) to determine the unit cost per pound of the item selected. The grocer or machine will weigh the item and give you the cost. Product codes really save time when you are purchasing many items. Scientist also use symbols to better understand Nature. For example, the standard astronomical symbol for our planet Earth is ⊕.  Gnostics define the the cross within a circle as an ancient symbol ⊕  as the both the seen and unseen spiritual upper half and the seen and unseen physical lower half of our world. The point in the middle represents the seen and unseen physical and spiritual coming together as a spiritual being.

    The unit of Mass equal to that of Earth is M. This value includes the atmosphere but excludes our moon. Our Earth has a gravitational field strength of 10 Newtons (symbolized N) per kilogram (symbolized kg)2.  The superscript (the number above the normal line type symbolized 2) means a given number multiplied (symbolized x) by itself. A Newton is a unit of force that would give an object with the mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second squared. The formula is N equals (symbolized 😃 1 kg x 1 meter (symbolized m) per second (symbolized s) squared. 10 Newtons = 10 kg x 10 m/s2.   Gravitational acceleration (symbolized g) is the intensity of the gravitational field strength between two objects that increase the rate of speed on an object caused by the force of gravitation. On Earth, a 1 kg object weighs 2.2 pounds (symbolized lbs) which also means that 1 lb is the same as 4.45 N


    Near the Earth's surface the gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.80665 m/swhich means that, ignoring the effects of air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely will increase by about 9.8 metres per second every second. In a free fall acceleration has the same magnitude as the gravitational field


    vector as an arrow pointing in the direction of motion with a length proportional to the speed. We refer to this vector as the velocity.


    N / 9.807 = kg


    Once you know the mass and volume of an object, you can calculate its density.  This is done by a simple formula of dividing the object’s mass by its volume. Density determines whether the observed object will sink or float in a selected environment. Transport carriers use density to engineer vehicles to more efficiently float in water, fly in air, and drive in roads and railways. After determining the weight, volume and des





    which affects only quarks, antiquarks, and gluons at a subatomic level.  




    A Creator has not been directly observed, but is accepted by Jews, Christians, Diests, and Polytheist as the fundamental Architect of the Universe. 





    and the knowledge of good and evil actions and events that can benefit or harm them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator gave human beings a conscious mind to reason actions or events that cause benefit or harm.

    In Nature, human beings have observed actions and events that by which life arises from non-living matter. Jews and Christians believe and testify the that Creator's Holy Spirit breathed life into dust (non living matter) and formed the first living creatures. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator is responsible for the Origin of the Universe, Natural Law, and the Evolution of non living (inorganic) matter into living (organic) matter. Quantum physicists would consider matter in terms of energy and vibration, radiating a unique energy signature.


    In Nature, parents teach their offspring what to do in order to survive during life. Jews and Christians teach their children that the Creator communicate with the Righteous who then share the Gospel (Accepted Testimony) of Truth on how to survive and prosper both physically and spiritually through a proper Code of Conduct (Morality). There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has directly assisted human beings to survive and prosper during life and after death.


    but its gravitational effects are visible

    Dark matter is a type of matter that has not yet been directly observed, but is thought to form a fundamental part of the universe.


    Lord and His Angels (Messenger Spirits)


    Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews) and Jesus (Christians) believe and testify that the Holy Spirit is a Supernatural (beyond Natural Law) force of Will of the Creator (God) that can can create, modify, and destroy Nature and Natural Law.  

    In Nature and by Natural Law water moves throughout our planet to help bring forth and restore life. Like water, Jews and Christians believe and testify that in Nature the Lord's Spirit (Creator Spirit) moves Supernaturally by the Will of God throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Jews and Christians believe and testify that Creator's Holy Spirit has given certain loyal humble human spirits (Righteous) the Supernatural ability to perceive God's Will moving throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Christians believe in testify that the eternal water flows from within the Righteous. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings extrasensory perception (ESP) to perceive information of Unnatural (Supernatural) events where life was generated or restored that could not be viewed through normal senses.



    In Society, the community can reject members that break agreed upon laws. Jews and Christians testify that the Spirit of the Lord can reject Sinners (prideful unclean human spirits) and Demons (prideful unclean Angels) and that reject the Creator's Law (Will) on how to live with one another. Jews and Christians testify that the Lord's Spirit (Spirit of the Lord) can rebuke, condemn, and destroy an unclean Demon (Fallen Angel) and Sinners

    In Society, members of the community can bestow positions of power to individuals that are considered worthy of it. Jews and Christians testify that the Holy Spirit can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment of good and evil to Righteous to testify the truth about the Creator and lead followers according to His will. 


    In Nature, water is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures a way to regulate temperature and transport vital nutrients throughout the organism.  Similar to water, Jews and Christians believe and testify the Lord's Spirit moves unperceivable through Nature with Supernatural power to control matter and bring nourishment to living creatures according to the Creator's Will. Both Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that both the seen and unseen in the Universe have no Supernatural power unless God wills it to be. Through prayer (communication with God) Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Spirit of the Creator to bless them with beneficial water to sustain the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to locate water and modify weather that cannot be done under normal circumstances.

    In Nature, water is used to purify (wash) unclean matter that can harm or destroy living creatures. Similar to water, Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that God has the the power to purify the mind and body of all living creatures from that which is unclean to God's Will. Both Jews and Christians use water to perform a purification ritual (Tvilah and Baptism) over human beings that are initiates to their corresponding faith communities. Jews believe and testify that running water is used to temporarily purify the physical bodies of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to temporarily atone themselves from Sin (Transgression) and find fellowship with God. Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Lord's Spirit of Holiness to come and bless water that is used to purify the living spirits of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to atone themselves from Sin and the Desire of the Flesh in order to find fellowship with God and enter the Kingdom of Heaven when the Lord Jesus Christ calls out for them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to manipulate matter to purify the body and conscious of disease and unclean toxins. 

    In Nature, water can kill living creatures by floods and contamination. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has used water to punish sinful living spirits with overwhelming floods and contamination according to His Will. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has given the Righteous power of prophecy perceive floods and manipulate water to protect members of the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities of precognition to see future flood events and manipulate matter to contaminate water with disease and unclean toxins.  

    In Nature, air is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures with energy. 


    through the air, water, and Jews and Christians testify the Lord (another name for God) can permit a vile (evil unclean) spirit (evil unclean spirit) to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, possess, disease and death to rejected prideful unclean living human spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community.

    In Nature, drought can kill living creatures from the lack of drinking water. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has taken away water to punish sinful living spirits with drought.

    In Nature, blood is the fluid that contains water and nutrients that sustains life in an organism. Jews and Christians testify that the blood within all living creatures (including human) is life.  

    Jews  testify that that the Lord has taught sanctioned priests of the community to use the blood of a living creature as an offering for the temporary atonement of sins that have been committed and for the purpose of making a covenant with the Lord for a prosperous life. Christians believe and testify that the Holy Spirit of Glory (Holy Spirit) has taught that there is no longer a need to offer living creatures to the Creator, the unblemished Lamb (Jesus Christ) was sanctioned to sacrifice his blood as a permanent offering for the atonement of sins that have been committed and a new covenant with the Father (the Lord) for eternal life.


    Christians believe that purified water of eternal life and the power of God's Spirit resides in the blood of glorified body of Jesus Christ.


    In Nature, Attraction is an instinctual physical connection behavior (Physical Beauty) between two or more creatures to survive and reproduce. Many Diest and Polytheist believe that it was the Creator's Will to form creatures with temporary Physical Beauty to arouse the desire to mate (Pairing) by sexual reproduction. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Lord formed living creatures with temporary Physical Beauty be to be fruitful and multiply populations around the planet.

    In Nature, affection is considered as an intense emotional connection behavior between two or more creatures. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Creator has affection for all living creatures. 


    courtship is an instinctual physical attraction and the sending and receiving of pheromones. In Society

    believes and testifies that love is a term of selfless giving to others.  While the instin

    Jews and Christians believe that the Lord permitted the Father of lies,  the demon Adversary (Satan) to use Envy to tempt Eve and Adam to go against his will. The Lord used permitted Satan to mentally torment Job test to go against his will.

    Jesus  follow God's will like he had successfully done with Eve and Adam. Christ rebuked Satan in the desert and later condemned God's Adversary. The Holy Spirit of Glory can also command unclean demons and spirits to test living human spirits. 


    And we must not take or drink human blood (life) or face punishment. Catholics and Orthodox believe that through the sacrament (ritual) of communion (sharing) a real presence with the Messiah (Christ) can be made with humble living human spirits, in which Christ shares his Glorified blood for everlasting atonement of sins mankind has made against the Creator and other living creatures. Jesus blood also and contains the water of the Creator's new covenant with with living human spirits that grants eternal life to those that truly understand the command to Love.  


    2:7 The Lord God formed 20  the man from the soil of the ground 21  and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, 22  and the man became a living being. 

    Exodus 17

    17:4 Then Moses cried out to the Lord, “What will I do with 14  this people? – a little more 15  and they will stone me!” 16  17:5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go over before the people; 17  take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile and go. 17:6 I will be standing 18  before you there on 19  the rock in Horeb, and you will strike 20  the rock, and water will come out of it so that the people may drink.” 21  And Moses did so in plain view 22  of the elders of Israel.

    Exodus 24

    24:3 Moses came 8  and told the people all the Lord’s words 9  and all the decisions. All the people answered together, 10  “We are willing to do 11  all the words that the Lord has said,” 24:4 and Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. Early in the morning he built 12  an altar at the foot 13  of the mountain and arranged 14  twelve standing stones 15  – according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24:5 He sent young Israelite men, 16  and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls for peace offerings 17  to the Lord. 24:6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and half of the blood he splashed on the altar. 24:7 He took the Book of the Covenant 19  and read it aloud 20  to the people, and they said, “We are willing to do and obey 21  all that the Lord has spoken.” 24:8 So Moses took the blood and splashed it on 22  the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant 23  that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

    Exodus 30

    30:17 The Lord spoke to Moses: 38  30:18 “You are also to make a large bronze 39  basin with a bronze stand 40  for washing. You are to put it between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it, 41  30:19 and Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet from it. 42  30:20 When they enter 43  the tent of meeting, they must wash with 44  water so that they do not die.


    22:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 22:2 “Tell Aaron and his sons that they must deal respectfully with the holy offerings 1  of the Israelites, which they consecrate to me, so that they do not profane my holy name. 2  I am the Lord. 22:3 Say to them, ‘Throughout your generations, 3  if any man from all your descendants approaches the holy offerings which the Israelites consecrate 4  to the Lord while he is impure, 5  that person must be cut off from before me. 6  I am the Lord. 22:4 No man 7  from the descendants of Aaron who is diseased or has a discharge 8  may eat the holy offerings until he becomes clean. The one 9  who touches anything made unclean by contact with a dead person, 10  or a man who has a seminal emission, 11  22:5 or a man who touches a swarming thing by which he becomes unclean, 12  or touches a person 13  by which he becomes unclean, whatever that person’s impurity 14  – 22:6 the person who touches any of these 15  will be unclean until evening and must not eat from the holy offerings unless he has bathed his body in water. 22:7 When the sun goes down he will be clean, and afterward he may eat from the holy offerings, because they are his food. 22:8 He must not eat an animal that has died of natural causes 16  or an animal torn by beasts and thus become unclean by it. I am the Lord. 22:9 They must keep my charge so that they do not incur sin on account of it 17  and therefore die 18  because they profane it. I am the Lord who sanctifies them.

    1 Kings 19

    19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal 12  to the Lord, the sovereign God, 13  even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, 14  torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 15  19:11 The Lord 16  said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

    A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, 17  but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 18  19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden 19  a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 


    31:30 Charm is deceitful 73  and beauty is fleeting, 74 

    but a woman who fears the Lord 75  will be praised.

    31:31 Give 76  her credit for what she has accomplished, 77 

    and let her works praise her 78  in the city gates. 79 

    Wisdom of Solomon 2

    24 Nevertheless through envy of the devil came death into the world: and they that do hold of his side do find it.

    Mark 1

    1:21 Then 38  they went to Capernaum. 39  When the Sabbath came, 40  Jesus 41  went into the synagogue 42  and began to teach. 1:22 The people there 43  were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, 44  not like the experts in the law. 45  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

    Healings at Simon’s House
    1:29 Now 54  as soon as they left the synagogue, 55  they entered Simon and Andrew’s house, with James and John. 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, sick with a fever, so 56  they spoke to Jesus 57  at once about her. 1:31 He came and raised her up by gently taking her hand. Then the fever left her and she began to serve 58  them. 1:32 When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were sick and demon-possessed. 1:33 The whole town gathered by the door. 1:34 So 59  he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons. 60  But 61  he would not permit the demons to speak, 62  because they knew him. 63 

    Praying and Preaching
    1:35 Then 64  Jesus 65  got up early in the morning when it was still very dark, departed, and went out to a deserted place, and there he spent time in prayer. 66  1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him. 1:37 When they found him, they said, “Everyone is looking for you.” 1:38 He replied, 67  “Let us go elsewhere, into the surrounding villages, so that I can preach there too. For that is what I came out here to do.” 68  1:39 So 69  he went into all of Galilee preaching in their synagogues 70  and casting out demons.

    John 1 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

     10. He
    was in the world, and the world existed by his hand, and the world knew him not.
    11. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. 12. But those that
    received him, to them he gave authority to become the sons of God, even to them
    that believe on his Name, 13. Those who had not been born of blood, nor of the
    desire of the flesh, nor of the desire of a man, but of God.

    29. And the day after, Yohannan saw
    Yeshua Who came to him and Yohannan said : "Behold, The Lamb of God who
    takes away the sins of the world!
    " 30. "This is The One of whom I said: 'After me
    a man is coming and he was himself before me because he had priority over me.'"

    32. And Yohannan testified and said:
    "I saw The Spirit who was descending from Heaven like a dove and remaining
    upon him." 33. "And I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize in water,
    he said to me: 'The One on whom you see The Spirit descending and remaining,
    This is The One who baptizes in The Spirit of Holiness.' " 34. "And I have seen
    and have testified that This One is The Son of God." 35. And another day
    Yohannan was standing and two of his disciples; 36. And he gazed upon Yeshua
    as he was walking and said: "Behold: The Lamb of God."


    John 3 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    1. One man of the Pharisees was living there; his name was Nicodemus. He was a
    leader of the Judeans. 2. This man came to Yeshua at night and said to him:
    "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher sent from God, for no man is able to do
    these miracles that you are doing unless God were with him." 3. Yeshua answered
    and said to him: "Timeless truth I am telling you: If a person is not born again, it is
    impossible for that one to see the Kingdom of God.
    " 4. Nicodemus said to him:
    "How can an old man be born? Is it not impossible for him again to enter his
    mother's womb a second time and be born?" 5. Yeshua answered and said to him:
    "Timeless truth I am telling you: "If a person is not born from water and The Spirit,
    it is impossible that he shall enter the Kingdom of God. 6. That which is born from
    flesh is flesh, and that which is born from The Spirit is spirit.
    7. Do not be
    surprised that I said to you that all of you must be born again. 8. The Spirit
    breathes where he will, and you hear his voice, but you do not know from where he
    comes and where he goes; thus is everyone who is born from The Spirit.
    " 9.
    Nicodemus answered and said to him, "How can these things be?" 10. Yeshua
    answered and said to him: "You are the Teacher of Israel and you do not know
    these things? 11. Timeless truth I speak to you: The things that We know We are
    speaking and the things that We see We are testifying, and Our testimony all of
    you do not accept.
    12. If I have told all of you that which is in the earth and you
    are not believing, how shall you believe me if I tell you that which is in Heaven?
    13. And no man has gone up to Heaven except he who went down from Heaven:
    The Son of Man -- he who is in Heaven. 14. And just as Moses lifted up the
    serpent in the wilderness, thus The Son of Man is going to be lifted up, 15. So that
    every person who believes in him shall not be lost, but shall have eternal life
    . 16.
    For God loved the world in this way: so much that he would give up his Son, The
    Only One, so that everyone who trusts in him shall not be lost, but he shall have
    eternal life. 17. For God did not send his Son into the world that he would
    condemn the world, but that he would give life to the world by him. 18. Whoever
    believes in him is not judged, and whoever does not believe is judged already,
    because he does not believe in The Name of The Only Begotten Son of God. 19.
    This is the judgment: The Light has come into the world and the children of men
    loved the darkness more than The Light, because their works were evil. 20. For
    everyone who does what is hateful, hates The Light and does not come to The
    Light, lest his works should be convicted. 21. But he who does The Truth comes
    to The Light, so that his works may be revealed, that they are performed by God."

    John 4 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    6. And Jaqob's spring of water was there, and Yeshua,
    weary from walking, sat down by himself at the spring at the sixth hour. 7. And a
    woman from Samaria came to draw water and Yeshua said to her, "Give me water
    to drink." 8. For his disciples had entered the city to buy provisions for
    themselves. 9. And the Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew,
    would ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?" For the Jews do not associate
    with the Samaritans. 10. Yeshua answered and said to her, "If only you knew what
    the gift of God is, and who this is who says to you, 'Give me to drink', you would
    have asked for what he has, and he would have given you living waters." 11. This
    woman said to him, "My Lord, you have no bucket and the well is deep. From
    where do you have living waters?" 12. "Are you greater than our forefather Jaqob,
    he who gave us this well, and he drank from it, also his children and his flock? "

    13. Yeshua answered and said to her, "Everyone who shall drink from these waters
    shall thirst again
    ; 14. But everyone who shall drink of the waters that I will give
    him shall not thirst for eternity, but those waters that I give him shall be springs of
    waters in him that shall spring up into eternal life."
    15. This woman said to him,
    "My lord, give me from these waters that I shall not thirst again, and so I am not
    coming to draw from here." 16. Yeshua said to her, "Go call your husband and
    come here." 17. She said to him, "I have no husband.'" Yeshua said to her, "You
    have said correctly, 'I have no husband'. 18. For you have had five husbands, and
    this man that is with you now is not your husband; this you have spoken truly."
    19. The woman said to him, "My lord, I perceive that you are a Prophet. 20. Our
    forefathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem is the place
    where it is necessary to worship." 21. Yeshua said to her, "Woman, believe me
    that the hour is coming in which neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you
    worship The Father. 22. You are worshiping what you do not know. We know
    what we are worshiping, for The Life is of the Jews. 23. But the hour is coming
    and now is, when the true worshippers will worship The Father in The Spirit and in
    The Truth, for The Father also is seeking such worshippers as these. 24. For The
    Spirit is God, and it is fitting that those who worship him worship in The Spirit and
    in The Truth."
    25. The woman said to him, "I know that The Messiah is coming,
    and when he comes, he will teach us all things." 26. Yeshua said to her, "I AM
    THE LIVING GOD , I who am speaking with you

    John 6 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    53. And Yeshua
    said to them, "Timeless truth I speak to you: Unless you eat the body of The Son of
    Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves." 54. "But whoever eats
    of my body and drinks of my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise him in the last
    day." 55. "For my body truly is food, and my blood truly is drink." 56. "Whoever
    eats my body and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him." 57. "Just as The
    Living Father has sent me, and I am living because of The Father, whoever will eat
    me, he also will live because of Me." 58. "This is the bread that came down from
    Heaven. It is not as your forefathers who ate manna and have died; whoever eats
    this bread shall live for eternity." 59. These things he said in the synagogue when
    he taught in Kapernahum. 60. And many of his disciples who heard were saying,
    "This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?" 61. But Yeshua knew in his soul that
    his disciples were murmuring about this, and he said to them, "Does this subvert
    you?" 62. "Truly you will see therefore The Son of Man ascending to the place
    where he was from the first." 63. "The Spirit is The Life Giver; the body does not
    benefit anything. The words that I speak with you are spirit and life."

    John 7 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    35. The Judeans were saying among themselves, "Where is
    This Man prepared to go that we cannot be, indeed to a region of the Gentiles? Is
    he prepared to go teach the pagans?" 36. "What is this statement that he spoke:
    'You will seek me and will not find me, and wherever I am, you are not able to
    come?' " 37. But at the great day, which is the last of the feast, Yeshua stood and
    he proclaimed and said: "If a man is thirsty, let him come to me and drink." 38.
    "Everyone who trusts in me, just as the scriptures have said, rivers of living water
    shall flow from within him
    ." 39. But this he spoke about The Spirit, Whom those
    who were trusting in him were being prepared to receive; for The Spirit had not yet
    been given, because Yeshua had not yet been glorified.

    Jesus' "cleansing blood," that is, to his death that purifies believers from sin.

    John 19 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    34. But one of the soldiers struck him on
    his side with his spear, and at once blood and water issued forth
    . 35. And he who
    saw testified and his testimony is true and he knows that he spoke the truth so that
    you also may believe. 36. For these things happened that the scripture should be
    fulfilled that says, "Not a bone of him will be broken", 37. And another scripture
    again, that says, "They shall gaze at him whom they pierced through,"

    Zech 12:10. Here a single phrase is quoted from Zech 12, but the entire context is associated with the events surrounding the crucifixion. The “Spirit of grace and of supplication” is poured out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the first part of v. 10. A few verses later in 13:1 Yahweh (typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT) says “In that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.” The blood which flowed from Jesus’ pierced side may well be what the author saw as the connection here, since as the shedding of the blood of the sacrificial victim it represents cleansing from sin. Although the Jewish authorities and Roman soldiers certainly “looked on the one whom they have pierced” as he hung on the cross, the author may also have in mind the parousia (second coming) here. The context in Zech 12-14 is certainly the second coming, so that these who crucified Jesus will look upon him in another sense when he returns in judgment.


    1:10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering 24  – from the sheep or the goats – he must present a flawless male, 1:11 and must slaughter it on the north side of the altar before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, will splash its blood against the altar’s sides. 


    12:1 The revelation of the word of the Lord concerning Israel: The Lord – he who stretches out the heavens and lays the foundations of the earth, who forms the human spirit within a person 1  – says, 12:2 “I am about to make Jerusalem 2  a cup that brings dizziness 3  to all the surrounding nations; indeed, Judah will also be included when Jerusalem is besieged. 12:3 Moreover, on that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy burden 4  for all the nations, and all who try to carry it will be seriously injured; 5  yet all the peoples of the earth will be assembled against it. 12:4 In that day,” says the Lord, “I will strike every horse with confusion and its rider with madness. I will pay close attention to the house of Judah, but will strike all the horses 6  of the nations 7  with blindness. 12:5 Then the leaders of Judah will say to themselves, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are a means of strength to us through their God, the Lord who rules over all.’ 12:6 On that day 8  I will make the leaders of Judah like an igniter 9  among sticks and a burning torch among sheaves, and they will burn up all the surrounding nations right and left. Then the people of Jerusalem will settle once more in their place, the city of Jerusalem. 12:7 The Lord also will deliver the homes 10  of Judah first, so that the splendor of the kingship 11  of David and of the people of Jerusalem may not exceed that of Judah. 12:8 On that day the Lord himself will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the weakest among them will be like mighty David, and the dynasty of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them. 12  12:9 So on that day I will set out to destroy all the nations 13  that come against Jerusalem.”

    12:10 “I will pour out on the kingship 14  of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to me, 15  the one they have pierced. They will lament for him as one laments for an only son, and there will be a bitter cry for him like the bitter cry for a firstborn. 16  12:11 On that day the lamentation in Jerusalem will be as great as the lamentation at Hadad-Rimmon 17  in the plain of Megiddo. 18  12:12 The land will mourn, clan by clan – the clan of the royal household of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the clan of the family of Nathan 19  by itself and their wives by themselves; 12:13 the clan of the descendants of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; and the clan of the Shimeites 20  by itself and their wives by themselves – 12:14 all the clans that remain, each separately with their wives.”


    13:1 “In that day there will be a fountain opened up for the dynasty 1  of David and the people of Jerusalem 2  to cleanse them from sin and impurity. 3  13:2 And also on that day,” says the Lord who rules over all, “I will remove 4  the names of the idols from the land and they will never again be remembered. Moreover, I will remove the prophets and the unclean spirit from the land. 13:3 Then, if anyone prophesies in spite of this, his father and mother to whom he was born will say to him, ‘You cannot live, for you lie in the name of the Lord.’ Then his father and mother to whom he was born will run him through with a sword when he prophesies. 5 

    13:4 “Therefore, on that day each prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies and will no longer wear the hairy garment 6  of a prophet to deceive the people. 7  13:5 Instead he will say, ‘I am no prophet – indeed, I am a farmer, for a man has made me his indentured servant since my youth.’ 8  13:6 Then someone will ask him, ‘What are these wounds on your chest?’ 9  and he will answer, ‘Some that I received in the house of my friends.’

    1 John 5

    6 This is the one who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. 

    John 21 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    14. This was the third time Yeshua appeared to his disciples
    after he had risen from the tomb. 15. And after they had breakfast, Yeshua said to
    Shimeon Kaypha, "Shimeon, Bar Yonah, do you love me more than these things?"
    He said to him, "Yes, my Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him,
    "Shepherd my lambs for me." 16. He said to him again a second time, "Shimeon
    Bar Yonah, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, my Lord. You know that I
    love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my sheep for me." 17. He said a third
    time, "Shimeon Bar Yonah, do you love me?" And Kaypha was saddened that he
    said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "My lord, you
    discern everything; you know that I love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my
    ewes for me.


    John 6

    6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, 71  the one who believes 72  has eternal life. 73  6:48 I am the bread of life. 74  6:49 Your ancestors 75  ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6:50 This 76  is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person 77  may eat from it and not die. 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread 78  that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

    6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

    John 16

    16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate 15  will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he 16  comes, he will prove the world wrong 17  concerning sin and 18  righteousness and 19  judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because 20  they do not believe in me; 21  16:10 concerning righteousness, 22  because 23  I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24  because 25  the ruler of this world 26  has been condemned. 27 

    Many Followers Depart
    6:59 Jesus 96  said these things while he was teaching in the synagogue 97  in Capernaum. 98  6:60 Then many of his disciples, when they heard these things, 99  said, “This is a difficult 100  saying! 101  Who can understand it?” 102  6:61 When Jesus was aware 103  that his disciples were complaining 104  about this, he said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 105  6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before? 106  6:63 The Spirit is the one who gives life; human nature is of no help! The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 108  6:64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus had already known from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) 109  6:65 So Jesus added, 110  “Because of this I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has allowed him to come.” 111 

    1 Corinthians 15 

    15:42 It is the same with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 25  15:43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 15:44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 15:45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living person”; 26  the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15:46 However, the spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and then the spiritual. 15:47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 15:48 Like the one made of dust, so too are those made of dust, and like the one from heaven, so too those who are heavenly. 15:49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, let us also bear 27  the image of the man of heaven.

    15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen,

    “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” 32 

    15:55 “Where, O death, is your victory?

    Where, O death, is your sting?” 33 

    15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! 15:58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, 34  be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.


    19  4:15 ...practicing the truth in love, 20  we will in all things grow up into Christ, who is the head. 4:16 From him the whole body grows, fitted and held together  through every supporting ligament. As each one does its part, the body grows in love. 4:17 So I say this, and insist in the Lord, that you no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking 4:18 They are darkened in their understanding,  being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts. 4:19 Because they are callous, they have given themselves over to indecency for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 4:20 But you did not learn about Christ like this, 4:21 if indeed you heard about him and were taught in him, just as the truth is in Jesus. 4:22 You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old man who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, 4:23 to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 4:24 and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image 29  – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth.

    Hebrews 9

    9:1 Now the first covenant, 1  in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 2  which contained 3  the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 4  is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 5  were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 6  were the cherubim 7  of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 8  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 9  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 10  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 11  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 12  and various washings; they are external regulations 13  imposed until the new order came. 14 
    9:11 But now Christ has come 15  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 16  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 17  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 18  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

    9:15 And so he is the mediator 19  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 20  since he died 21  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 22  9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 

    1 Peter 1

    1:10 Concerning this salvation,  the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully. 1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when he testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and his subsequent glory. 27  1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven – things angels long to catch a glimpse of.

    1 Peter 5

    5:8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, 14  is on the prowl looking for someone 15  to devour. 5:9 Resist him, 16  strong in your faith, because you know 17  that your brothers and sisters 18  throughout the world 19  are enduring 20  the same kinds of suffering. 21  5:10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ 22  will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you. 23  5:11 To him belongs 24  the power forever. Amen.



    The Peshitta Aramaic-English Interlinear Gospels
    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 10

    1. He called His disciples and He gave to them authority over filfthy spirits to cast them out and to heal every ailment and disease

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 11

    19. When they arrest you, not shall you be anxious how or what you will speak, it will be given to you for in that hour whatever you should speak. 20. Not it will be you speaking. but, The Spirit of your Father speaking in you, 21. will deliver but brother, his brother, to  death, and father, his son and will rise children against their parents, and they will put to death them. 22. And you will be hated of everyman, because of My name, whoever, but will endure until the end he will be saved.

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 12

    16. And he warned them that not they should reveal Him

    17. that it should be fulfilled the thing, that which is spoken by Isaiah the prophet which says

    18. Behold My Servant in Whom I delight in Him. My Beloved for Whom has longed for Him, My Soul, My Spirit, I shall put upon him and judgment to the nations He will preach.  19. not He will dispute neither will he cry out, nor a man will hear his voice in the streets

    27. And if I  am by Beelzebub I am casting out demons, you sons by whom do they cast  out them, because of this  they will be to you judges

    28. And if by the Spirit of God, I am casting out demons has come near. it unto you the Kingdom of God.

    29 Or How is able that man is able that he should enter the House of a mighty man. And his goods should plunder unless, only first he would bind him, the mighty man and then his house he may plunder 

    31. Because of this I say to you, that all sins and blasphemies they will be forgiven, to the children of men the blasphemy, but that is against the Spirit not will be forgiven, to the children of men.

    32. everyone who will say, a word against The Son of Man, it will be forgiven to him to everyone, but who against the Spirit of Holiness will talk, not it will be forgiven to him, not in this world and not in the world that is being prepared.

    33 either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad, from its fruit is for known a tree.

    34. offspring of vipers, How are able you good things to speak who evil are? from the fullness of the heart speaks the mouth

    35. a man good from a treasure good, brings good things and a man evil from treasure evil brings evil things

    36. say I unto you for that every word idle, that will say children of men, they will give an answer for it in the day of judgement

    37. by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.

    43. whenever but a spirit vile goes out, from a son of man it wanders about in places, where there is no water in them and it seeks rest and does not find it.

    44 then it says I shall return to my house, from where I came out and it goes, finding that is empty and swept and decorated.

    45. then it goes bringing with it seven other spirits, than it worse and they enter and dwell in it, and the end of a man that worse than the beginning, thus it will be done to it, to this evil generation

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 18

    26. And falling down that servant worshiped him, and he said my lord prolong concerning me your spirit, and everything I shall pay you.

    27. And moved with pity his lord of servant that, and he released him and his debt forgiving him.

    28. went out but servant that and he found, one of his associates who had owed him a hundred danari and seized him and choked him, and he said to him give to m that which you owe to me.

    29. And that associate he fell before his feet, begging of him and saying to him, prolong concerning me your spirit and I shall pay you.

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 26

    41. watch and pray lest you enter into temptation, the spirit is ready but the body is weak

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 27

    50. but He Yeshua cried again, with a voice loud, and departed his Spirit

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 28

    therefore go you disciple all of them the and baptize them in the Name of the Father and the Son and the Spirit of Holiness

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Mark 1

    8. I have immersed you in water He will immerse you in The Spirit of Holiness

    10. And at once as He came up from the waters He saw the heavens that were ripped open and the The Spirit as a dove who was descending upon Him.

    11. And a voice there was from the heavens You are My beloved Son with you I am delighted.

    12. And at once the spirit drove Him into the wilderness.

    23. And there was in their synagogue a man who had a vile spirit in him and he cried out.

    24. And he said, to us what? and to You Yeshua Nazarene, have you come to destroy us? I know Who You are. You are the Holy One of God

    25. And Yeshua rebuked and said to him shut your mouth and come out from him.

    26. And threw him down and he cried out and the foul spirit in a loud voice came out of him



  8. Genesis 9

    9:4 But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 

    9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood, 

    by other humans 

    must his blood be shed;

    for in God’s image 

    God has made humankind.”

    Leviticus 17

    17:10 “‘Any man 23  from the house of Israel or from the foreigners who reside in their 25  midst who eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from the midst of his people, 17:11 for the life of every living thing is in the blood. 28  So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 30  17:12 Therefore, I have said to the Israelites: No person among you is to eat blood, 31  and no resident foreigner who lives among you is to eat blood. 32 

    17:13 “‘Any man from the Israelites 33  or from the foreigners who reside 34  in their 35  midst who hunts a wild animal 36  or a bird that may be eaten 37  must pour out its blood and cover it with soil, 17:14 for the life of all flesh is its blood. 38  So I have said to the Israelites: You must not eat the blood of any living thing 39  because the life of every living thing is its blood – all who eat it will be cut off. 

    Numbers 35

    35:33 “You must not pollute the land where you live, for blood defiles the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed there, except by the blood of the person who shed it. 


    12:23 However, by no means eat the blood, for the blood is life itself 34  – you must not eat the life with the meat! 

    EZEKIEL 16

    16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil.

    Ezekiel 22

    22:23 The word of the Lord came to me: 22:24 “Son of man, say to her: ‘You are a land that receives no rain 32  or showers in the day of my anger.’ 33  22:25 Her princes 34  within her are like a roaring lion tearing its prey; they have devoured lives. They take away riches and valuable things; they have made many women widows 35  within it. 22:26 Her priests abuse my law and have desecrated my holy things. They do not distinguish between the holy and the profane, 36  or recognize any distinction between the unclean and the clean. They ignore 37  my Sabbaths and I am profaned in their midst. 22:27 Her officials are like wolves in her midst rending their prey – shedding blood and destroying lives – so they can get dishonest profit.

    John 6

    6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

    1 Corinthians 15

    15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen

    Hebrews 9

    9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 35 

    Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted
    10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 1  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 2  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 3  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 4  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

    “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

    10:6 “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

    10:7 “Then I said, ‘Here I am: 5  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 6 

    10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offeringsyou did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 7  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 8  He does away with 9  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 10  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 11  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 12  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 13  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 14  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 15  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 16  10:16 “This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 17  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 18  10:17 then he says, 19  “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 20  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

    Hebrews 10

    10:19 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 21  since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 10:20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us 22  through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 23  10:21 and since we have a great priest 24  over the house of God, 10:22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings, 25  because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience 26  and our bodies washed in pure water. 10:23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 10:24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, 27  10:25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day 28  drawing near. 29 

    10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 30  10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury 31  of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 32  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death 33  without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 34  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for 35  the Son of God, and profanes 36  the blood of the covenant that made him holy, 37  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 38  and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 39  10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.


    2:11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh – who are called “uncircumcision” by the so-called “circumcision” that is performed on the body 24  by human hands – 2:12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, 25  alienated from the citizenship of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, 26  having no hope and without God in the world. 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 27  2:14 For he is our peace, the one who made both groups into one 28  and who destroyed the middle wall of partition, the hostility, 2:15 when he nullified 29  in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man 30  out of two, 31  thus making peace, 2:16 and to reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by which the hostility has been killed. 32  2:17 And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 2:18 so that 33  through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 2:19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of God’s household, 2:20 because you have been built 34  on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 35  with Christ Jesus himself as 36  the cornerstone. 37  2:21 In him 38  the whole building, 39  being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, 2:22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

    Paul's Relationship to the Divine Mystery
    3:1 For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 1  for the sake of you Gentiles – 3:2 if indeed 2  you have heard of the stewardship 3  of God’s grace that was given to me for you, 3:3 that 4  by revelation the divine secret 5  was made known to me, as I wrote before briefly. 6  3:4 When reading this, 7  you will be able to 8  understand my insight into this secret 9  of Christ. 3:5 Now this secret 10  was not disclosed to people 11  in former 12  generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by 13  the Spirit, 3:6 namely, that through the gospel 14  the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members 15  of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus. 

    The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches those the community that follows God's covenant with Moses that the blood of a living creature is life that we must not drink or face punishment. But, humble clean living human spirits may be use the blood of a living creature an offering to God for the atonement a sins that members of the community of Moses have committed. The Holy Spirit teaches that the blood of a living human spirit is life that we must not take or drink of face punishment. The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches the community that follows God's covenant with Jesus, that humble living human spirits are offered to drink His Glorified blood for the atonement and resurrection of all that believe in him. 

  9. The 189th Article

    Why this passion excites weeping.
    Now, a man
    weeps easily in this passion because love, sending much blood to the heart, causes many vapors to issue through the eyes; and the coldness of sadness retarding the agitation of these vapors converts them into tears, as has been formerly said.

    The 190th Article

    Of satisfaction of oneself.
    The satisfaction that they have, who constantly follow the paths of virtue, is a habit in their soul called tranquility or quiet of conscience. But that which a man acquires anew when he has lately done any action that he thinks good, is a passion, to wit, a sort of joy which I believe is the softest of all, because the cause thereof depends only on ourselves. Yet
    when this cause is not just, that is, when the actions from whence we deduct this satisfaction are not of consequence, or else are vicious, it is ridiculous and serves only to produce a pride and impertinent arrogance, which may particularly be observed in those who believing themselves to be devout are only hypocritical and superstitious, that is, who under pretense of frequenting the church, saying many prayers, wearing short hair, fasting, giving alms, suppose they are exquisitely perfect, and imagine they are God's so intimate friends that they can do nothing that can displease him; and whatsoever their passions dictate to them is a good zeal (devotion): although it sometime dictate to them the greatest crimes that can be committed by men, as betraying of cities murdering of princes, exterminating whole nations merely for this, that they are not of their opinion.

    The 191st Article

    Of repentance.
    Repentance is directly contrary to satisfaction of oneself. And it is a sort of sadness proceeding from a belief that
    a man has done some evil action, and it is very bitter because the cause comes only from ourselves. Yet nevertheless, this hinders it not from being very useful, when it is true, that the action we repent of is evil, and that we have a certain knowledge thereof, because it incites us to do better another time. But it oft-times comes to pass that weak spirits repent the things they have done, not knowing certainly that they are evil. They persuade themselves so, only because they fear it is so, and had they done the contrary, they had repented too--which is an imperfection in them to be pitied. And the remedies against this defect are the same that serve to take away irresolution.


    8:20 I walk in the path of righteousness,

    in the pathway of justice,

    8:21 that I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth,

    and that I may fill their treasuries.  

    8:22 The Lord created me as the beginning of his works, 

    before his deeds of long ago.

    8:23 From eternity I was appointed, 

    from the beginning, from before the world existed. 

    8:24 When there were no deep oceans I was born, 

    when there were no springs overflowing with water;

    8:25 before the mountains were set in place –

    before the hills – I was born,

    8:26 before he made the earth and its fields,

    or the beginning  of the dust of the world.

    8:27 When he established the heavens, I was there;

    when he marked out the horizon over the face of the deep,

    8:28 when he established the clouds above,

    when the fountains of the deep grew strong, 

    8:29 when he gave the sea his decree

    that the waters should not pass over his command, 

    when he marked out the foundations of the earth,

    8:30 then I was beside him as a master craftsman

    and I was his delight day by day,

    rejoicing before him at all times,

    8:31 rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth,

    and delighting in its people.

    John 1

    1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God. 1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning. 1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created. 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind. 1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it.



    28:9 “And you, Solomon my son, obey the God of your father and serve him with a submissive attitude and a willing spirit, 12  for the Lord examines all minds and understands every motive of one’s thoughts. If you seek him, he will let you find him, 13  but if you abandon him, he will reject you permanently. 

    Proverbs 8

    8:32 “So now, children, listen to me;

    blessed are those who keep my ways.

    Luke 11

    11:27 a woman in the crowd spoke out to him [Jesus], “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”  11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”

    John 14

    14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.”

    8:33 Listen to my instruction so that you may be wise, 

    and do not neglect it.

    John 14

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you  everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.

    1 Peter 4

    4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. 4:13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. 4:14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.

    Job 32

    32:7 I said to myself, ‘Age should speak,

    and length of years should make wisdom known.’

    32:8 But it is a spirit in people,

    the breath of the Almighty,

    that makes them understand.

    Job 28

    28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from?

    Where is the place of understanding?

    28:21 For it has been hidden

    from the eyes of every living creature,

    and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed.

    28:22 Destruction and Death say,

    ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’

    28:23 God understands the way to it,

    and he alone knows its place.

    28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth

    and observes everything under the heavens.

    28:25 When he made the force of the wind

    and measured the waters with a gauge.

    28:26 When he imposed a limit for the rain,

    and a path for the thunderstorm

    28:27 then he looked at wisdom and assessed its value; 

    he established it and examined it closely.

    28:28 And he said to mankind,

    The fear of the Lord  – that is wisdom,

    and to turn away from evil is understanding.’

    Proverbs 8

    8:34 Blessed is the one who listens to me,

    watching at my doors day by day,

    waiting beside my doorway.

    8:35 For the one who finds me finds life

    and receives favor from the Lord.

    8:36 But the one who does not find me brings harm to himself;

    all who hate me love death.”

    Isaiah 11

    11:2 The Lord’s spirit will rest on him  –

    a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, 

    a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans,

    a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord.

    11:3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord.

    He will not judge by mere appearances,

    or make decisions on the basis of hearsay.

    11:4 He will treat the poor fairly, 

    and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth

    He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, 

    and order the wicked to be executed. 

    11:5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist,

    integrity will be like a belt around his hips.

    Matthew 3

    3:11 I baptize you with water, for repentance, but the one coming after me is more powerful than I am – I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.

    MARK 1

    1:9 Now in those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan River.  1:10 And just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens splitting apart and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my one dear Son; in you I take great delight.” 1:12 The Spirit immediately drove him into the wilderness. 


    12:1 With regard to spiritual gifts, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed. 12:2 You know that when you were pagans you were often led astray by speechless idols, however you were led. 12:3 So I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit.

    12:4 Now there are different gifts, but the same Spirit. 12:5 And there are different ministries, but the same Lord. 12:6 And there are different results, but the same God who produces all of them in everyone. 12:7 To each person the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the benefit of all. 12:8 For one person is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, and another the message of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 12:10 to another performance of miracles, to another prophecy, and to another discernment of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues. 12:11 It is one and the same Spirit, distributing as he decides to each person, who produces all these things.

    12:12 For just as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body – though many – are one body, so too is Christ. 12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves 4  or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit.

    John 14

    14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    Exodus 3

    3:13 Moses said to God, “If I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’  – what should I say to them?”

    3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” And he said, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord  – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’

    1 KINGS 19

    19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

    A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

    MARK 11

    11:20 In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots. 11:21 Peter remembered and said to him, Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered.” 11:22 Jesus said to them, “Have faith in God. 11:23 I tell you the truth,  if someone says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him. 11:24 For this reason I tell you, whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 11:25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will also forgive you your sins.”

     1 JOHN 5

    This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. 5:5 Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? 5:6 Jesus Christ is the one who came by water and blood – not by the water only, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 5:7 For there are three that testify, 5:8 the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are in agreement.

    Genesis 1

    1:2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface  of the water.

    Isaiah 44

    44:1 Now, listen, Jacob my servant,

    Israel whom I have chosen!”

    44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

    the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

    “Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

    Jeshurun, 1  whom I have chosen!

    44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground

    and cause streams to flow on the dry land.

    I will pour my spirit on your offspring

    and my blessing on your children.

    44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass,

    like poplars beside channels of water.

    44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’

    and another will use the name ‘Jacob.’

    One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

    and use the name ‘Israel.’” 

    Isaiah 58

    58:11 The Lord will continually lead you;

    he will feed you even in parched regions.

    He will give you renewed strength,

    and you will be like a well-watered garden,

    like a spring that continually produces water.

    JUDGES 15

    15:18 He [Sampson] was very thirsty, so he cried out to the Lord and said, “You have given your servant this great victory. But now must I die of thirst and fall into hands of the Philistines?” 15:19 So God split open the basin at Lehi and water flowed out from it. When he took a drink, his strength was restored and he revived. For this reason he named the spring En Hakkore. It remains in Lehi to this very day.

    Psalms 105

    105:26 He [God] sent his servant Moses,

    and Aaron, whom he had chosen.

    105:27 They executed his miraculous signs among them, 

    and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

    105:28 He made it dark

    they did not disobey his orders.

    105:29 He turned their water into blood,

    and killed their fish.

    Psalms 107

    107:33 He turned streams into a desert,

    springs of water into arid land,

    107:34 and a fruitful land into a barren place, 

    because of the sin of its inhabitants.

    107:35 As for his people, he turned a desert into a pool of water,

    and a dry land into springs of water.

    1 Kings 22

     22:20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die 20  there?’ One said this and another that. 22:21 Then a spirit 21  stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 22:22 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 22  said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 23  Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 22:23 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 22:24 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?”

    1 Samuel 16

    16:14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. 

    Isaiah 19

    19:3 The Egyptians will panic,

    and I will confuse their strategy.

    They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead,

    from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians.

    Mark 1

     1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

    John 4

    4:13 Jesus replied, 33  “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty 34  again. 4:14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again, 35  but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain 36  of water springing up 37  to eternal life.” 


    11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

    11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment. I will give directions about other matters when I come.

    1 John 4

    4:1 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to determine if they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4:2 By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses Jesus as the Christ who has come in the flesh is from God, 4:3 but every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming, and now is already in the world.

    4:4 You are from God, little children, and have conquered them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world. 4:5 They are from the world; therefore they speak from the world’s perspective and the world listens to them. 4:6 We are from God; the person who knows God listens to us, but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of deceit. 


    Water is used to purify those repenting sin against God.   strength was restored and he revived wash his clothes and bathe

    In nature water moves throughout our planet to bring forth and restore life. Water is used by man to drink, bathe, and wash clothes. The Holy Spirit of Glory is a force of God's will that moves everywhere through nature purifying and restoring life. The communities of Moses and Jesus testify that the Spirit of Glory can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, knowledge, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment to loyal humble human spirits to testify the truth about God and lead followers according to His will.  Through prayer the communities of Moses and Jesus testify that humble living human spirits may ask God's Spirit to bless them with with clean water to purify repenting members from unclean sin.  The Lord's Spirit can manipulate nature to pollute and eradicate life from prideful living human spirits that reject God they know to be true and rebel against His will.  The Holy Spirit can also empower an evil unclean dead human spirit to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, disease and death to rejected prideful living humans spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community. 

    Psalms 114

    114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord –

    before the God of Jacob,

    114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,

    a hard rock into springs of water!

    Numbers 19

    19:7 ...the priest must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, but the priest will be ceremonially unclean until evening. 19:8 The one who burns it must wash his clothes in water and bathe himself in water. He will be ceremonially unclean until evening.

    19:9 “‘Then a man who is ceremonially clean must gather up the ashes of the red heifer and put them in a ceremonially clean place outside the camp. They must be kept for the community of the Israelites for use in the water of purification  – it is a purification for sin.

    Numbers 27

    27:15 Then Moses spoke to the Lord: 27:16 “Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all humankind, appoint a man over the community, 27:17 who will go out before them, and who will come in before them,  and who will lead them out, and who will bring them in, so that the community of the Lord may not be like sheep that have no shepherd.”

    Psalms 51

    51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! 

    Renew a resolute spirit within me!

    51:11 Do not reject me! 

    Do not take your Holy Spirit away from me!

    51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance!

    Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 

    51:13 Then I will teach rebels your merciful ways,  

    and sinners will turn to you.

    51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, O God, the God who delivers me!

    Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance.

    51:15 O Lord, give me the words!  

    Then my mouth will praise you.

    51:16 Certainly you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it

    you do not desire a burnt sacrifice

    51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit  –

    O God, a humble and repentant heart you will not reject. 

    Job 14

    14:13 “O that 33  you would hide me in Sheol, 34 

    and conceal me till your anger has passed! 35 

    O that you would set me a time 36 

    and then remember me! 37 

    14:14 If a man dies, will he live again? 38 

    All the days of my hard service 39  I will wait 40 

    until my release comes. 41 

    14:15 You will call 42  and I 43  – I will answer you;

    you will long for 44  the creature you have made. 

    John 14

    14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34  my commandments.  14:16 Then 36  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38  because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you.


    1:4 I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus. 1:5 For you were made rich 6  in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge 7  – 1:6 just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you – 1:7 so that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation 8  of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:8 He 9  will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son, Jesus Christ our Lord.


    3:23 Now before faith 51  came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 52  until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 53  until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 54  by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 55  3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 56  3:27 For all of you who 57  were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 58  nor free, there is neither male nor female 59  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 60  heirs according to the promise.

  10. The 186th Article

    Who are most pitiful.
    Those who feel themselves very weak and subject to the adversities of fortune seem to be more inclined to this passion than any else, because they fancy the evil of another as possible to befall them, and so they are moved to pity rather out of the love they bear themselves than that they bear to others.

    The 187th Article

    How the most generous men are sensible of this passion.
    But nevertheless, they who are most generous and have the greatest spirits so that they fear not any
    evil to themselves, and hold themselves above the power of fortune, are not exempted from compassion when they see the infirmity of other men and hear their complaints. For it is a part of generosity to bear goodwill to every man. But the sadness of this pity is not bitter, and like that which tragic actions personated (pretended) on the stage cause, is more in the exteriors and the senses, than the interiors of the soul, which in the meanwhile is satisfied to think she has done her duty, in that she has a fellow feeling with the afflicted. And there is this difference in it, that whereas the vulgar pity those who complain because they think the ills they suffer are very grievous (serious), the principal object of great men's pity is the weakness of those that they see complain; because they esteem not any accident that may befall to be so great an evil, as is the baseness of those who cannot suffer constantly; and though they hate the vices (wickedness), yet they hate not those they see subject to them, they only pity them.

    The 188th Article

    Who those are that are not sensible of it.
    But there are none but
    malignant and envious spirits who naturally hate all men, or else those who are so belluine (brutal) and blinded by good fortune, or desperate through ill, that they think no further evil can befall them who are insensible of pity.

    EZEKIEL 16

    16:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 16:2 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her abominable practices 16:3 and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your umbilical cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water; you were certainly not rubbed down with salt, nor wrapped with blankets.  16:5 No eye took pity on you to do even one of these things for you to spare you; you were thrown out into the open field because you were detested on the day you were born.

    16:6 “‘I passed by you and saw you kicking around helplessly in your blood. I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” 16:7 I made you plentiful like sprouts in a field; you grew tall and came of age so that you could wear jewelry. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, but you were still unclothed and bare.

    16:8 “‘Then I passed by you and watched you, noticing that you had reached the age for love. I spread my cloak over you and covered your nakedness. I swore a solemn oath to you and entered into a marriage covenant with you, declares the sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

    16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. 16:10 I dressed you in embroidered clothing and put fine leather sandals on your feet. I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 16:11 I adorned you with jewelry. I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 16:12 I put a ring in your nose, earrings on your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. 16:13 You were adorned with gold and silver, while your clothing was of fine linen, silk, and embroidery. You ate the finest flour, honey, and olive oil. You became extremely beautiful and attained the position of royalty. 16:14 Your fame spread among the nations because of your beauty; your beauty was perfect because of the splendor which I bestowed on you, declares the sovereign Lord.  

    16:15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and capitalized on your fame by becoming a prostitute. You offered your sexual favors to every man who passed by so that your beauty became his. 16:16 You took some of your clothing and made for yourself decorated high places; you engaged in prostitution on them. You went to him to become his. 13  16:17 You also took your beautiful jewelry, made of my gold and my silver I had given to you, and made for yourself male images and engaged in prostitution with them. 16:18 You took your embroidered clothing and used it to cover them; you offered my olive oil and my incense to them. 16:19 As for my food that I gave you – the fine flour, olive oil, and honey I fed you – you placed it before them as a soothing aroma. That is exactly what happened, declares the sovereign Lord.

    16:20 “‘You took your sons and your daughters whom you bore to me and you sacrificed them as food for the idols to eat. As if your prostitution not enough, 16:21 you slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 16:22 And with all your abominable practices and prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth when you were unclothed and bare, kicking around in your blood.

    JOHN 14

    14:23 ...“If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.


    JOHN 16

    16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’  16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness  because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me;  16:10 concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned.


    7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office,  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness,  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.


    3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise.

    4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians  and managers until the date set by his father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors,  were enslaved under the basic forces of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8  4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father! 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are a son, then you are also an heir through God. 

    4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless basic forces? Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again?



    6:10 Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. 6:11 Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 6:12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood,  but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens. 26  6:13 For this reason, take up the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand your ground on the evil day, and having done everything, to stand. 6:14 Stand firm therefore, by fastening the belt of truth around your waist, by putting on the breastplate of righteousness, 6:15 by fitting your feet with the preparation that comes from the good news of peace, 6:16 and in all of this, by taking up the shield of faith with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 6:18 With every prayer and petition, pray at all times in the Spirit, and to this end be alert, with all perseverance and requests for all the saints

    Is stoicheia tou kosmou (“the elemental things of the world”) the worthless basic forces  Paul is referencing? Event, occurrence, state, the force that came



    2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him, 2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:11 In him you also were circumcisednot, however, with a circumcision performed by human hands, but by the removal of the fleshly body, that is, through the circumcision done by Christ. 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. 2:13 And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. 2:14 He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. 2:15 Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross.  

    2:16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you with respect to food or drink, or in the matter of a feast, new moon, or Sabbath days – 2:17 these are only the shadow of the things to come, but the reality is Christ! 2:18 Let no one who delights in humility and the worship of angels pass judgment on you. That person goes on at great lengths about what he has supposedly seen, but he is puffed up with empty notions by his fleshly mind. 37  2:19 He has not held fast to the head from whom the whole body, supported and knit together through its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God.

    2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence. 

    Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

    If, in teaching the great doctrine of the divine nature. of the Soul, and in striving to explain its longings after immortality, and in proving its superiority over the souls of the animals, which have no aspirations Heavenward, the ancients struggled in vain to express the nature of the soul, by comparing it to FIRE and LIGHT, it will be well for us to consider whether, with all our boasted knowledge, we have any better or clearer idea of its nature, and whether we have not despairingly taken refuge in having none at all. And if they erred as to its original place of abode, and understood literally the mode and path of its descent, these were but the accessories of the great Truth, and probably, to the Initiates, mere allegories, designed to make the idea more palpable and impressive to the mind.

    They are at least no more fit to be smiled at by the self-conceit of a vain ignorance, the wealth of whose knowledge consists solely in words, than the bosom of Abraham, as a home for the spirits of the just dead; the gulf of actual fire, for the eternal torture of spirits; and the City of the New Jerusalem, with its walls of jasper and its edifices of pure gold like clear glass, its foundations of precious stones, and its gates each of a single pearl. "I knew a man," says PAUL, "caught up to the third Heaven; . . . . that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard ineffable words, which it is not possible for a man to utter." And nowhere is the antagonism and conflict between the spirit and body more frequently and forcibly insisted on than in the writings of this apostle, nowhere the Divine nature of the soul more strongly asserted. "With the mind," he says, "I serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin. . . .As many as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of GOD.... The earnest expectation of the created waits for the manifestation of the sons of God. . . . The created shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, of the flesh liable to decay, into the glorious liberty of the children of God."

    1 KINGS 8

    8:27 “God does not really live on the earth! Look, if the sky and the highest heaven cannot contain you, how much less this temple I have built! 8:28 But respond favorably to your servant’s prayer and his request for help, O Lord my God. Answer the desperate prayer your servant is presenting to you today. 8:29 Night and day may you watch over this temple, the place where you promised you would live. May you answer your servant’s prayer for this place. 8:30 Respond to the request of your servant and your people Israel for this place. Hear from inside your heavenly dwelling place and respond favorably.

    2 KINGS 2

    2:9 When they had crossed over, Elijah said to Elisha, “What can I do for you, before I am taken away from you?” Elisha answered, “May I receive a double portion of the prophetic spirit that energizes you. 2:10 Elijah replied, “That’s a difficult request! If you see me taken from you, may it be so, but if you don’t, it will not happen.”

    2:11 As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a fiery chariot pulled by fiery horses appeared. They went between Elijah and Elisha, and Elijah went up to heaven in a windstorm. 2:12 While Elisha was watching, he was crying out, “My father, my father! The chariot and horsemen of Israel!” Then he could no longer see him.


    12:1 ...Though it is not profitable, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. 12:2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago (whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows) was caught up to the third heaven. 12:3 And I know that this man (whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows) 12:4 was caught up into paradise and heard things too sacred to be put into words, things that a person is not permitted to speak. 12:5 On behalf of such an individual I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except about my weaknesses. 12:6 For even if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I would be telling the truth, but I refrain from this so that no one may regard me beyond what he sees in me or what he hears from me, 12:7 even because of the extraordinary character of the revelations. Therefore, so that I would not become arrogant, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to trouble me – so that I would not become arrogant.  12:8 I asked the Lord three times about this, that it would depart from me. 12:9 But he said to me, “My grace is enough for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” So then, I will boast most gladly about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may reside in  me. 12:10 Therefore I am content with weaknesses, with insults, with troubles, with persecutions and difficulties for the sake of Christ, for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.


    1:8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God – the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come – the All-Powerful! 

    1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus. 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day when I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, 1:11 saying: Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

    1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me,  and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands, 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. 1:14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 1:17 When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last, 1:18 and the one who lives! I was dead, but look, now I am alive – forever and ever – and I hold the keys of death and of Hades! 59  1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things. 60  1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this:   The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

    2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: 

    “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has a firm grasp on the seven stars in his right hand – the one who walks among the seven golden  lampstands: 2:2 ‘I know your works as well as your labor and steadfast endurance, and that you cannot tolerate evil. You have even put to the test those who refer to themselves as apostles (but are not), and have discovered that they are false. 2:3 I am also aware that you have persisted steadfastly, endured much for the sake of my name, and have not grown weary. 2:4 But I have this against you: You have departed from your first love! 2:5 Therefore, remember from what high state you have fallen and repent! Do the deeds you did at the first; if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place – that is, if you do not repent. 16  2:6 But you do have this going for you: You hate what the Nicolaitans practice  – practices I also hate.  2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, I will permit him to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.’

    Stars are a luminary, and they have a strong gravity. Similarly, a leader of a local church must be a luminary who shines brightly serving the Lord in a special way, with a charismatic gravity to draw people in fellowship and transform them into one family body in Christ. Nicolaitans were known in the cities of Ephesus and Pergamum.

    Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

    The Will is a force; its limits as yet unknown. It is in the power of the will that we chiefly see the spiritual and divine in man. There is a seeming identity between his will that moves other men, and the Creative Will whose action seems so incomprehensible. It is the men of will and action, not the men of pure intellect, that govern the world.

    1 PETER 3

    4:9 Show hospitality to one another without complaining. 4:10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 4:11 Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.


    1:5 But now I ask you, lady (not as if I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one we have had from the beginning), that we love one another. 1:6 (Now this is love: that we walk according to His commandments.) This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning; thus you should walk in it. 1:7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, people who do not confess Jesus as Christ coming in the fleshThis person is the deceiver and the antichrist!  1:8 Watch out, so that you do not lose the things we have worked for, but receive a full reward. 

    1:9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not remain in the teaching (Didache) of Christ does not have God. The one who remains in this teaching (Didache) has both the Father and the Son. 1:10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching (Didache), do not receive him into your house and do not give him any greeting,   1:11 because the person who gives him a greeting shares in his evil deeds.


    6:14 Do not become partners with those who do not believe, for what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship does light have with darkness? 6:15 And what agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share in common with an unbeliever? 6:16 And what mutual agreement does the temple of God have with idols? For we are the temple of the living God, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.” 6:17 Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you, 6:18 and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,says the All-Powerful Lord. 

    TITUS 1

    1:10 ...there are many rebellious people, idle talkers, and deceivers, especially those with Jewish connections 1:11 who must be silenced because they mislead whole families by teaching for dishonest gain what ought not to be taught. 1:12 A certain one of them, in fact, one of their own prophets, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.”  1:13 Such testimony is true. For this reason rebuke them sharply that they may be healthy in the faith 1:14 and not pay attention to Jewish myths and commands of people who reject the truth. 1:15 All is pure to those who are pure. But to those who are corrupt and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 1:16 They profess to know God but with their deeds they deny Him, since they are detestable, disobedient, and unfit for any good deed.

    2 TIMOTHY 3

    3:10 You, however, have followed my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, my endurance, 3:11 as well as the persecutions and sufferings that happened to me in Antioch, in Iconium, and in Lystra. I endured these persecutions and the Lord delivered me from them all. 3:12 Now in fact all who want to live godly lives in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 3:13 But evil people and charlatans will go from bad to worsedeceiving others and being deceived themselves. 3:14 You, however, must continue in the things you have learned and are confident about. You know who taught you 3:15 and how from infancy you have known the holy writings, which are able to give you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 3:16 Every scripture  is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 3:17 that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work.


    5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 5:18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.  5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law and the Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

    Until "everything takes place" is a subject of controversy

    LUKE 24

    24:44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled.” 24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures, 24:46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ would suffer and would rise from the dead on the third day, 24:47 and repentance for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 24:48 You are witnesses of these things.

    Hosea 6

    6:1 Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up.

    6:2 After two days will he revive us: in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.

    Luke 24

    24:13 Now that very day two of them were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. 24:14 They were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 24:15 While they were talking and debating these things,  Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 24:16 (but their eyes were kept from recognizing him). 24:17 Then he said to them, “What are these matters you are discussing so intently as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 24:18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him,  “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” 24:19 He said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet before God and all the people; 24:20 and how our chief priests and rulers handed him over to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24:21 But we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 24:22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us. They were at the tomb early this morning, 24:23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. 24:24 Then some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.” 24:25 So he said to them, “You foolish people  – how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 24:26 Wasn’t  it necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and enter into his glory? 24:27 Then  beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them the things written about himself in all the scriptures.


    Romans 11

    11:13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Seeing that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 11:14 if somehow I could provoke my people to jealousy and save some of them. 11:15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?


    15:12 Now if Christ is being preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead? 15:13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is futile and your faith is empty. 15:15 Also, we are found to be false witnesses about God, because we have testified against God that he raised Christ from the dead, when in reality he did not raise him, if indeed the dead are not raised. 15:16 For if the dead are not raised, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is useless; you are still in your sins. 15:18 Furthermore, those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished. 15:19 For if only in this life we have hope in Christ, we should be pitied more than anyone.

    15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 12  15:22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to him. 13  15:24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. 15:25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15:26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death. 15:27 For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. But when it says “everything” has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the one who put everything in subjection to him. 15:28 And when all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all.


    If our Lord Jesus Christ will submit to Yahweh in life and death, then we should really consider doing the same thing.

    1 CORINTHIANS 88:5 If after all there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we live, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we live. 

    MATTHEW 28

    28:16 So the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 28:17 When they saw him, they worshiped him, but some doubted. 28:18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,  “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 28:19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,  28:20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,  I am with you  always, to the end of the age.” 


     4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father!” 



  11. The 183rd Article

    How it may be just or unjust.
    But when fortune sends goods to anyone whereof he is
    truly unworthy, and envy is not excited in us but because naturally, loving justice, we are vexed that it is not observed in the distribution of those goods, it is a zeal (passion) that may be excusable. Especially when the good a man envies others is of such a nature that it may turn to an evil in their hands, as if it be some command or office in the exercising whereof they may misdemean themselves. Yea, even when he desires that good for himself and cannot get it because others less worthy possess it. This makes this passion become the more violent; and yet it may be excusable, provided the hatred in it relate only to the ill distribution of the thing envied, and not to the persons that possess, or distribute it. But there are a few who are so just and generous as to bear no hatred against those that prevent them in the acquisition of a good that is not communicable to many, and that they desired it for themselves, though they who acquired it are as much or more worthy of it. And what is most usually envied is glory. For although that of others does not hinder us from aspiring thereunto, yet it makes the access to it more difficult, and enhances the price.

    The 184th Article

    From whence it comes that envious men have sallow complexions.
    there is no vice so baneful (harmful) to the felicity (happiness) of man as envy. For, besides that those who are tainted with it afflict themselves, they also, to the utmost of their power trouble the delight of others. And they have commonly sallow (pasty) complexions, that is, a pale mingled with yellow and black, and like blood in a bruise. Whence, envy is called in Latin "livor," which agrees very well with what has been said here before of the motions of the blood in sadness and hatred; for this causes the yellow choler coming from the lower part of the liver, and the black coming from the spleen, to spread from the heart through the arteries into all the veins; and that causes the blood of the veins to have less heat, and flow more slowly than ordinarily, which is sufficient to make the complexion livid. But because choler, as well as yellow as black, may be also sent into the veins by many other causes, and envy may not drive enough into them to alter the colour of the complexion, unless it be exceeding[ly] great, and of long continuance it ought not to be thought that all those of this complexion are thereunto inclined.

    The 185th Article

    Of pity.
    Pity is sort of sadness, mingled with love or goodwill towards those whom we see suffer any evil whereof we esteem them unworthy. So it is contrary to envy because of its object, and derision because it considers them in another manner.


    5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 52  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56 

    MATTHEW 27

    27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 18  whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 19  Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 20  Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 21  27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 22  27:19 As 23  he was sitting on the judgment seat, 24  his wife sent a message 25  to him: 26  “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 27  I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 28  about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 29  governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 30  They all said, “Crucify him!” 31  27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”


    11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

    11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment.

    HEBREWS 10

    10:32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 10:33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 10:34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison, 40  and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly had a better and lasting possession. 10:35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it has great reward. 10:36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised. 10:37 For just a little longer 44  and he who is coming will arrive and not delay. 10:38 But my righteous one will live by faith [Isaiah  26:20 Go, my people! Enter your inner rooms! Close your doors behind you! Hide for a little while, until his angry judgment is over! 35  26:21 For look, the Lord is coming out of the place where he lives, to punish the sin of those who live on the earth. The earth will display the blood shed on it; it will no longer cover up its slain.], and if he shrinks back, I take no pleasure in him. 10:39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls. 

    TITUS 3

    3:1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and 1  authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work. 3:2 They must not slander 2  anyone, but be peaceable, gentle, showing complete courtesy to all people. 3:3 For we too were once foolish, disobedient, misled, enslaved to various passions and desires, spending our lives in evil and envy, hateful and hating one another. 3:4 3  But “when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, 3:5 he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, 3:6 whom he poured out on us in full measure 4  through Jesus Christ our Savior. 3:7 And so, 5  since we have been justified by his grace, we become heirs with the confident expectation of eternal life.

    1 JOHN 1

    2:3 Now 7  by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep his commandments. 2:4 The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person. 2:5 But whoever obeys his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in him. 2:6 The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk  just as Jesus walked.


  12. The 180th Article

    Of the use of jesting.
    As for modest jesting, which wholesomely reprehends (finds fault) 
    vices by making them appear ridiculous, so a man laugh not at them himself, nor show any hatred against persons, it is not a passion but a becoming quality in a man, that makes the liveliness of his disposition appear, and the tranquility of his soul, which are marks of virtue; and oft-times the nimblessness of his wit too, in that he knows how to set a handsome gloss on things he jests at.

    The 181st Article

    Of the use of laughter in jesting.
    And it is not
    unhandsome to laugh at the hearing of another man's jests: nay, perchance they may be such, that it were doltishness (foolish) not to laugh at them. But when a man jests himself, it is more seemly to abstain from it, that he may not seem to be surprised by the things he speaks, nor admire the dexterity of their invention; and that causes those who hear them to be surprised so much the more.

    The 182nd Article

    Of envy.
    That which commonly is called envy is a vice that consists in a perverseness (irrational behavior) of nature, which causes certain men to fret at the good that they see befalls other men. But I here use this word to signify a passion which is not always vicious. Envy then, as it is a passion, is a sort of sadness mixed with hatred which comes from seeing good betide those we think unworthy of it; which cannot be thought with reason, but of the goods of fortune. For, as for those of the soul, yea and the body too, seeing a man has them by birth, it is to be sufficiently worthy of them, that he received them from God before he was capable to commit any evil.

    Reparation means making of amends


    14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,  

    or you will not understand wise counsel. 

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

    but the folly of fools is deception.  

    14:9 Fools mock at reparation, 

    but among the upright there is favor.


    10:12 The words of a wise person win him favor, 

    but the words of a fool are self-destructive.

    10:13 At the beginning his words are foolish

    and at the end his talk is wicked madness,

    10:14 yet a fool keeps on babbling.

    No one knows what will happen;

    who can tell him what will happen in the future? 

    10:15 The toil of a stupid fool wears him out, 

    because he does not even know the way to the city. 


    5:1 Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. 5:3 But among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

  13. Ennin you wrote:

    Transition from the position of weakness, where the non-believers of Makkah — particularly the people of Quraish — humiliated, tortured and killed Muslims, to the position of strength. This is where Muslims were allowed to defend themselves and were able to defeat their adversaries.


    You would think that Muslims would have learned from being humiliated, tortured, and killed that they would have Love and Mercy towards Christians and other Muslims. But, then again the Jews were humiliated, tortured, and killed by the Christians, and the Nazis. They did not learn and do the same. Christians are just as guilty.


    What do all three have in common. No Love or Mercy. Jews, Christians, and Muslims that do not practice Love and Mercy will get none from the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah).


    I really liked this part. This is first time you really impressed me.


    Intercommunity and Interfaith Relations: Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also established good relations with other communities living in Madinah. There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) prepared a Mithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for relations between these communities.


    I believe in the 21st Century either two things will happen. First, Love and Mercy will continue to be replaced by Hate and Cruelty and there will be more blood shed. Or the Faiths will realize coercion (force) conversions do not work and the people will be drawn to the religion that shows the Most Love and Mercy.


    I pray that Protestant, Catholics, and Orthodox reconcile. I pray that Sunni and Shia reconcile. I pray that Orthodox, Conservative, and Reformed Jews reconcile with Messianic Jews. I pray that Jews, Christians, and Muslims realize they are brothers and sisters under the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah).


    People come together for the World Cup Soccer game. I pray to the the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) that there be a day where Jews, Christians, and Muslims come together in prayer. Imagine 3 Billion plus people coming together praising our Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) and praying for peace and then breaking bread together in fellowship.


    Talk about Miracles. That is what our Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) wants. I think the Creator would consider it a Miracle for mankind to put aside selfish differences and come together for just one day to praise Him together as one body.


    Afterwards, all sides can debate using reason and not missiles, bombs, guns and knives.


    I bet many nonBelievers would covert of their own Free Will.



  14. Peace be with you Ennin. You wrote:

    only Jesus was pure enough to able to see the face of the Creator.
    not true
    all prophets are equal

    Jews and Christians do not believe that face of the Creator.

    Exodus 33

    33:14 And the Lord said, “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”

    33:15 And Moses said to him, “If your presence does not go with us, do not take us up from here.

    33:16 For how will it be known then that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people? Is it not by your going with us, so that we will be distinguished, I and your people, from all the people who are on the face of the earth?”

    33:17 The Lord said to Moses, “I will do this thing also that you have requested, for you have found favor in my sight, and I know 50 you by name.”

    33:18 And Moses said, “Show me your glory.”

    33:19 And the Lord said, “I will make all my goodness pass before your face, and I will proclaim the Lord by name before you; I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy.”

    33:20 But he added, “You cannot see my face, for no one can see me and live.”

    33:21 The Lord said, “Here is a place by me; you will station yourself on a rock.

    33:22 When my glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and will cover you with my hand while I pass by.

    33:23 Then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back, but my face must not be seen."

    Even the Quran writes that Moses could not see the Divine face of the Creator.

    Al-A'raf (The Heights)

    7:143 And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "My Lord, show me [Yourself] that I may look at You." [ Allah ] said, "You will not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it should remain in place, then you will see Me." But when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell unconscious. And when he awoke, he said, "Exalted are You! I have repented to You, and I am the first of the believers."

    Those instances where prophets saw the Creator involved visions, theophanies (limited manifestation tangible to the human senses), or anthropomorphic representations (human traits, emotions, and intentions) of the Creator rather than encounters with His unveiled Divine essence

    Christians believe Scripture that Jesus was always with the Creator and never ceased being the word of the Creator. Jesus testified the wisdom of the Creator which is eternal.

    John 1

    1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God.

    1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning.

    1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created.

    1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind.

    1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it.

    1:6 A man came, sent from God, whose name was John.

    1:7 He came as a witness to testify about the light, so that everyone might believe through him.

    1:8 He himself was not the light, but he came to testify about the light.

    1:9 The true light, who gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.

    1:10 He was in the world, and the world was created by him, but the world did not recognize him.

    1:11 He came to what was his own, but his own people did not receive him.

    1:12 But to all who have received him – those who believe in his name – he has given the right to become God’s children

    1:13 – children not born by human parents or by human desire or a husband’s decision, but by God.

    1:14 Now the Word became flesh and took up residence among us. We saw his glory – the glory of the one and only, full of grace and truth, who came from the Father.

    1:15 John testified about him and shouted out, “This one was the one about whom I said, ‘He who comes after me is greater than I am, because he existed before me.’”

    1:16 For we have all received from his fullness one gracious gift after another.

    1:17 For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ.

    1:18 No one has ever seen God. The only one, himself God, who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known.

    Those whom our Father has chosen for salvation among believe in Jesus and his teachings.

    John 6

    6:41 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus began complaining about him because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven,”

    6:42 and they said, “Isn’t this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How can he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?”

    6:43 Jesus replied, “Do not complain about me to one another.

    6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day.

    6:45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who hears and learns from the Father comes to me.

    6:46 (Not that anyone has seen the Father except the one who is from God – he has seen the Father.)

    6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, the one who believes has eternal life.

    6:48 I am the bread of life.

    6:49 Your ancestors ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died.

    6:50 This is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person may eat from it and not die.

    6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”


    Jude 1

    1:17 But you, dear friends – recall the predictions foretold by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.


    1:18 For they said to you, “In the end time there will come scoffers, propelled by their own ungodly desires.”


    1:19 These people are divisive, worldly, devoid of the Spirit.


    1:20 But you, dear friends, by building yourselves up in your most holy faith, by praying in the Holy Spirit,


    1:21 maintain yourselves in the love of God, while anticipating the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that brings eternal life.


    1:22 And have mercy on those who waver;


    1:23 save others by snatching them out of the fire; have mercy on others, coupled with a fear of God, hating even the clothes stained by the flesh.

    1:24 Now to the one who is able to keep you from falling, and to cause you to stand, rejoicing, without blemish before his glorious presence,


    1:25 to the only God our Savior through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority, before all time, and now, and for all eternity. Amen.


    I ask the Creator to bless you Ennin in searching for the truth.


    Here is a beautiful passage in the Jewish Bible on the Creator rewards for those that show compassion and Mercy towards others.

    112:1 Praise the Lord!

    How blessed is the one who obeys the Lord,

    who takes great delight in keeping his commands.


    112:2 His descendants will be powerful on the earth;

    the godly will be blessed.


    112:3 His house contains wealth and riches;

    his integrity endures.


    112:4 In the darkness a light shines for the godly,

    for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just.


    112:5 It goes well for the one who generously lends money,

    and conducts his business honestly.


    112:6 For he will never be upended;

    others will always remember one who is just.


    112:7 He does not fear bad news.

    He is confident; he trusts in the Lord.


    112:8 His resolve is firm; he will not succumb to fear

    before he looks in triumph on his enemies.


    112:9 He generously gives to the needy;

    his integrity endures.

    He will be vindicated and honored.


    112:10 When the wicked see this, they will worry;

    they will grind their teeth in frustration and melt away;

    the desire of the wicked will perish.


    I find it ironic how people can show love and mercy towards an animal, but cruelty towards a fellow human being. I pray for those that abuse any living creature.

  15. Ennin you wrote:

    Verse 17 "--the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you".


    in fact the Holy Spirit Gabriel.with Jesus and all the prophets only

    2.2 billion plus Christians, 1.6 billion plus Muslims, and 14 million Jews believe in the angel Gabriel came to the prophets.


    Daniel 8

    15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, was beholding the chazon, that I sought the meaning; then, hinei, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

    16 And I heard a kol adam (man's voice) amidst the Ulai, and he called, and said, Gavriel, cause this one to understand the vision [see Daniel 9:21].

    17 So he came near where I stood; and as he came, I was filled with fear, and I fell down upon my face, but he said unto me, Understand, O ben adam, the chazon (vision) points to the time of the ketz (end).

    18 Now while he was speaking with me, I swooned upon my face toward the ground, but he touched me, and made me stand upright.

    19 And he said, Hineni, I will cause thee to know that which shall take place in the latter part of HaZa'am (the Wrath period), since at a mo'ed (an appointed time) the Ketz (End) shall be.


    Luke 1


    1:26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,


    1:27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, a descendant of David, and the virgin’s name was Mary.


    1:28 The angel came to her and said, “Greetings, favored one, the Lord is with you!”


    1:29 But she was greatly troubled by his words and began to wonder about the meaning of this greeting.


    1:30 So the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God!


    1:31 Listen:


    You will become pregnant and give birth to a son, and you will name him Jesus.


    1:32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David.


    1:33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.”


    1:34 Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not had sexual relations with a man?”


    1:35 The angel replied, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called the Son of God.

    Acts 1

    1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts of the earth.


    Christians and Muslims are witnesses to Jesus Christ.


    Acts 2


    2:1 Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place.


    2:2 Suddenly a sound like a violent wind blowing came from heaven and filled the entire house where they were sitting.


    2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them.


    2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages as the Spirit enabled them.


    2:5 Now there were devout Jews from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem.


    2:6 When this sound occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, because each one heard them speaking in his own language.


    2:7 Completely baffled, they said, “Aren’t all these who are speaking Galileans?


    2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 16 in our own native language?


    2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia,


    2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, and visitors from Rome,


    2:11 both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!”


    2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?”


    2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, saying, “They are drunk on new wine!”

    2:14 But Peter stood up with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea and all you who live in Jerusalem, know this and listen carefully to what I say.


    2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.


    2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel:


    2:17 ‘And in the last days it will be,’ God says,

    ‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people,

    and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,

    and your young men will see visions,

    and your old men will dream dreams.


    2:18 Even on my servants, both men and women,

    I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.


    2:19 And I will perform wonders in the sky above

    and miraculous signs on the earth below,

    blood and fire and clouds of smoke.


    2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness

    and the moon to blood

    before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes.


    2:21 And then everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’


    2:22 “Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, wonders, and miraculous signs that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know –


    2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 44 by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles.


    2:24 But God raised him up, having released him from the pains of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power.


    2:25 For David says about him,

    ‘I saw the Lord always in front of me,

    for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.


    2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;

    my body also will live in hope,


    2:27 because you will not leave my soul in Hades,

    nor permit your Holy One to experience decay.


    2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;

    you will make me full of joy with your presence.’


    2:29 “Brothers, I can speak confidently to you about our forefather David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.


    2:30 So then, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne,


    2:31 David by foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did his body experience decay.


    2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it.


    2:33 So then, exalted to the right hand of God, and having received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father, he has poured out what you both see and hear.


    2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

    ‘The Lord said to my lord,

    “Sit at my right hand


    2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’


    2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified both Lord and Christ.”


    It was the Joel that prophesied the Creator's bestowing His Holy Spirit on mankind.


    Joel 2

    21 Fear not, O land; be glad and rejoice; for Hashem hath done great things.


    22 Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field; for the pastures of the midbar do spring up, for the etz beareth her fruit, the te'enah and the gefen do yield their strength.


    23 Be glad then, ye bnei Tziyon, and rejoice in Hashem Eloheichem; for He hath given you the former rain according to (His) tzedakah, and He will cause to come down for you the rain, the yoreh (former rain), and the malkosh (latter rain) as before.


    24 And the threshing floors shall be full of wheat, and the vats shall overflow with yayin and yitzhar.


    25 And I will restore to you the shanim (years) that the arbeh (great locust) hath eaten, the crawling locust, and the other locust, and the locust swarm, My great army which I sent among you.


    26 And ye shall eat in plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the Shem of Hashem Eloheichem, that hath dealt wondrously with you; and My people shall never be ashamed.


    27 And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Yisroel, and that I am Hashem Eloheichem, and there is no other; and My people shall never be put to shame.


    28 (3:1) And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out My Ruach [Hakodesh] upon all basar; and your banim and your banot shall prophesy, your zekenim shall dream chalomot, your bochurim shall see chezyonot (visions):


    29 (3:2) And also upon the avadim and upon the shefachot in those days will I pour out My Ruach [Hakodesh,


    30 (3:3) And I will show mofetim in the heavens and in the earth, dahm, and eish, and pillars of smoke.


    31 (3:4) The shemesh shall be turned into choshech, and the yarei'ach into dahm, before the great and terrible Yom Hashem come.


    32 (3:5) And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the Shem of the L- rd shall be saved; for in Mt Tziyon and in Yerushalayim shall be deliverance, as Hashem hath said, and in the seridim (remnant, survivors) whom Hashem shall call.


    Jews use the Ruach Hakodesh (see above), Muslims use the term Ruh al-Qudus.


    59:23 He is Allah , other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him.


    Notice the similarities in the pronunciation. Ruach and Ruh mean 'Spirit.' Hakodesh and al-Qudus both mean 'Holy.'


    Ruach Hakodesh and Ruh al-Qudus are names for Hashem/Allah/Creator.


    In the End the Saints will judge the Angels that rebelled against the Creator, but no one Judge will judge His Spirit.


    1 Corinthians 6

    6:1 When any of you has a legal dispute with another, does he dare go to court before the unrighteous rather than before the saints?


    6:2 Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is to be judged by you, are you not competent to settle trivial suits?


    6:3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? Why not ordinary matters!


    6:4 So if you have ordinary lawsuits, do you appoint as judges those who have no standing in the church?


    6:5 I say this to your shame! Is there no one among you wise enough to settle disputes between fellow Christians?


    6:6 Instead, does a Christian sue a Christian, and do this before unbelievers?


    6:7 The fact that you have lawsuits among yourselves demonstrates that you have already been defeated. Why not rather be wronged? Why not rather be cheated?


    6:8 But you yourselves wrong and cheat, and you do this to your brothers and sisters!


    6:9 Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! The sexually immoral, idolaters, adulterers, passive homosexual partners, practicing homosexuals,


    6:10 thieves, the greedy, drunkards, the verbally abusive, and swindlers will not inherit the kingdom of God.


    6:11 Some of you once lived this way. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.


    The Creator uses many messengers to reveal His word.


    57:25 We have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice. And We sent down iron, wherein is great military might and benefits for the people, and so that Allah may make evident those who support Him and His messengers unseen. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might.


    Jews, Christians and Muslims believe that it is important to listen to the messenger.


    4:59 O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.


    In Islam the Messenger shares a throne with the Creator/Allah and is obeyed.

    81:15 So I swear by the retreating stars -

    81:16 Those that run [their courses] and disappear -

    81:17 And by the night as it closes in

    81:18 And by the dawn when it breathes

    81:19 indeed, the Qur'an is a word [conveyed by] a noble messenger

    81:20 [Who is] possessed of power and with the Owner of the Throne, secure [in position],

    81:21 Obeyed there [in the heavens] and trustworthy.



    Judaism, Christianity, and Islam believe that the Creator (Hashem, the Father, Allah) used angels as Messengers to communicate with Abraham and Lot.


    The Throne of the Creator is the reigning center of (Hashem, the Father, Allah) of the Abrahamic religions: primarily Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The throne is said by various holy books to reside beyond the Seventh Heaven and is called Araboth in Judaism,and al-'Arsh in Islam. Many in the Christian religion consider it as symbolic or allegorical. Most Jews and Christians do not believe the Creator (Hashem, the Father, Allah) shares al-'Arsh with Angels. But, Pope Saint Gregory I lists seven angels (Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel (or Anael), Simiel, Oriphiel and Raguel) sitting around the throne of the Creator.

    11:69 And certainly did Our messengers come to Abraham with good tidings; they said, "Peace." He said, "Peace," and did not delay in bringing [them] a roasted calf.

    11:70 But when he saw their hands not reaching for it, he distrusted them and felt from them apprehension. They said, "Fear not. We have been sent to the people of Lot."

    11:71 And his Wife was standing, and she smiled. Then We gave her good tidings of Isaac and after Isaac, Jacob.

    11:72 She said, "Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!"

    11:73 They said, "Are you amazed at the decree of Allah ? May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house. Indeed, He is Praiseworthy and Honorable."

    11:74 And when the fright had left Abraham and the good tidings had reached him, he began to argue with Us concerning the people of Lot.

    11:75 Indeed, Abraham was forbearing, grieving and [frequently] returning [to Allah ].

    11:76 [The angels said], "O Abraham, give up this [plea]. Indeed, the command of your Lord has come, and indeed, there will reach them a punishment that cannot be repelled."

    11:77 And when Our messengers, [the angels], came to Lot, he was anguished for them and felt for them great discomfort and said, "This is a trying day."


    In the name of our Creator/Allah, the Compassionate ('al-Rahman') and the Merciful (al-Rahim) speak more about compassion and mercy.


    Ennin you wrote:

    Can you say?

    Do you receive the teachings of the Holy Spirit and the face-to-face?


    Before the Fall Adam and Eve could see the Creator. After the Fall, only Jesus was pure enough to able to see the face of the Creator. The Creator did directly communicate to Greater Prophets like Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, Laban, Moses, Samuel, Job, etc. And as Mormons believe, Joseph Smith. The Creator sent messengers to prophets like Daniel, David, Mary, Elizabeth, etc. And as you believe, Mohamed.


    The Holy Spirit has no face. The Holy Spirit is an active force of the Creator that resides inside some of us. The Jews consider the Holy Spirit to be Divine Inspiration. I consider the Holy Spirit to be the Wisdom of Truth that dwells in my life.


    2 Corinthians 6 (P46 Translation)


    For what do righteousness and lawlessness have in common?
    Or what partnership is between the light and dark? And what
    agreement is there between Christ and Beliar? Or what is shared by the believer and unbeliever? And what agreement is there between the temple of God and idols?
    For you are the temple of the living God, as God also said:
    I will dwell in them and live among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people. Therefore, come out of the midst of them, you have also been made separate, says the Lord, and do not touch what is unclean, and I will receive you, and will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty.
    Thus, having these promises beloved, let us purify ourselves from every defilement of the flesh, by the spirit also fulfilling holiness in the love of God. We have wronged no one, we have ruined no one, we have taken advantage of no one.
    I do not say this for condemnation, for I said before that your are in our hearts, to die together and live together.

  16. Ennin first you wrote Mohamed was a medium of the Holy Spirit Gabriel.

    "The Holy Spirit refers to the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), also known as Jibraaeel; he is the message-bearer par excellence from Allah, the Lord of Glory and Grace; he is also the conduit of divine support and assistance bestowed on Prophets, Messengers as well as righteous people who strive in the path of Allah.

    1. Thus we read in the Quran that the Prophets (peace be upon them all) are chosen by Allah by sending down the Holy Spirit with the revelations: He sends down the Spirit from His command, upon those of His servants He chooses, in order to warn people of the Day of Meeting. (Ghafir: 15)

    2. We also read in the Quran that it (the Quran) was sent down upon the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) through the medium of Holy Spirit: Say: The Holy Spirit brought it down from your Lord with the truth, to strengthen those who believe, and as a guidance and good tidings to the Muslims. (An-Nahl: 102)

    Now you state that Mohammad is in fact the Holy Spirit Gabriel.

    Verse 17 "--the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you".

    Also verse 26: But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.

    This Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
    the names of the prophet muhammad

    With do respect this leads to a whole new thinking of the Bible.

    Was this Angel of Mohammed moving over the surface of water with the Creator during Creation?

    Genesis 1

    1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

    1:2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the water.

    1:3 God said, “Let there be light.” And there was light!

    1:4 God saw that the light was good, so God separated the light from the darkness.

    1:5 God called the light “day” and the darkness “night.” There was evening, and there was morning, marking the first day.

    So you are stating the Israelites were offending the Angel Mohammad that was among them? Where in the Quran does Mohammad state that he existed before Jesus? Christians and Jews believe that the Israelites were offending the Creator.

    Isaiah 63

    63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,
    of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.
    I will tell about all the Lord did for us,
    the many good things he did for the family of Israel,
    because of his compassion and great faithfulness.

    63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,
    children who are not disloyal.”
    He became their deliverer.

    63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too.
    The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them.
    In his love and mercy he protected them;
    he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times.

    63:10 But they rebelled and offended His Holy Spirit,
    so he turned into an enemy
    and fought against them.

    63:11 His people remembered the ancient times.
    Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,
    along with the shepherd of his flock?
    Where is the one who placed his Holy Spirit among them,

    63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses,
    who divided the water before them,
    gaining for himself a lasting reputation,

    Was King David speaking about the Angel Mohammad that could be everywhere and anywhere?
    Jews and Christians believe only the Creator can do that. I thought Muslims believe that too???

    Psalms 139

    O Lord, you examine me and know.
    139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;
    even from far away you understand my motives.
    139:3 You carefully observe me when I travel or when I lie down to rest;
    you are aware of everything I do.
    139:4 Certainly my tongue does not frame a word
    without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it.
    139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;
    you place your hand on me.
    139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;
    it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it.
    139:7 Where can I go to escape your Spirit?
    Where can I flee to escape your presence?
    139:8 If I were to ascend to heaven, you would be there.
    If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be.
    139:9 If I were to fly away on the wings of the dawn,
    and settle down on the other side of the sea,
    139:10 even there your hand would guide me,
    your right hand would grab hold of me.

    The Quran agrees that the Creator is everywhere and knows your thoughts.

    Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

    2:15 And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah . Indeed, Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.

    Did the Angel Mohammed breathe into Mary and give her life. Christians believe it was the Creator's Holy Spirit.

    Al-Anbya (The Prophets)

    21:90 Into the woman who maintained her chastity We breathed Our Spirit and made her and her son a miracle for all people.

    Do you believe the Angel Mohammad led Jesus when He was in the wilderness for 40 days and tempted by Satan? Christians believe Jesus was lead by the Creator.

    Luke 4

    4:1 Then Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan River and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness,

    4:2 where for forty days he endured temptations from the devil.

    Does the Angel Mohammad reside in the righteous? Christians believe the Creator's Holy Spirit resides in those that love and follow Him.

    John 14

    14:15 “If you love me, you will obey my commandments.

    14:16 Then I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever –

    14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you.

    And does what you state mean the Apostles of Jesus received the Angel Mohamed? Christians believe it was the Creator's Holy Spirit.

    John 20

    20:21 So Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you. Just as the Father has sent me, I also send you.”

    20:22 And after he said this, he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.

    20:23 If you forgive anyone’s sins, they are forgiven; if you retain anyone’s sins, they are retained.”

    Was it the Angel Mohammad with the Apostles that said it was ok for Gentiles to eat ALL types of Meat as long as it was not strangled or sacrificed to idols. Christians believe it was the Creator.

    Acts 15

    15:28 For it seemed best to the Holy Spirit and to us not to place any greater burden on you than these necessary rules:

    15:29 that you abstain from meat that has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what has been strangled and from sexual immorality. If you keep yourselves from doing these things, you will do well. Farewell.


    Finally you make a blanket statement that ALL nonMuslims eat pork, drink alcohol, adultry, usury, and gambling. The Jews I know do not eat pork.

    Non-Muslims eat pork - drink alcohol - adultery - usury - gambling - and so


    Are you all knowing like the Creator? Did the Angel Mohammad give you this revelation that you can see into the thoughts of all men?



    Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)


    2:216 Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.


    According to your statement, Jesus was NOT a Muslim for creating wine for His family's wedding. And since Jesus created wine by the Authority of the Creator, I guess the Creator is NOT a Muslim as well. Did you mean to say drunks (alcoholics)? Christians do not believe it acceptable to be drunk.


    John 2

    2:1 Now on the third day there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there,


    2:2 and Jesus and his disciples were also invited to the wedding.


    2:3 When the wine ran out, Jesus’ mother said to him, “They have no wine left.”


    2:4 Jesus replied, “Woman, why are you saying this to me? My time has not yet come.”


    2:5 His mother told the servants, “Whatever he tells you, do it.”


    2:6 Now there were six stone water jars there for Jewish ceremonial washing, each holding twenty or thirty gallons.


    2:7 Jesus told the servants, “Fill the water jars with water.” So they filled them up to the very top.


    2:8 Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the head steward,” and they did.


    2:9 When the head steward tasted the water that had been turned to wine, not knowing where it came from 16 (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), he called the bridegroom


    2:10 and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and then the cheaper 19 wine when the guests are drunk. You have kept the good wine until now!”


    2:11 Jesus did this as the first of his miraculous signs, in Cana of Galilee. In this way he revealed his glory, and his disciples believed in him.


    I reject the idea that the Angel Gabriel is Mohammad. I reject the idea that the Angel Gabriel's power is infinite like the Creator. I reject that the idea that the Angel Gabriel can be at an infinite number of places at one time like the Creator. I reject the idea that the Angel Gabriel knows our thoughts like the Creator. I reject the idea that the Angel Gabriel was with the Creator during the time of creation. I reject the idea that the Angel Gabriel or Mohammad created or helped create Adam or Jesus. For these reasons alone I know that both the Angel Gabriel and Mohammad are not the Creator's Holy Spirit. But, I accept that both Gabriel and Mohammad have a spirit that our Creator gave them. I also accept that the Angel Gabriel is one of our Creator's messengers.


    Leave the judging to the Creator. He alone knows our true intentions.


    Imam An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths


    HADITH 1


    On the authority of Omar bin Al-Khattab, who said :


    I heard the messenger of Allah salla Allah u alihi wa sallam say :


    "Actions are but by intention and every man shall have but that which he intended. Thus he whose migration was for Allah and His messenger, his migration was for Allah and His messenger, and he whose migration was to achieve some worldly benefit or to take some woman in marriage, his migration was for that for which he migrated." related by Bukhari and Muslim


    Al-Furqan (The Criterian) -

    25:63 And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace,


    You wrote:

    Jesus Christ peace and blessings be upon him has gone to allah

    Finished work assigned to him


    Jesus words are eternal, because they were given to Him by the Creator. His work is not done and both Christians and Muslims believe he will be back in the end.


    Planting trees and feeding animals are great, but true Love and Mercy is loving your neighbor.


    Luke 10

    10:25 Now an expert in religious law stood up to test Jesus, saying, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”


    10:26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you understand it?”


    10:27 The expert answered, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and love your neighbor as yourself.”


    10:28 Jesus said to him, “You have answered correctly; do this, and you will live.”


    10:29 But the expert, wanting to justify himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”


    10:30 Jesus replied, “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat him up, and went off, leaving him half dead.


    10:31 Now by chance a priest was going down that road, but when he saw the injured man he passed by on the other side.


    10:32 So too a Levite, when he came up to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side.


    10:33 But a Samaritan who was traveling came to where the injured man was, and when he saw him, he felt compassion for him.


    10:34 He went up to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring oil and wine on them. Then he put him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him.


    10:35 The next day he took out two silver coins and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, ‘Take care of him, and whatever else you spend, I will repay you when I come back this way.’


    10:36 Which of these three do you think became a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?”


    10:37 The expert in religious law said, The one who showed mercy to him.” So Jesus said to him, “Go and do the same.”



    Peace be with you Ennin. May our Creator help us all find Love and Mercy.

  17. There are a lot of Muslims that are very good, I pray our Creator save them and give them guidance that His Holy Spirit is NOT the Angel Jibreel. I pray that Muslims do not believe that Jibreel is not the Angel that breathed life into man. I pray that Muslims do not believe that Angels and Men bow down to the the Angel Jibreel. Only the Creator has that power and we should fear and love Him. I pray Muslims see that Jibreel is only a holy messenger of the Creator. I pray that Muslims see Prophets come for all mankind. I pray that Muslims see that Jesus came for all mankind. I pray that all people throughout the world including Christians, Muslims, annd Jews do not believe Allah inseminated the Blessed Mary. I pray that all people in the world can understand love and good works to others they can attain paradise and be called Children of the Creator. I pray Muslims see that the Creator judges their heart and not their appearence. I pray Muslims do not distort Jewish and Christian scripture. I pray that through the power of the Creator Jesus was able to heal the sick, teach the true meaning of love, and judge those who transgress. I pray that Muslims follow the command the Creator gave Jesus for all to love. I pray for all Muslims who consider Mohamed greater than Jesus. I pray that they see that this is not a competition. That all the righteous are children of the Creator.

    I pray for fanatical Muslims, Christians, and Jews that shed innocent blood and have evil thoughts in their minds.

    Matthew 7

    7:15 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves.

    7:16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered from thorns or figs from thistles, are they?

    7:17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit.

    7:18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit.

    7:19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.

    7:20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit.

    7:21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the kingdom of heaven – only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.

    7:22 On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do many powerful deeds?’

    7:23 Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!’

    7:24 “Everyone who hears these words of mine and does them is like a wise man who built his house on rock.

    7:25 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, but it did not collapse because it had been founded on rock.

    7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on sand.

    7:27 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, and it collapsed; it was utterly destroyed!”
    7:28 When Jesus finished saying these things, the crowds were amazed by his teaching,

    7:29 because he taught them like one who had authority, not like their experts in the law.

    John 8

    8:31 Then Jesus said to those Judeans who had believed him, “If you continue to follow my teaching, you are really my disciples

    8:32 and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”

    8:33 “We are descendants of Abraham,” they replied, “and have never been anyone’s slaves! How can you say, ‘You will become free’?”

    8:34 Jesus answered them, “I tell you the solemn truth, everyone who practices sin is a slave of sin.

    8:35 The slave does not remain in the family forever, but the son remains forever.

    8:36 So if the son sets you free, you will be really free.

    8:37 I know that you are Abraham’s descendants. But you want to kill me, because my teaching makes no progress among you.

    8:38 I am telling you the things I have seen while with the Father; as for you, practice the things you have heard from the Father!”

    8:39 They answered him, “Abraham is our father!” Jesus replied, “If you are Abraham’s children, you would be doing the deeds of Abraham.

    8:40 But now you are trying to kill me, a man who has told you the truth I heard from God. Abraham did not do this!

    8:41 You people are doing the deeds of your father.”

    Then they said to Jesus, “We were not born as a result of immorality! We have only one Father, God himself.”

    8:42 Jesus replied, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I have come from God and am now here. I have not come on my own initiative, but he sent me.

    8:43 Why don’t you understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot accept my teaching.

    8:44 You people are from your father the devil, and you want to do what your father desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not uphold the truth, because there is no truth in him. Whenever he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, because he is a liar and the father of lies.

    8:45 But because I am telling you the truth, you do not believe me.

    8:46 Who among you can prove me guilty of any sin? If I am telling you the truth, why don’t you believe me?

    8:47 The one who belongs to God listens and responds to God’s words. You don’t listen and respond, because you don’t belong to God.”

    8:48 The Judeans replied, “Aren’t we correct in saying that you are a Samaritan and are possessed by a demon?”

    8:49 Jesus answered, “I am not possessed by a demon, but I honor my Father – and yet you dishonor me.

    8:50 I am not trying to get praise for myself. There is one who demands it, and he also judges.

    8:51 I tell you the solemn truth, if anyone obeys my teaching, he will never see death.”

    8:52 Then the Judeans responded, “Now we know you’re possessed by a demon! Both Abraham and the prophets died, and yet you say, ‘If anyone obeys my teaching, he will never experience death.’

    8:53 You aren’t greater than our father Abraham who died, are you? And the prophets died too! Who do you claim to be?”

    8:54 Jesus replied,“If I glorify myself, my glory is worthless. The one who glorifies me is my Father, about whom you people say, ‘He is our God.’

    8:55 Yet you do not know him, but I know him. If I were to say that I do not know him, I would be a liar like you. But I do know him, and I obey his teaching.

    8:56 Your father Abraham was overjoyed to see my day, and he saw it and was glad.”

    8:57 Then the Judeans replied, “You are not yet fifty years old! Have you seen Abraham?”

    8:58 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, before Abraham came into existence, I am!”

    I pray that you Ennin see that (Hashem, The Father, Allah) is the eternal creative force of love in the universe. It is through the love of (Hashem, The Father, Allah) that all living things and laws were created, so that they could share His reality.


    May the Creator have Love and Mercy on us All.