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Posts posted by Luke_Wilbur

  1. The Breath of the Father (Holy Spirit) is an supernatural living force known by the movement by which he reveals the eternal Living Word to us and disposes us to welcome him in faith


    De Principiis (Book I)
    Chapter 3. On the Holy Spirit


    Of the existence of the Holy Spirit no one indeed could entertain any suspicion, save those who were familiar with the law and the prophets, or those who profess a belief in Christ. For although no one is able to speak with certainty of God the Father, it is nevertheless possible for some knowledge of Him to be gained by means of the visible creation and the natural feelings of the human mind; and it is possible, moreover, for such knowledge to be confined from the sacred Scriptures. But with respect to the Son of God, although no one knows the Son save the Father, yet it is from sacred Scripture also that the human mind is taught how to think of the Son; and that not only from the New, but also from the Old Testament, by means of those things which, although done by the saints, are figuratively referred to Christ, and from which both His divine nature, and that human nature which was assumed by Him, may be discovered.

    Now, what the Holy Spirit is, we are taught in many passages of Scripture, as by David in the fifty-first Psalm, when he says, And take not Your Holy Spirit from me; and by Daniel, where it is said, The Holy Spirit which is in you. And in the New Testament we have abundant testimonies, as when the Holy Spirit is described as having descended upon Christ, and when the Lord breathed upon His apostles after His resurrection, saying, Receive the Holy Spirit; and the saying of the angel to Mary, The Holy Spirit will come upon you; the declaration by Paul, that no one can call Jesus Lord, save by the Holy Spirit. In the Acts of the Apostles, the Holy Spirit was given by the imposition of the apostles' hands in baptism. From all which we learn that the person of the Holy Spirit was of such authority and dignity, that saving baptism was not complete except by the authority of the most excellent Trinity of them all, i.e., by the naming of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and by joining to the unbegotten God the Father, and to His only-begotten Son, the name also of the Holy Spirit. Who, then, is not amazed at the exceeding majesty of the Holy Spirit, when he hears that he who speaks a word against the Son of man may hope for forgiveness; but that he who is guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit has not forgiveness, either in the present world or in that which is to come!

    The Spirit of God, therefore, which was borne upon the waters, as is written in the beginning of the creation of the world, is, I am of opinion, no other than the Holy Spirit, so far as I can understand; as indeed we have shown in our exposition of the passages themselves, not according to the historical, but according to the spiritual method of interpretation.

    Some indeed of our predecessors have observed, that in the New Testament, whenever the Spirit is named without that adjunct which denotes quality, the Holy Spirit is to be understood; as e.g., in the expression, Now the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, and peace; and, Seeing you began in the Spirit, are you now made perfect in the flesh? We are of opinion that this distinction may be observed in the Old Testament also, as when it is said, He that gives His Spirit to the people who are upon the earth, and Spirit to them who walk thereon. For, without doubt, every one who walks upon the earth (i.e., earthly and corporeal beings) is a partaker also of the Holy Spirit, receiving it from God. My Hebrew master also used to say that those two seraphim in Isaiah, which are described as having each six wings, and calling to one another, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God of hosts, were to be understood of the only-begotten Son of God and of the Holy Spirit. And we think that that expression also which occurs in the hymn of Habakkuk, In the midst either of the two living things, or of the two lives, You will be known, ought to be understood of Christ and of the Holy Spirit. For all knowledge of the Father is obtained by revelation of the Son through the Holy Spirit, so that both of these beings which, according to the prophet, are called either living things or lives, exist as the ground of the knowledge of God the Father. For as it is said of the Son, that no one knows the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him, the same also is said by the apostle of the Holy Spirit, when He declares, God has revealed them to us by His Holy Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God; and again in the Gospel, when the Savior, speaking of the divine and profounder parts of His teaching, which His disciples were not yet able to receive, thus addresses them: I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now; but when the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, has come, He will teach you all things, and will bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said to you. We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: For the Spirit blows where He lists. We are not, however, to suppose that the Spirit derives His knowledge through revelation from the Son. For if the Holy Spirit knows the Father through the Son's revelation, He passes from a state of ignorance into one of knowledge; but it is alike impious and foolish to confess the Holy Spirit, and yet to ascribe to Him ignorance. For even although something else existed before the Holy Spirit, it was not by progressive advancement that He came to be the Holy Spirit; as if any one should venture to say, that at the time when He was not yet the Holy Spirit He was ignorant of the Father, but that after He had received knowledge He was made the Holy Spirit. For if this were the case, the Holy Spirit would never be reckoned in the Unity of the Trinity, i.e., along with the unchangeable Father and His Son, unless He had always been the Holy Spirit. When we use, indeed, such terms as always or was, or any other designation of time, they are not to be taken absolutely, but with due allowance; for while the significations of these words relate to time, and those subjects of which we speak are spoken of by a stretch of language as existing in time, they nevertheless surpass in their real nature all conception of the finite understanding.

    I am of opinion, then, that the working of the Father and of the Son takes place as well in saints as in sinners, in rational beings and in dumb animals; nay, even in those things which are without life, and in all things universally which exist; but that the operation of the Holy Spirit does not take place at all in those things which are without life, or in those which, although living, are yet dumb; nay, is not found even in those who are endued indeed with reason, but are engaged in evil courses, and not at all converted to a better life. In those persons alone do I think that the operation of the Holy Spirit takes place, who are already turning to a better life, and walking along the way which leads to Jesus Christ, i.e., who are engaged in the performance of good actions, and who abide in God.

    at the time of the flood, when all flesh had corrupted their way before God, it is recorded that God spoke thus, as of undeserving men and sinners: My Spirit shall not abide with those men for ever, because they are flesh. By which, it is clearly shown that the Spirit of God is taken away from all who are unworthy. In the Psalms also it is written: You will take away their spirit, and they will die, and return to their earth. You will send forth Your Spirit, and they shall be created, and You will renew the face of the earth; which is manifestly intended of the Holy Spirit, who, after sinners and unworthy persons have been taken away and destroyed, creates for Himself a new people, and renews the face of the earth, when, laying aside, through the grace of the Spirit, the old man with his deeds, they begin to walk in newness of life. And therefore the expression is competently applied to the Holy Spirit, because He will take up His dwelling, not in all men, nor in those who are flesh, but in those whose land has been renewed. Lastly, for this reason was the grace and revelation of the Holy Spirit bestowed by the imposition of the apostles' hands after baptism. Our Saviour also, after the resurrection, when old things had already passed away, and all things had become new, Himself a new man, and the first-born from the dead, His apostles also being renewed by faith in His resurrection, says, Receive the Holy Spirit. This is doubtless what the Lord the Saviour meant to convey in the Gospel, when He said that new wine cannot be put into old bottles, but commanded that the bottles should be made new, i.e., that men should walk in newness of life, that they might receive the new wine, i.e., the newness of grace of the Holy Spirit. In this manner, then, is the working of the power of God the Father and of the Son extended without distinction to every creature; but a share in the Holy Spirit we find possessed only by the saints. And therefore it is said, No man can say that Jesus is Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 

    whereas he who has been deemed worthy to have a portion of the Holy Spirit, and who has relapsed, is, by this very act and work, said to be guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Let no one indeed suppose that we, from having said that the Holy Spirit is conferred upon the saints alone, but that the benefits or operations of the Father and of the Son extend to good and bad, to just and unjust, by so doing give a preference to the Holy Spirit over the Father and the Son, or assert that His dignity is greater, which certainly would be a very illogical conclusion. For it is the peculiarity of His grace and operations that we have been describing. Moreover, nothing in the Trinity can be called greater or less, since the fountain of divinity alone contains all things by His word and reason, and by the Spirit of His mouth sanctifies all things which are worthy of sanctification, as it is written in the Psalm: By the word of the Lord were the heavens strengthened, and all their power by the Spirit of His mouth. There is also a special working of God the Father, besides that by which He bestowed upon all things the gift of natural life. There is also a special ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ to those upon whom he confers by nature the gift of reason, by means of which they are enabled to be rightly what they are. There is also another grace of the Holy Spirit, which is bestowed upon the deserving, through the ministry of Christ and the working of the Father, in proportion to the merits of those who are rendered capable of receiving it. This is most clearly pointed out by the Apostle Paul, when demonstrating that the power of the Trinity is one and the same, in the words, There are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit; there are diversities of administrations, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God who works all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. From which it most clearly follows that there is no difference in the Trinity, but that which is called the gift of the Spirit is made known through the Son, and operated by God the Father. But all these works that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every one severally as He will.

     God the Father bestows upon all, existence; and participation in Christ, in respect of His being the word of reason, renders them rational beings. From which it follows that they are deserving either of praise or blame, because capable of virtue and vice. On this account, therefore, is the grace of the Holy Ghost present, that those beings which are not holy in their essence may be rendered holy by participating in it. Seeing, then, that firstly, they derive their existence from God the Father; secondly, their rational nature from the Word; thirdly, their holiness from the Holy Spirit — those who have been previously sanctified by the Holy Spirit are again made capable of receiving Christ, in respect that He is the righteousness of God; and those who have earned advancement to this grade by the sanctification of the Holy Spirit, will nevertheless obtain the gift of wisdom according to the power and working of the Spirit of God. And this I consider is Paul's meaning, when he says that to some is given the word of wisdom, to others the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit. And while pointing out the individual distinction of gifts, he refers the whole of them to the source of all things, in the words, There are diversities of operations, but one God who works all in all. Whence also the working of the Father, which confers existence upon all things, is found to be more glorious and magnificent, while each one, by participation in Christ, as being wisdom, and knowledge, and sanctification, makes progress, and advances to higher degrees of perfection; and seeing it is by partaking of the Holy Spirit that any one is made purer and holier, he obtains, when he is made worthy, the grace of wisdom and knowledge, in order that, after all stains of pollution and ignorance are cleansed and taken away, he may make so great an advance in holiness and purity, that the nature which he received from God may become such as is worthy of Him who gave it to be pure and perfect, so that the being which exists may be as worthy as He who called it into existence. For, in this way, he who is such as his Creator wished him to be, will receive from God power always to exist, and to abide forever. That this may be the case, and that those whom He has created may be unceasingly and inseparably present with Him, Who IS, it is the business of wisdom to instruct and train them, and to bring them to perfection by confirmation of His Holy Spirit and unceasing sanctification, by which alone are they capable of receiving God. In this way, then, by the renewal of the ceaseless working of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in us, in its various stages of progress, shall we be able at some future time perhaps, although with difficulty, to behold the holy and the blessed life, in which (as it is only after many struggles that we are able to reach it) we ought so to continue, that no satiety of that blessedness should ever seize us; but the more we perceive its blessedness, the more should be increased and intensified within us the longing for the same, while we ever more eagerly and freely receive and hold fast the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. But if satiety should ever take hold of any one of those who stand on the highest and perfect summit of attainment, I do not think that such an one would suddenly be deposed from his position and fall away, but that he must decline gradually and little by little, so that it may sometimes happen that if a brief lapsus take place, and the individual quickly repent and return to himself, he may not utterly fall away, but may retrace his steps, and return to his former place, and again make good that which had been lost by his negligence.

    The Great Isaiah Scroll - Digital Dead Sea Scrolls

    Chapter 6


    Verse 1
    In the year that king Uzziah died I saw my Lord sitting on his throne, high and exalted, and the skirts of his robe filled the temple.

    Verse 2
    Seraphs stood above him, each with six wings. With two they covered their face, with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew.

    Verse 3
    They called to each other: 'Holy, holy is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.'

    Verse 4
    The foundations of the thresholds shook when they called, and the house was full of smoke.

     Verse 5
    Then I said, 'Woe is me! for I am lost; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips. [In]deed my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.'

    Verse 6
    Then one of the seraphs flew to me, holding a live coal in his hand, which he had taken fr[o]m the [altar] with tongs.

    The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, volume 2

    Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Work

    The Ascension of Isaiah


    16 And he took me up into the sixth heaven, and there were none on the left, nor a throne in the middle, but all (were) of one appearance, and their praise (was) equal.

    17 And (strength) was given to me, and I also sang praises with them, and that angel also, and our praise was like theirs.

    18 And there they all named the primal Father and his Beloved, Christ, and the Holy Spirit, all with one voice,

    19 but it was not like the voice of the angels who (were) in the five heavens, 

    20 nor (was it) like their speech, but there was a different voice there, and there was much light there.

    21 And then, when I was in the sixth heaven, I thought that light which I had seen in the five heavens darkness.

    22 And I rejoiced and praised the One who has graciously given such light to those who await His promise.

    The Septuagint 

     In the midst of two living creatures you will be known 

    The Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek, the common language in Egypt at the time, but not in Hebrew.

    Chavakuk - Habakkuk LXX - Chapter 3


    2. O Lord, I have heard of your renown and paid reverence; O Lord, I considered your works and was astonished. You will be known in the midst of two living creatures; you will be recognized when the years draw near; you will be displayed when the right time comes; you will remember mercy when my soul is troubled with wrath.

    Caesarious of Arles interpreted the two creatures t be the Old and New Testaments in the midst of which Christ is known spiritually.

    Roberts interpreted the two creatures to be the cherubim of the ark

    Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3


    2. O Lord, I heard a report of You; I feared, O Lord, Your deed. In the midst of the years, revive it; in the midst of the years, let it be known. In anger You shall remember to have mercy.

    Seraphim Wings
    by Holicia
    Digital Art / 3-Dimensional Art / Abstract


    Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3


    3 God came from Teman; yea, the Holy One from Mt. Paran, with everlasting might. His glory covered the heavens and His splendor filled the earth.

    4 And there was a brightness like the light; they had rays from His hand, and there was His strength hidden.

    Tractate Pesachim: Chapter 1

    Regulations concerning the removal of leaven from the house on the eve of Passover and the exact time when this must be accomplished.


    By the light of a candle." The Rabbis taught: Search for leavened bread must not be made by the light of the sun, of the moon, or of a flame of fire, but only by the light of a candle; because the light of a candle is efficient for search, and although we have no actual foundation for this regulation, still we are given a hint to that effect in the passage [Exod. xii. 19]: "Seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses," and it is written [Genesis xliv. 12]: "And he searched, at the eldest he began," while [in Zephaniah i. 12] it is written: "And it shall come to pass at that time that I will search Jerusalem through with lights (candles)"; [Proverbs xx. 27] it is also written: "A lamp of the Lord is the soul of man, searching all the inner chambers of the body." (Hence as it is written in the first quotation "it shall not be found," and in the latter quotations searching is mentioned in connection with lights (candles), the hint is derived from those passages.)

    Under what circumstances shall search not be made by the light of the sun? Shall we say in the case of a court? Did not Rabha say, that in a court no search need be made, because the crows consume what leavened bread may be found there? In the case of a balcony? Did not Rabha say, that on a balcony one may search by the light of the balcony itself? The injunction against using the light of the sun is applied to a window of a room, namely: At the window proper search may be made by the light entering through the window, but at the sides this cannot be relied on and a candle must be procured in order to conduct a proper search.

    Not even a flame of fire may be used? Did not Rabha say, referring to the passage [Habakkuk iii. 4]: "And (his) brightness was like the sunlight; rays streamed forth out of his hand unto them: and there was the hiding of his power." "The righteous as compared with the Shekhina appear as the light of a candle to a bright flame; and concerning the benediction to be made at the close of the Sabbath-day which is pronounced over a light, he said, that a bright flame is more conducive to the efficient fulfilment of that duty?" (Why then should a flame not be permitted for the search?) Said R. Na'hman bar Itz'hak: "A candle may be applied to a hole or a crack in the wall, whereas a flame cannot be moved to such a place."



    Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 29


    28 The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God, but the revealed things apply to us and to our children forever: that we must fulfill all the words of this Torah.

    1 Kings 3


    7 And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father; and I (am but) a little child; I do not know (how) to go out or come in.

    8 And your servant (is) in the midst of Your people which you have chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

    9 Give (therefore) Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people, that I may discern between good and bad; for who is able to judge this Your great people?"

    10 And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.

    11 And God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have you asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked the life of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment.

    12 Behold, I have done according to your word; behold, I have given you a wise and understanding heart; so that there was none like you before you, nor after you shall any arise like you.

    By referring to Jonah the same way He referred to the Queen of the South, Jesus strongly supported the view that Jonah was a historical person. The Queen of the South was the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1-13). She came from the Arabian Peninsula that for the Jews was the end of the earth (cf. Jer. 6:20; Joel 3:8). She visited Jerusalem because of reports about Solomon’s great wisdom that had reached her ears. The something greater than Solomon was Messiah, the embodiment of divine wisdom. The queen would join the Ninevites in condemning the unbelievers of Jesus’ day because they failed to acknowledge one with greater wisdom than Solomon, as well as one with a greater message than Jonah. Jesus was greater than Solomon in His wisdom, wealth, and works.

    Matthew 12


    12:42 The queen of the South will rise up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomonand now, something greater than Solomon is here!

    Luke 10


    10:21 On that same occasion Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and intelligent, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will. 10:22 All things have been given to me by my FatherNo one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides to reveal him.

    John 14


    14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34  my commandments. 35  14:16 Then 36  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate 37  to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38  because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides 39  with you and will be 40  in you.

    14:18 “I will not abandon 41  you as orphans, 42  I will come to you. 43  14:19 In a little while 44  the world will not see me any longer, but you will see me; because I live, you will live too. 14:20 You will know at that time 45  that I am in my Father and you are in me and I am in you. 14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys 46  them is the one who loves me. 47  The one 48  who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal 49  myself to him.”

    14:22 “Lord,” Judas (not Judas Iscariot) 50  said, 51  “what has happened that you are going to reveal 52  yourself to us and not to the world?” 14:23 Jesus replied, 53  “If anyone loves me, he will obey 54  my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 55  14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey 56  my words. And the word 57  you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying 58  with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, 59  the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you 60  everything, 61  and will cause you to remember everything 62  I said to you.

    John 16


    16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’  16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness 14  because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 21  16:10 concerning righteousness, 22  because 23  I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24  because 25  the ruler of this world 26  has been condemned. 27 

    16:12 “I have many more things to say to you, 28  but you cannot bear 29  them now. 16:13 But when he, 30  the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide 31  you into all truth. 32  For he will not speak on his own authority, 33  but will speak whatever he hears, and will tell you 34  what is to come. 35  16:14 He 36  will glorify me, 37  because he will receive 38  from me what is mine 39  and will tell it to you. 40  16:15 Everything that the Father has is mine; that is why I said the Spirit 41  will receive from me what is mine 42  and will tell it to you. 43  16:16 In a little while you 44  will see me no longer; again after a little while, you 45  will see me.” 46 

    16:17 Then some of his disciples said to one another, “What is the meaning of what he is saying, 47  ‘In a little while you 48  will not see me; again after a little while, you 49  will see me,’ and, ‘because I am going to the Father’?” 50  16:18 So they kept on repeating, 51  “What is the meaning of what he says, 52  ‘In a little while’? 53  We do not understand 54  what he is talking about.” 55 

    16:19 Jesus could see 56  that they wanted to ask him about these things, 57  so 58  he said to them, “Are you asking 59  each other about this – that I said, ‘In a little while you 60  will not see me; again after a little while, you 61  will see me’? 16:20 I tell you the solemn truth, 62  you will weep 63  and wail, 64  but the world will rejoice; you will be sad, 65  but your sadness will turn into 66  joy. 16:21 When a woman gives birth, she has distress 67  because her time 68  has come, but when her child is born, she no longer remembers the suffering because of her joy that a human being 69  has been born into the world. 70  16:22 So also you have sorrow 71  now, but I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you. 72  16:23 At that time 73  you will ask me nothing. I tell you the solemn truth, 74  whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you. 75  16:24 Until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive it, 76  so that your joy may be complete.


    The Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit, has become the Spirit of Jesus

    Acts 16


    16:6 They went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been prevented by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message in the province of Asia. 16:7 When they came to Mysia, they attempted to go into Bithynia,  but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them to do this,



    2:6 Now we do speak wisdom among the mature,  but not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are perishing. 2:7 Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory. 2:8 None of the rulers of this age understood it. If they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 2:9 But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.”   2:10 God has revealed these to us by the Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2:11 For who among men knows the things of a man except the man’s spirit within him? So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 2:12 Now we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things that are freely given to us by God. 2:13 And we speak about these things, not with words taught us by human wisdom, but with those taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things to spiritual people. 8  2:14 The unbeliever 9  does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. And he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. 2:15 The one who is spiritual discerns 10  all things, yet he himself is understood 11  by no one. 2:16 For who has known the mind of the Lord, so as to advise him? 12  But we have the mind of Christ.

    2 Corinthians 3

    17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is present, there is freedom. 18 And we all, with unveiled faces reflecting the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another, which is from the Lord, who is the Spirit.

    Galatians 4


    4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are 11  a son, then you are also an heir through God.

    Revelation 11


    3 And I will grant my two witnesses authority to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth.” 4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) 5 If anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths and completely consumes their enemies. If anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 6 These two have the power to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time they are prophesying. They have power to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 7 When they have completed their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them and conquer them and kill them. 8 Their corpses will lie in the street of the great city that is symbolically called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was also crucified. 9 For three and a half days those from every people, tribe, nation, and language will look at their corpses, because they will not permit them to be placed in a tomb. 10 And those who live on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate, even sending gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth. 11 But after three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and tremendous fear seized those who were watching them. 12 Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them: “Come up here!” So the two prophets went up to heaven in a cloud while their enemies stared at them. 13 Just then a major earthquake took place and a tenth of the city collapsed; seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

    Catechism of the Catholic Church






    687 "No one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God.Now God's Spirit, who reveals God, makes known to us Christ, his Word, his living Utterance, but the Spirit does not speak of himself. The Spirit who "has spoken through the prophets" makes us hear the Father's Word, but we do not hear the Spirit himself. We know him only in the movement by which he reveals the Word to us and disposes us to welcome Him in faith. The Spirit of truth who "unveils" Christ to us "will not speak on his own." Such properly divine self-effacement explains why "the world cannot receive [him], because it neither sees him nor knows him," while those who believe in Christ know the Spirit because he dwells with them.

    688 The Church, a communion living in the faith of the apostles which she transmits, is the place where we know the Holy Spirit:

    - in the Scriptures he inspired;

    - in the Tradition, to which the Church Fathers are always timely witnesses;

    - in the Church's Magisterium, which he assists;

    - in the sacramental liturgy, through its words and symbols, in which the Holy Spirit puts us into communion with Christ;

    - in prayer, wherein he intercedes for us;

    - in the charisms and ministries by which the Church is built up;

    - in the signs of apostolic and missionary life;

    - in the witness of saints through whom he manifests his holiness and continues the work of salvation.


    689 The One whom the Father has sent into our hearts, the Spirit of his Son, is truly God.10 Consubstantial with the Father and the Son, the Spirit is inseparable from them, in both the inner life of the Trinity and his gift of love for the world. In adoring the Holy Trinity, life-giving, consubstantial, and indivisible, the Church's faith also professes the distinction of persons. When the Father sends his Word, he always sends his Breath. In their joint mission, the Son and the Holy Spirit are distinct but inseparable. To be sure, it is Christ who is seen, the visible image of the invisible God, but it is the Spirit who reveals him.

    690 Jesus is Christ, "anointed," because the Spirit is his anointing, and everything that occurs from the Incarnation on derives from this fullness.11 When Christ is finally glorified,12 he can in turn send the Spirit from his place with the Father to those who believe in him: he communicates to them his glory,13 that is, the Holy Spirit who glorifies him.14 From that time on, this joint mission will be manifested in the children adopted by the Father in the Body of his Son: the mission of the Spirit of adoption is to unite them to Christ and make them live in him:

    The notion of anointing suggests . . . that there is no distance between the Son and the Spirit. Indeed, just as between the surface of the body and the anointing with oil neither reason nor sensation recognizes any intermediary, so the contact of the Son with the Spirit is immediate, so that anyone who would make contact with the Son by faith must first encounter the oil by contact. In fact there is no part that is not covered by the Holy Spirit. That is why the confession of the Son's Lordship is made in the Holy Spirit by those who receive him, the Spirit coming from all sides to those who approach the Son in faith.15





    1.The Holy Ghost is the Testifier of Truth, who can teach [us] things [we] cannot teach one another.

    2.  As we direct and teach under the influence of that Spirit, we shall bring spirituality into the lives of those for whom we are responsible.

    Sweet are the fruits of teaching done under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. They feed the spirit and nourish the soul.

    Listen to the promptings of the Spirit. Be humble. You may be led to someone by the hand of the Lord because of your spirit, your attitude, your feeling, your humility.

    3. “And after the earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in the fire: and after the fire a still small voice” (1 Kings 19:11–12).

    That is the way it is. There is a still, small voice. It comes in response to prayer. It comes by the whispering of the Spirit. It may come in the silence of the night.

    4. How do we know the things of the Spirit? How do we know that it is from God? By the fruits of it. If it leads to growth and development, if it leads to faith and testimony, if it leads to a better way of doing things, if it leads to godliness, then it is of God. If it tears us down, if it brings us into darkness, if it confuses us and worries us, if it leads to faithlessness, then it is of the devil.

    God shall give unto you knowledge by his Holy Spirit, yea, by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost.” (D&C 121:26.)

    The things of God are understood by the Spirit of God. That Spirit is real. To those who have experienced its workings, the knowledge so gained is as real as that which is acquired through the operation of the five senses.

    5. How do you keep the Spirit of the Lord with you at all times?” Well, you live worthy of it; you live worthy of the Spirit of the Lord. That is what you do. And you will have it. … Just live right. Stay away from the sleaze. Stay away from pornography. Stay away from these things that pull you down. The books you read, the magazines you read, the videos you look at, the television programs you look at, the shows you go to, all have an effect on you and will do if you subject yourself to the influence of those titillating kinds of things which are designed to make you poor and somebody else rich. Stay away from them.

    The First Book of Nephi
    Chapter 10


    17 And it came to pass after I, Nephi, having heard all the words of my father, concerning the things which he saw in a vision, and also the things which he spake by the power of the Holy Ghost, which power he received by faith on the Son of God—and the Son of God was the Messiah who should come—I, Nephi, was desirous also that I might see, and hear, and know of these things, by the power of the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God unto all those who diligently seek Him, as well in times of old as in the time that he should manifest himself unto the children of men.

    The Book of Mosiah
    Chapter 3


    19 For the natural man is an enemy to God, and has been from the fall of Adam, and will be, forever and ever, unless he yields to the enticing of the Holy Spirit, and puts off the natural man and becomes a saint through the atonement of Christ the Lord, and become as a child, submissive, meek, humble, patient, full of love, willing to submit to all things which the Lord sees fit to inflict upon him, even as a child doth submit to his father.

    Doctrine and Covenants
    Section 11


    10 Behold, thou hast a gift, or thou shalt have a gift if thou wilt desire of me in faith, with an honest heart, believing in the power of Jesus Christ, or in my power which speaketh unto thee;

    11 For, behold, it is I that speak; behold, I am the light which shineth in darkness, and by my power I give these words unto thee.

    12 And now, verily, verily, I say unto thee, put your trust in that Spirit which leadeth to do good—yea, to do justly, to walk humbly, to judge righteously; and this is my Spirit.

    13 Verily, verily, I say unto you, I will impart unto you of my Spirit, which shall enlighten your mind, which shall fill your soul with joy;

    14 And then shall ye know, or by this shall you know, all things whatsoever you desire of me, which are pertaining unto things of righteousness, in faith believing in me that you shall receive.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9


    10 The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord, and the knowledge of the holy ones is understanding.

    By personifying wisdom Solomon was able to illustrate two things about it in these verses, both of which concern the guidance that is available in wisdom (understanding, insight). Wisdom is available everywhere (vv. 2-3) and to anyone (v. 5). It does not take a superior intellect to be wise in the biblical sense.

    As Creator, God counted wisdom most important. Wisdom is older than the universe, and it was essential in its creation. Nothing came into existence without wisdom. Wisdom leads to joy because creation produces joy (vv. 30-31) both for the Creator and for the creature. God made and did nothing without wisdom. Therefore it is very important that we obtain it. That is the point.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 8


    1 Will not wisdom call out, and understanding give forth its voice?

    2 At the top of the heights upon the road; at the crossroads she stands.

    3 Beside the gates, at the entrance of the roof, at the entrance of the portals she cries,

    4 "To you, O men, I call, and my voice [is] to the children of man.

    5 O simpletons, understand cunning, and you fools, give understanding to your heart.

    6 Hearken for I will speak noble things, and the opening of my lips shall be right things.

    7 For my palate shall utter truth, and wickedness is an abomination of my lips.

    8 All the sayings of my lips are with righteousness; there is nothing twisted or crooked in them.

    9 They are all true to the understanding one, and straight to those who find knowledge.

    10 Take my discipline and not silver; knowledge is chosen above gold.

    11 For wisdom is better than pearls; all desirable things cannot be compared to it.

    12 I am wisdom; I dwelt [beside] cunning, and the knowledge of devices I will find.

    13 Fear of the Lord is to hate evil, haughtiness, pride, the way of evil, and a perverse mouth; [these] I hate.

    14 I have counsel and sound wisdom; I am understanding; I have might.

    15 Kings reign with me, and rulers legislate righteousness.

    16 Through me princes govern, and nobles, yea, all judges of righteousness.

    17 I will love those who love me, and those who seek me eagerly will find me.

    18 Riches and honor are with me, powerful wealth and charity.

    19 My fruit is better than gold-yea than fine gold- and my produce [is better] than choice silver.

    20 In the way of righteousness I will go, in the midst of the paths of justice.

    21 There is substance to give inheritance to those who love me, and I will fill their treasuries.

    22 The Lord acquired me at the beginning of His way, before His works of old.

    23 From the distant past I was enthroned, from the beginning, of those that preceded the earth.

    24 I was created when there were yet no deeps, when there were no fountains replete with water.

    25 I was created before the mountains were sunk, before the hills;

    26 when He had not yet made the land and the outsides and the beginning of the dust of the earth.

    27 When He established the heavens, there I was, when He drew a circle over the face of the deep;

    28 when He made the skies above firm, when He strengthened the fountains of the deep;

    29 when He gave the sea its boundary, and the water shall not transgress His command, when He established the foundations of the earth

    30 I was a nursling beside Him, and I was [His] delight every day, playing before Him at all times

    31 playing in the habitable world of His earth, and [having] my delights with the children of man.

    32 And now, my children, hearken to me, and fortunate are those who observe my ways.

    33 Hearken to discipline and become wise, and do not put it to naught.

    34 Fortunate is the man who listens to me to watch by my doors day by day, to watch the doorposts of my entrances.

    35 For he who has found me has found life, and he has obtained favor from the Lord.

    36 But he who sins against me robs his soul; all who hate me, love death."

    Matthew 12


    12:22 Then they brought to him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus 29  healed him so that he could speak and see. 30  12:23 All the crowds were amazed and said, “Could this one be the Son of David?” 12:24 But when the Pharisees 31  heard this they said, “He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul, 32  the ruler 33  of demons!” 12:25 Now when Jesus 34  realized what they were thinking, he said to them, 35  “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, 36  and no town or house divided against itself will stand. 12:26 So if 37  Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12:27 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? For this reason they will be your judges. 12:28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has already overtaken you. 12:29 How else can someone enter a strong man’s house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house. 12:30 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.  12:31 For this reason I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemybut the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. 12:32 Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven. But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.

    Revelation 11


    3 And I will grant my two witnesses authority to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth.” 4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) 5 If anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths and completely consumes their enemies. If anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 6 These two have the power to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time they are prophesying. They have power to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 7 When they have completed their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them and conquer them and kill them. 8 Their corpses will lie in the street of the great city that is symbolically called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was also crucified. 9 For three and a half days those from every people, tribe, nation, and language will look at their corpses, because they will not permit them to be placed in a tomb. 10 And those who live on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate, even sending gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth. 11 But after three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and tremendous fear seized those who were watching them. 12 Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them: “Come up here!” So the two prophets went up to heaven in a cloud while their enemies stared at them. 13 Just then a major earthquake took place and a tenth of the city collapsed; seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

    I remember in my youth thinking that God was this immense indestructible being of power with an incomprehensible plan. In the beginning God manifested Himself into a Spirit form that created all things in the Universe. At a point of time the  Spirit of God created human life in His image with attributes to see, hear, communicate, an survive in the natural world.  When God's Spirit wanted to be known to humans they feared His power, but understood the truth to His words. For a period of time the The Spirit of God choose to interact with humans who both feared and worshiped him.  The Spirit of God would come in different forms. And for a period of time Through his Spirit God manifested himself into a human form into the womb of a  Holy virgin woman known as Mary. It is testified that the child of God and man was named Jesus, who lived and interacted with mankind for 33 years. When the mortal Jesus was ready to begin His ministry as a teacher to humankind the Spirit of God came upon him in the form of a dove.  From the Heavens, the Creator graced some human witnesses hear and bear testimony to His statement of pleasure with the righteous actions of Jesus, His human son. It was during this moment that  In time some mortal zealots who associated themselves with the Creator, but did not know or hear Him speak, perceived His son Jesus as a threat to their power over the people. The mortal zealots condemned and put Jesus to death. To let humans witness and give testimony that Jesus human form truly died, Roman guards were placed in front of Jesus tomb to make sure no one stole his corpse.  For three days the tomb was not disturbed. At that moment, the Spirit of God that creates life, resurrected Jesus dead mortal corpse to an imperishable living immortal Spirit.


    De Principiis (Book I)
    Chapter 2. On Christ.


    according to the expression of Solomon: The Lord created me — the beginning of His ways, and among His works, before He made any other thing; He founded me before the ages. In the beginning, before He formed the earth, before He brought forth the fountains of waters, before the mountains were made strong, before all the hills, He brought me forth. He is also styled First-born, as the apostle has declared: who is the first-born of every creature. The first-born, however, is not by nature a different person from the Wisdom, but one and the same. Finally, the Apostle Paul says that Christ (is) the power of God and the wisdom of God.

    Let no one, however, imagine that we mean anything impersonal when we call Him the wisdom of God; or suppose, for example, that we understand Him to be, not a living being endowed with wisdom, but something which makes men wise, giving itself to, and implanting itself in, the minds of those who are made capable of receiving His virtues and intelligence. If, then, it is once rightly understood that the only-begotten Son of God is His wisdom hypostatically existing.

    And therefore we must believe that Wisdom was generated before any beginning that can be either comprehended or expressed. And since all the creative power of the coming creation was included in this very existence of Wisdom (whether of those things which have an original or of those which have a derived existence), having been formed beforehand and arranged by the power of foreknowledge; on account of these very creatures which had been described, as it were, and prefigured in Wisdom herself, does Wisdom say, in the words of Solomon, that she was created the beginning of the ways of God, inasmuch as she contained within herself either the beginnings, or forms, or species of all creation.

    Wisdom was the beginning of the ways of God, and is said to be created, forming beforehand and containing within herself the species and beginnings of all creatures, must we understand her to be the Word of God, because of her disclosing to all other beings, i.e., to universal creation, the nature of the mysteries and secrets which are contained within the divine wisdom; and on this account she is called the Word, because she is, as it were, the interpreter of the secrets of the mind. And therefore that language which is found in the Acts of Paul, where it is said that here is the Word a living being, appears to me to be rightly used. John, however, with more sublimity and propriety, says in the beginning of his Gospel, when defining God by a special definition to be the Word, And God was the Word, and this was in the beginning with God. Let him, then, who assigns a beginning to the Word or Wisdom of God, take care that he be not guilty of impiety against the unbegotten Father Himself, seeing he denies that He had always been a Father, and had generated the Word, and had possessed wisdom in all preceding periods, whether they be called times or ages, or anything else that can be so entitled.

    The Apostle Paul says, that the only-begotten Son is the image of the invisible God, and the first-born of every creature. And when writing to the Hebrews, he says of Him that He is the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person. Now, we find in the treatise called the Wisdom of Solomon the following description of the wisdom of God: For she is the breath of the power of God, and the purest efflux of the glory of the Almighty. Nothing that is polluted can therefore come upon her. For she is the splendour of the eternal light, and the stainless mirror of God's working, and the image of His goodness. Now we say, as before, that Wisdom has her existence nowhere else save in Him who is the beginning of all things: from whom also is derived everything that is wise, because He Himself is the only one who is by nature a Son, and is therefore termed the Only-begotten.

    But the image of the Son of God, of whom we are now speaking, may be compared to the second of the above examples, even in respect of this, that He is the invisible image of the invisible God, in the same manner as we say, according to the sacred history, that the image of Adam is his son Seth. The words are, And Adam begot Seth in his own likeness, and after his own image. Now this image contains the unity of nature and substance belonging to Father and Son. For if the Son do, in like manner, all those things which the Father does, then, in virtue of the Son doing all things like the Father, is the image of the Father formed in the Son, who is born of Him, like an act of His will proceeding from the mind.

    so after some such fashion is the Father to be supposed as having begotten the Son, His own image; namely, so that, as He is Himself invisible by nature, He also begot an image that was invisible. For the Son is the Word, and therefore we are not to understand that anything in Him is cognisable by the senses. He is wisdom, and in wisdom there can be no suspicion of anything corporeal. He is the true light, which enlightens every man that comes into this world; but He has nothing in common with the light of this sun. Our Saviour, therefore, is the image of the invisible God, inasmuch as compared with the Father Himself He is the truth: and as compared with us, to whom He reveals the Father, He is the image by which we come to the knowledge of the Father, whom no one knows save the Son, and he to whom the Son is pleased to reveal Him. And the method of revealing Him is through the understanding. For He by whom the Son Himself is understood, understands, as a consequence, the Father also, according to His own words: He that has seen Me, has seen the Father also.

    But since we quoted the language of Paul regarding Christ, where He says of Him that He is the brightness of the glory of God, and the express figure of His person, let us see what idea we are to form of this. According to John, God is light. The only-begotten Son, therefore, is the glory of this light, proceeding inseparably from (God) Himself, as brightness does from light, and illuminating the whole of creation. For, agreeably to what we have already explained as to the manner in which He is the Way, and conducts to the Father; and in which He is the Word, interpreting the secrets of wisdom, and the mysteries of knowledge, making them known to the rational creation; and is also the Truth, and the Life, and the Resurrection, — in the same way ought we to understand also the meaning of His being the brightness: for it is by its splendour that we understand and feel what light itself is. And this splendour, presenting itself gently and softly to the frail and weak eyes of mortals, and gradually training, as it were, and accustoming them to bear the brightness of the light, when it has put away from them every hindrance and obstruction to vision, according to the Lord's own precept, Cast forth the beam out of your eye, renders them capable of enduring the splendour of the light, being made in this respect also a sort of mediator between men and the light.

    to show that the Son of God, who was in the form of God, divesting Himself (of His glory), makes it His object, by this very divesting of Himself, to demonstrate to us the fullness of His deity. 

    the Son of God, divesting Himself of His equality with the Father, and showing to us the way to the knowledge of Him, is made the express image of His person: so that we, who were unable to look upon the glory of that marvellous light when placed in the greatness of His Godhead, may, by His being made to us brightness, obtain the means of beholding the divine light by looking upon the brightness.

    the Son of God, though placed in the very insignificant form of a human body, in consequence of the resemblance of His works and power to the Father, showed that there was in Him an immense and invisible greatness, inasmuch as He said to His disciples, He who sees Me, sees the Father also; and, I and the Father are one. And to these belong also the similar expression, "The Father is in Me, and I in the Father."

    Let us see now what is the meaning of the expression which is found in the Wisdom of Solomon, where it is said of Wisdom that it is a kind of breath of the power of God, and the purest efflux of the glory of the Omnipotent, and the splendour of eternal light, and the spotless mirror of the working or power of God, and the image of His goodness. These, then, are the definitions which he gives of God, pointing out by each one of them certain attributes which belong to the Wisdom of God, calling wisdom the power, and the glory, and the everlasting light, and the working, and the goodness of God. He does not say, however, that wisdom is the breath of the glory of the Almighty, nor of the everlasting light, nor of the working of the Father, nor of His goodness, for it was not appropriate that breath should be ascribed to any one of these; but, with all propriety, he says that wisdom is the breath of the power of God. Now, by the power of God is to be understood that by which He is strong; by which He appoints, restrains, and governs all things visible and invisible; which is sufficient for all those things which He rules over in His providence; among all which He is present, as if one individual. And although the breath of all this mighty and immeasurable power, and the vigour itself produced, so to speak, by its own existence, proceed from the power itself, as the will does from the mind, yet even this will of God is nevertheless made to become the power of God.

    Let us now examine the expression, Wisdom is the purest efflux of the glory of the Almighty; and let us first consider what the glory of the omnipotent God is, and then we shall also understand what is its efflux. As no one can be a father without having a son, nor a master without possessing a servant, so even God cannot be called omnipotent unless there exist those over whom He may exercise His power; and therefore, that God may be shown to be almighty, it is necessary that all things should exist.

     Wisdom, through which God is called omnipotent, has a share in the glory of the Almighty. For through Wisdom, which is Christ, God has power over all things, not only by the authority of a ruler, but also by the voluntary obedience of subjects. And that you may understand that the omnipotence of Father and Son is one and the same, as God and the Lord are one and the same with the Father, listen to the manner in which John speaks in the Apocalypse: Thus says the Lord God, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. For who else was He which is to come than Christ? And as no one ought to be offended, seeing God is the Father, that the Savior is also God; so also, since the Father is called omnipotent, no one ought to be offended that the Son of God is also called omnipotent. For in this way will that saying be true which He utters to the Father, All Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them. Now, if all things which are the Father's are also Christ's, certainly among those things which exist is the omnipotence of the Father; and doubtless the only-begotten Son ought to be omnipotent, that the Son also may have all things which the Father possesses. And I am glorified in them, He declares. For at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and every tongue shall confess that the Lord Jesus is in the glory of God the Father. Therefore He is the efflux of the glory of God in this respect, that He is omnipotent— the pure and limpid Wisdom herself — glorified as the efflux of omnipotence or of glory. And that it may be more clearly understood what the glory of omnipotence is, we shall add the following. God the Father is omnipotent, because He has power over all things, i.e., over heaven and earth, sun, moon, and stars, and all things in them. And He exercises His power over them by means of His Word, because at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, both of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth. And if every knee is bent to Jesus, then, without doubt, it is Jesus to whom all things are subject, and He it is who exercises power over all things, and through whom all things are subject to the Father; for through wisdom, i.e., by word and reason, not by force and necessity, are all things subject. And therefore His glory consists in this very thing, that He possesses all things, and this is the purest and most limpid glory of omnipotence, that by reason and wisdom, not by force and necessity, all things are subject. Now the purest and most limpid glory of wisdom is a convenient expression to distinguish it from that glory which cannot be called pure and sincere. But every nature which is convertible and changeable, although glorified in the works of righteousness or wisdom, yet by the fact that righteousness or wisdom are accidental qualities, and because that which is accidental may also fall away, its glory cannot be called sincere and pure. But the Wisdom of God, which is His only-begotten Son, being in all respects incapable of change or alteration, and every good quality in Him being essential, and such as cannot be changed and converted, His glory is therefore declared to be pure and sincere.

     And this is the idea conveyed by John when he says that God is light. Now His wisdom is the splendour of that light, not only in respect of its being light, but also of being everlasting light, so that His wisdom is eternal and everlasting splendour. If this be fully understood, it clearly shows that the existence of the Son is derived from the Father but not in time, nor from any other beginning, except, as we have said, from God Himself.

    But wisdom is also called the stainless mirror of the ἐνέργεια or working of God. We must first understand, then, what the working of the power of God is. It is a sort of vigour, so to speak, by which God operates either in creation, or in providence, or in judgment, or in the disposal and arrangement of individual things, each in its season. For as the image formed in a mirror unerringly reflects all the acts and movements of him who gazes on it, so would Wisdom have herself to be understood when she is called the stainless mirror of the power and working of the Father: as the Lord Jesus Christ also, who is the Wisdom of God, declares of Himself when He says, The works which the Father does, these also does the Son likewise. And again He says, that the Son cannot do anything of Himself, save what He sees the Father do. As therefore the Son in no respect differs from the Father in the power of His works, and the work of the Son is not a different thing from that of the Father, but one and the same movement, so to speak, is in all things, He therefore named Him a stainless mirror, that by such an expression it might be understood that them is no dissimilarity whatever between the Son and the Father. How, indeed, can those things which are said by some to be done after the manner in which a disciple resembles or imitates his master, or according to the view that those things are made by the Son in bodily material which were first formed by the Father in their spiritual essence, agree with the declarations of Scripture, seeing in the Gospel the Son is said to do not similar things, but the same things in a similar manner?

    For there is no other second goodness existing in the Son, save that which is in the Father. And therefore also the Saviour Himself rightly says in the Gospel, There is none good save one only, God the Father, that by such an expression it may be understood that the Son is not of a different goodness, but of that only which exists in the Father, of whom He is rightly termed the image, because He proceeds from no other source but from that primal goodness, lest there might appear to be in the Son a different goodness from that which is in the Father. Nor is there any dissimilarity or difference of goodness in the Son. And therefore it is not to be imagined that there is a kind of blasphemy, as it were, in the words, There is none good save one only, God the Father, as if thereby it may be supposed to be denied that either Christ or the Holy Spirit was good. But, as we have already said, the primal goodness is to be understood as residing in God the Father, from whom both the Son is born and the Holy Spirit proceeds, retaining within them, without any doubt, the nature of that goodness which is in the source whence they are derived. And if there be any other things which in Scripture are called good, whether angel, or man, or servant, or treasure, or a good heart, or a good tree, all these are so termed characteristically, having in them an accidental, not an essential goodness. But it would require both much time and labor to collect together all the titles of the Son of God, such, e.g., as the true light, or the door, or the righteousness, or the sanctification, or the redemption, and countless others; and to show for what reasons each one of them is so given.

    Proverbs 25


    26 Like a muddied spring and a polluted well,

    so is a righteous person who gives way before the wicked.


    Matthew 3


    3:16 After 27  Jesus was baptized, just as he was coming up out of the water, the heavens opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove 31  and coming on him. 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, “This is my one dear Son; in him I take great delight.” 


  2.  Rulers established their legacy not only by building great structures, they also passed on Wisdom Sebayt  (Teaching, Didache) to their offspring and future leaders on the concepts divinity and virtue.  The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom literature in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty.  James Henry Breasted credited Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible
    Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health.  Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life.  The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. 
    Sabayt Ptahhotep


    8 (column 6, lines 3-6)
    The one who overlooks laws is punished;
    that is what is overlooked in the sight of the greedy.
    It is the small-minded that seize riches,
    but crime never managed to land its rewards.
    Whoever says 'I snare for myself'
    does not say 'I snare for my needs'.
    The final part of what is right is its endurance;
    of which a man says 'that is my father'
    14 (column 7, lines 9-10)
    Follow your heart as long as you live.
    Do not make a loss on what is said,
    do not subtract time from following the heart.
    Harming its time is an offence to the ka.
    Do not deflect the moment of every day
    beyond establishing your heart.
    As things happen, follow (your) heart.
    There is no profit in things if it is stifled.
    17 (column 8, lines 6-11)
    The great of heart is the gift of god,
    the one who obeys his body belongs to the enemy.
    22 (column 9, line 13 to column 10, line 5)
    If you wish your conduct to be good
    and to save yourself from all evil,
    resist the opportunity of greed.
    It is a sore disease of the worm,
    no advance can come of it.
    It embroils fathers and mothers,
    with mother's brothers.
    It entangles the wife and the man,
    it is a levy of all evils,
    a bundle of all hatefulness.
    The man endures whose guideline is Right,
    who proceeds according to his paces.
    He can draw up a will by it.
    There is no tomb for the greedy hearted.
    25 (column 11, lines 1-4)
    The spirit of the correct man is the spirit that brings happiness.
    28 (column 11, line 12 to column 12, line 6)
    Do not have your heart too high, or it will be brought down.
    42 (column 16, lines 3-13)

    The hearer is one whom God loves.
    The one whom God hates does not hear.
    The heart is the creator of its master.
    Do not hear from the one who does not hear.

    A man's heart is his life, prosperity and health.
    2 (column 5, lines 4-6)
    Then the Power of this god said:
    Teach him then the speech from the past
    that he may provide the example for the children of the great.
    May hearing enter into him, the measure of every heart.
    Speak to him. For none can be born wise
    44 (column 17, lines 4-9)

    As for the fool unable to hear,
    nothing can ever be done for him.
    He sees wisdom as ignorance,
    and what is good as what is painful.
    He commits every error,
    to be accused of it each day.
    He lives on what one dies of,
    corrupt speech is his food.
    His character in this is well-known to the officials,
    saying 'living death' each day.
    His faults are passed over
    from the sheer number of faults on him each day.

    The Sebayt of Amenemope (Didache of Amenomope or Teaching of Amenemope) is pharonic wisdom literature thought to have been written by the Egyptian Pharoah Usermaatre Amenemope of the 21st Dynasty. This coincided during the time when the tribes of Israel first became a unified nation.  In the prologue that Amenomope considered it extremely important for a ruler to know how to properly respond to his subjects and foreigners and follow the path of prosperity in life. 

    Sabayt Amenemope



    Beginning of the teaching for life,

    The instructions for well-being,

    Every rule for relations with elders,

    For conduct toward magistrates;

    Knowing how to answer one who speaks,

    To reply to one who sends a message,

    So as to direct him on the paths of life,

    To make him prosper upon the earth;

    To let his heart enter its shrine,

    Steering clear of evil;

    To save him from the mouth of strangers,

    To let (him) be praised in the mouth of people.

    It important that one seeking Sabayt pay strict attention to what is stated and learn how to control your tongue.

    Teaching of Amenemope

    Chapter I - The Sabayt


    He says
    ... Give your ears, hear the sayings,

    Give your heart to understand them; 

    It profits to put them in your heart,

    Woe to him who neglects them!

    Let them rest in the casket of your belly,

    May they be bolted in your heart;

    When there rises a whirlwind of words,

    They be a mooring post for your tongue.

    If you make your life with these in your heart,

    You will find it a success;

    You will find my words a storehouse for life,

    Your being will prosper upon earth 

    Give your ears and hear what is said,

     Give your mind over to their interpretation:

    The Chokhmah  (Chinukh, Didache, Teaching) Meshlei (Proverbs)  is Israelite wisdom literature thought to been written by King Solomon during his reign from 970 to 931 BCE. Solomon stressed wisdom begins with fearing our Creator. And understanding the teachings of the holy people brings insight on how to discern and respond to events around you. The knowledge you recieve it.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9


    10 The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord, and the knowledge of the holy ones is understanding.

    11 For with me shall your days increase, and they will add to you years of life.

    12 If you have become wise, you have become wise for yourself, and if you scorn, you will bear it alone.

    Similar to Amenemope,  Solomon taught that a ruler should be on guard against seductive words of flattery that can influence unwanted actions.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 5


    1 My son, hearken to my wisdom; incline your ear to my understanding,

    2 to watch [your] thoughts, and your lips shall guard knowledge.

    3 For the lips of a strange woman drip honey, and her palate is smoother than oil.

    4 But her end is as bitter as wormwood, as sharp as a two-edged sword.

    .5 Her feet descend to death; her steps come near the grave.

    6 Lest you weigh the path of life, her paths have wandered off and you shall not know.

    Solomon's father David taught that our Creator is the Shepherd of Creation like he was as a boy. It is our Creator's wisdom, not human that lead to a path of righteousness during our lives. If we stay on the Creator's path no evil shall fall upon us. 

    Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 23



    1 A song of David. The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.

    2 He causes me to lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside still waters.

    3 He restores my soul; He leads me in paths of righteousness for His name's sake.

    4 Even when I walk in the valley of darkness, I will fear no evil for You are with me; Your rod and Your staff-they comfort me.

    5 You set a table before me in the presence of my adversaries; You anointed my head with oil; my cup overflows.

    6 May only goodness and kindness pursue me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for length of days.



    In ancient Egyptian beliefs, serpents were considered both protectors and enemies of the people. The cobra is most often represented as the Uraeus, the fiercely protective serpent seen guarding the foreheads of Deities, kings, and queens. East of Alexandria,  in the city of Dep the Uraeus was known as Wadjet, the serpent goddess often depicted as a cobra. The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. Wadjet is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon.  Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a cobra's head, or as a woman wearing the Uraeus. The Uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus was the protector of the pharaoh and was believed to spit fire at enemies from its place on the forehead.

    Wadjet had a twin sister known as Nekhbet, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb) and later became the patron of Upper Egypt. She takes the form of woman with the head of a vulture, a woman with a vulture headdress or simply just white vulture symbolizing purity.


    Together, they represented the Uraeus – the two ladies (nebty) protecting the pharaoh and all of Egypt. When Egypt became one, these goddesses were believed to be present during the crowning of a pharaoh and their symbols were found the front of the crown itself. In this light, her role as a protector extended to common people as well.

    and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified.

    Apophis (Apep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. 

    Teaching of Amenemope

    Chapter 8 : speak no evil


    Set your deeds throughout the world

    That everyone may greet you;

    They make rejoicing for the Uraeus,

    And spit against the Apophis.

    Keep your tongue safe from words of detraction,

    And you will be the loved one of the people,

    Then you will find your (proper) place within the temple

    And your offerings among the bread deliveries of your lord;

    You will be revered, when you are concealed in your grave,

    And be safe from the might of God.

    Do not accuse a man,

    When the circumstance of (his) escape is unknown.

    Whether you hear something good or bad,

    Put it outside, until he has been heard;

    Set a good report on your tongue,

    While the bad thing is concealed inside you.

    The Literature Of Ancient Egypt

    The Story of Sinuhe


    The crown of Upper Egypt will go northward, and the crown of Lower Egypt will go southward that they may unite and come together at the word of Your Majesty, and the cobra goddess Wadjet will be placed on your forehead. As you have kept your subjects from evil, so may Re, Lord of the Two Lands, be compassionate toward you. Hail to you. And also to the Lady of All. Lay to rest your javelin, set aside your arrow. Give breath to the breathless. Give us this happy reward, this bedouin chief Simehyet, the bowman born in Egypt.

    Khnum was originally a water god who was thought to rule over all water, including the rivers and lakes of the underworld. He was associated with the source of the Nile, and ensured that the inundation deposited enough precious black silt onto the river banks to make them fertile. Khnum was similar to the the Creator's Holy Spirit as the Lord of Life of the body and the "ka" (spirit) of each newborn child.

    (52) his emotions & passions are constantly in a state of arousal ;

    Chapter 9 : avoid the heated 


    08  and take care not to {vex}. 

    09  Swift is speech when the heart is hurt,

    10  more than wind {over} water.

    23  If only Khnum came to him !

    25  so as to knead his {states of mind}. 50

    28  he causes brothers to quarrel,  

    32  {he gathers himself together, crouched.}

    34  A fire burns in his belly.




    Do not fraternize with the hot-tempered man,

    Nor approach him to converse.

    Safeguard your tongue from talking back to your superior,

    And take care not to offend him.

    Do not allow him to cast words only to entrap you,

    And be not too free in your replies;

    With a man of your own station discuss the reply;

    And take care of speaking thoughtlessly;

    When a man’s heart is upset, words travel faster

    Than wind over water.

    He is ruined and created by his tongue,

    When he speaks slander;

    He makes an answer deserving of a beating,

    For his freight is damaged.

    He sails among all the world,

    But his cargo is false words;

    He acts the ferryman in twisting words:

    He goes forth and comes back arguing.

    But whether he eats or whether he drinks inside,

    His accusation (waits for him) outside.

    The day when his evil deed is brought to court

    Is a disaster for his children.

    Even Khnum will straightway come against him, even Khnum will

    straightway come against him,

    The potter of the ill-tempered man,

    For he sets families to argue.

    He goes before all the winds like clouds,

    He changes his hue in the sun;

    He crocks his tail like a baby crocodile,

    He curls himself up to inflict harm,

    His lips are sweet, but his tongue is bitter,

    And fire burns inside him.

    Do not fly up to join that man

    Not fearing you will be brought to account.


    Chapter 10 : say what You think without injuring

    CHAPTER 10



    Do not address an intemperate man in your (unrighteousness)
    Nor destroy your own mind;
    Do not say to him, ‘‘May you be praised,’’ not meaning it
    When there is fear within you

    Do not converse falsely with a man,
    For it is the abomination of God.
    Do not separate your mind from your tongue,
    All your plans will succeed.
    You will be important before others,
    While you will be secure in the hand of God.
    God hates one who falsifies words,
    His great abomination is duplicity


    Chapter 11 : abuse no poor


    06  his heart is misled by his belly.60

    16  when the stick attains him.

    Chapter 17 : do not corrupt the measure


    04  nor let its belly be empty.76

    09  The bushel is the Eye of Re,77

    10  it abhors him who trims. 

    Chapter 21 : be reticent


    01  Do not say : 'Find me a strong superior, 

    05  Indeed You do not know the plans of god,92

    07  Settle in the arms of the god,93

    11  Do not empty your belly 94 to everyone,

    14  nor join with one who bares his heart.95

    15  Better is one whose speech is in his belly,96

    18  one does not create (it) to harm it.

    Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder),  In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits.  Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life.

    Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a


    R. Levi b. Hama says in the name of R. Simeon b. Lakish:
    A man should always incite the good impulse in his soul to fight against the evil impulse. For it is written: Tremble and sin not.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him study the Torah. For it is written: 'Commune with your own heart'.  If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him recite the Shema'. For it is written:
    'Upon your bed'. If he subdues it, well and good. If not, let him remind himself of the day of death. For it is written:
    [ Tehillim - Psalms 5: 1 To the conductor with melodies, a song of David. 2 When I call, answer me, O God of my righteousness; in my distress You have relieved me, be gracious to me and hearken to my prayer. 3 Sons of man, how long will my honor be disgraced? [How long] will you love futility? [How long] will you constantly seek lies? 4 You shall know that the Lord has set apart the pious man for Himself; the Lord shall hear when I call out to Him. 5 Quake and do not sin; say [this] in your heart on your bed and be forever silent. 6 Offer up sacrifices of righteousness and trust in the Lord. 7 Many say, "Who will show us goodness?" Raise up over us the light of Your countenance, O Lord. 8. You gave joy into my heart from the time that their corn and their wine increased. 9 In peace together, I would lie down and sleep, for You, O Lord, would make me dwell alone in safety.]
    'And be still, Selah'.



    (especially the sentence literature of chs. 10ff. ) shows "a general parallelism of
    thought" with Egyptian and Babylonian Instruction. 

    Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. The word literally means 'teachings' or 'instructions'[2] and refers to formally written ethical teachings focused on the "way of living truly".

    he book of Proverbs was principally written by King Solomon, David’s son, around 900 BC. 

     Wisdom literature is
    one of the most important classes of texts from the ancient
    civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and sufficient
    examples survive to illustrate both the different national or
    cultural preferences and, at the same time, the underlying
    similarity of thought and expression

    says, "that Proverbs 22:17-23:11 is largely dependent on the
    Teaching of Amenemope is now generally accepted".27

     Erman demonstrated that the Teaching of
    Amenemope was closely parallel with the portion of Proverb
    sometimes subtitled "Words of the Wise" (22:17-24:22)

    the belly is the home of our passions, emotions, feelings and states of arousal & rest - our sage promotes tranquility ;

    He has mastered the "inner" conflict between his passions and his mind, namely between the icons of emotions and the symbols of proto-rational cognition, between "belly" and "heart".
     Egyptian Instructions (both pre-Demotic
    and Demotic) present collections of maxims and teachings on moral living, these



    Amun is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400-2300) as a local god of Thebes along with his consort Amaunet.
    Amun as "The Obscure One" left room for people to define him according to their own understanding of what they needed him to be. A god who represented darkness could not also represent light, nor a god of water stand for dryness, etc. A god who personified the mysterious hidden nature of existence, however, could lend himself to any aspect of that existence; and this is precisely what happened with Amun.  
    During the Twelfth dynasty, the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence. In the city of Thebes. Atum was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra. 
    . In his role as Amun-Ra, the god combines his invisible aspect (symbolized by the wind which one cannot see but is aware of) and his visible aspect as the life-giving sun. In Amun, the most important aspects of both Ra and Atum were combined to establish an all-encompassing deity whose aspects were literally every facet of creation.
    Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford
    This life-sized statue of a ram, the sacred animal of the god Amun, was one of a pair that flanked a threshold in Taharqa’s temple at Kawa c. 680 BC. The base is carved with a hieroglyphic inscription proclaiming the king to be the son of the god Amun. A small figure of Taharqa stands protected under the ram’s chin. 
    Wonderful Ethiopians
    of the Ancient Cushite Empire
    Drusilla Dunjee Houston


    Let us seek to trace who Amen-Ra was. He was originally the god of Ethiopia. Amen-Ra was Cush, the son of Ham from whom the Cushites sprang. He was not one of the oldest deities of Egypt because he was preceeded by the gods of the ages of Noah (Saturn) and Ham. About the time of the rise of Thebes his name from his worldwide conquests must have been entered into the cycle of gods; for Africans deified their dead kings. Undoubtedly descendants of the great Cush sat upon the throne of Egypt This is why his name and form appear in the 11th Dynasty and its line of kings assumed his name.

    His became the predominent shrine of Egypt and its enrichment became the chief object of the Pharaohs. Amen or Cush was recognized by Egypt as its chief god. All the mummery of the world which tries to resolve the gods of old into anything else presents the height of folly. The ancients looked upon Zeus, Apollo and Osiris as persons. Amen-Ra was the Zeus of Greece, that was why they said the gods banqueted with the Ethiopians. He was the Jupiter of Rome. Zeus was king of kings because he was chief ruler in Ethiopia and over the lesser kings in his wide domains stretching from India to farther Norway. Horus, Apollo, Belus and Nimrod his son, were recognized and worshipped by all Cushite colonies. In the sculptures the Negro types of Africa are the assistants at the festivals in Amen's honor. He, himself, was of the same ancestry. In the later chapters of the Egyptian ritual his name is in the language of the Negroes of Punt.


    Relief depicting the ram-headed Amun-ra on a shrine erected by Kushite King Taharqa in the court of the Temple of Amun built by him at Kawa in Nubia. Late Period, 25th Dynasty, 690-64 BC.


    Diodorus is an invaluable source on
    the history of Egypt and Ethiopia. What does he say about the Ethiopians?
    “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the fi rst of all men and proofs
    of the statement are manifest. For they did not come into their country as
    immigrants from abroad but were the natives of it and so justly bear the name
    of Autochone...Th ey that dwell beneath the noonday sun were in all likelihood
    the fi rst to be generated by the earth... it is reasonable to suppose that the region
    which was nearest was the fi rst to bring forth living creatures. And they say that
    they were taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifi ces and processions and
    festivals and other rites by which man honors the deity: and that in consequences
    their piety was published abroad among all men... they state by reason of their
    piety towards the deity they manifestly enjoy the favor of the gods, inasmuch as
    they have never experienced rule of an invader from; for from all time they have
    enjoyed a state of freedom abroad and peace with the other and though many
    powerful rulers have made war upon them, not one of them succeeded in this
    Th e fi rst Ethiopians who were mentioned in the bible
    were from the land of Kush (Cush), which according to the biblical tradition was a territory on
    the Upper Nile, south of Egypt; it was also later known as Nubia. Kush is the name of the eldest
    son of Noah and the territory inhabited by his descendants. Th e Kushites are the descendants
    of Noah who produced the sons: Shem, Ham, and Japhet, each with their own language, clan,
    and nation. According to Gen. 9:18, the three sons peopled the rest of the earth, which was
    indicative of the unity of humanity in the ancient mind. Ham’s son, Cush, went to Ethiopia;
    his son, Mizraim, went to Egypt; Canaan went to Canaan; Phut (Pwnt) went to Punt, which in
    Egyptian records, the fabulous land on the East coast of Africa, source of myrrh (which included
    present-day Somaliland, perhaps also Arabia. 
     e Nag Hammadi Library is a collection of religious texts written by early Christians, known
    as Gnostics, who were excluded from the church as heretics. It is an invaluable source of Coptic
    lore, buried since 400AD in Nag Hammadi near Luxor in Egypt and discovered in 1945. Th e 
    Apocalypse of Adam (v.5), one of the Nag Hammadi tracts cast a new light in the treatment of
    the fl ood biblical genealogy.
    “And God will say to Noah- whom all generations will call DeucalonBehold
    I have protected you in the ark. Th erefore I will give the earth to you
    and your son.”
    “Th en Noah will divide the whole earth among his sons Ham and Japhet and
    Shem. He will then say to them, “My sons listen to my words. I have divided
    the earth among you. But serve Him with all the days of your life. Let not your
    seed depart from the face of the Almighty.”
    “Th en others from the seed of Ham and Japhet will come
    Four thousand men, and enter another land and sojourn with those who come
    from the eternal knowledge. Th en the seed of Ham and Japhet will form twelve
    kingdoms of another people.”3

    Th e strength of the Ethiopians or Kushites was detested to such a great degree, the prophet
    Isaiah, an agent of Yahweh (God), issued a proclamation to all:
    Disaster! Land of the whirring locust
    beyond the rivers of Cush,
    who send ambassadors by sea,
    in little reed- boats across the waters!
    to a nation tall and bronzed,
    a mighty and masterful nation.33
    We are told in the Old Testament when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of
    Solomon concerning the name of the lord; she came to him with questions. Kings 10:11
    Th e queen, who was a virgin and pure, learning about the history of the world, heard of
    Solomon’s wisdom and was curious to see what she had heard about, set on a long journey
    from Axum to Jerusalem, in those days when land and sea were not controlled by easy
    transportation. She proved his wisdom both material and spiritual.
    4. And God gave her what she desired... and this gift was a conception of Menelik I, the
    son of Solomon who is from the tribe of Judah, the descendant of Abraham, and this
    Menelik was to rule after her, hence the motto “Th e conquering Lion of the Tribes of
    Judah” which motto is the basis of the country’s faith and key to their ancestry. I Kings
    5. We are told in the New Testament that our Lord ...has praised her journey she made to
    hear the Wisdom of Solomon. Luke 11: 13.
    The Temple of Wadi es-Sebua
    “Es Sebua (“Th e Lions”) was the third temple built by Rameses II ninety- three moles from
    Aswan. Part of the temple is cut from rock. Rameses II dedicated the temple to Re- Harakhte
    and to Amun as he considered he was a god, by this time. He also worshiped in the temple. Th e
    entrance to the temple was formed by an avenue of Sphinxes (from which es-Sebua derives its
    name) that led up to the south pylon before which stood two colossal statues of Rameses II. At
    the far end of the sanctuary and above the solar bark on which the beetle-headed Re-Harakhte,
    the solar god is seated under a canopy while he is seated under a canopy while he is being adored
    on the left by the king and on the right by three baboons. Below is a niche that still shows traces
    of the three chiseled statues of the temples. Th ree principal gods are painted over the picture of
    St. Peter.92
    Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1457) also campaigned in Nubia. Th utmose III, her youthful coregent
    and stepson supplanted her. Th e Queen ruled as a king with ceremonial beard and a fi rm
    hand for twenty years. Th e temple built at Deir el Bahri was the outstanding monument of her
    reign. Th e walls display her important trading expedition to Punt. However, it was Th utmose
    III who extended the Egyptian frontier to the foot of the Holy Mountain at Gebel Barkal at the
    Fourth Cataract in his 47th regal year. His victory stele at Napata marked his triumph and the
    extent of the Egyptian frontier and in his temple of Amun-Re, he could boast of his satisfaction
    in both Egypt and Asia.
    Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten) (1352-1336) was a coregent with his father, Amenhotep the III,
    during his later reign. Amenhotep changed his name during his reign to Akhnaten, signifying
    his new devotion to the Sun god Aten, which was in confl ict with the Th eban god Amun, and
    the priesthood. Th e center of government remained at Th ebes while Akhnaten moved to Amarna
    with his beautiful wife Nefertari, and the adherents to the new religion that was a forerunner of
    Monotheism. Akhnaten built a temple at Karnak in honor of Aten. Th e gains made abroad were
    gradually diminished by lack of attention on the home front. Th e agreement of the factions of
    Aten and Amun seem to have begun under Semenekhara (1335-1332), who was coregent with
    Akhnaten for a short period. He was succeeded by Tutankhamon (1332-23) who was successful
    in returning the splintered worship of Amun to Th ebes. Th e death of Tutankhamon while still
    a youth made a place for an elderly noble named Ay (1323-1319) who legitimized his claim by
    marrying the widow of the deceased
    Alara’s prayer preserved in the Kawa VI relief refl ects his piety and his
    belief in the providence of the God Amun:
    O benefi cent god, swift, who calls upon him, look
    Upon my sister for me, a women born with me in one womb.
    Act for her (even) as you have acted for him [Alara] that acted
    For you , as a wonder, unpremeditated, and not disregarded by refl ective people. For
    you put a stop to him that plotted evil against me after you set me up as king
    A stela from Kawa, now located in the Ny Carlsberg Glypotek in Copenhagen, shows Alara
    making off erings to the god. Th e temple B at Kawa depicts the earliest post new Kingdom
    temple and affi rms that Alara was the fi rst signifi cant restorer of the Nubian Amun cult. Th e
    fi rst surviving sculptures of the dynasty are a series of ram sphinxes of heavy cut stone placed
    by Kashta by its pylon when he enlarged the mud-brick temple of Alara (B800) at Jebel Barkal. 
    Kashta’s legitimacy as king was established through the installation of Alara’s sister as princess
    of Amun, which created the justifi cation for royal succession and facilitated the shared concepts
    of traditional Kushite practice with Egyptian concepts of kingship. 
    Kashta was married to his sister Pebtatma indicated by her Abydos stela. Her roles are also
    given as Sistrum-player of Amen Re, King of the Gods, King’s sister, king’s daughter, mother of
    the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Kashta was affi rmed king by the priests of Amun when he
    arrived in Th ebes. Adams posits that there was no suggestion of military activity connected with
    this visit.
    Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer
    It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone
    Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of
    the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King
    of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister
    of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as
    God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His
    brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and
    Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har.
    Pianhki’s genius as titular King of Egypt, liturgical wizard in the synthesis of Egyptian
    and Kushite concepts of order as priest, and military might as general is captured in his Great
    Triumphal Stela from the Gebel Barkal Temple of Amun in the year 727 B.C. which is now in
    Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer
    It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone
    Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of
    the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King
    of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister
    of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as
    God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His
    brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and
    Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har.
    It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and
    the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the fi nest horses used in
    contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia.
    Th is splendid large stela of pink granite with a rounded top has a lunette relief which gives
    a pictorial summary of the event in the text that describes his wars fought under the protection
    of Amun bringing him the victory he envisioned. At the left of the lunette is Amun sitting on
    the throne with Mut the goddess standing behind Amun and Pianhki standing before him.
    King Namlot, of Hermopolis, is leading a horse in front of Pianhki shaking a sistrum in order
    to pacify him. 
    Pianhki in the tradition of the pharaohs donated his tribute of war to the god
    Amun which was vast:
    “a mass of copper or turquoise as large as yourself, fi nest horses, gold, silver, lapislazuli,
    property of all kinds, suits of apparel made of byssus of every quality, and
    couches and coverlets of linen, and anti perfume, vases of unguent, metal vessels
    or gold ornaments for the neck, crowns for your head, gold vases for ceremonies
    of purifi cation, precious inlaid stones...”
    At Kawa, Pianhki added a colonnaded forecourt where his stelae could be erected and pylons
    to the temple of Amun and built a paved processional road. On the walls of the temple, the
    ancient thirty-year Sed festival is depicted showing the king restoring his powers. At Kurru, he
    is entombed in a pyramid with subterranean chamber accessed by a stairway, and his wife Tabiry
    is buried nearby. Th e horses that he loved were buried as well at Kurru with elaborate trappings
    of silver and gold. Th e reign of the conqueror lasted 30 years.
    Pianhki is also remembered from the Sandstone Stela by his speech:
    ‘Th e Son of Re, lord of Diadems, “beloved of Amun,
    Pi(anh)ki says:
    Amun of Napata has granted me to be ruler of every foreign country.
    He to whom I say, you are chief, he is to be chief.
    He to whom I say ‘You are not king !’ he is not King .
    Amun in Dominion (Th ebes) has granted me to be ruler of Black-land.
    ...Gods make a king, men make a king,
    But it is Amun who has made me
    Th e earliest throne name of Pianhki, as Lord of Two Lands was indicative of his godship
    and kingship.
    Shabataka assumed the reign of the Kingdom of Kush and Egypt, following the death of his
    father. His attested wife was Arty, a daughter of Pianhki. Shabataka was enthroned at Th ebes
    in the great temple of Amun. His titulary included “Whose appearances -endure, Beloved of
    Ptah and Beloved of Amun.
    Th is ‘shadowy king’ falls through the cracks of history as so little has been found to affi rm his
    reign. Th e Karnak Nile level record, year three of Shabataka, records that he arrived at Th ebes,
    the compound of Amun on the fi fth day of the fi rst month of summer in his third regal year. 


    Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I  (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I is presumed to be the Shishak (Shishak, Shishaq or Susac) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Sheshonq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited. 

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3


    1 And Solomon became allied by marriage to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had completed building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

    2Only the people sacrificed in the high places, because there was no house built unto the name of the Lord, until those days.

    3And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father; only he sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places.

    4And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that (was) the great high place; a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar.

    5In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said, "Ask what I shall give you."

    6And Solomon said, "You have done Your servant David my father great kindness, as he walked before you in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with You; and You have kept for him this great kindness, that You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as (it is) this day.

    7And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father; and I (am but) a little child; I do not know (how) to go out or come in.

    8And your servant (is) in the midst of Your people which you have chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

    9Give (therefore) Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people, that I may discern between good and bad; for who is able to judge this Your great people?"

    10And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.

    11And God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have you asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked the life of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment.

    12Behold, I have done according to your word; behold, I have given you a wise and understanding heart; so that there was none like you before you, nor after you shall any arise like you.

    13And I have also given you that which you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there shall not be any among the kings like you all your days.

    14And if you walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David did walk, then I will lengthen your days."

    All humans have been given the knowledge of good and evil. Our Creator bestowed Solomon the gift discerning whether the actions of others are good or evil. In return, the Creator had only the request that Solomon keep His statutes and My commandments.

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 5


    9 And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceedingly much, and largeness of heart, as the sand that (is) on the seashore.

    10 And Solomon's wisdom was greater than the wisdom of all the children of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt.

    11 And he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol, and his fame was in all the nations round about.

    12 And he spoke three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five.

    13 And he spoke of trees, from the cedar tree that (is) in Lebanon and to the hyssop that springs out of the wall, and he spoke of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of the creeping things, and of the fishes.

    14 And they came of all peoples to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, who had heard his wisdom. 

     Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9


    3 And the Lord spoke to him: "I have heard your prayer and your petition, which you have petitioned before Me. I have consecrated this Temple which you have built to place My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart shall be there at all times.

    4 As for You, if you go before Me, as David your father went wholeheartedly and with uprightness to do in accordance with all that I have commanded you [and] you will keep My statutes and laws.

    5 I will establish the throne of your kingdom over Israel forever as I have spoken to David your father, saying: A man will not fail you upon the throne of Israel.

    6 But if you and your children turn away from following Me, and you will not adhere to My commandments and My statutes, which I have placed before you, but go and worship other gods and bow before them.

    7 Then I will cut Israel off, from the land which I have given to them, and this house which I have made sacrosanct for My Name will I dismiss from My presence, and Israel shall be for a proverb and a byword among all nations.

    8 And this Temple [which] is exalted, [shall become forlorn] and every passerby shall be astounded and will hiss, and they will say: "Why has the Lord done this to this country and to this Temple?"

    9 They will be told, "Because they abandoned the Lord, their God, Who delivered their forefathers out of the Land of Egypt; and took hold of other gods and bowed to them and served them. Therefore, has the Lord brought all this retribution upon them. "

    Ecclesiastes is presented as an autobiography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises Solomon's wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. 

    One reason the Kohelet is identified as Solomon is that at one time Solomon was the king of Israel, and Ecclesiastes 1:1 identifies the Preacher as “king in Jerusalem.” Also in agreement with Ecclesiastes 1:1, Solomon was a “son of David.”

    Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 1


    1 The words of Koheleth son of David, king in Jerusalem.

    2 Vanity of vanities, said Koheleth; vanity of vanities, all is vanity.

    3 What profit has man in all his toil that he toils under the sun?

    4 A generation goes and a generation comes, but the earth endures forever.

     Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War

    President Abraham Lincoln

    Second Annual Message
    December 1, 1862


    On the 22d day of September last a proclamation was issued by the Executive, a copy of which is herewith submitted. In accordance with the purpose expressed in the second paragraph of that paper, I now respectfully recall your attention to what may be called "compensated emancipation."

    A nation may be said to consist of its territory, its people, and its laws. The territory is the only part which is of certain durability. "One generation passeth away and another generation cometh, but the earth abideth forever." It is of the first importance to duly consider and estimate this ever-enduring part.

    Egyptian influence on Israel was particularly strong in the reign of Solomon who became the son-in-law to an Egyptian Pharaoh. 

    It has been suggested that Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between Israel and Egypt. Neterkheperre was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means 'son of Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen).'

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9


    16 Pharaoh, king of Egypt, had gone up and conquered Gezer and burnt it with fire, and slayed the Canaanites who inhabited the city; and he gave it as a gift to his daughter, Solomon's wife.

    King  Solomon incorporated the teachings of Israel  Egypt's Vizier Ptahhotep on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions.

    Ecclesiastes 10

    10:2 A wise person’s good sense protects him, 
    but a fool’s lack of sense leaves him vulnerable.
    10:3 Even when a fool walks along the road he lacks sense,
    and shows everyone what a fool he is.
    10:4 If the anger of the ruler flares up against you, do not resign from your position, 
    for a calm response can undo great offenses.
    10:5 I have seen another misfortune on the earth: 
    It is an error a ruler makes.
    10:6 Fools are placed in many positions of authority, 
    while wealthy men sit in lowly positions.

    Scripture presents Solomon had access to Egyptian and Babylonian literature.

    King Solomon's actions caused Israel to fall from the Creator's grace.

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 11


    1 King Solomon loved many foreign women and the daughter of Pharaoh; Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites.

    2 Of the nations about which the Lord had said to the Children of Israel, "You shall not go (mingle) among them and they shall not come among you, for certainly they will sway your heart after their dieties." To these did Solomon cleave to love [them]

    3 And he had seven hundred royal wives and three hundred concubines, and his wives turned away his heart.

    4 And it was at the time of Solomon's old age, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods, and his heart was not whole with the Lord, His God, like the heart of David his father.

    5 And Solomon went after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

    6 And Solomon did what was displeasing to the Lord, and he was not completely devoted to the Lord as was David his father. 

    7 Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab on the mountain that is before Jerusalem and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.   

    8 And so he did for all of his alien wives who offered incense and slaughtered sacrifices to their deities.

    9 And the Lord became angry with Solomon because his heart had digressed from the Lord, God of Israel, Who had appeared to him twice.

    10 And had commanded him pertaining this matter, not to follow other gods; however, he did not keep what the Lord had commanded.

    11 And the Lord said to Solomon, "For as this has been with you, and you have not observed My covenant and My statutes which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you, and I shall give it to your servant.

    12 However, in your days I will not do this, for the sake of David your father; from the hands of your son I shall tear it.

    13 But I shall not tear the entire kingdom away from you; one tribe I shall grant to your son for the sake of David My servant, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen.

    14And the Lord raised up an adversary against Solomon, Hadad, the Edomite; he was of the royal lineage in Edom.

    15And it was when David was in Edom that Joab, the commander of the army had gone up to bury the slain, since he had slain every male in Edom.

    16For Joab and all of Israel remained [stationed] there for six months until he had killed every male in Edom.

    17Adad fled, he and some Edomite men, of his father's servants with him, to go to Egypt; Hadad being yet a small child.    

    18And they set out from Midian and came to Paran, and they took men with them from Paran and they arrived in Egypt and came before Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, He granted him a home and assigned him sustenance and gave him land.

    19And Hadad pleased Pharaoh very much so that he gave him in marriage the sister of his wife, the sister of Tachpenes, the queen.

    20And the sister of Tachpenes bore him Genubath his son, whom Tachpenes weaned in Pharaoh's house, and Genubath was in Pharaoh's house among Pharaoh's children.

    21Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers and that Joab, the commander of the army had died. And Hadad said to Pharaoh, "Give me leave, and I shall go to my country."

    22And Pharaoh said to him, "What do you lack with me that you desire to go to your country?" And he said, "Nevertheless, give me leave."

    23And God raised up against him an adversary, Rezon, the son of Eliada, who had fled from Hadadezer, the king of Zobah, his master.

    24And he assembled men around him, and he became commander over a battalion when David slew them, and they went to Damascus and settled there and ruled in Damascus.

    25 And he was an adversary to Israel all of Solomon's days with the evil that was caused by Hadad, and he detested Israel and ruled over Aram.

    26 And Jeroboam the son of Nabat an Ephraimite of Zeradah, whose mother's name was Zeruah, a widow; he was Solomon's servant, he raised his hand against the king.

    27And this was the matter [concerning] which he raised his hand against the king; Solomon built up the Millo and closed up the breach of the city of David, his father.

    28 And the man Jeroboam was a mighty man of valor; and Solomon saw this young man, that he was a diligent worker, and he appointed him in charge of all the burdens of the House of Joseph.

    29And it came to be at that time when Jeroboam had left Jerusalem, that Ahijah, the Shilonite, the prophet, found him on the way, and he was wearing a new garment, and the two of them were alone in the field.

    30And Ahijah grasped the new garment that was upon him and tore it into twelve pieces.

    31And he said to Jeroboam, "Take for yourself ten pieces, for so has the Lord, the God of Israel, said, "I shall tear the kingdom out of Solomon's hands and I shall give you the ten tribes.

    32But he will have one tribe, for My servant David's sake and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which I have chosen of all the tribes of Israel.

    33Since they have deserted Me and have prostrated themselves to Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, to Chemosh, the god of Moab, and Milcom, the god of the children of Ammon, and they have not walked in My ways, to do what is right in My eyes to keep My statutes and judgments as did David his father.

    34However, I will not take any part of the kingdom away from him but I will make him a king all the days of his life for the sake of David My servant, whom I chose, for he kept My commandments and My statutes.

    35However, I will take the kingdom away from his son and will give it to you, the ten tribes

    36And his son I shall give one tribe so that David My servant may have a kingdom before Me in Jerusalem, the city which I chose for Myself to place My name there.

    37And I shall take you, and you shall rule over all that your soul desires, and you shall be king over Israel.

    38And it will be, if you heed all that I shall command you and will walk in My ways and do what is righteous in My eyes, to keep My statutes and My commandments as did David My servant, and I shall be with you and build for a lasting dynasty as I have built for David My servant, and I shall give Israel to you.

    39And I shall afflict David's descendants because of this, but not for all times."

    40Solomon sought to put Jeroboam to death, but Jeroboam arose and fled to Egypt to Shishak, the king of Egypt, and remained in Egypt until Solomon's death.    

    Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 12

    While Solomon did pay for his transgressions here on earth, his last word of wisdom does offer hope for his possible Salvation.


    1 And remember your Creator in the days of your youth, before the days of evil come, and years arrive, about which you will say, "I have no desire in them."

    2 Before the sun, the light, the moon, and the stars darken, and the clouds return after the rain.

    3 On the day that the keepers of the house tremble, and the mighty men are seized by cramps, and the grinders cease since they have become few, and those who look out of the windows become darkened.

    4 And the doors shall be shut in the street when the sound of the mill is low, and one shall rise at the voice of a bird, and all the songstresses shall be brought low.

    5 Also from the high places they will fear, and terrors on the road, and the almond tree will blossom, and the grasshopper will drag itself along, and sexual desire will fail, for man goes to his everlasting home, and the mourners go about in the street.

    6 Before the silver cord snaps, and the golden fountain is shattered, and the pitcher breaks at the fountain, and the wheel falls shattered into the pit.

    7 And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God, Who gave it.

    8 "Vanity of vanities," said Koheleth; "all is vanity."

    9 And more [than this], Koheleth was wise, he also taught knowledge to the people; he listened and sought out, he established many proverbs.

    10 Koheleth sought to find words of delight and properly recorded words of truth.

    11 The words of the wise are like goads, and like well-fastened nails with large heads, given from one shepherd.

    12 And more than they, my son, beware; making many books has no end, and studying much is a weariness of the flesh.

    13 The end of the matter, everything having been heard, fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the entire man.

    14 For every deed God will bring to judgment-for every hidden thing, whether good or bad.


    Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: [ʃiʃaq], Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, translit. Sousakim) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I.

    Sheshonq I campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-12).

    According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE[2]), Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Kushites ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made;[3] Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones.

    According to Second Chronicles,

    Egyptian military conquests against Assyria and Israel, aided by Ethiopians are recorded in
    the Books of Kings, Acts, and the Chronicles. Mention is made of an Ethiopian army assisting
    Shishak ( Sheshonk) who ruled Egypt during the reign of Rehoboam, the King of Judah and the
    Son of Solomon. Shishak’s army swept across the land of Judah, with twelve hundred chariots and
    sixty thousand men, leaving in his wake fi re and destruction. Th e people of Lubim and Sukkim,
    and the Ethiopians are further described as a host with many horses and chariots. Subduing the
    Judeans in the south, Shishak continued north to Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the king
    which included all of the gold shields which Solomon had made.31

    Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 14


    21 And Rehoboam the son of Solomon ruled in Judah; forty-one years of age was Rehoboam when he became king and seventeen years he reigned in Jerusalem, the city that the Lord had chosen to place His Name there out of all the tribes of Israel, and his mother's name was Naamah the Amonitess.

    22 And Judah did what displeased the Lord, and they angered Him more than their forefathers had done with their sins that they sinned.

    23 And they, too, built for themselves high places, monuments and trees for idol worship on every high hill and under every green tree.

    24 And also adultery was in the land; they did as all the abominations of the nations that the Lord had driven out from before the Children of Israel.

    25 And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak, the king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem.

    26 And he took the treasures of the House of the Lord and the treasures of the king's palace, and he took everything; and he took all the golden shields that Solomon had made.

    Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 12



    1 Now it came to pass when Rehoboam's kingdom was established and when he became strong, he abandoned the Law of the Lord, and all Israel with him.

    2 And it came to pass in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, that Shishak the king of Egypt marched against Jerusalem, for they had betrayed the Lord.

    3 With a thousand and two hundred chariots and with sixty thousand horsemen, and there was no number to the people who came with him from Egypt: the Lubim, the Sukkiim, and the Cushites.

    4 And he seized Judah's fortified cities, and he came until Jerusalem.

    5 And Shemaiah the prophet came to Rehoboam and the princes of Judah who had gathered to Jerusalem because of Shishak, and he said to them, "So said the Lord: You have forsaken Me; so I too have forsaken you in the hand of Shishak."

    6 And the princes of Israel and the king humbled themselves, and they said, "The Lord is just."

    7 And when the Lord saw that they had humbled themselves, the word of the Lord came to Shemaiah, saying, "They have humbled themselves; I shall not destroy them, but I shall grant them some measure of deliverance, and My wrath will not be poured out in Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak.

    8 For they will be his slaves, and they will know My service and the service of the kingdoms of the lands.

    9 And Shishak, the king of Egypt, marched against Jerusalem, and he took the treasures of the House of the Lord and the treasures of the king's palace; everything he took, and he took the golden shields that Solomon had made.







     600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will.

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11


    1 Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord, but a perfect weight is His will.

    Proverbs 16


    16:9 A person plans his course,
    but the Lord directs his steps.
    16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,
    his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.
    16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;
    all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

    The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess that was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi  (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives.  The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality.

    300 hundred years before Solomon, the Egyptian Royal scribe, Hunefer made a copy of the funerary Egyptian Book of the Dead for Pharaoh Seti I. 

    Like the Creator in Judaism, Thoth gives long life on earth and the promise of eternal life in the after world to those who are just.  

    Book of the Dead of Hunefer
    Chapter CLXXXIII
    Papyrus of Un'neferu


    Life is with thee, abundance is attached to thee. I offer Maat before thee; grant that I may be in the train of thy majesty like one who is on the earth. May thy name be called upon, may it be found among the just ones.
    I have come to this god, to the city of god, to the region of old time; my soul, my ka, my Chu are in this land. The god of it is the lord of justice, the lord of abundance, the great and the venerable one, who is towed through the whole earth; he journeys to the South in his boat, and to the North driven by the winds, and his oars, to be entertained with gifts according to the command of the god, the lord of peace therein, who left me free of care. The god therein rejoices in who practices justice; he grants an old age to him who has done so; he is beloved, and the of it is a good burial and a sepulture in Ta-Tsert.
    I have come to thee; my hands bring Maat, my heart does not contain any falsehood, I offer thee Maat before thy face, I know her; I swear by her; I have done no evil thing on earth; I have never wronged a man of his property. I am Thoth, the perfect and pure writer; my hands are pure. I have put away all evil things; I write justice and I hate evil; for I am the writing-reed of the Inviolate god, who utters his words, and whose words are written in the two earths.
    I am Thoth, the lord of justice, who gives victory to him who is injured and who takes the defense of the oppressed, of him who is wronged in his property. I have dispelled darkness; I have driven away the storm; I have given air to Unneferu, and the sweet breezes of the North when he comes out of the womb of his mother.



    The relief portrait of Hammurabi can be found in the House Gallery in the United States Capitol Building.


    Hammurabi Code of Laws Stele.



    500 hundred years before Hunefer,  the Babylonian King ,Hammurabi (Khammurabi. Awil Kurda) inscribed his code of law on a stone stele. 

    The Sky god Anu (An) is considered the Chief Justice of the seven gods ( Anunnaki) who reside in the underworld and judge the fate of mankind. It was It was Ea (Enki), the god of righteousness, who proposed to the council that a mortal man should be created to serve the gods. Anu and Ea assigned the Bel Marduk (Ea's son) to oversee the decrees of Anu on the fate of mankind with his Imhullu (divine wind storm weapon). The "Bel" title became associated with the Babylonian patron god Marduk, first as "Bel Marduk", but eventually being commonly used by itself, "Bel."  Ea and his son, Lord (Bel) Marduk assigned lesser gods to oversee particular regions on earth and represent the mortals in the council of gods. Anu and Ea who bestowed on King Hammurabi the power to rule over the mortals with righteousness judgement over the wicked. 

    Code of Hammurabi

    Prologue 1


    When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, dominion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.

    Bêlit means lady or mistress in Akkadian language.

    Belet-Seri (also spelled Beletseri, Belit-Sheri, Belit-Tseri) in Babylonian and Akkadian mythology is an underworld goddess. The recorder of the dead entering the underworld, she is known as the "Scribe of the Earth". It is Belet-seri who keeps the records of human activities so she can advise the queen of the dead,  Erishkigal, on their final judgement. Married to Amurru, the God of Nomads, she's known as 'Queen of the Desert. She is also known as Erua. She may be the same as Gamsu, Ishtar,  Sarpanit


    Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred right (or law) am I. My words are well considered; my deeds are not equaled; to bring low those that were high; to humble the proud, to expel insolence. If a succeeding ruler considers my words, which I have written in this my inscription, if he do not annul my law, nor corrupt my words, nor change my monument, then may Shamash lengthen that king's reign, as he has that of me, the king of righteousness, that he may reign in righteousness over his subjects. If this ruler do not esteem my words, which I have written in my inscription, if he despise my curses, and fear not the curse of God, if he destroy the law which I have given, corrupt my words, change my monument, efface my name, write his name there, or on account of the curses commission another so to do, that man, whether king or ruler, patesi, or commoner, no matter what he be, may the great God (Anu), the Father of the gods, who has ordered my rule, withdraw from him the glory of royalty, break his scepter, curse his destiny. May Bel, the lord, who fixes destiny, whose command can not be altered, who has made my kingdom great, order a rebellion which his hand can not control; may he let the wind of the overthrow of his habitation blow, may he ordain the years of his rule in groaning, years of scarcity, years of famine, darkness without light, death with seeing eyes be fated to him; may he (Bel) order with his potent mouth the destruction of his city, the dispersion of his subjects, the cutting off of his rule, the removal of his name and memory from the land. May Belit, the great Mother, whose command is potent in E-Kur (the Babylonian Olympus), the Mistress, who hearkens graciously to my petitions, in the seat of judgment and decision (where Bel fixes destiny), turn his affairs evil before Bel, and put the devastation of his land, the destruction of his subjects, the pouring out of his life like water into the mouth of King Bel. May Ea, the great ruler, whose fated decrees come to pass, the thinker of the gods, the omniscient, who makes long the days of my life, withdraw understanding and wisdom from him, lead him to forgetfulness, shut up his rivers at their sources, and not allow grain or sustenance for man to grow in his land. May Shamash, the great Judge of heaven and earth, who supports all means of livelihood, Lord of life-courage, shatter his dominion, annul his law, destroy his way, make vain the march of his troops, send him in his visions forecasts of the uprooting of the foundations of his throne and of the destruction of his land. May the condemnation of Shamash overtake him forthwith; may he be deprived of water above among the living, and his spirit below in the earth. May Sin (the Moon-god), the Lord of Heaven, the divine father, whose crescent gives light among the gods, take away the crown and regal throne from him; may he put upon him heavy guilt, great decay, that nothing may be lower than he. May he destine him as fated, days, months and years of dominion filled with sighing and tears, increase of the burden of dominion, a life that is like unto death. May Adad, the lord of fruitfulness, ruler of heaven and earth, my helper, withhold from him rain from heaven, and the flood of water from the springs, destroying his land by famine and want; may he rage mightily over his city, and make his land into flood-hills (heaps of ruined cities). May Zamama, the great warrior, the first-born son of E-Kur, who goeth at my right hand, shatter his weapons on the field of battle, turn day into night for him, and let his foe triumph over him. May Ishtar, the goddess of fighting and war, who unfetters my weapons, my gracious protecting spirit, who loves my dominion, curse his kingdom in her angry heart; in her great wrath, change his grace into evil, and shatter his weapons on the place of fighting and war. May she create disorder and sedition for him, strike down his warriors, that the earth may drink their blood, and throw down the piles of corpses of his warriors on the field; may she not grant him a life of mercy, deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and imprison him in the land of his enemies. May Nergal, the might among the gods, whose contest is irresistible, who grants me victory, in his great might burn up his subjects like a slender reedstalk, cut off his limbs with his mighty weapons, and shatter him like an earthen image. May Nin-tu, the sublime mistress of the lands, the fruitful mother, deny him a son, vouchsafe him no name, give him no successor among men. May Nin-karak, the daughter of Anu, who adjudges grace to me, cause to come upon his members in E-kur high fever, severe wounds, that can not be healed, whose nature the physician does not understand, which he can not treat with dressing, which, like the bite of death, can not be removed, until they have sapped away his life.

    May he lament the loss of his life-power, and may the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunaki, altogether inflict a curse and evil upon the confines of the temple, the walls of this E-barra (the Sun temple of Sippara), upon his dominion, his land, his warriors, his subjects, and his troops. May Bel curse him with the potent curses of his mouth that can not be altered, and may they come upon him forthwith.

    Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 50


    1 The word that the Lord spoke concerning Babylon, concerning the land of the Chaldeans, by Jeremiah the prophet.

    2 Tell among the nations and let it be heard and raise a standard; let them hear and do not hide it. Say, "Babylon has been taken, Bel has been shamed, Merodach is dismayed, her images have been shamed, her idols have been dismayed.

    3 For a nation has marched against her from the north; he shall make her land a desolation, and no one shall dwell therein; both man and beast have wandered, yea they have gone.

    4 In those days and in that time, says the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together; they shall go along weeping, and they shall seek the Lord their God.

    5 They shall inquire of Zion; their faces are directed hitherward. "Come and join the Lord [with] an everlasting covenant that shall not be forgotten."

    6 My people were lost sheep, their shepherds caused them to stray, [to the] mountains [they] led them astray; from mountain to hill they went, they forgot their resting place.

    7 All who found them devoured them, and their adversaries said, "We are not to blame because they sinned against the Lord, the habitation of justice and the hope of their forefathers-the Lord."

    8 Wander out of Babylon and go out of the land of the Chaldeans, and be like the he-goats before the flocks.

    9 For behold I am arousing and bringing up upon Babylon an alliance of great nations from the north land, and they shall set themselves in array against her, from there she shall be taken; his arrows are like [those of] a mighty man who bereaves, it shall not return empty.

    10 And the [land of the] Chaldeans shall become a prey; all who prey upon it shall be sated, says the Lord.

    11 As you rejoice, as you jubilate, O spoilers of My heritage, as you become fat like a threshing heifer, and you neigh as strong horses,

    12 your mother has been exceedingly shamed, she who bore you has been embarrassed; behold the end of the nations is desert, wasteland, and a barren plain.

    13 Because of the wrath of the Lord, she shall not be inhabited, and all of her shall be desolate; whoever passes by Babylon shall be amazed and hiss about all her plagues.

    14 Set yourselves in array against Babylon all around, all you who bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrow, for she has sinned against the Lord.

    15 Shout against her all around; she gave her hand, her foundations have fallen, her walls are torn down, for it is the Lord's vengeance; wreak vengeance upon her: as she did, do to her.

    16 Cut off a sower from Babylon and one who grasps a sickle at the time of harvest; because of the intoxicating sword, every man shall turn to his people, and every man shall flee to his land.

    17 A scattered sheep is Israel which lions have driven away. First the king of Assyria devoured him, and this last one broke his bones, Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon.

    18 Therefore, so said the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel; Behold I visit retribution upon the king of Babylon and upon his land, as I visited upon the king of Assyria.

    19 And I will return Israel to his dwelling and he shall pasture in the Carmel and the Bashan, and in Mount Ephraim and Gilead shall his soul be sated.

    Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 51


    42 The sea has ascended upon Babylon; with the multitude of its waves it has been covered.

    43 Her cities became desolate, a dry land and a desert, a land where no man dwells, neither does any man pass through them.

    44 And I will visit retribution on Bel in Babylon, and I will take what he has swallowed out of his mouth, and nations shall no longer stream to him: even the wall of Babylon has fallen.

    45 Go out of its midst, My people, and each one save his life, from the burning wrath of the Lord.

    Daniel - Chapter 5


    18 You are the king [because] the Most High God gave your father, Nebuchadnezzar, kingdom, greatness, honor, and glory.

    19 And through the greatness that He gave him, all peoples, nations, and tongues were quaking, and they feared him; whomever he wished he would slay, and whomever he wished he would let live; whomever he wished he would exalt, and whomever he wished he would humble.

    20 And when his heart became haughty and his spirit was toughened so that he dealt wickedly, he was deposed from his royal throne, and the honor was removed from him.

    21 And he was banished from mankind, and his heart was just like that of the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses. They fed him grass like the cattle, and his body was drenched with the dew of the heavens, until he realized that the Most High God rules over the kingdom of man, and whomever He wishes He sets up on it.

    22 But you, his son, Belshazzar, you did not humble your heart in view of the fact that you know all this.

    23 But over the Lord of heaven you exalted yourself, and the vessels of His House they brought before you, and you, your dignitaries, your queen, and your concubines drank wine in them, and you praised gods of silver and gold, copper, iron, wood and stone, which neither see nor hear nor know, but the God in Whose hand is your soul and all your ways - He you did not glorify.

    24 Then from before Him the palm of a hand was sent forth, and it inscribed this writing.

    25 And this is the writing that it inscribed: MENE MENE TEKEIL UFARSIN.

    26 This is the interpretation of the matter: MENE-God has counted your kingdom and has brought it to an end.

    27 TEKEIL-You were weighed on the scales and found wanting.

    28 UFARSIN-Your kingdom has been broken up and given to Media and Persia."

    29 Then Belshazzar ordered, and they attired Daniel with purple and the golden chain on his neck, and they announced about him that he should rule over a third of the kingdom.

    30 On that very night, Belshazzar, the Chaldean king, was assassinated.

    Nabonidus suffered from a mental disease and insulted the Babylonian clergy by his monotheistic ideas.

    4Q242 Prayer of Nabonidus


    Words of the prayer, said by Nabonidus, king of Babylonia, the great king, when afflicted

    with an ulcer on command of the most high God in Tayma:

    "I, Nabonidus, was afflicted with an evil ulcer

    for seven years, and far from men I was driven, until I prayed to the most high God

    And an exorcist pardoned my sins. He was a Jew from among the children of the exile of Judah, and said:

    "Recount this in writing to glorify and exalt the name of the most high God."

    Then I wrote this: "When I was afflicted for seven years [by the most high God] with an evil ulcer during my stay at Tayma, 

    I prayed to the gods of silver and gold, bronze and iron, wood, stone and lime,

    because [I thought and considered] them gods

    Daniel - Chapter 6


    1 And Darius the Mede received the kingdom at the age of sixty-two.

    2 It pleased Darius, and he set over the kingdom one hundred and twenty satraps, who should be in the entire kingdom.

    3 And over them three viziers, one of which was Daniel, that these satraps should give them counsel, and the king should not suffer any injury.

    4 Then this Daniel surpassed the viziers and the satraps because he had a superior spirit, and the king contemplated setting him up over the entire kingdom.

    5 Then the viziers and the satraps sought to find a pretext against Daniel regarding the kingdom, but they could find no pretext or fault because he was trustworthy, and no error or fault was found about him.

    6 Then those men said, "No pretext can be found about Daniel, but we shall find [a pretext] against him concerning the law of his God."

    7 Then these viziers and satraps assembled about the king, and so they said to him: "O King Darius, may you live forever!

    29 And this Daniel prospered in the time of the kingdom of Darius and in the kingdom of Cyrus the Persian.

    Darius gives homage to the god Ahuramazda for protecting him

    DSe, foundation tablet from Susa


    A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created the distant sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.

    I am Darius, the Great King, King of Kings, the king of people all origins, the king of this great land, the son of Hystaspes, the Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, Aryran of Aryan descent.

    And Darius, the king says:

    By the grace of Ahuramazda  here are the peoples that I have conquered outside Persia. They obey me; they bring me tribute. What I order them to do they accomplish. They respect my law in Media, Elam, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Segdiana, Shoramia, Drangiana, Arachosia, Sattagydia, the Macians, Gandhara, India, the Amyrgian Scythians, the Tigrakhanda Scythians, Babylonia, Assria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappodocia, Lydia, the Greeks who guard the seas, the Scythians accross the sea, the Carians  

    Darius the King says:

    Much of the harm that has been done, I transformed into good. The nations which fought among each  other, whose people killed each other, these, by the grace of Ahuramazda I ensured that their people did not kill each other any more and I reinstalled each in their own country. Presented with my decisions, they respected them so that the strong did not strike or rob the poor.

    And Darius, the king says:

    By the grace of Ahuramazda, many enterprises which beforehand hand not been accomplished, I made good.                                                                                               

    I saw that the fortifications which once had been built at Susa had gone to ruin. But, I raised them up. They are in fact new works that I have built.

    May Ahuramazda protect me, with all the gods, as well as my house and this text that been written!

    This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. When the excavation had been made, then rubble was packed down, some 40 cubits in depth, another part 20 cubits in depth. On that rubble the palace was constructed.

    In 539 B.C. the great Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylon. His government was a Zoroastrian theocracy. Cyrus had a history of pretending to adopt a religion and then subverting it. King Cyrus had become popular among the residents of Babylon by posing as the one who would restore Marduk to his rightful place in the city. In Babylon his first act was to worship Marduk, claiming Marduk had sought a righteous prince and Cyrus was he. As far as the Babylonians were concerned, and evidently Cyrus concurred, Marduk was Ahuramazda. Zoroastrianism was monotheistic. Ahuramazda was the only god, but there was nothing that proclaimed that Ahuramazda was the Creator's only name. Cyrus was happy to adapt all the “Great Lords” of his empire into the one Great Lord. 

    Later Cyrus mocked Marduk and had his image carted off. 

    Cyrus Cylinder

    The Tyranny of Nabonidus


    An incompetent person known as Nabonidus was installed to exercise lordship over his country.

    He imposed upon them a counterfeit of Esagila (temple of Marduk) he made for Ur and the rest of the worship centers, unholy rituals which were improper to them. 

    He put an end to the regular offerings (and) he interfered  in the worship centers.

    By his own plan, he did away with the worship of Marduk, the Enil (King) of the gods,

    He continually did evil against Marduk's city without interruption,

    He imposed forced labor upon his people unrelentingly, ruining them all.

    Enlil of the gods became extremely angry at their complaints, and their territory

    The gods who lived within the shrines left, angry that he had made them enter into Shuanna, (a quarter of Babylon).

    Angry at what [Nabonidus] had done to BabylonMarduk, the exalted, the Enil of the gods, turned towards all the settlements and sanctuaries that were abandoned and in ruins.

    The people of Sumer and Akkad had become corpses.

    He was reconciled and had mercy upon them. He examined and checked all the entirety of all the lands,

    he searched everywhere and then he took a righteous king, his favorite, by the hand, he called out his name: Cyrus, king of Anšan; he pronounced his name to be king all over the world.

    He made the land of Gutium and all the Umman-mandanote (the Medes.) bow in submission at his feet. And Cyrus shepherded with justice and righteousness all the black-headed people, over whom he had given him victory.

    Marduk, the great lord, guardian of his people, looked with gladness upon his good deeds and upright heart.

    The separation of church and state and freedom of religion Cyrus’s rule caught Thomas Jefferson’s attention. 

    To Thomas Jefferson
    From Anne Cary Randolph Edgehill

    Jan. 21 1804


    I recieved my Dear Grand Papa’s letter but it was too late to answer it’ Jefferson will not let Ellen catch him for he is now translating the history of Cyrus by Xenophon I will very gladly untertake to raise a pair of Bamtams for Monticello if you will send them to me I am very sorry to inform you that the plank house is burnt down John Hemming’s was here last night and he told us that the floor of the hall and the Music gallery was burnt up and that it was as full of plank as it could of which not one inch was saved your ice house will be full by ten oclock today I suppose you have heard of Aunt Bolling’s death Aunt Virginia is engaged to Cousin Wilson Cary and Aunt Hariet to a Mr Hackley of New York adieu My Dear Grand Papa your affectionate Grand daughter


    Cyropaedia: Education of Cyrus I by Xenophon
    Translated by Walter Miller

    Book 3


    [3.3.49] "How would it do, Cyrus," Chrysantas then asked, "for you to get your men together, too, while yet you may, and exhort them, and see if you also might make your soldiers better men."

    [3.3.50] "Do not let the exhortations of the Assyrian trouble you in the least, Chrysantas," Cyrus answered; "for no speech of admonition can be so fine that it will all at once make those who hear it good men if they are not good already; it would surely not make archers good if they had not had previous practice in shooting; neither could it make lancers good, nor horsemen; it cannot even make men able to endure bodily labor, unless they have been trained to it before.

    [3.3.51] "But, Cyrus," answered Chrysantas, "it is really enough if you make their souls better with your words of exhortation." "Do you really think," returned Cyrus, "that one word spoken could all at once fill with a sense of honor the souls of those who hear, or keep them from actions that would be wrong, and convince them that for the sake of praise they must undergo every toil and every danger? Could it impress the idea indelibly upon their minds that it is better to die in battle than to save one's life by running away?

    [3.3.52] "And," he continued, "if such sentiments are to be imprinted on men's hearts and to be abiding, is it not necessary in the first place that laws be already in existence such that by them a life of freedom and honor shall be provided for the good, but that upon the bad shall be imposed a life of humiliation and misery which would not be worth living?

    [3.3.53] "And then again, I think, there must be, in addition to the laws, teachers and officers to show them the right way, to teach them and accustom them to do as they are taught, until it becomes a part of their nature to consider the good and honorable men as really the most happy, and to look upon the bad and the disreputable as the most wretched of all people. For such ought to be the feelings of those who are going to show the victory of training over fear in the presence of the enemy.

    [3.3.54] "But if, when soldiers are about to go armed into battle, when many forget even the lessons oft learned of old, if then any one by an oratorical flourish can then and there make men warlike, it would be the easiest thing under heaven both to learn and to teach the greatest virtue in the world.

    Wrong choice has its evil consequences, but as soon as one becomes wise enough to realize the folly, it is over. One is thereafter safe to learn how to replace wrong with right.

    Ahunavaiti Gatha

    Song 3


    6. Between these two,
    the seekers of false gods did not decide correctly,
    because delusion came to them in their deliberations.
    Therefore, they chose the worst mind,
    rushed in wrath,
    and afflicted the human existence.

    7. But to the person who chooses correctly,
    comes endurance of body
    and steadfast serenity
    through strength, good mind, and righteousness.
    Of all these, such a person shall be Yours,
    because he has come fully out of the
    fiery test.

    8. And when the sinners undergo their punishment,
    O Wise One, the dominion will be realized
    for them through good mind.

    God, then they shall be taught
    how to deliver
    the wrong into the hands of righteousness.

    9. And may we be among those
    who make this life fresh!
    lords of wisdom,
    who bring happiness through righteousness,
    come, let us be single-minded
    in the realm of inner intellect.

    10. Then, indeed, the power of wrong
    shall be shattered.

    Then those who strive with good name
    shall immediately be united
    n the good abode of good mind
    and righteousness of the Wise One

    11. If you understand the two principles
    of prosperity and
    established by the Wise One,
    which are a
    long suffering for the wrongful
    and a lasting good for the righteous;
    you shall, then, enjoy radiant happiness.


    Cyrus Cylinder

    The Prince of Peace


    [23] I took up my lordly abode in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk, the great lord, /established as his fate (šimtu)\ for me a magnanimous heart of one who loves Babylon, and I daily attended to his worship.

    [24] My vast army marched into Babylon in peace; I did not permit anyone to frighten the people of [Sumer] /and\ Akkad.

    [25] I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon and all its sacred centers. As for the citizens of Babylon, [x x x upon wh]om henote imposed a corvée which was not the gods' wish and not befitting them,

    [26] I relieved their weariness and freed them from their service. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced over [my good] deeds.

    Religious Measures
    [28] and in peace, before him, we mov[ed] around in friendship. [By his] exalted [word], all the kings who sit upon thrones

    [29] throughout the world, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, who live in the dis[tricts far-off], the kings of the West, who dwell in tents, all of them,

    [30] brought their heavy tribute before me and in Babylon they kissed my feet. From [Babylon] to Aššur and (from) Susa,

    [31] Agade, Ešnunna, Zamban, Me-Turnu, Der, as far as the region of Gutium, the sacred centers on the other side of the Tigris, whose sanctuaries had been abandoned for a long time,

    [32] I returned the images of the gods, who had resided there,note to their places and I let them dwell in eternal abodes. I gathered all their inhabitants and returned to them their dwellings.

    [33] In addition, at the command of Marduk, the great lord, I settled in their habitations, in pleasing abodes, the gods of Sumer and Akkad, whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into Babylon.



    Ezra 1


    1 And in the first year of Cyrus, the king of Persia, at the completion of the word of the Lord from the mouth of Jeremiah, the Lord aroused the Spirit of Cyrus, the king of Persia, and he issued a proclamation throughout his kingdom, and also in writing, saying:

    2 "So said Cyrus, the king of Persia, 'All the kingdoms of the earth the Lord God of the heavens delivered to me, and He commanded me to build Him a House in Jerusalem, which is in Judea."

    Ezra 7


    6 This Ezra ascended from Babylon, and he was a fluent scholar in the Law of Moses, which the Lord God of Israel had given, and the king granted him his entire request, according to the command of the Lord his God upon him.

    7 And there ascended from the Children of Israel, from the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, and the gate-keepers, and the Nethinites to Jerusalem in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes.

    8 And he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king.

    9 For on the first of the first month was the commencement of the ascent from Babylon, and on the first of the fifth month, he arrived to Jerusalem according to the good hand of his God upon him.

    10 For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the Law of the Lord and to perform and teach in Israel statute and ordinance.  

     11 And this is the interpretation of the writ that King Artaxerxes gave to Ezra the priest, the scholar, the scholar of the words of the Lord's commandments and His statutes to Israel.

    12 "Artaxerxes, king of the kings, to Ezra the priest, the scholar who has mastered the Book of the Law of the God of heaven, and Ke'eneth.

    13 An order is issued by me that whoever of my kingdom of the people of Israel, its priests and Levites, who volunteers to go to Jerusalem with you, may go.

    14 Because of this, before the king and his seven advisors you are sent to search out Judea and Jerusalem according to the law of your God, which is in your hand.

    King Hammurabi prayed at the temple of Siggil (Marduk) and asked his Lord (Bel) Marduk to increase the riches of Babylonia and the main temple of Sin (god of the moon and the one who created Hammurabi) called Gish-shir-gal ; reestablish the sacred city of Eridu dedicated Lord (Bel) Ea; and purify Apsu (a god encompasses all fresh drinking water) that eternally sleeps due to a spell Ea placed upon him. 

    The weighing of souls method of divine determination was found in the religion of the Kingdom of Elam, which covered the present Iranian southeastern part of Kosu (Khūzestān) and Faros (Fārs).

    Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient near East around 2000 BC. The "Elamites" spread their empire to west under King Chedorlaomer. The Elamites had struggled with the Assyrians for domination of Babylon. The great Babylonian dynasty of UR was brought to an end about 1950 BC by the Elamites, who destroyed the city and took its king prisoner. Many scholars believe that the Elamites empire boundaries included present day Taxila and the areas of Baluchistan and Sindh.

    When an individual was living in the light and on the earth, that person was loyal to the sun god Nahhunte. As soon as a person died, the two gods, Ishine Karab (Isme-karab) and Logmal (Lakamar, Lakamal, Laḫmal, Lagamar)  would meet the individual in the realm of the shadows, and bring forth the being before Inshushinak who executed judgment on the soul. Ninsusinak (Inshushinak) was the national god of the Elamite  Emprire and judge of the dead. The Assyrians and other Akkadian-speaking people knew him as Susinak.  Nahhunte and  Inshushinak are referred to as the gods of light and darkness, in other words, the earth and the realm of the dead. In the texts of the tribunal that are left of Elam , witnesses are almost always introduced by two gods: the devotees who were the god of the sun Nahhunte and the god of shadows inshushinak. The word "devotee" means the creator of the day, which was also the god of the execution of sentences.

    Encyclopedia Iranica

    ELAM vi. Elamite religion


    Lagamal is indeed an infernal deity, and, on the relief from Kūrāngūn, Napiriša is identifiable by his throne, formed from a human-headed serpent; he also holds as attributes of power the disk and the rod (forerunners of the orb and scepter of Western monarchies), from which gush forth the living waters. He thus seems the equivalent of Ea, Mesopotamian god of the waters...

    Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal. A few small funerary tablets (Bottéro, pp. 393-401), though very badly preserved, give some idea of the passage into the other world: The dead person, preceded by Išnikarab or Lagamal or both presents himself in the haštu (in the Akkadian texts šuttu, a synonym for haštu) before Inšušinak, who decides his fate. This scene seems to be illustrated on a number of cylinder seals, where it is commonly identified as a “presentation scene,” even though it is more probably a depiction of the last judgment (Vallat, 1989).

    A few small funerary tablets (Bottéro, pp. 393-401), though very badly preserved, give some idea of the passage into the other world: The dead person, preceded by Išnikarab or Lagamal or both presents himself in the haštu (in the Akkadian texts šuttu, a synonym for haštu) before Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, who decides his fate. This scene seems to be illustrated on a number of cylinder seals, where it is commonly identified as a “presentation scene,” even though it is more probably a depiction of the last judgment (Vallat, 1989

    The image below shows the god Lagamal holding the Disc and Rod

    Image source: Plate 6.5, p.185. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology)



    In the 1902 book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches, writes that the Akkadian King Kudur-laḫmal (Kutir-Lagamar, Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal), is a translation variant of the Bible's King Chedorlaomer of Elam. The Kingdom of Elam was located in present day Iran, Northeast of Babylon and Southwest of Ur. In the 2015 book Moses and the Exodus Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, author Gerard Gertoux states that Lagamar is an Elamite deity. The 1995 article, Theology and Worship in Elam and Achaemenid Iran, Heidemarie Koch concurs with Gertoux that the name Lagamar is found in middle Elamite texts is Akkadian in meaning the god that shows "No Mercy" that accompanies the god Ishme-karab meaning "He who grants the prayer." In the 1971 book, The Cambridge Ancient History by Geredigeerd Door, two goddesses Ishine Karab and Logmal supported the god of oaths In-Shushinak (Insusiank, Nin-Suvina(k), Su'inak) in his position as 'judge of the dead.' Lakamar appeared in the later Elam middle period. In a legal context Lagamal would be the Prosecution, Ishmekarub would the Defense, and In Insusiank would be the Judge.

    The inscription is a standard one that celebrates Untash-Napirisha, king of Elam, in what is now Southwest Iran, from ca. 1275–1240 BCE. As translated, it
    reads (following Dan Potts [1999]):


    “I, Untash-Napirisha, son of Humban-Numena, king of Anshan and Susa, desirous that my life be continually one of prosperity, that the extinction of my lineage not be granted when it shall be judged (?), with this intention I built a temple of baked bricks, a high temple of glazed bricks; I gave it to the god Inshushinak of the Sacred Precinct. I raised a ziggurat. May the work which I created, as an offering, be agreeable to Inshushinak!”

    Another temple in Chogha Zanbil complex would be a "temple of the grove" (Holy Garden, Husa. Siyan Husame) dedicated to either In-Shushinak, Lagamal, or other underworld deities. The temple of the dead would face east as the sun rises with a sculpture of In-Shushinak in the front of the gate adorned with with a copper-covered cedar bar (Potts, Archaeology of Elam). The temple of the grove would act as a transition passage of the dead spirit to separate from the body to the underworld through sacred grove of fragrant trees with edible fruits, flowering plants, sculptures, and tombs that would surround the Ziggurat. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world.  

    From the Foundations to the Crenellations 

    Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East  and Hebrew Bible 

    Page 56


    in the Middle Elamite Period, there were a number of temples dedicated to Insusinak and  another deity. These included a temple {siyan) and a high temple (kukkunum) to Napirisa ( d GAL) and Insusinak, a temple called "light of the universe" (Akk. nur kibrat) which was sacred to Napirisa ( d GAL) and/or Insusinak, a temple-of-the- grove (siyan husame) built by unknown predecessors for Insusinak and Lagamar(?) and restored by Silhak-Insusinak, and a temple (siyan) to Kiririsa and Insusinak rebuilt by Silhak-Insusinak. Similarly, during the Neo-Elamite Period, a temple of Napirisa ( d GAL) and Insusinak with glazed bricks is attested in the reign of Sutruk- Nahhunte II. 

     A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries. Ashurbanipal dictates Assyrian retribution after his successful siege of Susa:


    “    Susa, the great holy city, abode of their gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed... I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt.

    Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal.

    death seems to have been the principal preoccupation of the Elamites. Most religious buildings were connected with the cult of the dead, and the principal gods were closely associated with the passage of the dead into the next world. The association of the grove with the funerary cult is certain from Aššurbanipal’s narration of the sack of Susa:

    (Aynard, 1957, pp. 56-57).


    Their secret groves, where no foreigner had penetrated, where no foreigner had trampled the underbrush, my soldiers entered and saw their secrets; they destroyed them by fire. The tombs of their kings, ancient and recent … I have devastated, I destroyed them, I exposed them to the sun, and I carried off their bones to the country of Aššur


    The Musée du Louvre

    Department of Near Eastern Antiquities: Mesopotamia

    A prism of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal recounting his campaigns against Elam and the sacking of Susa


    These holy gardens were also the location where the sacrificial feast was held. In Europe they were the Celts, Germans, and Saxons, also had holy groves where they performed their religious rituals. A stele of Šilḫak-Inšušinak mentions there were nineteen  Holy gardens across the entire Elamite empire.

    The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” 

    Brick with an inscription by Šilḫak-Inšušinak dedicated to the goddess Kiririša “lady of life." (published in Grillot & Vallat 1984) 

    Collection    National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Museum no.    NSM A.1960.228

    Catalogue:    20140524 wagensonner

    CDLI no.    P464356



    I, Šilḫak-Inšušinak, son of Šutruk-Naḫḫunte, beloved servant of Kiririša and Inšušinak, king of Anzan and Susa: Ḫumban-Numena has built the temple of Kiririša-of-Liyan with fired bricks, and when it was about to collapse, I restored it. With fired brick(s) I rebuilt. And for the sake of my life and those of Naḫḫunte-Utu, Ḫuteluduš-Inšušinak, Šilḫina-ḫamru-Lakamar, Kutir-ḫuban, Išnikarab-ḫuḫun, Urutuk-el-ḫalaḫume and Utu-eḫiḫi-Pinigir, for this purpose and for our continuity I bestowed it upon my deity Kiririša.




    National god of the Elamite Empire and consort of the mother goddess Pinikir.


    Inchushinak goddess: This temple, which is presented to the Goddess of Inchushinak, has 5 rooms, all of which are in a row. At the entrance to the temple, there is a crescent hinged of clay and mortar. Below the entrance to the gate of the temple, known as the "Gate Gate", there are bricks and windows that are located on either side of the gate.

    serpent deities
    Ninaza, Ningizzida, Tišpak, Ištaran and Inšušinak. 




    hoghaznbil was built in the early 13th century by the Elamite king "Ontas Nepiriha" near the river Dez, and was called "Dorovanes".

    Choghazenbil Temple is the largest architectural work left over from the Elamite civilization ever known

    The meaning of Darwin is Castle Ontash. Of course, in some of the texts, the cuneiform of this city, called "Al-Ontas", means the city of Ontash.

    In the center of the city, a huge temple is built in a state of the art, which today has two floors.

    This temple is called Dhiquarat, donated to two great Elamite gods, "Inchshinak" and "Nepiriha"


    At first, Inshushinak was given the title of the father of the weak and the king of the gods, but in the 12th century BCE, he was named by the names of the great servant, the great city servant, the great temple's supporter, the patron and the nurse, and eventually in the 8th century BC The title of the protectors of the gods of heaven and earth is called. The same text that is seen on many of the bricks of Choghazanbil's writings is: "May God Almighty come near, wishing to forgive his gifts, He spoke his words." 

    he Elamite (Elamite) was used by Elam people in the Elam kingdom (Between 3200 BC and 539 BC), , An agglutinative word whose language lineage is unknown. The Elam language, an isolated word, was written in three kinds of letters. The oldest one is Elam pictograms, it

    assite kings often married off their daughters to the pharaoh in Egypt. In Chapter2 we saw that messengers mediated such a contract and that the girl could beanointed in Babylon as a token of her betrothal. In far-off Armenia a curious car-nelian cylinder seal was found in a grave.

    We can implicitly conclude that Chedorlaomer the king of Elam was a Servant of the god Lagamar.

    Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence
    GŽrard GERTOUX

    last Elamite king of
    the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). Ashurbanipal, after his conquest of Elam and
    Susa ransacking, exposed (in 646 BCE) the capture of the goddess Nanaya (in Uruk) by Kudur-Lagamar
    which occurred around 1300 years earlier (in 1968 BCE).


    Chedoloamer. most likely resided in the Elamite Ziggurat complex Chogha Zanbil (Dur Untash) approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa. Chogha Zanbil is one of the few existent Ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. A Ziggurat is the largest building in the center of town and part of a multi temple complex. The Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat originally measured 105.2 m on each side and about 53 m in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple

    Chedorlaomer’s vassal cities—Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboyim and Zoar—had become rebellious against him and it was time to exact vengeance.


    Kiten (Akkadian kidinnu) denotes a protective shielding power that radiates from all dieties. With legal matters the kiten of the god In-shushinak united with the ruler judge violations of the law were committed. Any Elamite breaking an agreement would forfeit the protection of In-Shushinak will be outlawed and 'he shall pass by the graven image of the god and of the king' to be executed.

    https://books.google.com/books?id=FF5-7JVj4jYC&lpg=PA276&ots=Gem9XdejaO&dq="kiten" (protection)&pg=PA275#v=onepage&q="kiten" (protection)&f=false


    Now, what was Abraham doing hanging out near the oaks of Mamre near Jerusalem when news arrived that Lot was taken captive (v. 13)?  He was in the area because he was likely a nomadic vassal to Melchizedek, king of Jerusalem. 


    http://geekychristian.com/biblical-insights-from-archaeology/Understanding of the Elamite religion requires isolation in the Susian documentation of elements that can be compared with what is otherwise known from the Persian plateau and adjacent areas.


    .  Tidal is a Hittite name.   The original name Tudhaliya also appears in the Ugarit archives, and in Kimron’s opinion Tidal was the same as Tudhaliya II who conquered Syria.   Onkelos translated Goyim not as a specific city but as meaning various nations; Ibn Ezra wrote likewise in his second commentary.  In other words, Tidal ruled over several peoples.  Rabbi Hertz claims that Tidal is the same as Tadgula, king of the Kurdish tribes, and Goyim is Gutium in Kurdistan.  

    The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” (Grillot and Vallat, 1984, p. 22). The gods to whom these gateways were dedicated were those most closely associated with the netherworld: Inšušinak (König, nos. 35, 36, 40), Išnikarab (König, no. 37), Lagamal (König, no. 30), and Napiriša and Inšušinak together (König, no. 79). It was also at the gateway of Inšušinak that Puzur-Inšušinak ordered the sacrifice of a sheep accompanied by chants, morning and evening (Scheil, 1902, p. 5).

    Some gods, particularly Inšušinak (whose name in Sumerian means “lord of Susa”), seem to have been specifically attached to Susa or Susiana; they include Išnikarab (Išmekarab, a god, not a goddess; W. G. Lambert, 1976-80), Lagamal (Lagamar; for variant signs, see Hinz and Koch), and Manzat (W. G. Lambert, 1989).




    Around 1767 B.C.E, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak formed a coalition with Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. He led this coalition against Eshnunna, conquering it and imposed direct rule from his sukkal Kudu-zulush in Susa.[2] This coalition turned against him as he attempted to expand his power into Babylon. Hammurabi, allied with Zimri-Lim, expelled the Elamite's forces from Eshnunna[2]

    In a clay tablet, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak refers to himself as "Governor of Elam" and "Enlarger of the Empire". It is speculated that the tablet was made after Siwe-Palar-Khuppak's defeat by Hammurabi's coalition, and that the title "Enlarger of the Empire" refers to conquests made to west in modern Iran to offset his defeat.[

    Siwe-Palar-Khuppak - universally respected father of Elam

    Traces have been found on the inscribed bricks in Chaldea of a king Kudur mapula, who bears also the title of “ravager of the West.” Even nearer to the name is that of Kedar-el-Ahmar, or the red, a great hero in Arabian tradition. He was king of Elam. He appears as a settled king of great power, able to make war 2000 miles from his country, and holding other kings, among whom is the king of Babylon, under his supremacy. 

    Tidal king of Goiim Tidal has been considered to be a transliteration of Tudhaliya 

    In the Book of Genesis it is recorded that King Hammurabi (Amraphel) joined coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan and, in the process, took Lot captive. Amraphel is aligned with King Arioch (Eri-Aku),  King Chedorlaomer (Kudur-laḫmal) and King Tidal (Tudhaliya ). Like allied coalitions (ie. Desert Storm) today, it was common practice for allied tribes and city states to accompany a powerful king during their conquests.  Below is an excerpt from King Zimri-Lim of Mari.

    PART 1
    Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum



    But Zimrilim's policy was to impose his tutelage on the petty monarchs of the 'High Country', or even simply to draw them into alliance with him, rather than to annex their countries—no doubt because he had not the resources to do so. This line of conduct was fairly general.We have only to listen to the report of one of Zimrilim's correspondents:

    No king is powerful by himself: ten or fifteen kings follow Hammurabi, king of Babylon, as many follow Rim-Sin, king of Larsa, as many follow Ibalpiel, king of Eshnunna, as many follow Amutpiel, king of Qatna, twenty kings follow Iarimlim, king of Iamkhad. . .. Grouping their vassals about them, the' great powers' of the time entered in their turn into wider coalitions, aiming at supremacy, but these formed and broke up as circumstances and the interests of the moment dictated.

    Zimri-Lim was allied with Hammurabi in his wars against Elam, Eshnunna, and Larsa. Zimri-Lim lent troops to Hammurabi's campaigns, and although the two kept extensive diplomatic contacts, there are no records that ever met in person.

    After the defeat of Elam, there was no outside force to keep the precarious balance of power between the Kings of Mesopotamia. The alliance between Zimri-Lim and Hammurabi deteriorated after Babylon's conquest of Larsa.  In 1762 BC, Hammurabi unified Babylonia, he conquered and sacked Mari (though it may be that the city had surrendered without a fight), despite the previous alliance. 



    The alliance of four states would have ruled over kingdoms that were spread over a wide area: from Elam at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent to Anatolia at the western edge of this region. Because of this, there is a limited range of time periods that match the Geopolitical context of Genesis 14. In this account, Chedorlaomer is described as the king to whom the cities of the plain pay tribute. Thus, Elam must be a dominant force in the region and the other three kings would therefore be vassals of Elam and/or trading partners.

    some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamiaaround 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C.



     Zimri-Lim's court were the communications from the
    gods. During his time. the variety of paths by which th e opinion of the gods was coaxed
    multiplied dramalically, and some exceptionally creative methods were launched in

    Zimri-Lim's own household. As a result of Charpin's insight, it became possible to imagine
    that when kings were predisposed for it, gods readily dispensed advice in channels other
    t han exti!\flicy. (Something similar occurred, for example, in the court of Esarhaddon and
    Assurbanipal of Assyria and probably also in the court of Zakkur of Hamatll.) If so, then
    prophecy need not origina le in a single area or period and need not follow a linear
    development. hut it could burst spontaneously and periodically. whenever rulers had
    doubts about the stability of their rule and whenever courtiers and administrators felt
    encouraged to comment on them. Not linearity, but opportunity.
    In a paper for the Birot memorial volume [FM 2], I explored the interplay between
    a divine message and those who were asked to communicate it to Zimri-Lim: in the palace,
    in the province, and beyond Mari's border. When they are transmitted from the palace,
    mostly through his wife, his sister, and his aunt (perhaps his mother), there is a tendency
    to also comment on them, frequently betraying a heightened sense of imminent danger
    that must be deflected by the king. This sort of fervor seems to dissipate as we move to the
    provinces, where bureaucrats dutifully (and mostly lackadaisically for that matter) transmitted
    divine messages to t he king. 

    Yet we have no reason to believe that Zimri-Lim, despite his drive to know the will
    of god from as many sources as possible. ever felt obligated to follow the god's directives
    as channeled by prophets, visionary and dreamers. In fact, there is no evidence t hat he
    received their messages directly, but seemed content to ask people in diverse regional
    centers to keep their ears open (A RM 26 196), or to dispatch a trusted llpilum to investigate
    for him (via extispicy) oracles by Dagan of Terqa (ARM 26 199:8-9). But when
    Zimri-Lim really needed to learn what god wanted of h im at any particular moment, he
    turned to his resident-scholars, the b~rll-divin ers.76 And here is where I need to take a
    Durand's pages in 26/1 on Mari divin ation are rich in documents as in comments.1l
    When diviners inspected the innards of a sheep for signs, what they saw was no longer a
    cluster of bloodied orgllns, but a tapestry of divine signs. Their perspective, therefore,
    was closest to that of astrologers of later times who drew insights from the shifting
    correspondences of heavenly orbs. 


    There were periods when Elam was allied with Mari through trade.[16] Mari also had connections to Syria and Anatolia, who, in turn, had political, cultural, linguistic and military connections to Canaan.[17] The earliest recorded empire was that of Sargon, which lasted until his grandson, Naram Sin.[

    we must keep in mind the possibility, that if the Babylonian king considered that disaster had in any way overtaken his arms, he may not have recorded it at all. Then there is the fact, that the expedition was undertaken in conjunction with allies—Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch—for none of whom, in all probability, Ḫammurabi had any sympathy. The Elamite was a conqueror from a land over which the Babylonians of earlier ages had held sway, and Arioch had dominion over a neighbouring tract, to which Ḫammurabi himself laid claim, and over which, as the texts above translated show, he afterwards ruled. Ḫammurabi, moreover, claimed also the West-land—mât Amurrī, the land of Amurrū—as his hereditary possession, and he found himself obliged to aid Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch to subjugate it—indeed, it was Chedorlaomer whom the five kings had acknowledged for twelve years as their overlord, and against whom, in the thirteenth, they rebelled. It is, therefore, likely that Ḫammurabi regarded himself as having been forced by circumstances to aid Chedorlaomer to reconquer what really belonged to Babylonia, and the probability that he would cause it to be used as one of the events to date by, is on that account still less, even if the news of any success which he might have considered himself entitled to reached his own domain in time to be utilized for such a purpose.

    when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer [pg 223] was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion.

    spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian ERI.AKU, meaning "Servant of the god Aku," Aku being a variant of the name of Nannar/Sin. It is known from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name "Servant of Sin

    There's only one Hamor mentioned in the Bible and he was a Hivite ruler (נשיא, nasi') and father of Shechem (in Acts 7:16 Stephen equates Hamor with Ephron). When Jacob returned from Paddan-aram and wanted to settle in Canaan, he bought land from Hamor and built the altar named El-Elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19).

    At some point, Jacob's only daughter Dinah, the sister of the twelve tribal patriarchs of Israel, went to the nearby town of Shechem to visit the Hivite women. She was noticed by prince Shechem, who fell in love with her and decided to express his feelings by raping her (34:2). Still, Hamor went to Jacob to ask for Dinah as a wife for Shechem, but Jacob's sons told Hamor that he and his people would have to be circumcised for their two families to intermarry.

    I was curious about this expression, especially in light of the fact that it is in this city that we find the remains of the temple of Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the chief deity of Shechem during most of the Bronze Age. 

    The name Hamor is the same as the noun חמור (hamor), meaning ass or donkey, or more literal: red-one, from the root חמר (hamar III), meaning to be red:

    It appears to us here at Abarim Publications that to the Hebrews the color red denoted the rudiments or principal beginnings of civilization (and see our article on the Red Sea for a discussion on how the ancients saw the color red), whereas muddy substances metaphorized the transitional phase between ignorance (water) and understanding (dry land).

    or a meaning of the name Hamor, both NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names read Ass and BDB Theological Dictionary has He-Ass. Most literally, however, the name Hamor means Red One.

    Note that the color red signified the first stage of human civilization, and is connected to both Israel's Hivite nemesis as to Israel's national brother Edom (from Esau, Jacob's brother).

    Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/, also spelled Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכָם‬ / שְׁכֶם‬ Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[1] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[2] it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank.

    Shechem first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which says that Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.[6] According to Genesis (12:6-7) Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" at Shechem. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant he had first made with Abraham in Harran, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. In Jewish tradition, the old name was understood in terms of the Hebrew word shékém — "shoulder, saddle", corresponding to the mountainous configuration of the place.

    On a later sojourn, two sons of Jacob, Simeon (Hebrew Bible) and Levi, avenged their sister Dinah's rape by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land" of Shechem. Shimon and Levi said to the Shechemites that, if “every male among you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to ourselves.”[7] Once the Shechemites agree to the mass circumcision, however, Jacob's sons repay them by killing all of the city's male inhabitants.[8]

    Following the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan after their Exodus from Egypt, according to the biblical narrative, Joshua assembled the Israelites at Shechem and asked them to choose between serving the god who had delivered them from Egypt, the gods which their ancestors had served on the other side of the Euphrates River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land they now lived. The people chose to serve the god of the Bible, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God, and he then erected a memorial stone "under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord" in Shechem.[9] The oak is associated with the Oak of Moreh where Abram had set up camp during his travels in this area.[10]

    Shechem and its surrounding lands were given as a Levitical city to the Kohathites.[11]

    Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph's tomb (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel.[citation needed] Jerubbaal (Gideon), whose home was at Ophrah, visited Shechem, and his concubine who lived there was mother of his son Abimelech (Judges 8:31). She came from one of the leading Shechemite families who were influential with the "Lords of Shechem" (Judges 9:1-3, wording of the New Revised Standard Version and New American Bible Revised Edition).[12]

    A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem.

    —In Rabbinical Literature:
    The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision.

    “Those who were bound under the covenant having participated in this ritual became ‘sons of Hamor’ (‘sons of the ass’). The covenant of Hamor ‘was almost certainly related to Baal-Berith, who was the chief god of the city’…

     Toorn, K. Van Der, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem Van Der Horst. 1999. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids: Brill ; Eerdmans. p.143


    And given Shechem (שכם) means “shoulder”, the expression “Hamor, father of Shechem”(חמור אבי שכם), can also be read “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם). This expression therefore suggests that Shechem was the ally of Babylon when it formed a covenant with king Hammurabi. In fact, standing “shoulder to shoulder” is something one does in times of a deadly threat and against an enemy. And I do explain in the book how Hammurabi was motivated to make a covenant with Abraham in order to secure control over the remote Valley of Siddim. Finally, the name Dinah (דינה) is the feminine of “din” (דין), which means “law” in reference to the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah (i.e. the original five books of the Old Testament).

    Clearly, the Shechemites wanted to continue serving the family of “Hamor, Shechem’s father” or “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם), which presumably could be referring to the legitimate descendants of Abraham, Hammurabi’s ally, and still referred to as the “father” of the faith to this day.



     Jacob's acquisition of land at Shechem (Gen. 33:19; cf. 48:22) and the connubium between the sons of Jacob and the sons of Hamor (as the Shechemites were then called) imply certain covenant agreements. Moreover, the strange name, "sons of Hamor" ( benei hamor, "sons of the ass"), who is said to be the "father of Shechem" (Gen. 34:6), seems to have something to do with covenant making. From the *Tell-el-Amarna Letters (c. 1400 B.C.E.) it is known that there was a strong Hurrian element in Shechem. The Septuagint is therefore probably correct in reading hhry ("the Horite," i.e., the Hurrian) instead of hhwy ("the Hivite") of the Masoretic Text in describing the ethnic origin of "Shechem" (Gen. 34:2); moreover, the uncircumcised Shechemites (Gen. 34:14, 24) were most likely not Semitic Canaanites (see E. A. Speiser, op. cit., 267). It is also known that the slaughtering of an ass played a role among the Hurrians in the making of a covenant. Thus, Baal-Berith or El-Berith may have been regarded by the Shechemites as the divine protector of covenants.

    Did the early Israelites perhaps regard El-Berith as the God of the covenant made between YHWH and Israel? It is a noteworthy fact that Joshua, who had apparently been able to occupy the region of Shechem without force because Israelites who - many scholars believe - had never been in Egypt were already iiving there, renewed the Covenant of Sinai with all Israel precisely at Shcchem, the city sacred to El-Berith, " the God of the Covenant" (Josh. 8:30-35; 24:1-28). Therefore, even though the late Deuteronomist editor of the Book of Judges (it is conjectured by the adherents of the documentary hypothesis) considered Baal-Berith one of the pagan Canaanite Ba'alim, this term may well have been regarded in early Israel as one of the titles of YHWH.

     Other terms such as "killing an ass" sheds light on customs which prevailed in patriarchal times and later. The idiom "to kill an ass," khayaram qatalum, is not Akkadian at all, but both words occur in Hebrew and indicated the sacrifice which accompanied the oath of alliance. The connection between sacrificing as ass and concluding a covenant seems to have been preserved by the Shechemites, with whom Jacob and his sons had such unpleasant dealings (Gen. 33:19; 34:1-31). Called the Bene Hamor, "sons of the ass" (Josh. 24:32), their tribal deity was Baal-Berith, "Lord of the covenant" (Judg. 9:4). Later, at the time of Conquest the Bene Hamor of Shechem were, it seems, like the four towns of the Gibeonite confederacy (Josh 9:1ff.), added to Israel by treaty, to judge from various early references to them and their god Baal-Berith."


    Joseph Vicek Kozar, who reads the narrative as supporting the brothers’ actions,
    suggests that the significance of interethnic relations is substantiated by symbolic imagery
    within the story. He points out that the homonym of Hamor’s name (rwmx) is donkey, an
    animal that “lives among the herd but is not one of them, lacking cloven hooves and not
    chewing the cud.”
    486 This, coupled with the fact that “[a]t the time of Dinah’s rape, her
    brothers are out with the cattle (34:5),”
    487 illumines the resultant confrontation:
    “The…clash of cultures (and slaughter) shows that the sons of herds and flocks cannot
    conduct social intercourse with the sons of the ass. This symbolism underlies the group or
    tribal nature of the events behind the story.”
    488 Like Sternberg, Kozar also retrojects later
    narrative concerns of Israelite interethnic relations onto the clash between the ancestral
    family and the Hivites. He concludes that Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem
    represents the larger Canaanite culture, and that the story illustrates the danger of Israel’s 

    “being absorbed by the larger Canaanite culture.”
    489 Douglas Earl echoes this symbolic
    thinking in his own analysis, according to which “Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem
    the nations.”
    490 The narrative, Earl suggests, “serves to evoke affectually the disastrous
    consequences of exogamy and mingling, and the zeal with which exogamy is to be

    Shechem’s act is evaluated as disgraceful and
    unacceptable. This transfer is presented as a pretext for the text to come.”
    492 The
    narrator’s repeated use of )m+, furthermore, invokes a “cultic and ritual cognitive
    493 (again an Israelite domain) that suggests that Shechem and the Hivites threaten
    the ancestral family with their outsiders’ impurity. Finally, the continuation of the
    narrative in Gen 35, in which Jacob commands his household to rid itself of its foreign
    gods, strengthens the negative socioreligious associations of Shechem. Where Jacob goes
    next, Bethel, stands in stark contrast: “Bethel, the place where Jacob met his God,
    represents the ideal of one place, one people and one God. It is opposed to the other place,

    Shechem, with alien people and alien gods, who have to be buried.”
    494 Thus the Dinah
    interlude is the “hinge” of the ideological reversal from the preceding narrative’s “context
    of peace and mutual understanding with the Canaanites” to “a mono-ethnic position
    embedded in a mono-religious position.”
    495 Indeed, as van Wolde notes, in Gen 35 the
    ancestral blessing undergoes a notable revision, as “the blessing of other people is not
    mentioned any more,” implying that the ancestral family is now the exclusive inheritor of
    the land


    (Baʹal-beʹrith) [Owner of a Covenant; once, at Jg 9:46, El-berith, God of a Covenant].

    The Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites began worshiping after the death of Judge Gideon. (Jg 8:33) The designation “Baal-berith” may denote that this particular Baal was believed to watch the keeping of covenants.

    A kind of treasury was evidently attached to the house or temple of Baal-berith at Shechem. (Jg 9:4) In connection with the grape harvest, the Shechemites apparently held a festival in honor of Baal-berith, climaxed by a kind of sacrificial meal in the temple of their god. It was in the temple of Baal-berith on the occasion of their eating and drinking and cursing Abimelech, likely under the influence of wine, that Gaal incited the Shechemites to revolt against King Abimelech. (Jg 9:27-29) Later, when threatened by Abimelech, the landowners of the tower of Shechem (Migdal-Shechem, AT) sought refuge in the vault of the house of El-berith (Baal-berith), only to perish in the conflagration when Abimelech and his men set the vault on fire.—Jg 9:46-49.



    Solomon understood that being submissive to the Creator and generous to other will be blessed with long life. 

    Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22



    1 A name is chosen above great wealth; good favor over silver and gold.

    2 A rich man and a poor man were visited upon; the Lord is the Maker of them all.

    3 A cunning man saw harm and hid, but fools transgressed and were punished.

    4 In the wake of humility comes fear of the Lord, riches, honor, and life.

    5 Troops [and] snares are in the way of the perverse; he who preserves his soul will distance himself from them.

    6 Train a child according to his way; even when he grows old, he will not turn away from it.

    7 A rich man will rule over the poor, and a borrower is a slave to a lender.

    8 He who sows injustice will reap violence, and the rod of his wrath will fail.

    9 He who has a generous eye will be blessed, for he gave of his bread to the poor.

    10 Banish a scorner, and quarrel will depart, and litigation and disgrace will cease.

    11 He who loves one pure of heart with charm on his lips-the King is his friend.

    12 The eyes of the Lord preserve knowledge and He will frustrate the words of a treacherous man.

    13 The lazy man says, "There is a lion outside; I will be murdered in the middle of the streets."

    14 The mouth of strange women is [like] a deep pit; the one abhorred by the Lord will fall therein.

    15 Foolishness is bound in a child's heart; the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.

    16 He who exploits a poor man to increase for himself will give to a rich man only to want.

    17 Incline your ear and hearken to the words of the wise, and put your heart to my knowledge,

    18 for it is pleasant that you guard them in your innards; they will be established together on your lips.

    19 That your trust shall be in the Lord, I have made known to you this day, even you.

    20 Have I not written to you thirds with counsels and knowledge,

    21 to make known to you the certainty of the true words, to respond with words of truth to those who send you?

    22 Do not rob a poor man because he is poor, and do not crush the poor man in the gate.

    23 For the Lord will plead their cause and rob those who rob them, of life.

    24 Do not befriend a quick-tempered person, neither shall you go with a wrathful man;

    25 lest you learn his ways and take a snare for your soul.

    26 Do not be one of those who give their hands, who stand surety for debts.

    27 If you do not have what to pay, why should he take your bed from under you?

    28 Do not remove an ancient boundary that your forefathers set.

    29 Have you seen a man quick in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before poor men.

    Hammurabi ruled as king of Babylonia

    Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic   - Religions of The Ancient Near East

    Sīn /ˈsiːn/ or Suen (Akkadian: ?? Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: ??? DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.  - He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". Sīn was also called "He whose heart can not be read" and was told that "he could see farther than all the gods". It is said that every new moon, the gods gather together from him to make predictions about the future. - Nana - Babylonian Moon God.


    Utu[a] later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, 

    . Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers,

    The local god was Zamama, the Tammuz-like deity, who, like Nin-Girsu of Lagash, was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylon.

    Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing.


    the divine king of the city; the
    White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped
    up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come
    scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of
    Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich
    the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided
    food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial
    offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy,
    the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who
    rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted
    by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in
    Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the
    king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach;
    the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted
    life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance
    to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the
    secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from
    misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established
    pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his
    kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who
    subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway
    of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and
    Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who
    presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its
    inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon
    in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose
    deeds find favor before Anunit


    By making
    a persuasive art-historical case for beginning their study with our earliest
    civilizations, they demonstrate the cross-cultural, cross-temporal
    universality of some persistently compelling themes, such as the image of
    the scales, a judicial motif attested in both ancient Mesopotamia and
    ancient Egypt.2 Picked up as well in ancient Greece, the scales are hefted
    aloft in the hands of embodied goddesses, who in the seventeenth century
    C.E. acquired a blindfold, s

     Law Stele of Hammurabi, 

    Literally thousands of clay tablets documenting legal transactions have
    survived from ancient Mesopotamia. 

    from around 1792 to around
    1750 B.C.E. His reign is distinguished for political consolidation of
    territories neighboring his city-state of Babylon, which he brought under
    control through a combination of successful military engagements and the
    calculated making and breaking of diplomatic treaties."

    The "laws" that are probably the best known are those that seem to
    offer strong parallels to the Biblical precepts of justice, and are held up as
    exemplifying the principle of retributive justice, for example:
    § 196 If a freeman has blinded the eye of another freeman,
    his eye shall be blinded.
    § 197 If he has broken the bone of another freeman, his bone
    shall be broken.
    § 198 If he has blinded the eye of a dependent or broken the
    bone of a dependent, he shall pay sixty shekels of silver.
    § 199 If he has blinded the eye of a slave of a freeman, or
    broken the bone of a slave of freeman, he shall pay one-half his
    value in silver.22
    It is this section that generally receives the most attention from legal
    and Biblical scholarship interested in ancient legal codes and covenants.23
    Compare the Book of Exodus, 21:22: "If any harm follows, then you shall
    give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
    burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." 

    C. The Relief Sculpture
    The sculpted relief depicts Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god, seated

    facing left, and king Hammurabi, who, standing, faces right.26 Shamash is
    identified as a divinity by the stylized horned crown he wears and as the
    sun god by the wavy-line "rays" emanating from his shoulders and the
    surface detail of his footstool evoking mountainous terrain-the eastern
    and western locales of his rising and setting. As sun god, Shamash is the
    Mesopotamian deity of light and illumination, and by logical extension,
    the god of justice who illuminates the true situation. In addition to "rays,"
    his frequent attribute is a saw, with which he opens the mountains at
    daybreak and sunset and with which he separates truth from falsehood.
    Here, instead, he extends or displays to Hammurabi the so-called "Rod
    and Ring," which occupies the center of the visual field.
    Opposite the god, Hammurabi is marked by his hea

    In the voice of Hammurabi, the Epilogue summarizes Hammurabi's
    purpose in erecting the monument:
    In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways
    for the orphan and the widow, I have inscribed my precious
    pronouncements upon my stele and set [them] before my image,
    the just king, in the city of Babylon . . .. By the order of [the god]
    Marduk, my lord, may my engraved design not be confronted by
    someone who would remove it. May my name always be
    remembered faithfully in the Esagil temple which I love. 32

    Let any man who has a lawsuit come before my image, the just
    king, and have my words read out loud; let him hear my precious
    words, let my monument reveal to him the case. Let him see his
    judgment, let his heart become soothed [reciting the following
    short prayer]:
    "Hammurabi, lord, who is like a father and begetter to his people,
    submitted himself to the command of (the god) Marduk, his lord,
    and achieved victory everywhere. He gladdened the heart of
    Marduk, his lord, and he secured the eternal well-being of the
    people and provided just ways for the land. "3

    In one Akkadian period cylinder seal, Shamash sits enthroned before a set of scales, tipping the balance of justice (presumably) in accordance with the petitions of his worshippers, who bring an animal offering before the god (Black 1992: 182-4)


     throne. Shamash and his wife, Aya, had two important children. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was law. Every morning, the gates in the East open up, and Shamash appears. He travels across the sky, and enters the gate in the West. He travels through the Underworld at night in order to begin in the East the next day

     the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice".

    Holland 2009, p. 115.

    The Phoenician Sydyk was equated with Roman Jupiter, and hence it has been suggested that Sydyk was connected to the worship of the planet Jupiter as the manifestation of justice or righteousness.

    the Babylonian Shamash has two sons called respectively Kettu (which, like Sedeq, means "righteousness") and Misharu ("rectitude"). These two deities are mentioned also in the Sanchoniatho fragments of Philo Byblios under the names of Sydyk and Misor, as culture-heroes who have discovered the use of salt. Phoenician inscriptions have Sedeqyathan, "Sedeq gave," as a personal name, as well as combinations of Sedeq with Ramman and Melek. Fr. Jeremias thinks that Sydyk and Misor were respectively the spring and autumn sun in sun-worship and the waxing and waning moon in moon worship.

     translated as truth, equity, justice

    kittu as truth

    Shamas often had a special saw

    Shamash the judge of heaven and earth had 
    a special saw, call the shasharu.

    Mesopotamian Scales circa 2350

    O Sun, when though goes to rest in mid-heaven
    May the bars of bright heaven speak peace to thee,
    May the gateway of of heaven approach thee
    May Misharu, they loving herald, direct thy pathway

    Of course Babylonian and Assyrian words may not always have the same content as our words "righteousness" and "truth," but the words kittu and misharu, which we render by "righteousness" and "truth", are derived from kanu, "to be firm," and eshem, "to be straight," respectively; and judging from what was considered "right" and "true," or kittu and misharu, there is no reason for that the standard was very hight

    misharu, represented the law

    May Misharu, thy well-beloved servant, guide aright thy progress, so that ebarra

    The West Semitic name Ammi-Saduqa is translated into Akkadian as Kitum-kittum showing an equivalence of meaning between the West Semitic ṣ-d-q  and the Akkadian kittu. Kittu was similarly paired with the god Misharu whose name is a cognate of Misor, meaning "justice".

    Shamash and the mother of Misharu (god of law and order) and Kittu (god of justice). 
    Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been a local male sun god whose gender was changed when the worship of the major sun god, Shamash, took precedence, the minor god becoming the female consort of Shamash. Her attendants were Kittu (truth) and Misharu (righteousness).

    Misharu, ---, God of law. Son of Aa.

    instead he became the spokesman for the nation (kemit), heavily indebtedto fairness and truth (maat in Egypt, kittu and misharu in Mesopotamia)

    Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from the Akkadian root kanu. Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’). One or both of these deities was described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand.’ Depictions of Shamash show him holding a ring of coiled rope and a rod, objects ascribed to surveyors and therefore, when linked to rulership, denoting the act of setting things right. The Akkadian words kittu and misharu, translated into English as “truth,” “equity,” or “justice,” describe the “straightening out” of a situation whose equilibrium, put out of balance, had become “crooked.” 2

    Shamash is associated with two divinities personifying justice and equity, Kittu and Misharu, which are in fact two deified conceptions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is debated.

    According to D. Charpin, Hammu-Rabi of Babylon , Paris, 2003, p. 206-207, kittum would be "justice as guardian of public order", and mišarum "justice as restoration of equity"

    mi-ish-ri-c(!) ish-ru-16%-6-shd. Mi-ish-ri-e I take as a plural of misharu = mishru
    (ef. cpiru, epru; gimiru, gimru; Delitesch, Gram., p. 105, $45), “righteousness" (hence not of meshril, "riches," H. B. W.,
    p. F88a), and dumqi, on nceount of the pardlclism, in the sense 0

    The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice was Maat, who represented “the order which rules
    ANCIENT DEITIES 298 (Oxford Univ. Press 2001) (2000). The Sumerian god of truth was Kittu, but,
    interestingly, his job title did not include justice; that job was his brother’s, Misharu. See James W.
    Bell, Sumerian Gods, Demons & Immortals Whose Names Start with “K”,
    http://www.jameswbell.com/geog0050knames.html (last visited March 29, 2007). Addanari is the
    Hindu goddess of truth, nature, and religion. TURNER & COULTER, supra, at 14. Shiva, among her many
    other jobs, is also associated with truth. Id. at 427.

    They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means “Truth”, and the god Misharu, whose name means “Justice”. Utu’s charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period.

    n the Hebrew Bible, and Kittu in the Babylonian pantheon, who is often invoked with
     768 Both of these Babylonian deities are described as being seated before Shamash or the minister of
    Shamash’s right hand.769 M

    Shamash and his wife Sherida (Aya for Akkadians and Babylonians) had two important sons. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was the law. Its main sanctuary was in the city of Sippar. Every morning, the eastern doors opened, and Shamash appeared. He traveled around the sky, and entered the west gate

    Shamu / Kittu, Truth revealed (Shamu), Truth understood (Kittu) 
    Misharu, Justice at work in view of truth, 
    Dayyanu, Judgment that discerns truth 

    Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god
    Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from Akk root kânu, cf. Heb root KWN). Kittu was often
    invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’)… One or both of these deities

    were described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the
    minister of (Shamash’s) right hand’. . . it appears that the deity known as Kittu in
    Babylonia was known further to the West under the names Išar and Ṣidqu/
    Zedek—all three names having essentially the same meaning but operative in
    different linguistic communities… West Semitic personal names containing the
    root SDQ are attested at m

    Fortress Press, 1998] 66-67). Also, the Babylonian gods Kittu “Righteousness” and Misharu “Justice”
    parallel to the West Semitic gods Sedheq and Misor

    In this function Shamash is associated with gods personifying justice and equality, and Kittu Misharu, who actually deifies two notions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is discussed and Dayyanu god. The Great Hymn to Shamash already explicitly mentioned the role of the god of justice, the guardian of good decisions and honest behavior and punishments of unjust and dishonest behavior:

    Great Hymn to Shamash, translation MJ Seux.






  4. If we are to believe that the Will of Our Creator is Natural law.

    INTRODUCTION. Of the Study, Nature, and Extent of the Laws of England.



    The science thus committed to his charge, to be cultivated, methodized, and explained in a course of academical lectures, is that of the laws and constitution of our own country: a species of knowledge, in which the gentlemen of England have been more remarkably deficient than those of all Europe besides. In most of the nations of the continent, where the civil or imperial law, under different modifications, is closely interwoven with the municipal laws of the land, no gentleman, or at least no scholar, thinks his education is completed, till he has attended a course or two of lectures, both upon the institutes of Justinian and the local constitutions of his native soil, under the very eminent professors that abound in their several universities. And in the northern parts of our own island, where also the municipal laws are frequently connected with the civil, it is difficult to meet with a person of liberal education, who is destitute of a competent knowledge in that science which is to be the guardian of his natural rights and the rule of his civil conduct.

    ...Far be it from me to derogate from the study of the civil law, considered (apart from any binding authority) as a collection of written reason. No man is more thoroughly persuaded of the general excellence of its rules, and the usual equity of its decisions, nor is better convinced of its use as well as ornament to the scholar, the divine, the statesman, and even the common lawyer. But we must not carry our veneration so far as to sacrifice our Alfred and Edward to the manes of Theodosius and Justinian; we must not prefer the edict of the prætor, or the rescript of the Roman emperor, to our own immemorial customs, or the sanctions of an English parliament; unless we can also prefer the despotic monarchy of Rome and Byzantium, for whose meridians the former were calculated, to the free constitution of Britain, which the latter are adapted to perpetuate.

    Without detracting, therefore, from the real merits which abound in the imperial law, I hope I may have leave to assert, that if an Englishman must be ignorant of either the one or the other, he had better be a stranger to the Roman than the English institutions. For I think it an undeniable position, that a competent knowledge of the laws of that society in which we live, is the proper accomplishment of every gentleman and scholar; an highly useful, I had almost said essential, part of liberal and polite education. And in this I am warranted by the example of ancient Rome; where, as Cicero informs us,(a) the very boys were obliged to learn the twelve tables by heart, as a carmen necessarium or indispensable lesson, to imprint on their tender minds an early knowledge of the laws and constitution of their country.

    And, first, to demonstrate the utility of some acquaintance with the laws of the land, let us only reflect a moment on the singular frame and polity of that land which is governed by this system of laws. A land, perhaps, the only one in the universe, in which political or civil liberty is the very end and scope of the constitution. This liberty, rightly understood, consists in the power of doing whatever the laws permit, which is only to be effected by a general conformity of all orders and degrees to those equitable rules of action by which the meanest individual is protected from the insults and oppression of the greatest. As therefore every subject is interested in the preservation of the laws, it is incumbent upon every man to be acquainted with those at least with which he is immediately concerned; lest he incur the censure, as well as inconvenience, of living in society without knowing the obligations which it lays him under. And thus much may suffice for persons of inferior condition, who have neither time nor capacity to enlarge their views beyond that contracted sphere in which they are appointed to move. But those, on whom nature and fortune have bestowed more abilities and greater leisure, cannot be so easily excused. These advantages are given them, not for the benefit of themselves only, but also of the public: and yet they cannot, in any scene of life, discharge properly their duty either to the public or themselves, without some degree of knowledge in the laws.

    All gentlemen of fortune are, in consequence of their property, liable to be called upon to establish the rights, to estimate the injuries, to weigh the accusations and sometimes to dispose of the lives of their fellow-subjects, by serving upon juries. In this situation they have frequently a right to decide, and that upon their oaths, questions of nice importance, in the solution of which some legal skill is requisite; especially where the law and the fact, as it often happens, are intimately blended together. And the general incapacity, even of our best juries, to do this with any tolerable propriety, has greatly debased their authority; and has unavoidably thrown more power into the hands of the judges, to direct, control, and even reverse their verdicts, than perhaps the constitution intended.

    Yet farther; most gentlemen of considerable property, at some period or other in their lives, are ambitious of representing their country in parliament: and those, who are ambitious of receiving so high a trust, would also do well to remember its nature and importance. They are not thus honorably distinguished from the rest of their fellow-subjects, merely that they may privilege their persons, their estates, or their domestics; that they may list under party banners; may grant or withhold supplies; may vote with or vote against a popular or unpopular administration; but upon considerations far more interesting and important. They are the guardians of the English constitution; the makers, repealers, and interpreters of the English laws; delegated to watch, to check, and to avert every dangerous innovation, to propose, to adopt, and to cherish any solid and well-weighed improvement; bound by every tie of nature, of honor, and of religion, to transmit that constitution and those laws to posterity, amended if possible, at least without any derogation. And how unbecoming must it appear in a member of the legislature to vote for a new law, who is utterly ignorant of the old! 

    ...the science of legislation, the noblest and most difficult of any. Apprenticeships are held necessary to almost every art, commercial or mechanical: a long course of reading and study must form the divine, the physician, and the practical professor of the laws; but every man of superior fortune thinks himself born a legislator. Yet Tully was of a different opinion: “It is necessary,” says he,“for a senator to be thoroughly acquainted with the constitution; and this,” he declares, “is a knowledge of the most extensive nature; a matter of science, of diligence, of reflection; without which no senator can possibly be fit for his office.”

    ...where the imperial law is much cultivated, and its decisions pretty generally followed, we are informed by Van Leeuwen that “it receives its force from custom and the consent of the people, either tacitly or expressly given; for otherwise,” he adds, “we should no more be bound by this law, than by that of the Almains, the Franks, the Saxons, the Goths, the Vandals, and other of the ancient nations.” Wherefore, in all points in which the different systems depart from each other, the law of the land takes place of the law of Rome, whether ancient or modern, imperial or pontifical.

    ...A copy of Justinian’s pandects, being newly discovered at Amalfi, soon brought the civil law into vogue all over the west of Europe, where before it was quite laid aside, and in a manner forgotten, though some traces of its authority remained in Italy and the eastern provinces of the empire.This now became in a particular manner the favorite of the popish clergy, who borrowed the method and many of the maxims of their canon law from this original. The study of it was introduced into several universities abroad, particularly that of Bologna, where exercises were performed, lectures read, and degrees conferred in this faculty, as in other branches of science; and many nations on the continent, just then beginning to recover from the convulsions consequent upon the overthrow of the Roman empire, and settling by degrees into peaceable forms of government, adopted the civil law, (being the best written system then extant,) as the basis of their several constitutions; blending and interweaving it among their own feudal customs, in some places with a more extensive, in others a more confined authority.

    a Norman abbot, being elected to the see of Canterbury, and extremely addicted to this new study, brought over with him in his retinue many learned proficients therein; and, among the rest, Roger, surnamed Vacarius, whom he placed in the university of Oxford to teach it to the people of this country. But it did not meet with the same easy reception in England, where a mild and rational system of laws had been long established, as it did upon the continent; and though the monkish clergy, devoted to the will of a foreign primate, received it with eagerness and zeal, yet the laity, who were more interested to preserve the old constitution, and had already severely felt the effect of many Norman innovations, continued wedded to the use of the common law: King Stephen immediately published a proclamationforbidding the study of the laws, then newly imported from Italy, which was treated by the monks as a piece of impiety; and, though it might prevent the introduction of the civil law process into our courts of justice, yet did not hinder the clergy from reading and teaching it in their own schools and monasteries.

    From this time the nation seems to have been divided into two parties, the bishops and clergy, many of them foreigners, who applied themselves wholly to the study of the civil and canon laws, which now came to be inseparably interwoven with each other, and the nobility and laity, who adhered with equal pertinacity to the old common laws; both of them reciprocally jealous of what they were unacquainted with, and neither of them, perhaps, allowing the opposite system that real merit which is abundantly to be found in each.

    But wherever they retired, and wherever their authority extended, they carried with them the same zeal to introduce the rules of the civil, in exclusion of the municipal law. This appears in a particular manner from the spiritual courts of all denominations, from the chancellor’s courts in both our universities, and from the high court of chancery before mentioned; in all of which the proceedings are to this day in a course much conformed to the civil law: for which no tolerable reason can be assigned, unless that these courts were all under the immediate direction of the popish ecclesiastics, among whom it was a point of religion to exclude the municipal law; Pope Innocent the Fourth having forbidden(l) the very reading of it by the clergy, because its decisions were not founded on the imperial constitutions, but merely on the customs of the laity. 

    ...a science, which distinguishes the criterions of right and wrong; which teaches to establish the one, and prevent, punish, or redress the other; which employs in its theory the noblest faculties of the soul, and exerts in its practice the cardinal virtues of the heart; a science, which is universal in its use and extent, accommodated to each individual, yet comprehending the whole community; that a science like this should ever have been deemed unnecessary to be studied in an university, is matter of astonishment and concern.

    Aristotle himself has said, speaking of the laws of his own country, that jurisprudence, or the knowledge of those laws, is the principal and most perfect branch of ethics.

    experience may teach us to foretell that a lawyer, thus educated to the bar, in subservience to attorneys and solicitors,(n) will find he has begun at the wrong end. If practice be the whole he is taught, practice must also be the whole he will ever know: if he be not instructed in the elements and first principles upon which the rule of practice is founded, the least variation from established precedents will totally distract and bewilder him: ita lex scripta est(o) is the utmost his knowledge will arrive at; he must never aspire to form, and seldom expect to comprehend, any arguments drawn, a priori, from the spirit of the laws and the natural foundations of justice.

    The inconveniences here pointed out can never be effectually prevented, but by making academical education a previous step to the profession of the common law, and at the same time making the rudiments of the law a part of academical education. For sciences are of a sociable disposition, and flourish best in the neighbourhood of each other; nor is there any branch of learning but may be helped and improved by assistances drawn from other arts. If, therefore, the student in our laws hath formed both his sentiments and style by perusal and imitation of the purest classical writers, among whom the historians and orators will best deserve his regard; if he can reason with precision, and separate argument from fallacy, by the clear simple rules of pure unsophisticated logic; if he can fix his attention, and steadily pursue truth through any the most intricate deduction, by the use of mathematical demonstrations; if he has enlarged his conceptions of nature and art, by a view of the several branches of genuine experimental philosophy; if he has impressed on his mind the sound maxims of the law of nature, the best and most authentic foundation of human laws; if, lastly, he has contemplated those maxims reduced to a practical system in the laws of imperial Rome; if he has done this, or any part of it, (though all may be easily done under as able instructors as ever graced any seats of learning,) a student thus qualified may enter upon the study of the law with incredible advantage and reputation. 


    In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the colonies use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States.  But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document to frame the Constitution to new Rules of Law.

    Thomas Jefferson to John Tyler, 17 June 1812


    On the other subject of your letter, the application of the common Law to our present situation, I deride, with you, the ordinary doctrine that we brought with us from England the Common Law rights. this narrow notion was a favorite in the first moment of rallying to our rights against Great Britain. but it was that of men, who felt their rights before they had thought of their explanation. the truth is that we brought with us the rights of men, of ex-patriated men. on our arrival here the question would at once arise, By what law will we govern ourselves? the resolution seems to have been, By that system with which we are familiar, to be altered by ourselves occasionally, and adapted to our new situation. the proofs of this resolution are to be found in the form of the oaths of the judges. 1. Hening’s stat. 169. 187. of the Governor ib. 504. in the act for a provisional government ib. 372. in the preamble to the laws of 1661.2. the uniform current of opinions and decisions, and in the general recognition of all our statutes framed on that basis. but the state of the English law at the date of our emigration, constituted the system adopted here. we may doubt therefore the propriety of quoting in our courts English authorities subsequent to that adoption, still more the admission of authorities posterior to the declaration of Independence, or rather to the accession of that king, whose reign, ab initio, was that very tissue of wrongs which rendered the Declaration at length necessary. the reason for it had inception at least as far back as the commencement of his reign. this relation to the beginning of his reign, would add the advantage of getting us rid of all Mansfield’s innovations, or civilizations of the Common law. for however I admit the superiority of the Civil, over the Common law code, as a system of perfect justice, yet an incorporation of the two would be like Nebuchadnezzar’s image of metals & clay, a thing without cohesion of parts. the only natural improvement of the common law, is thro’ it’s homogeneous ally, the Chancery, in which new principles are to be examined, concocted, and digested. but when by repeated decisions & modifications they are rendered pure & certain, they should be transferred by statute to the courts of common law, & placed within the pale of juries. the exclusion from the courts of the malign influence of all authorities after the Georgium sidus became ascendant, would uncanonise Blackstone, whose book, altho’ the most elegant & best digested of our law catalogue, has been perverted more than all others to the degeneracy of legal science. a student finds there a smattering of every thing, and his indolence easily persuades him that if he understands that book, he is master of the whole body of the law. the distinction between these, & those who have drawn their stores from the deep and rich mines of Coke Littleton, seems well understood even by the unlettered common people, who apply the appellation of Blackstone lawyers to these Ephemeral insects of the law.

    Whether we should undertake to reduce the common law, our own, & so much of the English, statutes as we have adopted, to a text, is a question of transcendent difficulty. it was discussed at the first meeting of the committee of the Revised code in 1776. & decided in the negative by the opinions of Wythe, Mason & myself, against Pendleton & Tom Lee. Mr. Pendleton proposed to take Blackstone for that text, only purging him of what was inapplicable, or unsuitable to us. in that case the meaning of every word of Blackstone would have become a source of litigation until it had been settled by repeated legal decisions. and to come at that meaning, we should have had produced, on all occasions, that very pile of authorities from which it would be said he drew his conclusion, & which of course would explain it, and the terms in which it is couched. thus we should have retained the same chaos of law-lore from which we wished to be emancipated, added to the evils of the uncertainty which a new text, & new phrases would have generated. an example of this may be found in the old statutes and commentaries on them in Coke’s institute; but more remarkably in the Institute of Justinian, & the vast masses, explanatory, or supplementory of that which fills the libraries of the Civilians. we were deterred from the attempt by these considerations, added to which, the bustle of the times did not admit leisure for such an undertaking.



    Locke, Bolingbroke, Blackstone, and Jefferson were well versed on Cicero, a Roman Philosopher that walked Earth 50 years before Jesus Christ.
    Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814


    Cicero did not wield the dense logic of Demosthenes, yet he was able, learned, laborious, practiced in the business of the world, & honest. he could not be the dupe of mere style, of which he was himself the first master in the world.

    On the Spirit of Patriotism
    Henry St. John Bolingbroke


     Cicero might be a better philosopher, but Demosthenes was no less a statesman: and both of them performed actions and acquired fame, above the reach of eloquence alone. Demosthenes used to compare eloquence to a weapon, aptly enough; for eloquence, like every other weapon, is of little use to the owner, unless he have the force and the skill to use it. This force and this skill Demosthenes had in an eminent degree.

    Cicero theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator has enabled man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil).

    In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator as both an equitable distribution of goods and discrimination of good and evil.


    According to the Greeks, therefore, the name of law implies an equitable distribution of goods: according to the Romans, an equitable discrimination between good and evil. The true definition of law should, however, include both these characteristics. And this being granted as an almost self–evident proposition, the origin of justice is to be sought in the divine law of eternal and immutable morality. This indeed is the true energy of nature, the very soul and essence of wisdom, the test of virtue and vice.

    Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato.


    Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming.
    Letter to Menoeceus


    Accustom yourself to believing that death is nothing to us, for good and evil imply the capacity for sensation, and death is the privation of all sentience; therefore a correct understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable, not by adding to life a limitless time, but by taking away the yearning after immortality. For life has no terrors for him who has thoroughly understood that there are no terrors for him in ceasing to live. Foolish, therefore, is the man who says that he fears death, not because it will pain when it comes, but because it pains in the prospect. Whatever causes no annoyance when it is present, causes only a groundless pain in the expectation. Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not. It is nothing, then, either to the living or to the dead, for with the living it is not and the dead exist no longer.

     Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law.  Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates.  Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree.

    50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice.
    Nicomachean Ethics
    By Aristotle


    Now often one contrary state is recognized from its contrary, and often states are recognized from the subjects that exhibit them; for ( A ) if good condition is known, bad condition also becomes known, and ( B ) good condition is known from the things that are in good condition, and they from it. If good condition is firmness of flesh, it is necessary both that bad condition should be flabbiness of flesh and that the wholesome should be that which causes firmness in flesh. And it follows for the most part that if one contrary is ambiguous the other also will be ambiguous; e.g. if 'just' is so, that 'unjust' will be so too.

    Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. 
    Against Aristocrates Section 75


    The defendant, however, admitted no exception; he simply makes an outcast of any man who kills Charidemus, even though he kill him justly or as the laws permit. And yet to every act and to every word one of two epithets is applicable: it is either just or unjust. To no act and to no word can both these epithets be applied at the same time, for how can the same act at the same time be both just and not just? Every act is brought to the test as having the one or the other of these qualities; if it be found to have the quality of injustice, it is adjudged to be wicked, if of justice, to be good and honest.—But you, sir, used neither qualification when you wrote the words, “if any man kill.” You named the mere accusation, without any definition, and then immediately added, “let him be liable to seizure.” Thereby you have evidently ignored this tribunal and its usages as well as the other two.

    Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them.
    Olynthiac 1 Section 11


    I suppose it is with national as with private wealth. If a man keeps what he gains, he is duly grateful to fortune; if he loses it by his own imprudence, he loses along with it the sense of gratitude. So in national affairs, those who fail to use their opportunities aright, fail also to acknowledge the good that the gods have given; for every advantage in the past is judged in the light of the final issue. It is therefore our duty, men of Athens, to keep a careful eye on the future, that by restoring our prosperity we may efface the discredit of the past.

    Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality.

    To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not.
    page 22


    "If" says he "what is said to be true, we shall in another "state die no more. In death "he says to his judges "we either lose all sense of things, or as it is said, go into some other place; and if it be so, it will be much better; as we shall be out " of the power of partial judges, and come before "those that are impartial."

    Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost.



  5. The Didache - Introduction
    "Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy.  Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of Science and Faith it can be difficult discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of man.
    I have chosen to research the Didache of the 12 Apostles because it is honored as the 'first catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church.  The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles is a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. For nonChristians the Didache is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles.The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. in life. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist the Didache is a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws give to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism  and Unitarianism.
    In humble admiration, I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) to best present the truth in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural. President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work.
    John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813


    I admire your Employment, in Selecting the Philosophy and Divinity of Jesus and Separating it from all intermixtures. If I had Eyes and Nerves, I would go through both Testaments and mark all that I understand. To examine the Mishna Gemara Cabbala Jezirah, Sohar Cosri and Talmud of the Hebrews would require the life of Methuselah, and after all, his 969 years would be wasted to very little purpose.

    I will follow the same method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to a particular Apostolic teaching. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition.
    I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it.
     In our pursuit for the truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence.


    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

    As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.'
    Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of happiness and misery. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes.
    Chapter III
    No Innate Practical Principles


    Nature, I confess, has put into man a desire of happiness and an aversion to misery: these indeed are innate practical principles which (as practical principles ought) do continue constantly to operate and influence all our actions without ceasing: these may be observed in all persons and all ages, steady and universal; but these are inclinations of the appetite to good, not impressions of truth on the understanding.

    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant.
    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    John Locke


    Chapter 3
    No Innate Practical Principles
    I grant the existence of God is so many ways manifest, and the obedience we owe him so congruous to the light of reason, that a great part of mankind give testimony to the law of nature: but yet I think it must be allowed that several moral rules may receive from mankind a very general approbation, without either knowing or admitting the true ground of morality; which can only be the will and law of a God, who sees men in the dark, has in His hand rewards and punishments and power enough to call to account the proudest offender.
    Chapter 28
    Of Other Relations
    8. Divine law the measure of sin and duty. First, the Divine Law, whereby that law which God has set to the actions of men — whether promulgated to them by the light of nature, or the voice of revelation. That God has given a rule whereby men should govern themselves, I think there is nobody so brutish as to deny. He has a right to do it; we are his creatures: he has goodness and wisdom to direct our actions to that which is best: and he has power to enforce it by rewards and punishments of infinite weight and duration in another life; for nobody can take us out of his hands. This is the only true touchstone of moral rectitude; and, by comparing them to this law, it is that men judge of the most considerable moral good or evil of their actions; that is, whether, as duties or sins, they are like to procure them happiness or misery from the hands of the ALMIGHTY.

    To understand how  Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England  by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765. 
    The Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life.
    Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England
    Of the Nature of Laws in General.


    This Will of his Maker is called the Law of Nature. For as God, when He created matter, and endued it with a principle of mobility, established certain rules for the perpetual direction of that motion; so, when he created man, and endued him with free will to conduct himself in all parts of life, He laid down certain immutable laws of human nature, whereby that free will is in some degree regulated and restrained, and gave him also the faculty of reason to discover the purpose of those laws.
    IF man were to live in a state of nature, unconnected with other individuals, there would be no occasion for any other laws, than the law of nature, and the law of God. Neither could any other law possibly exist; for a law always supposes some superior who is to make it; and in a state of nature we are all equal, without any other superior but him who is the author of our being. But man was formed for society; and, as is demonstrated by the writers on this subject, is neither capable of living alone, nor indeed has the courage to do it. However, as it is impossible for the whole race of mankind to be united in one great society, they must necessarily divide into many; and form separate states, commonwealths, and nations; entirely independent of each other, and yet liable to a mutual intercourse. Hence arises a third kind of law to regulate this mutual intercourse, called “the law of “nations;” which, as none of these states will acknowledge a superiority in the other, cannot be dictated by either; but depends entirely upon the rules of natural law, or upon mutual compacts, treaties, leagues, and agreements between these several communities: in the construction also of which compacts we have no other rule to resort to, but the law of nature; being the only one to which both communities are equally subject: and therefore the civil law very justly observes, that quod naturalis ratio inter omnes hominess conftituit, vocatur jus gentium.

    Locke, Blackstone, Adams and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them.
    John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 9 August 1816


    Promise me eternal Life free from Pain, tho’ in all other respects no better than our present terrestrial Existence, I know not how many thousand Years of Smithfield fires I would not endure to obtain it.

    In fine, without the Supposition of a future State, Mankind and this Globe appear to me the most Sublime and beautiful Bubble and Bauble that Imagination can conceive.

    Let us then wish for Immortality at all hazards and trust the Ruler with His Skies. I do: and earnestly wish for His Commands which to the Utmost of my Power Shall be implicitly and piously obeyed.

    Note. Smithfield, London was the location of executions of heretics and political rebels over the centuries, including Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace, and Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants' Revolt, among many other religious reformers and dissenters. It probable that Smithfield was a location that Adams, Jefferson, and the Founding Fathers of the United States may have feared they might have ended up if their choice of rebellion against the failure of a monarch to properly rule by a destructive system of Colony Administration that degraded descendants of English Freemen to a state of servitude. 

    Benjamin Franklin delivered this Petition of the Continental Congress, dated October 26, 1774 and signed by fifty-one delegates to the Congress, to Britain's King George III. The petition, stated the grievances of the American provinces and asked for the King's help in seeking solutions to their new founded misery. That their actions would be considered just to the Creator who would be the final judge to every one of them.

    The Petition of the Grand American Continental Congress, to the King's Most Excellent Majesty

    Oct. 26 1774 letter of transmittal


    Had we been permitted to enjoy in quiet, the inheritance  left us by our forefathers, we should at this time have been peaceably, cheerfully and usefully employed in recommending  ourselves by every testimony of devotion to your Majesty, and of veneration to the state from which we derive our origin. 

    But though now exposed to unexpected and unnatural scenes of distress by a contention with that nation, on whose parental guidance on all important affairs, we have hitherto with filial reverence constantly trusted, and therefore can derive no instruction in our present unhappy and perplexing circumstances from any former experience ; yet we doubt not the purity of our intention and the integrity of our conduct will justify us at that grand tribunal before which all mankind must submit to judgment.

    We ask but for peace, liberty and safety. We wish not a diminution of the prerogative, nor do we solicit the grant of any new right in our favor. Your royal authority over us and our connection with Great-Britain, we shall always carefully and zealously endeavor to support and maintain.

    King George considered the Colonist message of loyalty and attachment to his kingdom to be a farce. The Creator had blessed in England with Freedom and Bounty. Many of King's subjects gave their lives so that that the citizens of England could enjoy the greatest freedom that one could desire. King George considered the words of the rebellious criminal leaders to misrepresenting the truth about the constitution of colonies to be subordinate to Great Britain. America's Continental Congress were unlawfully taking control of British legislative, executive and judicial powers through acts of acts of violence threatening the property and lives of people loyal to the crown. The happiness of England and her subjects depended on her defending the resources the Creator had blessed them with.

    King George III Speech to Parliament, October 27, 1775


    "Those who have long too successfully labored to inflame my people in America by gross misrepresentations, and to infuse into their minds a system of opinions, repugnant to the true constitution of the colonies, and to their subordinate relation to Great-Britain, now openly avow their revolt, hostility and rebellion. They have raised troops, and are collecting a naval force; they have seized the public revenue, and assumed to themselves legislative, executive and judicial powers, which they already exercise in the most arbitrary manner, over the persons and property of their fellow-subjects: And although many of these unhappy people may still retain their loyalty, and may be too wise not to see the fatal consequence of this usurpation [unlawful right], and wish to resist it, yet the torrent of violence has been strong enough to compel their acquiescence [acceptance without protest], till a sufficient force shall appear to support them.

    "The authors and promoters of this desperate conspiracy have, in the conduct of it, derived great advantage from the difference of our intentions and theirs. They meant only to amuse by vague expressions of attachment to the Parent State, and the strongest protestations [insistence] of loyalty to me, whilst they were preparing for a general revolt. On our part, though it was declared in your last session that a rebellion existed within the province of the Massachusetts Bay, yet even that province we wished rather to reclaim than to subdue. The resolutions of Parliament breathed a spirit of moderation and forbearance; conciliatory propositions accompanied the measures taken to enforce authority; and the coercive acts were adapted to cases of criminal combinations among subjects not then in arms. I have acted with the same temper; anxious to prevent, if it had been possible, the effusion of the blood of my subjects; and the calamities which are inseparable from a state of war; still hoping that my people in America would have discerned the traitorous views of their leaders, and have been convinced, that to be a subject of Great Britain, with all its consequences, is to be the freest member of any civil society in the known world.

    "The rebellious war now levied is become more general, and is manifestly carried on for the purpose of establishing an independent empire. I need not dwell upon the fatal effects of the success of such a plan. The object is too important, the spirit of the British nation too high, the resources with which God hath blessed her too numerous, to give up so many colonies which she has planted with great industry, nursed with great tenderness, encouraged with many commercial advantages, and protected and defended at much expense of blood and treasure.

    It is clear that George III was instructed understood there are times when one must restrain their personal inclinations of the appetite for the greater good of his nation. This becomes evident when George III intended to marry his true love to marry Lady Sarah Lenox, the sister of the Duke of Richmond.  When the marriage was opposed by his adviser John Stuart, Earl of Bute. George immediately broke off the relationship and wrote in his journal “The interest of my country shall ever be my first care, my own inclinations shall ever submit to it; I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation and consequently must often act contrary to my passions.”  Later, King George III asked Lady Sarah to be one of the ten bridesmaids at his wedding to Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It was John Stuart who designed the curriculum that shaped the future king's thoughts on history, law, and politics, relying heavily on works such as a manuscript version of William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and St. John Bolingbroke's The Idea of the Patriot King (1740). 

    Like King George, Thomas Jefferson was very familiar with Bolingboke's work. Much of his commonplace book follows Bolingboke's method of critical reasoning and evidence. Jefferson may have looked at Boilingbroke's mention of Ceaser's labor to destroy the liberties of his subjects similar to King George's actions.

    The Idea of a Patriot King
    Henry St. John Bolingbroke

    I am not one of those oriental slaves, who deem it unlawful presumption to look their kings in the face; neither am I swayed by my Lord Bacon's authority to think this custom good and reasonable in its meaning, though it savours of barbarism in its institution

    ...The principles I have reasoned upon in my letter to my Lord, and those I shall reason upon here, are the same. They are laid in the same system of human nature. They are drawn from that source from whence all the duties of public and private morality must be derived, or they will be often falsely, and always precariously, established. Up to this source there are few men who take the pains to go: and, open as it lies, there are not many who can find their way to it. 

    ...The iniquity of all the principal men in any community, of kings and ministers especially, does not consist alone in the crimes they commit, and in the immediate consequences of these crimes: and, therefore, their guilt is not to be measured by these alone. Such men sin against posterity, as well as against their own age; and when the consequences of their crimes are over, the consequences of their example remain. I think, and every wise and honest man in generations yet unborn will think, if the history of this administration descends to blacken our annals, that the greatest iniquity of the minister, on whom the whole iniquity ought to be charged, since he has been so long in possession of the whole power, is the constant endeavor he has employed to corrupt the morals of men. I say thus generally, the morals; because he, who abandons or betrays his country, will abandon or betray his friend; and because he, who is prevailed on to act in Parliament without any regard to truth or justice, will easily prevail on himself to act in the same manner every where else. A wiser and honester administration may relieve our trade from that oppression, and the public from that load of debt, under which it must be supposed that he has industriously kept it; because we are able to prove, by fair calculations, that he might have provided effectually for the payment of it, since he came to the head of the Treasury. A wiser and honester administration may draw us back to our former credit and influence abroad, from that state of contempt into which we are sunk among all our neighbors.  

    ...Will their sentiments, which are debased from the love of liberty, from zeal for the honor and prosperity of their country, and from a desire of honest fame, to an absolute unconcernedness for all these, to an abject submission, and a rapacious eagerness after wealth, that may sate their avarice, and exceed the profusion of their luxury; will these, I say again, be so easily or so soon elevated? In a word, will the British spirit, that spirit which has preserved liberty hitherto in one corner of the world at least, be so easily or so soon reinfused into the British nation? I think not. We have been long coming to this point of depravation: and the progress from confirmed habits of evil is much more slow than the progress to them. Virtue is not placed on a rugged mountain of difficult and dangerous access, as they who would excuse the indolence of their temper, or the perverseness of their will, desire to have it believed; but she is seated, however, on an eminence. We may go up to her with ease, but we must go up gradually, according to the natural progression of reason, who is to lead the way, and to guide our steps. On the other hand, if we fall from thence, we are sure to be hurried down the hill with a blind impetuosity, according to the natural violence of those appetites and passions that caused our fall at first, and urge it on the faster, the further they are removed from the control that before restrained them.

    ...to save or redeem a nation, under such circumstances, from perdition, nothing less is necessary than some great, some extraordinary conjuncture of ill fortune, or of good, which may purge, yet so as by fire. Distress from abroad, bankruptcy at home, and other circumstances of like nature and tendency, may beget universal confusion. Out of confusion order may arise: but it may be the order of a wicked tyranny, instead of the order of a just monarchy. Either may happen: and such an alternative, at the disposition of fortune, is sufficient to make a Stoic tremble! We may be saved, indeed, by means of a very different kind; but these means will not offer themselves, this way of salvation will not be opened to us, without the concurrence, and the influence, of a Patriot King, the most uncommon of all phenomena in the physical or moral world.

    Nothing can so surely and so effectually restore the virtue and public spirit essential to the preservation of liberty and national prosperity, as the reign of such a prince.

    ...But let us not neglect, on our part, such means as are in our power, to keep the cause of truth, of reason, of virtue, and of liberty, alive. If the blessing be withheld from us, let us deserve, at least, that it should be granted to us. If heaven, in mercy, bestows it on us, let us prepare to receive it, to improve it, and to co-operate with it.

    I mean what this institution ought to have been, whenever it began, according to the rule of reason, founded in the common rights, and interests, of mankind. On this head it is quite necessary to make some reflections, that will, like angular stones laid on a rock, support the little fabric, the model however of a great building, that I propose to raise.

    So plain a matter could never have been rendered intricate and voluminous, had it not been for lawless ambition, extravagant vanity, and the detestable spirit of tyranny, abetted by the private interests of artful men, by adulation and superstition, two vices to which that staring timid creature man is excessively prone; if authority had not imposed on such as did not pretend to reason; and if such as did attempt to reason had not been caught in the common snares of sophism, and bewildered in the labyrinths of disputation. In this case, therefore, as in all those of great concernment, the shortest and the surest method of arriving at real knowledge is to unlearn the lessons we have been taught, to remount to first principles, and take nobody's word about them; for it is about them that almost all the juggling and legerdemain, employed by men whose trade it is to deceive, are set to work.

    Now he, who does so in this case, will discover soon, that the notions concerning the divine institution and right of kings, as well as the absolute power belonging to their office, have no foundation in fact or reason, but have risen from an old alliance between ecclesiastical and civil policy. The characters of king and priest have been sometimes blended together: and when they have been divided, as kings have found the great effects wrought in government by the empire which priests obtain over the consciences of mankind, so priests have been taught by experience, that the best method to preserve their own rank, dignity, wealth, and power, all raised upon a supposed divine right, is to communicate the same pretension to kings, and, by a fallacy common to both, impose their usurpations on a silly world. This they have done: and, in the state, as in the Church, these pretensions to a divine right have been generally carried highest by those, who have had the least pretension to the divine favor.

    The authors of such inventions, as were of general use to the well being of mankind, were not only reverenced and obeyed during their lives, but worshiped after their deaths: they became principal gods, Dii majorum gentium. The founders of commonwealths, the lawgivers, and the heroes of particular states, became gods of a second class, Dii minorum gentium. All pre-eminence was given in heaven, as well as on earth, in proportion to the benefits that men received. Majesty was the first, and divinity the second, reward. Both were earned by services done to mankind, whom it was easy to lead, in those days of simplicity and superstition, from admiration and gratitude, to adoration and expectation.

    Nobility in China mounts upwards: and he, who has it conferred upon him, ennobles his ancestors, not his posterity. A wise institution! and especially among a people in whose minds a great veneration for their forefathers has been always carefully maintained. But in China, as well as in most other countries, royalty has descended, and kingdoms have been reckoned the patrimonies of particular families.

    I esteem monarchy above any other form of government, and hereditary monarchy above elective. I reverence kings, their office, their rights, their persons: and it will never be owing to the principles I am going to establish, because the character and government of a Patriot King can be established on no other, if their office and their right are not always held divine, and their persons always sacred.

    Now, we are subject, by the constitution of human nature, and therefore by the will of the author of this and every other nature, to two laws. One given immediately to all men by God, the same to all, and obligatory alike on all. The other given to man by man, and therefore not the same to all, nor obligatory alike on all: founded indeed on the same principles, but varied by different applications of them to times, to characters, and to a number, which may be reckoned infinite, of other circumstances. By the first, I mean the universal law of reason; and by the second, the particular law, or constitution of laws, by which every distinct community has chosen to be governed.

    The obligation of submission to both, is discoverable by so clear and so simple an use of our intellectual faculties, that it may be said properly enough to be revealed to us by God: and though both these laws cannot be said properly to be given by him, yet our obligation to submit to the civil law is a principal paragraph in the natural law, which he has most manifestly given us. In truth we can no more doubt of the obligations of both these laws, than of the existence of the lawgiver. As supreme lord over all his works, his general providence regards immediately the great commonwealth of mankind; but then, as supreme lord likewise, his authority gives a sanction to the particular bodies of law which are made under it. The law of nature is the law of all his subjects: the constitutions of particular governments are like the by-laws of cities, or the appropriated customs of provinces. It follows, therefore, that he who breaks the laws of his country resists the ordinance of God, that is, the law of his nature. God has instituted neither monarchy, nor aristocracy, nor democracy, nor mixed government: but though God has instituted no particular form of government among men, yet by the general laws of his kingdom he exacts our obedience to the laws of those communities, to which each of us is attached by birth, or to which we may be attached by a subsequent and lawful engagement.

    From such plain, unrefined, and therefore, I suppose, true reasoning, the just authority of kings and the due obedience of subjects, may be deduced with the utmost certainty. And surely it is far better for kings themselves to have their authority thus founded on principles incontestable, and on fair deductions from them, than on the chimeras of madmen, or, what has been more common, the sophisms of knaves. A human right, that cannot be controverted, is preferable, surely, to a pretended divine right, which every man must believe implicitly, as few will do, or not believe at all.

    ...A divine right in kings is to be deduced evidently from them: a divine right to govern well, and conformably to the constitution at the head of which they are placed. A divine right to govern ill, is an absurdity to assert it, is blasphemy. A people may choose, or hereditary succession may raise, a bad prince to the throne; but a good king alone can derive his right to govern from God. The reason is plain: good government alone can be in the divine intention. God has made us to desire happiness; he has made our happiness dependent on society; and the happiness of society dependent on good or bad government. His intention, therefore, was, that government should be good.

    This is essential to his wisdom; for wisdom consists, surely, in proportioning means to ends: therefore it cannot be said without absurd impiety, that he confers a right to oppose his intention.

    The office of kings is, then, of right divine, and their persons are to be reputed sacred. As men, they have no such right, no such sacredness belonging to them: as kings, they have both, unless they forfeit them. Reverence for government obliges to reverence governors, who, for the sake of it, are raised above the level of other men: but reverence for governors, independently of government, any further than reverence would be due to their virtues if they were private men, is preposterous, and repugnant to common sense. The spring from which this legal reverence, for so I may call it, arises, is national, not personal. As well might we say that a ship is built, and loaded, and manned, for the sake of any particular pilot, instead of acknowledging that the pilot is made for the sake of the ship, her lading, and her crew, who are always the owners in the political vessel; as to say that kingdoms were instituted for kings, not kings for kingdoms. In short, and to carry our allusion higher, majesty is not an inherent, but a reflected light.

    ...Nothing can be more absurd, in pure speculation, than an hereditary right in any mortal to govern other men: and yet, in practice, nothing can be more absurd than to have a king to choose at every vacancy of a throne. We draw at a lottery indeed in one case, where there are many chances to lose, and few to gain. But have we much more advantage of this kind in the other? I think not. Upon these, and upon most occasions, the multitude would do at least as well to trust to chance as choice, and to their fortune as to their judgment. But in another respect, the advantage is entirely on the side of hereditary succession; for, in elective monarchies, these elections, whether well or ill made, are often attended with such national calamities, that even the best reigns cannot make amends for them: whereas, in hereditary monarchy, whether a good or a bad prince succeeds, these calamities are avoided. There is one source of evil the less open: and one source of evil the less in human affairs, where there are so many, is sufficient to decide. We may lament the imperfections of our human state, which is such, that in cases of the utmost importance to the order and good government of society, and by consequence to the happiness of our kind, we are reduced, by the very constitution of our nature, to have no part to take that our reason can approve absolutely. But though we lament it, we must submit to it. We must tell ourselves once for all, that perfect schemes are not adapted to our imperfect state; that Stoical morals and Platonic politics are nothing better than amusements for those who have had little experience in the affairs of the world

    ...I think a limited monarchy the best of governments, so I think an hereditary monarchy the best of monarchies. I said a limited monarchy; for an unlimited monarchy, wherein arbitrary will, which is in truth no rule, is however the sole rule, or stands instead of all rule of government, is so great an absurdity, both in reason informed or uninformed by experience, that it seems a government fitter for savages than for civilized people.

    ...When monarchy is the essential form, it may be more easily and more usefully tempered with aristocracy, or democracy, or both, than either of them, when they are the essential forms, can be tempered with monarchy. It seems to me, that the introduction of a real permanent monarchical power, or any thing more than the pageantry of it, into either of these, must destroy them and extinguish them, as a greater light extinguishes a less.

    I would not say God governs by a rule that we know, or may know, as well as he, and upon our knowledge of which he appeals to men for the justice of his proceedings towards them; which a famous divine has impiously advanced, in a pretended demonstration of his being and attributes. God forbid! But this I may say, that God does always that which is fittest to be done, and that this fitness, whereof neither that presumptuous dogmatist was, nor any created being is, a competent judge, results from the various natures, and more various relations of things: so that, as creator of all systems by which these natures and relations are constituted, he prescribed to himself the rule, which he follows as governor of every system of being. In short, with reverence be it spoken, God is a monarch, yet not an arbitrary but a limited monarch, limited by the rule which infinite wisdom prescribed to infinite power. 

    There are limitations indeed that would destroy the essential form of monarchy; or, in other words, a monarchical constitution may be changed, under pretense of limiting the monarch.

     I will not say that the essential form of monarchy should be preserved though the preservation of it were to cause the loss of liberty.

    ..all the limitations necessary to preserve liberty, as long as the spirit of it subsists, and longer than that no limitations of monarchy, nor any other form of government, can preserve it, are compatible with monarchy. I think on these subjects, neither as the Tories, nor as the Whigs have thought; at least, I endeavour to avoid the excesses of both. I neither dress up kings like so many burlesque Jupiters, weighing the fortunes of mankind in the scales of fate, and darting thunderbolts at the heads of rebellious giants; nor do I strip them unclothed, as it were, and leave them at most a few tattered rags to clothe their majesty, but such as can serve really as little for use as for ornament. My aim is to fix this principle: that limitations on a crown ought to be carried as far as it is necessary to secure the liberties of a people; and that all such limitations may subsist, without weakening or endangering monarchy.

    I shall be told, perhaps, for I have heard it said by many, that this point is imaginary; and that limitations, sufficient to procure good government and to secure liberty under a bad prince, cannot be made, unless they are such as will deprive the subjects of many benefits in the reign of a good prince, clog his administration, maintain an unjust jealousy between him and his people, and occasion a defect of power, necessary to preserve the public tranquility, and to promote the national prosperity.

    ...The limitations necessary to preserve liberty under monarchy will restrain effectually a bad prince, without being ever felt as shackles by a good one. Our constitution is brought, or almost brought, to such a point, a point of perfection I think it, that no king, who is not, in the true meaning of the word, a patriot, can govern Britain with ease, security, honour, dignity, or indeed with sufficient power and strength. But yet a king, who is a patriot may govern with all the former; and, besides them, with power as extended as the most absolute monarch can boast, and a power, too, far more agreeable in the enjoyment as well as more effectual in the operation.

    ...It is something to desire to appear a patriot: and the desire of having fame is a step towards deserving it, because it is a motive the more to deserve it. If it be true, as Tacitus says, contemptu famae contemni virtutem, that a contempt of a good name, or an indifference about it, begets or accompanies always a contempt of virtue; the contrary will be true: and they are certainly both true. But this motive alone is not sufficient. To constitute a patriot, whether king or subject, there must be something more substantial than a desire of fame, in the composition; and if there be not, this desire of fame will never rise above that sentiment which may be compared to the coquetry of women: a fondness of transient applause, which is courted by vanity, given by flattery, and spends itself in show, like the qualities which acquire it. Patriotism must be founded in great principles, and supported by great virtues.

    ...princes are easily betrayed into an error that takes its rise in the general imperfection of our nature, in our pride, our vanity, and our presumption? The bastard children, but the children still, of self love; a spurious brood, but often a favorite brood, that governs the whole family. As men are apt to make themselves the measure of all being, so they make themselves the final cause of all creation. Thus the reputed orthodox philosophers in all ages have taught, that the world was made for man, the earth for him to inhabit, and all the luminous bodies, in the immense expanse around us, for him to gaze at. Kings do no more, no, not so much, when they imagine themselves the final cause for which societies were formed, and governments instituted.

    ...all such men should bear constantly in mind, that the master they serve is to be the king of their country: that their attachment to him, therefore, is not to be like that of other servants to other masters, for his sake alone, or for his sake and their own, but for the sake of their country likewise.

    ..Attachment to a private person must comprehend a great concern for his character and his interests: but attachment to one who is, or may be a king, much more; because the character of the latter is more important to himself and others; and because his interests are vastly more complicated with those of his country, and in some sort with those of mankind. 

    If he gives them those of a good reign, we may assure ourselves that they will carry, and in this case they ought to carry that applause, and those demonstrations of their confidence and affection, as high as such a prince himself can desire. Thus the prince and the people, take, in effect, a sort of engagement with one another: the prince to govern well, and the people to honor and obey him.

    ...when the spirit of liberty begins to flag in a free people, and when they become disposed, by habits that have grown insensibly upon them, to a base submission. But they are necessary too, even when they are easiest to be obtained; that is, when the spirit of liberty is in full strength, and a disposition, to oppose all instances of maladministration, and to resist all attempts on liberty, is universal. In both cases, the endeavours of every man who loves his country will be employed with incessant care and constancy to obtain them, that good government and liberty may be the better preserved and secured; but in the latter case for this further reason also, that the preservation and security of these may be provided for, not only better but more consistently with public tranquillity, by constitutional methods, and a legal course of Opposition to the excesses of regal or ministerial power. 

    It is true that a prince, who gives just reasons to expect that his reign will be that of a Patriot King, may not always meet, and from all persons, such returns as such expectations deserve: but they must not hinder either the prince from continuing to give them, or the people from continuing to acknowledge them. United, none can hurt them: and if no artifice interrupts, no power can defeat the effects of their perseverance. It will blast many a wicked project, keep virtue in countenance, and vice, to some degree at least, in awe. Nay, if it should fail to have these effects, if we should even suppose a good prince to suffer with the people, and in some measure for them, vet many advantages would accrue to him: for instance, the cause of the people he is to govern, and his own cause would be made the same by their common enemies. He would feel grievances himself as a subject, before he had the power of imposing them as a king. He would be formed in that school out of which the greatest and the best of monarchs have come, the school of affliction: and all the vices, which had prevailed before his reign, would serve as so many foils to the glories of it. 

    Machiavel is an author who should have great authority with the persons likely to oppose me. He proposes to princes the amplification of their power, the extent of their dominion, and the subjection of their people, as the sole objects of their policy. He devises and recommends all means that tend to these purposes, without the consideration of any duty owing to God or man, or any regard to the morality or immorality of actions. Yet even he declares the affectation of virtue to be useful to princes: he is so far on my side in the present question. The only difference between us is, I would have the virtue real: he requires no more than the appearance of it.

    In the tenth chapter of the first book of Discourses, he appears convinced, such is the force of truth, but how consistently with himself let others determine, that the supreme glory of a prince accrues to him who establishes good government and a free constitution; and that a prince, ambitious of fame, must wish to come into possession of a disordered and corrupted state, not to finish the wicked work that others have begun, and to complete the ruin, but to stop the progress of the first, and to prevent the last. He thinks this not only the true way to fame, but to security and quiet; as the contrary leads, for here is no third way, and a prince must make his option between these two, not only to infamy, but to danger and to perpetual disquietude. He represents those who might establish a commonwealth or a legal monarchy, and who choose to improve the opportunity of establishing tyranny, that is, monarchy without any rule of law, as men who are deceived by false notions of good, and false appearances of glory, and who are in effect blind to their true interest in every respect

    Thus far Machiavel reasons justly; but he takes in only a part of his subject, and confines himself to those motives that should determine a wise prince to maintain liberty, because it is his interest to do so. He rises no higher than the consideration of mere interest, of fame, of security, of quiet, and of power, all personal to the prince: and by such motives alone even his favourite Borgia might have been determined to affect the virtues of a patriot prince; more than which this great doctor in political knowledge would not have required of him. But he is far from going up to that motive which should above all determine a good prince to hold this conduct, because it is his duty to do so; a duty that he owes to God by one law, and to his people by another.

    though Mr Locke condescended to examine those of Filmer, more out of regard to the prejudices of the time, than to the importance of the work. Upon such foundations we must conclude, that since men were directed by nature to form societies, because they cannot by their nature subsist without them, nor in a state of individuality; and since they were directed in like manner to establish governments, because societies cannot be maintained without them, nor subsist in a state of anarchy, the ultimate end of all governments is the good of the people, for whose sake they were made, and without whose consent they could not have been made. In forming societies, and submitting to government, men give up part of that liberty to which they are all born, and all alike. But why? Is government incompatible with a full enjoyment of liberty? By no means. But because popular liberty without government will degenerate into licence (permission) , as government without sufficient liberty will degenerate into tyranny, they are mutually necessary to each other, good government to Support legal liberty, and legal liberty to preserve good government.

    The good of the people is the ultimate and true end of government. Governors are, therefore, appointed for this end, and the civil constitution which appoints them, and invests them with their power, is determined to do so by that law of nature and reason, which has determined the end of government, and which admits this form of government as the proper means of arriving at it. Now, the greatest good of a people is their liberty.. and, in the case here referred to, the people has judged it so, and provided for it accordingly. Liberty is to the collective body, what health is to every individual body. Without health no pleasure can be tasted by man: without liberty no happiness can be enjoyed by society. The obligation, therefore, to defend and maintain the freedom of such constitutions will appear most sacred to a Patriot King.

    Kings who have weak understandings, bad hearts, and strong prejudices, and all these, as it often happens, inflamed by their passions, and rendered incurable by their self-conceit and presumption; such kings are apt to imagine, and they conduct themselves so as to make many of their subjects imagine, that the king and the people in free governments are rival powers, who stand in competition with one another, who have different interests, and must of course have different views: that the rights and privileges of the people are so many spoils taken from the right and prerogative of the crown; and that the rules and laws, made for the exercise and security of the former, are so many diminutions of their dignity, and restraints on their power.

    The freedom of a constitution rests on two points. The orders of it are one: so Machiavel calls them, and I know not how to call them more significantly. He means not only the forms and customs, but the different classes and assemblies of men, with different powers and privileges attributed to them, which are established in the state. The spirit and character of the people are the other. On the mutual conformity and harmony of these the preservation of liberty depends. To take away, or essentially to alter the former, cannot be brought to pass, whilst the latter remains in original purity and vigour: nor can liberty be destroyed by this method, unless the attempt be made with a military force sufficient to conquer the nation, which would not submit in this case till it was conquered, nor with much security to the conqueror even then. But these orders of the state may be essentially altered, and serve more effectually to the destruction of liberty, than the taking of them away would serve, if the spirit and character of the people are lost.

    Now this method of destroying liberty is the most dangerous on many accounts, particularly on this; that even the reign of the weakest prince, and the policy of the weakest ministry, may effect the destruction, when circumstances are favorable to this method. If a people is growing corrupt, there is no need of capacity to contrive, nor of insinuation to gain, nor of plausibility to seduce, nor of eloquence to persuade, nor of authority to impose, nor of courage to attempt. The most incapable, awkward, ungracious, shocking, profligate, and timorous wretches, invested with power, and masters of the purse, will be sufficient for the work, when the people are accomplices in it. Luxury is rapacious; let them feed it: the more it is fed, the more profuse it will grow. Want is the consequence of profusion, venality of want, and dependence of venality. By this progression, the first men of a nation will become the pensioners of the last; and he who has talents, the most implicit tool to him who has none. The distemper will soon descend, not indeed to make a deposit below, and to remain there, but to pervade the whole body.

    Men are willing to excuse, not only to others but to themselves, the first steps they take in vice, and especially in vice that affects the public, and whereof the public has a right to complain.

    Old men will outlive the shame of losing liberty, and young men will arise who know not that it ever existed. A spirit of slavery will oppose and oppress the spirit of liberty, and seem at least to be the genius of the nation. Such too it will become in time, when corruption has once grown to this height, unless the progress of it can be interrupted.

    orders which are proper to maintain liberty, whilst a people remain uncorrupt, become improper and hurtful to liberty, when a people is grown corrupt. To remedy this abuse, new laws alone will not be sufficient. These orders, therefore, must be changed, according to him, and the constitution must be adapted to the depraved manners of the people. 

     a free commonwealth can neither be maintained by a corrupt people, nor be established among them. 

    Another advantage that a free monarchy has over all other forms of free government, besides the advantage of being more easily and more usefully tempered with aristocratical and democratical powers, which is mentioned above, is this. Those governments are made up of different parts, and are apt to be disjointed by the shocks to which they are exposed: but a free monarchical government is more compact, because there is a part the more that keeps, like the keystone of a vault, the whole building together. They cannot be mended in a state of corruption, they must be in effect constituted anew, and in that attempt they may be dissolved forever: but this is not the case of a free monarchy. To preserve liberty by new laws and new schemes of government, whilst the corruption of a people continues and grows, is absolutely impossible: but to restore and to preserve it under old laws, and an old constitution, by reinfusing into the minds of men the spirit of this constitution, is not only possible, but is, in a particular manner, easy to a king. A corrupt commonwealth remains without remedy, though all the orders and forms of it subsist: a free monarchical government cannot remain absolutely so, as long as the orders and forms of the constitution subsist. These, alone, are indeed nothing more than the dead letter of freedom, or masks of liberty in the first character they serve to no good purpose whatsoever: in the second they serve to a bad one; because tyranny, or government by will, becomes more severe, and more secure, under their disguise, than it would if it was barefaced and avowed. But a king can, easily to himself and without violence to his people, renew the spirit of liberty in their minds, quicken this dead letter, and pull off this mask.

    As soon as corruption ceases to be an expedient of government, and it will cease to be such as soon as a Patriot King is raised to the throne, the panacea is applied; the spirit of the constitution revives of course: and, as fast as it revives, the orders and forms of the constitution are restored to their primitive integrity, and become what they were intended to be, real barriers against arbitrary power, not blinds nor masks under which tyranny may lie concealed. Depravation of manners exposed the constitution to ruin: reformation will secure it. Men decline easily from virtue; for there is a devil too in the political system, a constant tempter at hand. A Patriot King will want neither power nor inclination to cast out this devil, to make the temptation cease, and to deliver his subjects, if not from the guilt, yet from the consequence, of their fall. Under him they will not only cease to do evil, but learn to do well; for, by rendering public virtue and real capacity the sole means of acquiring any degree of power or profit in the state, he will set the passions of their hearts on the side of liberty and good government. A Patriot King is the most powerful of all reformers; for he is himself a sort of standing miracle, so rarely seen and so little understood, that the sure effects of his appearance will be admiration and love in every honest breast, confusion and terror to every guilty conscience, but submission and resignation in all. A new people will seem to arise with a new king. innumerable metamorphoses, like those which poets feign, will happen in very deed: and, while men are conscious that they are the same individuals, the difference of their sentiments will almost persuade them that they are changed into different beings.

    But, that we may not expect more from such a king than even he can perform

    Absolute stability is not to be expected in any thing human; for that which exists immutably exists alone necessarily, and this attribute of the Supreme Being, can neither belong to man, nor to the works of man. The best instituted governments, like the best constituted animal bodies, carry in them the seeds of their destruction:

     All that can be done, therefore, to prolong the duration of a good government, is to draw it back, on every favorable occasion, to the first good principles on which it was founded. When these occasions happen often, and are well improved, such governments are prosperous and durable. When they happen seldom, or are ill improved, these political bodies live in pain, or in languor, and die soon.

    the royal mantle will not convey the spirit of patriotism into another king, as the mantle of Elijah did the gift of prophecy into another prophet. The utmost he can do, and that which deserves the utmost gratitude from his subjects, is to restore good government, to revive the spirit of it, and to maintain and confirm both, during the whole course of his reign. The rest his people must do for themselves. If they do not, they will have none but themselves to blame: if they do, they will have the principal obligation to him. In all events, they will have been free men one reign the longer by his means, and perhaps more; since he will leave them much better prepared and disposed to defend their liberties, than he found them.

    he must begin to govern as soon as he begins to reign. For the very first steps he makes in government will give the first impression, and as it were the presage of his reign; and may be of great importance in many other respects besides that of opinion and reputation. His first care will be, no doubt, to purge his court, and to call into the administration such men as he can assure himself will serve on the same principles on which he intends to govern.

    A good prince will no more choose ill men, than a wise prince will choose fools. Deception in one case is indeed more easy than in the other; because a knave may be an artful hypocrite, whereas a silly fellow can never impose himself for a man of sense. And least of all, in a country like ours, can either of these deceptions happen, if any degree of the discernment of spirits be employed to choose. The reason is, because every man here, who stands forward enough in rank and reputation to be called to the councils of his king, must have given proofs beforehand of his patriotism, as well as of his capacity, if he has either, sufficient to determine his general character.

    The distinction I mean is that between a cunning man and a wise man: and this distinction is built on a manifest difference in nature, how imperceptible soever it may become to weak eyes, or to eyes that look at their object through the false medium of custom and habit. My Lord Bacon says, that cunning is left handed or crooked wisdom. I would rather say, that it is a part, but the lowest part, of wisdom; employed alone by some, because they have not the other parts to employ; and by some, because it is as much as they want, within those bounds of action which they prescribe to themselves, and sufficient to the ends that they propose. The difference seems to consist in degree, and application, rather than in kind. Wisdom is neither left-handed, nor crooked: but the heads of some men contain little, and the hearts of others employ it wrong. To use my Lord Bacon's own comparison, the cunning man knows how to pack the cards, the wise man how to play the game better: 

     inferior wisdom or cunning may get the better of folly: but superior wisdom will get the better of cunning. Wisdom and cunning have often the same objects; but a wise man will have more and greater in his view. The least will not fill his soul, nor ever become the principal there; but will be pursued in subserviency, in subordination at least, to the other. Wisdom and cunning may employ sometimes the same means too: but the wise man stoops to these means, and the other cannot rise above them. Simulation and dissimulation, for instance, are the chief arts of cunning: the first will be esteemed always by a wise man unworthy of him, and will be therefore avoided by him, in every possible case; for, to resume my Lord Bacon's comparison, simulation is put on that we may look into the cards of another, whereas dissimulation intends nothing more than to hide our own. Simulation is a stiletto, not only an offensive, but an unlawful weapon: and the use of it may be rarely, very rarely, excused, but never justified. Dissimulation is a shield, as secrecy is armour: and it is no more possible to preserve secrecy in the administration of public affairs without some degree of dissimulation, than it is to succeed in it without secrecy. Those two arts of cunning are like the alloy mingled with pure ore. A little is necessary, and will not debase the coin below its proper standard; but if more than that little be employed, the coin loses its currency, and the coiner his credit.

    We may observe much the same difference between wisdom and cunning, both as to the objects they propose and to the means they employ, as we observe between the visual powers of different men. One sees distinctly the objects that are near to him, their immediate relations, and their direct tendencies; and a sight like this serves well enough the purpose of those who concern themselves no further. The cunning minister is one of those: he neither sees, nor is concerned to see, any further than his personal interests, and the support of his administration, require. If such a man overcomes any actual difficulty, avoids any immediate distress, or, without doing either of these effectually, gains a little time, by all the low artifice which cunning is ready to suggest and baseness of mind to employ, he triumphs, and is flattered by his mercenary train, on the great event; which amounts often to no more than this, that he got into it by another. The wise distress by one series of faults, and out of minister sees, and is concerned to see further, because government has a further concern: he sees the objects that are distant as well as those that are near, and all their remote relations, and even their indirect tendencies. He thinks of fame as well as of applause, and prefers that, which to be enjoyed must be given, to that which may be bought. He considers his administration as a single day in the great year of government; but as a day that is affected by those which went before, and that must affect those which are to follow. He combines, therefore, and compares all these objects, relations, and tendencies; and the judgment he makes, on an entire not a partial survey of them, is the rule of his conduct. That scheme of the reason of state, which lies open before a wise minister, contains all the great principles of government, and all the great interests of his country: so that, as he prepares some events, he prepares against others, whether they be likely to happen during his administration, or in some future time.

    To espouse no party, but to govern like the common father of his people, is so essential to the character of a Patriot King, that he who does otherwise forfeits the title. It is the peculiar privilege and glory of this character, that princes who maintain it, and they alone, are so far from the necessity, that they are not exposed to the temptation, of governing by a party; which must always end in the government of a faction: the faction of the prince, if he has ability; the faction of his ministers, if he has not; and, either one way or other, in the oppression of the people. For faction [A group of people within a political organization] is to party what the superlative [highest degree] is to the positive: party is a political evil, and faction is the worst of all parties. The true image of a free people, governed by a Patriot King, is that of a patriarchal family, where the head and all the members are united by one common interest, and animated by one common spirit: and where, if any are perverse enough to have another, they will be soon borne down by the superiority of those who have the same; and, far from making a division, they will but confirm the union of the little state. That to approach as near as possible to these ideas of perfect government, and social happiness under it, is desirable in every state, no man will be absurd enough to deny. 

    If his people are united in their submission to him, and in their attachment to the established government, he must not only espouse but create a party, in order to govern by one: and what should tempt him to pursue so wild a measure? A prince, who aims at more power than the constitution gives him, may be so tempted; because he may hope to obtain in the disorders of the state what cannot be obtained in quiet times; and because contending parties will give what a nation will not. Parties, even before they degenerate into absolute factions, are still numbers of men associated together for certain purposes, and certain interests, which are not, or which are not allowed to be, those of the community by others. A more private or personal interest comes but too soon, and too often, to be superadded [add on extra], and to grow predominant in them: and when it does so, whatever occasions or principles began to form them, the same logic prevails in them that prevails in every church. The interest of the state is supposed to be that of the party, as the interest of religion is supposed to be that of the Church: and, with this pretense [deception] or prepossession [impression], the interest of the state becomes, like that of religion, a remote consideration, is never pursued for its own sake, and is often sacrificed to the other. A king, therefore, who has ill designs to carry on, must endeavor to divide an united people; and by blending or seeming to blend his interests with that of a party, he may succeed perhaps, and his party and he may share the spoils of a ruined nation: but such a party is then become a faction, such a king is a tyrant, and such a government is a conspiracy.

    all the good ends of government are most attainable in a united state, and as the divisions of a people can serve to bad purposes alone, the king we suppose here will deem the union of his subjects his greatest advantage, and will think himself happy to find that established, which he would have employed the whole labor of his life to bring about.

    A people may be united in submission to the prince, and to the establishment, and yet be divided about general principles, or particular measures of government. in the first case, they will do by their constitution what has frequently been done by the Scripture, strain it to their own notions and prejudices; and, if they cannot strain it, alter it as much as is necessary to render it conformable to them. In the second, they will support or oppose particular acts of administrations, and defend or attack the persons employed in them; and both these ways a conflict of parties may arise, but no great difficulty to a prince who determines to pursue the union of his subjects, and the prosperity of his kingdoms independently of all parties.

    When parties are divided by different notions and principles concerning some particular ecclesiastical, or civil institutions, the constitution, which should be their rule, must be that of the prince. He may and he ought to show his dislike or his favor, as he judges the constitution may be hurt or improved, by one side or the other. The hurt he is never to suffer, not for his own sake; and, therefore, surely not for the sake of any whimsical, factious, or ambitious set of men. The improvement he must always desire; but as every new modification in a scheme of government and of national policy is of great importance, and requires more and deeper consideration than the warmth, and hurry, and rashness of party conduct admit, the duty of a prince seems to require that he should render by his influence the proceedings more orderly and more deliberate, even when he approves the end to which they are directed. All this may be done by him without fomenting division: and, far from forming or espousing a party, he will defeat party in defence of the constitution, on some occasions; and lead men, from acting with a party spirit, to act with a national spirit, on others.

    When the division is about particular measures of government, and the conduct of the administration is alone concerned, a Patriot King will stand in want of party as little as in any other case. Under his reign, the opportunities of forming an opposition of this sort will be rare, and the pretences generally weak. Nay, the motives to it will lose much of their force, when a government is strong in reputation, and men are kept in good humour by feeling the rod of a party on no occasion, though they feel the weight of the sceptre on some. Such opportunities, however, may happen; and there may be reason, as well as pretences, sometimes for opposition even in such a reign: at least we will suppose so, that we may include in this argument every contingent case. Grievances then are complained of, mistakes and abuses in government are pointed out, and ministers are prosecuted by their enemies. Shall the prince on the throne form a party by intrigue, and by secret and corrupt influence, to oppose the prosecution? When the prince and the ministers are participes criminis, when every thing is to be defended, lest something should come out, that may unravel the silly wicked scheme, and disclose to public sight the whole turpitude of the administration, there is no help; this must be done, and such a party must be formed, because such a party alone will submit to a drudgery of this kind. But a prince, who is not in these circumstances, will not have recourse to these means. He has others more open, more noble, and more effectual in his power: he knows that the views of his government are right, and that the tenor of his administration is good; but he knows that neither he nor his ministers are infallible, nor impeccable. There may be abuses in his government, mistakes in his administration, and guilt in his ministers, which he has not observed: and he will be far from imputing the complaints, that give him occasion to observe them, to a spirit of party; much less will he treat those who carry on such prosecutions in a legal manner, as incendiaries, and as enemies to his government. On the contrary, he will distinguish the voice of his people from the clamour of a faction, and will hearken to it. He will redress grievances, correct errors, and reform or punish ministers. This he will do as a good prince: and as a wise one, he will do it in such a manner that his dignity shall be maintained, and that his authority shall increase, with his reputation, by it.

    Should the efforts of a mere faction be bent to calumniate his government, and to distress the administration on groundless pretences, and for insufficient reasons; he will not neglect, but he will not apprehend neither, the short-lived and contemptible scheme. He will indeed have no reason to do so; for let the fautors of maladministration, whenever an opposition is made to it, affect to insinuate as much as they please, that their masters are in no other circumstances than those to which the very best ministers stand exposed, objects of general envy and of particular malice, it will remain eternally true, that groundless opposition, in a well regulated monarchy, can never be strong and durable. To be convinced of the truth of this proposition, one needs only to reflect how many well grounded attacks have been defeated, and how few have succeeded, against the most wicked and the weakest administrations. Every king of Britain has means enough in his power, to defeat and to calm opposition. But a Patriot King, above all others, may safely rest his cause on the innocency of his administration, on the constitutional strength of the crown, and on the concurrence of his people, to whom he dares appeal, and by whom he will be supported.

    To conclude all I will say on the divisions of this kind, let me add, that the case of a groundless opposition can hardly happen in a bad reign, because in such a reign just occasions of opposition must of course be frequently given, as we have allowed that they may be given sometimes, though very rarely, in a good reign; but that, whether it be well or ill grounded, whether it be that of the nation, or that of a faction, the conduct of the prince with respect to it will be the same; and one way or other this conduct must have a very fatal event. Such a prince will not mend the administration, as long as he can resist the justest and most popular opposition: and, therefore, this opposition will last and grow, as long as a free constitution is in force, and the spirit of liberty is preserved; for so long even a change of his ministers, without a change of his measures, will not be sufficient. The former without the latter is a mere banter, and would be deemed and taken for such, by every man who did not oppose on a factious principle; that I mean of getting into power at any rate, and using it as ill, perhaps worse than the men he helped to turn out of it. Now if such men as these abound, and they will abound in the decline of a free government, a bad prince, whether he changes or does not change his ministers, may hope to govern by the spirit and art of a faction, against the spirit and strength of the nation. His character may be too low, and that of his minister too odious, to form originally even a faction that shall be able to defend them. But they may apply to their purposes, a party that was formed on far different occasions, and bring numbers to fight for a cause in which many of them would not have listed. The names, and with the names the animosity of parties, may be kept up, when the causes that formed them subsist no longer.


    Bolingbroke wrote that on occasion, the Creator bestows His Holy Spirit on a few individuals born to do His Will through public service. These individuals have graced with superior talents (genius, knowledge, and experience) that make them distinct from the rest of society. These are individuals are endowed with a spirit of reason to cope with ambition, avarice, despair, and not let sensual pleasures run their life.

    During the American revolution there were capable Patriots on both sides considered to be blessed with superior talents. The difference was the British heroes were ignorant, or had prejudice against the colonies loss of Liberty. Their British failure of reason would cause a misapplication talents that would be considered a crime in its nature and consequence of going against the Designs of Providence. Jefferson would have concluded to tip the balance in America's favor, it new leaders must use their God given talents and reason the good and welfare of the colonies, then Divine vengeance would surely fall upon Britain.

    Following Bolingbroke's Spirit of Patriotism, the Declaration of Independence taught that America's citizens can hope to achieve the happiness attributed to the Creator by employing the greater good at the expense of lesser evil. It is up to government leaders to guard our people with the use of reason. It is up to our citizen patriots to understand that the common happiness of Liberty depends on the importance of individual duty in submitting to law and government, which  firmly opposes evil corruption and is grateful for the blessings of the Creator.

    On the Spirit of Patriotism
    Henry St. John Bolingbroke


    .. the author of nature has thought fit mingle from time to time, among the societies of men, a few, and but a few of those, on whom he is graciously pleased to bestow a larger proportion of the the ethereal spirit than is given in the ordinary course of his providence to the sons of men. These are they who engross almost the whole reason of the species, who are born to instruct, to guide, and to preserve; who are designed to be the tutors and the guardians of human kind. When they prove such, they exhibit to us examples of the highest virtue, and the truest piety

    ... When these men apply their talents to other purposes, when they strive to be great and despise being good, they commit a most sacrilegious breach of trust; they pervert the means, they defeat as far as lies in them the designs of providence, and disturb in some sort the system of infinite wisdom. To misapply these talents is the most diffused, and therefore the greatest of crimes in its nature and consequence; but to keep them unexerted, and unemployed, is a crime too.  

    ...there are superior spirits, men who show even from their infancy, though it be not always perceived by others, perhaps not always felt by themselves, that they were born for something more, and better. 

    ..I have sometimes represented to myself the vulgar [common], who are accidentally distinguished by the titles of king and subject, of lord and vassal, of noblemen and peasant; and the few who are distinguished by nature so essentially from the herd of mankind, that (figure apart) they seem to be of another species, in this manner. The former come into the world and continue in it like Dutch travellers in a foreign country. Everything they meet has the grace of novelty: and they are fond alike of everything that is new. They wander about from one object to another, of vain curiosity, or inelegant pleasure. If they are industrious, they show their industry in copying signs, and collecting mottoes and epitaphs. They loiter, or they trifle away their whole time: and their presence or their absence would be equally unperceived, if caprice or accident did not raise them often to stations, wherein their stupidity, their vices, or their follies, make them a public misfortune. The latter come into the world, or at least continue in it after the effects of surprise and inexperience are over, like men who are sent on more important errands. They observe with distinction, they admire with knowledge. They may indulge themselves in pleasure; but as their industry is not employed about trifles, so their amusements are not made the business of their lives. Such men cannot pass unperceived through a country. If they retire from the world, their splendor accompanies them, and enlightens even the obscurity of their retreat. If they take a part in public life, the effect is never indifferent. They either appear like ministers of divine vengeance, and their course through the world is marked by desolation and oppression, by poverty and servitude: or they are the guardian angels of the country they inhabit, busy to avert even the most distant evil, and to maintain or to procure peace, plenty, and the greatest of human blessings, liberty.

    ...Reason collects the will of God from the constitution of things, in this as in other cases; but in no case does the divine power impel us necessarily to conform ourselves to this will:

    ...Reason deceive us not: we deceive ourselves, and suffer our wills to be determined by other motives.  

    ...He who considers the universal wants, imperfections, and vices of his kind, must agree that men were intended not only for society, but to unite in commonwealths, and to submit to laws. Legum idcirco omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possimus. And yet this very man will be seduced by his own passions, or the passions and examples of others,  

    ...So he who is conscious of superior endowments, such as render him more capable than the generality of men to secure and improve the advantages of social life, by preserving the commonwealth in strength and splendor, even he may be seduced to think, or to act as if he thought, that these endowments were given him for the gratification of his ambition, and his other passions; and that there is no difference between vice and virtue, between a knave [dishonest] and an honest man, but one which a prince, who died not many years ago, asserted, 'that men of great sense were therefore knaves, and men of little sense were therefore honest'. But in neither of these cases will the truth and reason of things be altered, by such examples of human frailty. It will be still true, and reason will still demonstrate, that all men are directed, by the general constitution of human nature, to submit to government; and that some men are in a particular manner designed to take care of that government on which the common happiness depends. The use that reason will make of such examples will be only this, that since men are so apt, in every form of life and every degree of understanding, to act against their interest and their duty too, without benevolence to mankind, or regard to the divine will, it is the more incumbent on those who have this benevolence and this regard at heart, to employ all the means that the nature of the government allows, and that rank, circumstances of situation, or superiority of talents, give them, to oppose evil, and promote good government; and contribute thus to preserve the moral system of the world, at that point of imperfection at least, which seems to have been prescribed to it by the great creator of every system of beings.

    ...the present state of Britain. That there is no profusion [abundance] of the ethereal spirit to be observed among us, and that we do not abound with men of superior genius,

    ...as if nature had not done her part in our age, as well as in former ages, by producing men capable of serving the commonwealth. The manners of our fore-fathers were, I believe, in many respects better: they had more probity [strong moral principles] perhaps, they had certainly more show of honor, and greater industry. But still nature sows alike, though we do not reap alike.

    ...Fortune maintains a kind of rivalship with wisdom, and piques herself often in favor of fools as well as knaves. Socrates used to say, that although no man undertakes a trade he has not learned, even the meanest; yet every one thinks himself sufficiently qualified for the hardest of all trades, that of government.

    ... not the worst minister could do all the mischief he does by the misapplication of his talents alone, if it were not for the misapplication of much better talents than his by some who join with him, and the non-application, or the faint and unsteady exercise of their talents by some who oppose him; as well as the general remissness [negligence] of mankind in acquiring knowledge, and in improving the parts which God has given them for the service of the public. These are the great springs of national misfortunes. There have been monsters in other ages, and other countries, as well as ours; but they have never continued their devastation long, when there were heroes to oppose them. We will suppose a man imprudent, rash, presumptuous, ungracious, insolent and profligate, in speculation as well as practice. He can bribe, but he cannot seduce; he can buy, but he cannot gain; he can lie, but he cannot deceive.

    ...Corruption could not spread with so much success, though reduced into system; and though some ministers, with equal impudence [shameless] and folly, avowed it by themselves and their advocates, to be the principal expedient [advantage] by which they governed, if a long and almost unobserved progression of causes and effects, did not prepare the conjuncture.

    ...One party had given their whole attention, during several years, to the project of enriching themselves, and impoverishing the rest of the nation; and, by these and other means, of establishing their dominion under the government and with the favor of a family, who were foreigners, and therefore might believe, that they were established on the throne by the good will and strength of this party alone. This party in general were so intent on these views, and many of them, I fear, are so still, that they did not advert in time to the necessary consequences of the measures they abetted; nor did they consider, that the power they raised, and by which they hoped to govern their country, would govern them with the very rod of iron they forged, and would be the power of a prince or minister, not that of a party long. Another party continued sour, sullen, and inactive, with judgments so weak, and passions so strong, that even experience, and a severe one surely, was lost upon them. They waited, like the Jews, for a Messiah, that may never come; and under whom, if he did come, they would be strangely disappointed in their expectations of glory and triumph, and universal dominion. Whilst they waited, they were marked out like the Jews, a distinct race, hewers of wood and drawers of water, scarce members of the community, though born in the country. All indifferent men stood as it were at a gaze: and the few, who were jealous of the court, were still more jealous of one another; so that a strength sufficient to oppose bad ministers was not easy to be formed. When this strength was formed, and the insufficiency or iniquity of the administration was daily exposed to public view, many adhered at first to the minister, and others were since gained to his cause, because they knew nothing of the constitution of their own, nor of the history of other countries; but imagined wildly, that things always went as they saw them go, and that liberty has been, and therefore may be preserved under the influence of the same corruption. Others perhaps were weak enough to be frightened at first, as some are hypocritical enough to pretend to be still, with the appellations [titles] of Tory [Conservative Party] and Jacobite [political movement to restore Catholic Stuarts to the throne], which are always ridiculously given to every man who does not bow to the brazen image that the King has set up. Others again might be persuaded, that no fatal use at least would be made of the power acquired by corruption; and men of superior parts might and may still flatter themselves, that if this power should be so employed, they shall have time and means to stop the effects of it. The first of these are seduced by their ignorance and futility [worthlessness]; the second, if they are not hypocrites, by their prejudices; the third, by their partiality and blind confidence; the last, by their presumptions; and all of them by the mammon of unrighteousness, their private interest, which they endeavor to palliate and to reconcile as well as they can to that of the public: et caeca cupiditate corrupti [the blind desire corruption], non intelligunt se, dum vendant, et venire.

    ...The Dutch travellers I spoke of, men of the ordinary, or below the ordinary size of understanding, though they are called by caprice, or lifted any other way into power, cannot do great and long mischief, in a country of liberty; unless men of genius, knowledge, and experience, misapply these talents, and become their leaders. A ministerial faction would have as little ability to do hurt, as they have inclination to do good, if they were not formed and conducted by one of better parts than they: nor would such a minister be able to support, at the head of this trusty phalanx, the ignominious tyranny imposed on his country, if other men, of better parts and much more consequence than himself, were not drawn in to misapply these parts to the vilest drudgery imaginable; the daily drudgery of explaining nonsense, covering ignorance, disguising folly, concealing and even justifying fraud and corruption; instead of employing their knowledge, their elocution, their skill, experience and authority, to correct the administration and to guard the constitution.  

    ...such a conjuncture could not be rendered effectual to preserve power in some of the weakest and some of the worst hands in the kingdom, if there was not a non application, or a faint and unsteady exercise of parts on one side, as well as an iniquitous misapplication of them on the other: and I cannot help saying, let it fall where it will, what I have said perhaps already, that the former is a crime but one degree inferior to the latter. The more genius, industry, and spirit are employed to destroy, the harder the task of saving our country becomes; but the duty increases with the difficulty, if the principles on which I reason are true. In such exigencies it is not enough that genius be opposed to genius, spirit must be matched by spirit. They, who go about to destroy, are animated from the first by ambition and avarice, the love of power and of money: fear makes them often desperate at last. They must be opposed therefore, or they will be opposed in vain, by a spirit able to cope with ambition, avarice, and despair itself: by a spirit able to cope with these passions, when they are favored and fortified by the weakness of a nation, and the strength of a government. 

    The service of our country is no chimerical, but a real duty. He who admits the proofs of any other moral duty, drawn from the constitution of human nature, or from the moral fitness and unfitness of things, must admit them in favor of this duty, or be reduced to the most absurd inconsistency. When he has once admitted the duty on these proofs, it will be no difficult matter to demonstrate to him, that his obligation to the performance of it is in proportion to the means and the opportunities he has of performing it; and that nothing can discharge him from this obligation as long as he has these means and these opportunities in his power, and as long as his country continues in the same want of his services. These obligations then to the public service may become obligations for life on certain persons. No doubt they may: and shall this consideration become a reason for denying or evading them? On the contrary, sure it should become a reason for acknowledging and fulfilling them, with the greatest gratitude to the Supreme Being, who has made us capable of acting so excellent a part, and of the utmost benevolence to mankind. Superior talents, and superior rank among our fellow creatures, whether acquired by birth, or by the course of accidents, and the success of our own industry, are noble prerogatives. Shall he who possesses them repine at the obligation they lay him under, of passing his whole life in the noblest occupation of which human nature is capable? To what higher station, to what greater glory can any mortal aspire, than to be, during the whole course of his life, the support of good, the control of bad government, and the guardian of public liberty? To be driven from hence by successful tyranny, by loss of health or of parts, or by the force of accidents, is to be degraded in such a manner as to deserve pity, and not to incur blame: but to degrade ourselves, to descend voluntarily, and by choice, from the highest to a lower, perhaps to the lowest rank among the sons of Adam; to abandon the government of men for that of hounds and horses, the care of a kingdom for that of a parish, and a scene of great and generous efforts in public life, for one of trifling amusements and low cares, of sloth and of idleness, what is it, my Lord?

    .. The common, the sensual pleasures to which nature prompts us, and which reason therefore does not forbid, though she should always direct, are so far from being excluded out of a life of business, that they are sometimes necessary in it, and are always heightened by it: those of the table, for instance, may be ordered so as to promote that which the elder Cato calls vitae conjunctionem.

    ...Cato's virtue often glowed with wine: and the love of women did not hinder Caesar from forming and executing the greatest projects that ambition ever suggested. But if Caesar, whilst he labored to destroy the liberties of his country, enjoyed these inferior pleasures of life, which a man who labors to save those liberties may enjoy as well as he; there are superior pleasures in a busy life that Caesar never knew, those, I mean, that arise from a faithful discharge of our duty to the commonwealth.

    ...Newton in discovering and establishing the true laws of nature on experiment and a sublimer geometry, felt more intellectual joys, than he feels who is a real patriot, who bends all the force of his understanding, and directs all his thoughts and actions, to the good of his country. When such a man forms a political scheme, and adjusts various and seemingly independent parts in it to one great and good design, he is transported by imagination, or absorbed in meditation, as much and as agreeably as. they. and the satisfaction that arises from the different importance of these objects, in every step of the work, is vastly in his favor. It is here that the speculative philosopher's labor and pleasure end. But he who speculates in order to act, goes on, and carries his scheme into execution. His labor continues, it varies, it increases; but so does his pleasure too. The execution indeed is often traversed, by unforeseen and untoward circumstances, by the perverseness or treachery of friends, and by the power or malice of enemies: but the first and the last of these animate, and the docility and fidelity of some men make amends for the perverseness and treachery of others. Whilst a great event is in suspense, the action warms, and the very suspense, made up of hope and fear, maintains no unpleasing agitation in the mind. If the event is decided successfully, such a man enjoys pleasure proportionate to the good he has done; a pleasure like to that which is attributed to the Supreme Being, on a survey of his works. If the event is decided otherwise, and usurping courts, or overbearing parties prevail; such a man has still the testimony of his conscience, and a sense of the honor he has acquired, to soothe his mind, and support his courage.

    ... the noblest spectacle which God can behold, is a virtuous man suffering, and struggling with afflictions:

    ... governments have their periods like all things human; that they may be brought back to their primitive principles during a certain time, but that when these principles are worn out, in the minds of men, it is a vain enterprise to endeavor to renew them: that this is the case of all governments, when the corruption of the people comes to a great pitch, and is grown universal: that when a house which is old, and quite decayed, though often repaired, not only cracks, but totters even from the foundations, every man in his senses runs out of it, and takes shelter where he can, and that none but madmen continue obstinate to repair what is irreparable, till they are crushed in the ruin.

    ...the accession of the present family to the throne, has given the fairest opportunities, as well as the justest reasons, for completing the scheme of liberty, and improving it to perfection. But it seems to me, that, in our separate world, as the means of asserting and supporting liberty are increased, all concern for it is diminished. 

    ... In these countries, the people had lost the armor of their constitution: they were unclothed and defenseless. Ours is more complete than ever. But though we have preserved the armor, we have lost the spirit of our constitution: and therefore we bear, from little engrossers of delegated power, what our fathers would not have suffered from true proprietors of the royal authority. Parliaments are not only, what they always were, essential parts of our constitution, but essential parts of our administration too. They do not claim the executive power. No. But the executive power cannot be exercised without their annual concurrence.  

    ...It is become so easy by the present form of our government, that corruption alone could not destroy us. We must want spirit, as well as virtue, to perish. Even able knaves would preserve liberty in such circumstances as ours, and highwaymen would scorn to receive the wages and do the drudgery of pickpockets

    .. Far from having the virtues, we have not even the vices of great men. He who had pride instead of vanity, and ambition but equal to his desire of wealth, could never bear, I do not say to be the understrapper [junior official] to any farmer of royal authority, but to see patiently one of them (at best his fellow, perhaps his inferior in every respect) lord it over him, and the rest of mankind, dissipating wealth, and trampling on the liberties of his country, with impunity. This could not happen, if there was the least spirit among us. But there is none. What passes among us for ambition, is an odd mixture of avarice [greed] and vanity. the moderation we have seen practiced is pusillanimity, and the philosophy that some men affect is sloth. Hence it comes that corruption has spread, and prevails.

    ... There are men among them who certainly intend the good of their country, and whom I love and honor for that reason. But these men have been clogged, or misled, or overborne by others; and, seduced by natural temper to inactivity, have taken any excuse, or yielded to any pretense that savored it. That they should rouse therefore in themselves, or in any one else, the spirit they have suffered, nay helped to die away, I do not expect. I turn my eyes from the generation that is going off, to the generation that is coming on the stage. 

    ... Remember that the opposition in which you have engaged, at your first entrance into business, is not an opposition only to a bad administration of public affairs, but to an administration that supports itself by means, establishes principles, introduces customs, repugnant to the constitution of our governments, and destructive of all liberty; that you do not only combat present evils, but your posterity; that if attempts to entail these evils upon you and you cease the combat, you give up the cause: and that he, who does not renew on every occasion his claim, may forfeit his right.

    ...The means of invading liberty more effectually by the constitution of the revenue, than it ever had been invaded by prerogative, were not then grown up into strength. 

    ... You owe to your country, to your honor, to your security, to the present, and to future ages, that no endeavors of yours be wanting to repair the breach that is made, and is increasing daily in the constitution, and to shut up with all the bars and bolts of law, the principal entries through which these torrents of corruption have been let in upon us. I say the principal entries; because, however it may appear in pure speculation, I think it would not be found in practice possible, no nor eligible neither, to shut them up all. As entries of corruption none of them deserve to be excepted: but there is a just distinction to be made, because there is a real difference. Some of these entries are opened by the abuse of powers, necessary to maintain subordination, and to carry on even good government, and therefore necessary to be preserved in the crown, notwithstanding the abuse that is sometimes made of them; for no human institution can arrive at perfection, and the most that human wisdom can do, is to procure the same or greater good, at the expense of less evil. There will be always some evil either immediate, or remote, either in cause or consequence. But there are other entries of corruption, and these are by much the greatest, for suffering of which to continue open no reason can be assigned or has been pretended to be assigned, but that which is to every honest and wise man a reason for shutting them up; the increase of the means of corruption, which are oftener employed for the service of the oligarchy, than for the service of the monarchy. Shut up these, and you will have nothing to fear from the others. By these, a more real and a more dangerous power has been gained to ministers, than was lost to the crown by the restraints on prerogative.

    A Parliament, nay one house of Parliament, is able at any time, and at once, to destroy any corrupt plan of power. Time produces every day new conjunctures: be prepared to improve them. We read in the Old Testament of a city that might have escaped divine vengeance, if five righteous men had been found in it. Let not our city perish for want of so small a number: and if the generation that is going off could not furnish it, let the generation that is coming on furnish a greater.

    Eloquence, that leads mankind by the ears, gives a nobler superiority than power that every dunce may use, or fraud that every knave may employ, to lead them by the nose. But eloquence must flow like a stream that is fed by an abundant spring, and not spout forth a little frothy water on some gaudy day, and remain dry the rest of the year. The famous orators of Greece and Rome were the statesmen and ministers of those commonwealths. The nature of their governments and the humor of those ages made elaborate orations necessary.

    ... Demosthenes had been neglected, in his education, by the same tutors who cheated him of his inheritance. Cicero was bred with greater advantage: and Plutarch, I think, says that when he first appeared the people used to call him, by way of derision, the Greek, and the scholar. But whatever advantage of this kind the latter might have over the former, and to which of them soever you ascribe the superior genius, the progress which both of them made in every part of political knowledge, by their industry and application, was marvellous. Cicero might be a better philosopher, but Demosthenes was no less a statesman: and both of them performed actions and acquired fame, above the reach of eloquence alone. Demosthenes used to compare eloquence to a weapon, aptly enough; for eloquence, like every other weapon, is of little use to the owner, unless he have the force and the skill to use it. This force and this skill Demosthenes had in an eminent degree. Observe them in one instance among many. It was of mighty importance to Philip to prevent the accession of Thebes to the grand alliance that Demosthenes, at the head of the Athenian commonwealth, formed against the growing power of the Macedonians. Philip had emissaries and his ambassadors on the spot to oppose to those of Athens, and we may be assured that he neglected none of those arts upon this occasion that he employed so successfully on others. The struggle was great, but Demosthenes prevailed, and the Thebans engaged in the war against Philip. 

    Let us consider Tully on the greatest theatre of the known world, and in the most difficult circumstances. We are better acquainted with him than we are with Demosthenes; for we see him nearer, as it were, and in more different lights. How perfect a knowledge had he acquired of the Roman constitution of government, ecclesiastical and civil; of the original and progress, of the general reasons and particular occasions of the laws and customs of his country; of the great rules of equity, and the low practice of courts; of the duty of every magistracy and office in the state, from the dictator down to the lictor; and of all the steps by which Rome had risen from her infancy, to liberty, to power and grandeur and dominion [authority], as well as of all those by which she began to decline, a little before his age, to that servitude which he died for opposing, but lived to see established, and in which not her liberty alone, but her power and grandeur and dominion were lost? How well was he acquainted with the Roman colonies and provinces, with the allies and enemies of the empire, with the rights and privileges of the former, the dispositions and conditions of the latter, with the interests of them all relatively to Rome, and with the interests of Rome relatively to them? How present to his mind were the anecdotes of former times concerning the Roman and other states, and how curious was he to observe the minutest circumstances that passed in his own? His works will answer sufficiently the questions I ask, and establish in the mind of every man who reads them the idea I would give of his capacity and knowledge, as well as that which is so universally taken of his eloquence. To a man fraught with all this stock of knowledge, and industrious to improve it daily, nothing could happen that was entirely new, nothing for which he was quite unprepared, scarce any effect whereof he had not considered the cause, scarce any cause wherein his sagacity could not discern the latent effect. His eloquence in private causes gave him first credit at Rome, but it was this knowledge, this experience, and the continued habits of business, that supported his reputation, enabled him to do so much service to his country, and gave force and authority to his eloquence. To little purpose would he have attached Catiline with all the vehemence that indignation and even fear added to eloquence, if he had trusted to this weapon alone. This weapon alone would have secured neither him nor the senate from the poniard of that assassin. He would have had no occasion to boast, that he had driven this infamous citizen out of the walls of Rome, abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit, if he had not made it before-hand impossible for him to continue any longer in them. As little occasion would he have had to assume the honor of defeating without any tumult, or any disorder, the designs of those who conspired to murder the Roman people, to destroy the Roman empire, and to extinguish the Roman name; if he had not united by skill and management, in the common cause of their country, orders of men the most averse to each other; if he had not watched all the machinations of the conspirators in silence, and prepared a strength sufficient to resist them at Rome, and in the provinces, before he opened this scene of villainy to the senate and the people: in a word, if he had not made much more use of political prudence, that is, of the knowledge of mankind, and of the arts of government, which study and experience give, than of all the powers of his eloquence.

    ...They who affect to head an opposition, or to make any considerable figure in it, must be equal at least to those whom they oppose; I do not say in parts only, but in application and industry, and the fruits of both, information, knowledge, and a certain constant preparedness for all the events that may arise. Every administration is a system of conduct: opposition, therefore, should be a system of conduct likewise; an opposite, but not a dependent system.

    ...When two armies take the field, the generals on both sides have their different plans for the campaign, either of defense or of offense: and as the former does not suspend his measures till he is attacked, but takes them beforehand on every probable contingency, so the latter does not suspend his, till the opportunity of attacking presents itself, but is alert and constantly ready to seize it whenever it happens; and in the mean time is busy to improve all the advantages of skill, of force, or of any other kind that he has, or that he can acquire, independently of the plan and of the motions of his enemy.

    ...every member of either house of Parliament is a member of a national standing council, born, or appointed by the people, to promote good, and to oppose bad government; and, if not vested with the power of a minister of state, yet vested with the superior power of controlling those who are appointed such by the crown.

    ...they who engage in opposition are under as great obligations, to prepare themselves to control, as they who serve the crown are under, to prepare themselves to carry on the administration: and that a party formed for this purpose, do not act like good citizens nor honest men, unless they propose true, as well as oppose false measures of government. Sure I am they do not act like wise men unless they act systematically, and unless they contrast, on every occasion, that scheme of policy which the public interest requires to be followed, with that which is suited to no interest but the private interest of the prince or his ministers.

    ...a party who opposed, systematically, a wise to a silly, an honest to an iniquitous, scheme of government, would acquire greater reputation and strength, and arrive more surely at their end, than a party who opposed occasionally, as it were, without any common system, without any general concert, with little uniformity, little preparation, little perseverance, and as little knowledge or political capacity.

    George Wythe was the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, and a Virginia judge. The first of the seven Virginia signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence, Wythe served as one of Virginia's representatives to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention. Jefferson studied Bolingbroke's Works during his time as George Wythe's legal apprentice. Wythe remained particularly close to Jefferson, and left Jefferson his substantial book collection in his will.

    We can see Jefferson was agreement with Bolingbroke on the talents and moral character of appointed Judges.

    From Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, June1776


    The dignity and stability of government in all its branches, the morals of the people, and every blessing of society, depend so much upon an upright and skillful administration of justice, that the judicial power ought to be distinct from both the legislative and executive, and independent upon both, that so it may be a check upon both, as both should be checks upon that. The judges, therefore, should always be men of learning and experience in the laws, of exemplary morals, great patience, calmness, coolness and attention; their minds should not be distracted with jarring interests; they should not be dependent upon any man, or body of men. To these ends they should hold estates for life in their offices, or, in other words, their commissions should be during good behavior, and their salaries ascertained and established by law.

    For misbehavior, the grand inquest of the colony, the house of representatives, should impeach them before the governor and council, when they should have time and opportunity to make their defense; but if convicted, should be removed from their offices, and subjected to such other punishment as shall be thought proper.

    Bolingbroke taught that History's greatest heroes individuals are endowed with a spirit of reason to restrain to bad inclinations and habits they are addicted to the most, then focus on following the will of the Creator.

    Henry St John, Lord Viscount Bolingbroke
    Letters on the Study and the Use of History

    Letter III


    there can be dispute, concerning that share which I ascribe to the study of history, in forming our moral characters, and making us better men. The very persons who pretend that inclinations cannot be restrained, nor habits corrected, against our natural bent, would be the first perhaps to prove, in certain cases, the contrary. A fortune at court, or the favors of a lady, have prevailed on many to conceal, and they could not conceal without restraining, which is one step towards correcting, the vices they were by nature addicted to the most. Shall we imagine now, that the beauty of virtue and the deformity of vice, the charms. If a bright and lasting reputation, the terror of being delivered over as criminals to all posterity, the real benefit arising from a conscientious discharge of the duty we owe to others, which benefit fortune can neither hinder nor take away, and the reasonableness of conforming ourselves to the designs of God manifested in the constitution of the human nature; shall we imagine, I say, that all these are not able to acquire the same power over those who are continually called upon to a contemplation of them, and they who apply themselves to the study of history are so called upon, as other motives, mean and sordid in comparison of these, can usurp on other men?

    If we are to implicitly believe that the Will of Our Creator is Natural law. Then we can implicitly believe it was the Will of the Creator to give mankind reason to decide what actions in life will bring us happiness or misery. It is the testimony of both prophets and philosophers that the path of happiness is making the choice to follow the greater good at the expense of lesser evil. It is up to government and religious leaders to properly guard Citizens with the use of reason over personal inclinations and be happy with the blessing our Creator has given. It is up to our citizen patriots to understand that the common happiness of Civil Liberty depends on the importance of individual duty in submitting to what the law and government permits, which  firmly opposes evil corruption and promotes the common good. Like Bolingbroke, Blackstone wrote that it is the duty of those who Nature and fortune (Creator) have bestowed abilities and time to serve their country and master their understanding of its Civil Laws.  It is the power of these Civil Laws that protects all Citizens from physical and mental injury by fellow countryman and foreigners. It is the power of these Civil laws which Civil Liberty is derived.  Liberty is what is that which those that govern the land permits. 

    INTRODUCTION. Of the Study, Nature, and Extent of the Laws of England.





    And, first, to demonstrate the utility of some acquaintance with the laws of the land, let us only reflect a moment on the singular frame and polity of that land which is governed by this system of laws. A land, perhaps, the only one in the universe, in which political or civil liberty is the very end and scope of the constitution. This liberty, rightly understood, consists in the power of doing whatever the laws permit, which is only to be effected by a general conformity of all orders and degrees to those equitable rules of action by which the meanest [small minded] individual is protected from the insults and oppression of the greatest. As therefore every subject is interested in the preservation of the laws, it is incumbent upon every man to be acquainted with those at least with which he is immediately concerned; lest he incur the censure, as well as inconvenience, of living in society without knowing the obligations which it lays him under. And thus much may suffice for persons of inferior condition, who have neither time nor capacity to enlarge their views beyond that contracted sphere in which they are appointed to move. But those, on whom nature and fortune have bestowed more abilities and greater leisure, cannot be so easily excused. These advantages are given them, not for the benefit of themselves only, but also of the public: and yet they cannot, in any scene of life, discharge properly their duty either to the public or themselves, without some degree of knowledge in the laws.

    All gentlemen of fortune are, in consequence of their property, liable to be called upon to establish the rights, to estimate the injuries, to weigh the accusations and sometimes to dispose of the lives of their fellow-subjects, by serving upon juries. In this situation they have frequently a right to decide, and that upon their oaths, questions of nice importance, in the solution of which some legal skill is requisite; especially where the law and the fact, as it often happens, are intimately blended together. And the general incapacity, even of our best juries, to do this with any tolerable propriety, has greatly debased their authority; and has unavoidably thrown more power into the hands of the judges, to direct, control, and even reverse their verdicts, than perhaps the constitution intended.

    Yet farther; most gentlemen of considerable property, at some period or other in their lives, are ambitious of representing their country in parliament: and those, who are ambitious of receiving so high a trust, would also do well to remember its nature and importance. They are not thus honorably distinguished from the rest of their fellow-subjects, merely that they may privilege their persons, their estates, or their domestics; that they may list under party banners; may grant or withhold supplies; may vote with or vote against a popular or unpopular administration; but upon considerations far more interesting and important. They are the guardians of the English constitution; the makers, repealers, and interpreters of the English laws; delegated to watch, to check, and to avert every dangerous innovation, to propose, to adopt, and to cherish any solid and well-weighed improvement; bound by every tie of nature, of honor, and of religion, to transmit that constitution and those laws to posterity, amended if possible, at least without any derogation. And how unbecoming must it appear in a member of the legislature to vote for a new law, who is utterly ignorant of the old! 

    ...the science of legislation, the noblest and most difficult of any. Apprenticeships are held necessary to almost every art, commercial or mechanical: a long course of reading and study must form the divine, the physician, and the practical professor of the laws; but every man of superior fortune thinks himself born a legislator. Yet Tully was of a different opinion: “It is necessary,” says he,“for a senator to be thoroughly acquainted with the constitution; and this,” he declares, “is a knowledge of the most extensive nature; a matter of science, of diligence, of reflection; without which no senator can possibly be fit for his office.”



    By 1771, when he advised young Robert Skipwith on his book buying, Jefferson included Bolingbroke’s Political Works in his suggested of catalogue of 30 books.

    From Thomas Jefferson to Robert Skipwith, with a List of Books for a Private Library 

    3 August 1771



    I sat down with a design of executing your request to form a catalogue of books amounting to about 30. 

    ... Peace to it’s wisdom! Let me not awaken it. A little attention however to the nature of the human mind evinces that the entertainments of fiction are useful as well as pleasant. That they are pleasant when well written, every person feels who reads. But wherein is it’s utility, asks the reverend sage, big with the notion that nothing can be useful but the learned lumber of Greek and Roman reading with which his head is stored? I answer, every thing is useful which contributes to fix us in the principles and practice of virtue. When any signal act of charity or of gratitude, for instance, is presented either to our sight or imagination, we are deeply impressed with it’s beauty and feel a strong desire in ourselves of doing charitable and grateful acts also. On the contrary when we see or read of any atrocious deed, we are disgusted with it’s deformity and conceive an abhorrence of vice. Now every emotion of this kind is an exercise of our virtuous dispositions; and dispositions of the mind, like limbs of the body, acquire strength by exercise. But exercise produces habit; and in the instance of which we speak, the exercise being of the moral feelings, produces a habit of thinking and acting virtuously. We never reflect whether the story we read be truth or fiction. If the painting be lively, and a tolerable picture of nature, we are thrown into a reverie, from which if we awaken it is the fault of the writer.

    ...Considering history as a moral exercise, her lessons would be too unfrequent if confined to real life. Of those recorded by historians few incidents have been attended with such circumstances as to excite in any high degree this sympathetic emotion of virtue. We are therefore wisely framed to be as warmly interested for a fictitious as for a real personage. The spacious field of imagination is thus laid open to our use, and lessons may be formed to illustrate and carry home to the mind every moral rule of life. Thus a lively and lasting sense of filial duty is more effectually impressed on the mind of a son or daughter by reading King Lear, than by all the dry volumes of ethics and divinity that ever were written.

    ... Of Politics and Trade I have given you a few only of the best books, as you would probably choose to be not unacquainted with those commercial principles which bring wealth into our country, and the constitutional security we have for the enjoyment of that wealth. In Law I mention a few systematical books, as a knowlege of the minutiae of that science is not necessary for a private gentleman. In Religion, History, Natural philosophy, I have followed the same plan in general.


    Here is a  partial list of literary works that Jefferson recommended that apply to our  journey of discovering the Creative Force of Nature designs for Life and Happiness or Death and Misery


    Locke’s conduct of the mind in search of truth. 12mo. 3/
    Xenophon’s memoirs of Socrates. by Feilding. 8vo. 5/
    Epictetus. by Mrs. Carter. 2 v.12mo. 6/
    Antoninus by Collins. 3/
    Seneca. by L’Estrange. 8vo. 5/4
    Cicero’s Offices. by Guthrie. 8vo. 5/
    Cicero’s Tusculan questions. Eng. 3/
    Ld. Bolingbroke’s Philosophical works. 5 v. 8vo. £1.5
    Hume’s essays. 4 v. 12mo. 12/
    Ld. Kaim’s Natural religion. 8vo. 6/
    Philosophical survey of Nature. 3/
    Oeconomy of human life. 2/
    Sterne’s sermons. 7 v. 12mo. £1.1
    Sherlock on death. 8vo. 5/
    Sherlock on a future state. 5/


    Ld. Kaim’s Principles of equity. fol. £1.1
    Blackstone’s Commentaries. 4 v. 4to. £4.4
    Cuningham’s Law dictionary. 2 v. fol. £3

    history. antient.

    Bible. 6/
    Rollin’s Antient history. Eng. 13 v. 12mo. £1.19
    Stanyan’s Graecian history. 2 v. 8vo. 10/
    Livy. (the late translation). 12/
    Sallust by Gordon. 12mo. 12/
    Tacitus by Gordon. 12mo. 15/
    Caesar by Bladen. 8vo. 5/
    Josephus. Eng. 1.02
    Vertot’s Revolutions of Rome. Eng. 9/
    Plutarch’s lives. by Langhorne. 6 v. 8vo. £1.10
    Bayle’s Dictionary. 5 v. fol. £7.10.
    Jeffery’s Historical & Chronological chart. 15/


  6. Spirits of the air that try to direct us.

    n Jewish mythology, a dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‎, from the Hebrew verb דָּבַק‬ dāḇaq meaning "adhere" or "cling") is a malicious possessing spirit believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person. It

    The Holy Spirit (Hebrew: ‬רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ‬, Modern ruach hakodesh, Tiberian ruaħ haqqodɛʃ) in Judaism, also termed "Divine Inspiration,"

    Ibbur (Hebrew: עיבור‬, "pregnancy" or "impregnation" or "incubation"), is one of the transmigration forms of the soul and has similarities with Gilgul neshamot. Ibbur is always good or positive, while dybbuk (Yiddish: דיבוק‬‎), is negative. Ibbur is the most positive form of possession, and the most complicated. It happens when a righteous soul decides to occupy a living person's body for a time, and joins, or spiritually "impregnates" the existing soul. Ibbur is always temporary, and the living person may or may not know that it has taken place. Often the living person has graciously given consent for the Ibbur. The reason for Ibbur is always benevolent—the departed soul wishes to complete an important task, to fulfil a promise, or to perform a mitzvah (a religious duty) that can only be accomplished in the flesh. In Lurianic Kabbalah, ibbur occurs when an incomplete soul which cannot achieve tikun is completed by the addition of the soul of a tzadik,[1] or spiritual master. Luria believed this to be possible even whilst the possessor was still alive.





    particles can be created from
    nothing but energy, certain features,
    such as electrical charge, cannot

     gravitational potential energy is negative. Because a negative amount of work is done to bring an object closer to the Earth, gravitational potential energy is always a negative number when using this reference point.  

     The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Space is also filled with radiation (e.g. light and heat), magnetic fields and high energy particles (e.g. cosmic rays).


    In empty space, there is no air, and what we call "sound" is actually vibrations in the air. Now, like you've said, there are indeed light waves and radio waves in space, but these waves are not sound, but light. Light does not need air to travel, but then you don't hear it; you see it, or it is interpreted by your radio set and then translated into sound.

    You're right that there are gases in space, and it's true that these gasses can propagate sound waves just like Earth's air allows sound to travel. The difference is that interstellar gas clouds are much less dense than the Earth's atmosphere. (They have fewer atoms per cubic foot.) So if a sound wave was traveling through a big gas cloud in space and we were out there listening

    Space probably does go on forever, but the truth is we don’t know. 

    The part of space we can see is called the observable universe. 

    The observable universe can even be measured. It is 93 billion light years from one side to the other.

    Our part of space, or the observable universe, has a special shape: it is flat.

    The Universe simply expanded from a very small volume into a huge volume, and this expansion is occuring even today. 

    something of the size of an atom expanded to the size of the solar system by the end of the inflationary epoch.

    The orbits of the planets and the shapes of spiral galaxies has to do with the way they form and conservation of angular momentum, and nothing to do with the geometry of the universe as a whole. As the solar system formed from a giant spherical gas cloud, the cloud started to rotate. That meant that it was easier for material to fall in along the poles than around the 'equator', because around the equator it had to battle against the centripetal acceleration trying to push it out again. The cloud therefore slowly collapsed into a disk like structure from which the planets formed. The same exact process explains the disks of spiral galaxies.

    Outer space' begins about 100 km above the Earth, where the shell of air around our planet disappears. With no air to scatter sunlight and produce a blue sky, space appears as a black blanket dotted with stars.

    Particles are tiny bits of matter that make up everything in the universe. The space your body takes up is different from the space other matter takes up that you perceive in nature.

    Experiencing visual space is a subtle act of the human body and mind.

    Wayfinding, orientation, direction, etc. all come from visual clues. The lens of our eye, with a 22mm focal length allows us to experience perspective space in a consistent and readable way. Our neck and eyes move, completing a spherical dome of information surrounding us at any point. But, when a slight change is introduced to this formula we start to question what exactly space is.

    The awareness of the position, size, form, distance, and direction of an object, or of oneself



    Space is usually regarded as being completely empty. But this is not true. The vast gaps between the stars and planets are filled with huge amounts of thinly spread gas and dust. Even the emptiest parts of space contain at least a few hundred atoms or molecules per cubic metre.
    Space is also filled with many forms of radiation that are dangerous to astronauts. Much of this infrared and ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun. High energy X-rays, gamma rays and cosmic rays – particles travelling close to the speed of light – arrive from distant star systems.

    Since there are no molecules in the vacuum of space there are neither atmosphere nor pressure. When there is no atmosphere, all of the molecules in the area want to spread out as much as possible. If you were on a space ship and stepped outside, you would not be crushed. Instead, you would blow up like a huge balloon as your molecules began to spread out. Eventually you would pop. Very messy.

    A total, or perfect, vacuum would be a space from which all matter has been removed. This includes solids, liquids, and gases (including air). It would be a space that contains “nothing.” Since there is no method or device that can remove all matter from an enclosed space, a perfect vacuum is unknown and has only theoretical meaning.

    You take the last drink out of an orange juice container. As you put the empty container in the recycling bin, you wonder if it's really empty. Guess what? It isn't! There are still air molecules that take up space inside that orange juice container. But, if you could suck out all of those air molecules, you would have a vacuum. In science, a vacuum is defined as space without matter or air. 

    Egocentric distances are defined as the interval between the viewer and an environmental location of interest. Exocentric distances are defined as the interval between two environmental locations of interest, neither being the viewer. (The term depth perception is often implicitly taken to refer to judgments of egocentric distance.) This chapter focuses on absolute egocentric distance perception, which involves accurately scaled perceptual judgments of the distance of environmental locations from the viewer.

    Most of the work dealing with viewing from a fixed location
    has been concerned with the perception of egocentric (absolute)
    distance, exocentric (relative) distance or depth, and size.

    an observer has an
    internal representation of surrounding physical space, referred
    to as visual space or visually perceived space, and then to
    attempt to measure properties of visual space using a variety 



    Space is everything in our surrounding environment or just simply everything around us. Our spatial perception is how we see the world and understand it. As a child the physical proportions and dimensions of space for us are small. As we grow and become more active we begin to orient ourselves to the space around us. Our eyes make thousands of subconscious computations to perceive positive space (objects) and negative space (empty areas). In time our mind becomes more familiar with the types of space around us that we are able to move more independently and our world begins to greatly expand. There are many that believe that our conscious mind gives us the ability to perceive Nature and understand Natural Law. Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews), Jesus (Christians), and Mohammed (Islam) believe and testify that through the Will of the Creator (God) has given human beings a conscious mind (living spirit) to understand the world around them. There are some quantum physicists that theorize that our conscious mind is actually a four dimensional radiant field outside our physical body connected to our nerves through Quantum entanglement.  Put simply our conscious mind is comprised of both a quantifiable (measurable) Central and Peripheral nervous system connected to nonquantifiable (immeasurable) negative space.  

    As we grow our young minds learn that much of what we perceive as negative space is not completely empty and quite measurable. Every so often we may hear and/or feel a gentle wind moving in the negative space even though our eyes cannot see it. We do see the effect this breeze has on other object around us.  Watching the plants and trees sway we begin to understand there are invisible objects and active forces throughout our negative space. Every so often on a cold winter day we may see a  cloud of vapor (moisture) coming from the air we exhale out from our lungs. When we look up to the sky we notice larger clouds of vapor moving across negative space. In time we learn this vapor is called moisture and  it comes from the transformation of a liquid object we know as water we that we drink, swim, and bathe in to another object we know as gas that float through negative space. Every so often the clouds of vapor above us get larger and darker. Soon cool drops of liquid (water) we know as rain fall down and splashing on everything they land on. The sound rain makes can be heard when it lands on us or when it hits the ground. As we grow older we learn that sound is a disturbance (wave) that travels through objects and negative space. When enough rain lands on the ground a pool liquid forms what we call puddles that can be fun to play in. Every so often during the season when it is cold and our bodies shiver dark clouds pass over our heads. Soon crystal flakes called flurries gently fall from the clouds and land on the ground forming a white blanket we call snow.

    As we grow we learn that we can only see objects if they give off light or light bounces off of them. When we look up and see a bright object shining through the clouds our loved ones call the Sun. Soon the clouds and rain disappear and the Sun dries the water from our skin. In time our body and objects around us get warmer. We soon learn this bright object that radiates heat has a name our loved ones call the Sun. Later in life we learn that light and heat originate from tiny wave particles called Photons that have traveled a great distance from the sun. A wave particle has properties of both a wave and a particle. A wave is a kind of disturbance (oscillation, vibration, motion) that travels through negative space and objects (matter) transferring energy from one area to another. A particle is a tiny object that cannot be seen with our eyes. To get an idea how small a particle is imagine a 2 millimeter grain of sand being composed of unique collection of 10 Quintillion (10 to the 19th power or simply 1019) particles. Now your imagine that your body is comprised of a unique collection of over 10 Octillion (10 to the 28th power or simply 1028) particles. 

    . So we see things because light bounces off objects back towards us. We can use other
    senses to gather information about things we cannot see, such as hearing. For example, sonar involves
    bouncing sound waves off an object and observing the reflected wave. This technique is also used in echolocation.
    Dolphins and bats use echo-location to detect the location and shape of an object, by sending out a
    sound wave and observing how the reflected sound wave comes back to them

    The form of your body is different from other forms that are visible in Nature.   particles that are arranged differently from other forms that you perceive in Nature.


    Why do you matter? Because, you play a unique role in the evolution of our Nature (Universe).

     matter that make up everything in the universe

    A Photon is a type of unstructured zero mass elementary Boson (packet of energy) particle that is a carrier (transmitter) of electromagnetic (electric and magnetic waves) force (power to attract or repel anything with an electrical charge) that moves at the speed of light in the vacuum of space, but is significantly slower in air and water. Photons have limitless energy range (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays). At  At high energy levels  a photon can change knock off electrons and change chemical compositions. If a photon's energy level is high enough it can collapse and form a Black Hole (2 billion joules). In Nature, Dark Matter has not yet been directly observed, but its gravitational effects are accepted as a fundamental part of the Universe. 

    The energy Photons are dispersed by what is called electromagnetic (electric and magnetic wave) radiation. A Photon is so small that it is considered unstructured with zero mass, but has ability to carry electromagnetic force energy to Earth and other objects in space at the the speed of light. In the span of 8 minutes and 20 seconds Photons reach Earth from the Sun.  Plants, trees, and many other organisms convert the photon light energy packets into chemical energy in a process called Photosynthesis. When animals eat plants the stored chemical energy is transferred to the organism to function. Photon light energy heat the oceans, land masses, and the air. The heat makes wind and ocean currents. Photons light energy evaporates water, forms clouds, and drops rain and snow all over the place. There are Diest that believe and testify the Sun to a visible luminary (source of light) agent of the Creator which rises from the East and sets in the West, the source of all the seasons, the cause of day and night, the parent of vegetation, and a friend of man. There are many Polytheist that believe and testify the Sun to be a powerful Deity and a central figure in a pantheon of Gods. Jews and Christians believe and testify that that the Creator is not the Sun, but through a force of will God created light. 



     that disperse the energy released by the constant conversion of hydrogen to helium reaction occurring in our sun.In Nature, our Sun is one of trillions of other stars that generate visible light you see and the radiant heat you feel.  

    We notice that when the Sun disappears into the negative space our body and the objects around us become colder or darker.  

    When the space around us becomes too dark and cold our loved ones may create a small light similar to our Sun. We soon learn this bright object has a name called Fire. As we look closer at Fire we notice that it has has different bright colors glowing from pile fallen trees and branches similar to the ones we have seen standing when the Sun shining are called wood. Stretching our hands over the whitish orange flames our body warms up from the cold. If we put our hands too close to the blue flames the warmth becomes hot and painful. As the fire continues more wood is added to the existing coals glowing as they slowly break down into powder we call ash. 

    Sitting next our fire hot flashes of light shoot up into the black negative space with other bright objects (satellites, ships, asteroids, comets, planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, etc...).  Later in life we learn our ancestors were sky watchers like ourselves. These sky watchers (astronomers) thought that our home called Earth was a motionless and all objects know collectively as the Universe moved around us through negative space. 



    In time,  we learned that our Earth moves around (orbits) the Sun like other planets and objects.

    We later learn that objects are any thing that is bound together by its own gravity.

    We then learned that our   position in space was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and velocity (symbol v) as a fixed frame of reference. Velocity is the rate of motion in a specific direction. All motion is relative to the frame of reference from which it is being observed.

    When we look up at the sky at night and see


    Most of the universe is empty space, called a vacuum, but it is an imperfect vacuum. There are clouds of interstellar dust and the tiny particles that make up the solar wind. There are many isolated particles and hydrogen atoms, which sometimes form clouds over a billion kilometers wide called "nebulae."

    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference our eyes see Space consisting of 3 dimensions (coordinate symbols x,y,z). Where x, y, and z equal individual points of space. If a point in space is expanded outward in two directions with infinite (never ending) distance a line of a one dimensional plane will be created with infinite length, but no width (breadth) or height (or depth).  If that point of space is expanded outward in infinite directions and distance a two dimensional plane will be created with length and width (ex. square), but no height. Now if the two dimensional plane is expanded upwards and downwards with infinite distance then a three dimensional plane will be created with length, width and height (ex. cube).


    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we observe a constant rising and setting of the sun in the sky.  Before there were watches, time was measured by this physical process. Time is simply the rate of change happening all around us. As time progresses in a human lifespan we observe how starts as a newborn baby, a playful child, studious adolescent, mature adult parent, wise grandparent, and then death. Time  (coordinate symbol t) is the fourth dimension that measures physical change (movement) of an object in space. Spacetime is a mathematical model that joins the dimensions of space and time into a single idea called a continuum (continuous connection x,y,z,t) that contains length, width height and movement (tesseract).  Together space and time make up the four-dimension, in which all objects exist and interact with each other.  


    Using the Earth as a fixed frame of reference we can observe that an object will move at a constant velocity unless another object or unbalanced force acts upon it.   All frames of reference moving at constant velocity with respect to inertial frame are equivalent to each other and are also inertial frames.

    Time simply the rate of change happening all around us.


    Modern astronomers believe that Creation did not start at a single point in space.


    In Classical Physics Gravitational Potential Energy is proportional to the amount of work needed to bring an outside object into the gravitational field (an area of attractive force) of another object. The strength of the gravitational force of attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other. As the two objects accelerate closer to each other the Gravitational force gets smaller. Once the smaller object is trapped in the gravitational field it cannot escape unless and outside force can provide a greater amount of energy to escape. 

    In the Gravitational Field Model, there is no gravity force of attraction, objects distort Spacetime by means of their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". 

    light travels along geodesics, which are approximately straight lines in most circumstances that humans encounter in everyday life, but are curved by gravity)

    When an object approaches the speed of light, its inertial energy (work done to resist change in state of motion) approaches infinity and therefore its inertial mass (work done to resist change in velocity) also approaches infinity.

    13.8 Billion years ago a oscillation (vibration) disturbance (quantum fluctuation) occurred that changed a true vacuum of nothing into our Universe being born as a very hot and dense singularity (point, bubble, or virtual particle) in space. Some physicist believe that a quantum fluctuation (disturbance) occurred in a Instanton (pseudoparticle that contained gravity, space, time, and mass) within a false vacuum (metastable vacuum absent of gravity, space, time, and mass) of pure energy (symbol E).  In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable (unstable) vacuum state that wants to move to either a lower energy vacuum or a true vacuum state through a process known as bubble nucleation. 

    This point in our Universe held a tremendous amount of high frequency stressed potential (stored) energy held together with a strong force of attraction.   In the fraction of a second, a Quantum Fluctuation (temporary change in the amount of energy) occurred within the Singularity. The change of state in the Singularity caused a massive wave of energy to generate a repulsive force (also known as Inflation) that expanded our Universe like a balloon over 100 trillion times its initial size. After several minutes of expansion, the temperature of the Universe became cooler, less dense and the frequency of energy lowered to form a perfect condition for the fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, and strong and weak interactions to generate the building blocks of matter known as quarks and electrons.  A quark is a tiny subatomic particle with a fractional charge



    Nucleation occurs when the concentration of the precursors exceeds a critical
    supersaturation value. Above this concentration, stable nuclei are formed which continue
    to grow as additional energy is available.

    Rather, space itself was expanding, with everything in the universe moving away from everything else.


    The Earth's axis would pierce that sphere in two places: the celestial north pole and the celestial south pole.







    the universe began cooling from the moment after the big bang, the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value at a very high temperature corresponding to when the universe was just a fraction of a second old, and when the number of spatial dimensions was approximately three.

    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-05-space-three-dimensional.html#jCp

    Frame of reference

    Something that oscillates is something that "vibrates",


    In 1811, Count Avogadro of Italy proposed that the simple
    integer coefficients in chemical reactions between gases could be explained by the rule
    that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (at the same temperature and

    physical space has three dimensions, which
    means that it takes exactly three real numbers to locate a point in space. These numbers
    are called the coordinates of the point, and the reference frame for coordinates is called the
    coordinate system. I

    This chapter paints in broad outline the transition from molecules to continuous matter,
    or mathematically speaking from point particles to fields.

    its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.

    moving a mass from infinity (i.e. outside the gravitational field

    particles statistically move where there is less resistance by collisions which is generally towards an area of lower density or lower temperature

    High entropy generally means high disorder; and low entropy low disorder; the two paradigmatic cases that illustrate these two possibilities is a gas, for the first, and a crystal for the second.

    black holes have entropy -- a lot of entropy. I

    General Relativity gives a singularity at the very beginning, one spacet time point.

    ctual phase diagram of the universe and even if you knew it, there would be no easy way to tell what time scales phase transitions to a higher entropy state will take! The next phase transition (from the phase of the universe we see, right now) to the phase of the universe that will come next, may very well happen on a time scale of 1e40-1e100 years, or so (if we believe black hole evaporation, proton decay estimates etc.). However, if you look at the time scale of that phase transition from the perspective of a "normal" time scale of the following phase, it may happen in an instant... or as quickly as inflation may have happened on the scale of human time perception.


    he entropic force is determined by the variation of energy with respect to the radius,


    In the extreme mathematical limit, material particles are taken to be truly infinitesimal and
    all physical properties of the particles as well as the forces acting on them are described by
    smooth—or at least piecewise smooth—functions of space and time.

    What is the origin of such an entropic force? The most general answer is that the effect of thermal fluctuations tends to bring a thermodynamic system toward a macroscopic (visible to the unclothed eye) state that corresponds to a maximum in the number of microscopic states (or micro-states) that are compatible with this macroscopic state. In other words,

    As the universe expands the gravity energy becomes less negative and in the case of our nearly "flat" universe will approach zero. 

    so-called “virtual particles” that constantly wink into and out of existence

    They appeal to the well-known phenomena of “virtual particle” creation and annihilation. The spontaneous (but short-lived) appearance of subatomic particles from a vacuum is called a quantum fluctuation.

    Force can be strong or weak can and can push or pull on any object. graviton particles All the forces of nature can be simplified down to four most fundamental of forces, which are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear. 

    Without a first mover, nothing could be set in motion. Thus we acknowledge the first and primary mover as God.

    Electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. 

    In empty space there are virtual quantum particles flitting in and out of existence

    The only form that can accommodate the change from nothing to something in a
    smooth transition without an infinite rate of change is the oscillatory




    In crystallization science, this level is referred to as ‘critical supersaturation.'


    The transition from ‘pure energy’ to particles is modeled as a crystallization process where the starting and end state consist of the same single entity.  

    Formation of the Universe as a... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264339506_Formation_of_the_Universe_as_a_Crystallization_Process_and_the_Evolution_of_Gravity [accessed Apr 29 2018].

     low-energy fluctuations are characterized by local increase
    in free energy density (‘bunching’) which is plotted in the positive y-direction of the plot.
    To maintain energy balance, this energy bunching must be accompanied by a local
    ‘energy-hole’ which is deficient of energy and has equal energy density.



    The energy in Light was so great that it spontaneously decayed (split) into 6 Fermion Particle types (also known as flavors) with a collective positive charge (Quark) and 6 Sfermion Antiparticle types with a collective negative charge (AntiQuark). Over 3 generations 6 flavors of Quarks and AntiQuarks have been created. The first generation: Up (symbol u) and Down (symbol d);  the second generation: Charm (symbol c) and Strange (symbol s); the third generation Top (symbol t), and Bottom (symbol b ).


    but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.


    which makes up protons and neutrons. An antiquark is a tiny subatomic antiparticle (antimatter). A Gluon is a zero mass subatomic particle that holds three quarks together forming either a larger proton (two up quarks and one down quark) or a neutron (two down quarks and one up quark) particle. In Nature a Graviton, is an unseen massless spin 2 particle that transmits gravity and travels at the speed of light.


    A tiny fraction of a second later quarks clustered together to produce protons and neutrons. Several minutes later protons and neutrons combined into nuclei. At this point, the evolution of our Universe slowed down as it took an estimated 380,000 years to for electrons to be trapped in orbits around nuclei, forming the the smallest component of matter called Atoms (Elements). The first two Atoms created were Hydrogen and Helium.

    The size of an Atom (Element) is roughly 4 billionths of an inch (0.000000004 inch) and cannot be divided chemically into a simpler substance. Every object that we can taste, smell and touch is comprised of atoms that come together and exist in the form of Matter. Atoms can come together and form into three different states of Matter: solid, liquid, or gas.  In science, Mass is the measurement of how much Matter is in an object you are observing by first counting the total number of atoms (atomic weight of elements), then counting total volume (size) of space matter takes up.

    the You the reader and I the writer are both made up of Matter.

    The term Mass (M) is defined as the measurement of how many total atoms are in an object.

      become a moving visible substance known as Primordial Light. This visible substance moved in all directions in both linear momentum (moving in a straight line)  and angular momentum (spin on an axis and orbit around an axis). Over a period of time this visible substance changed motion, divided and came together again through both collisions and scattering to form new substances with different more complex properties.  








    When one Up Quark and  

    force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

    quantum superposition

    Wavefunction of Spin One-Half Particle

    interacting according to specific laws of force. 

    When one up Quark (lightest of Quarks)  Some of these new particles grouped together to form

    quantum noise energy

     particles over time. 



    with complex phase interchanges and energy exchanges.

    Even the feel of your body is different from other solid visible objects found in nature.

    inert material body associated with inert energy 


    The actions your

      un of matter that is visible  are unique visible physical forms of substance that 


    comprised of a diverse collection of physical matter types.


     that can found in every visible object in the Universe that takes up space. I am writing to us this at a point in time moving across our known universe that is only known to you the reader after I have written it. 

     I testify that I am made of a we are in same place at the same time we can both observe and communicate with each other. Right now communication is one way. In the near future I imagine AI (Artificial Intelligence) will categorize our unique nature by recording our actions and brain waves. In the near future,   




    there will be attraction between any two or more objects that have Mass.

     weight measures the force of gravity acting on an object

    Weight and Size measurements are used to ship objects (packaged goods) from one location to another. In order to calculate the cost of shipping a package the size of the container will be needed to transport it, a transport carrier needs to know the weight of the object and the volume (size) dimensions by multiplying the width times the length times the height. Finding volume shipping cost is usually done with measuring tape and a precision scale.  Volume is also used in measuring cups to determine how much ingredients are needed in cooking and baking. Another way to measure volume is by dropping your observed object into a graduated cylinder containing a known volume of water and measuring the new volume. Gas pumps measure how much volume of fuel is going in your tank. 


    On Earth, to find the Mass (symbolized M) of an object you need to divide its weight (symbolized w) by the gravitational field strength of the our planet. Before we understand weight,  a few concepts need be defined. First, weight on our planet is a result of the Gravitational field strength (gravity or gravitation) between the Mass of Earth and the Mass of the observed object. In our everyday life people measure weight of objects to determine their value. To give an example, if apples cost one dollar per pound and you selected an apple that weighed a half pound, then the amount you would have to pay to purchase the apple would be fifty cents. In our everyday life we use symbols to better understand and measure Nature.  When you checkout groceries at the store a person or machine will read (scan) a unique product code given to every item (meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, etc) to determine the unit cost per pound of the item selected. The grocer or machine will weigh the item and give you the cost. Product codes really save time when you are purchasing many items. Scientist also use symbols to better understand Nature. For example, the standard astronomical symbol for our planet Earth is ⊕.  Gnostics define the the cross within a circle as an ancient symbol ⊕  as the both the seen and unseen spiritual upper half and the seen and unseen physical lower half of our world. The point in the middle represents the seen and unseen physical and spiritual coming together as a spiritual being.

    The unit of Mass equal to that of Earth is M. This value includes the atmosphere but excludes our moon. Our Earth has a gravitational field strength of 10 Newtons (symbolized N) per kilogram (symbolized kg)2.  The superscript (the number above the normal line type symbolized 2) means a given number multiplied (symbolized x) by itself. A Newton is a unit of force that would give an object with the mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second squared. The formula is N equals (symbolized ? 1 kg x 1 meter (symbolized m) per second (symbolized s) squared. 10 Newtons = 10 kg x 10 m/s2.   Gravitational acceleration (symbolized g) is the intensity of the gravitational field strength between two objects that increase the rate of speed on an object caused by the force of gravitation. On Earth, a 1 kg object weighs 2.2 pounds (symbolized lbs) which also means that 1 lb is the same as 4.45 N


    Near the Earth's surface the gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.80665 m/swhich means that, ignoring the effects of air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely will increase by about 9.8 metres per second every second. In a free fall acceleration has the same magnitude as the gravitational field


    vector as an arrow pointing in the direction of motion with a length proportional to the speed. We refer to this vector as the velocity.


    N / 9.807 = kg


    Once you know the mass and volume of an object, you can calculate its density.  This is done by a simple formula of dividing the object’s mass by its volume. Density determines whether the observed object will sink or float in a selected environment. Transport carriers use density to engineer vehicles to more efficiently float in water, fly in air, and drive in roads and railways. After determining the weight, volume and des





    which affects only quarks, antiquarks, and gluons at a subatomic level.  




    A Creator has not been directly observed, but is accepted by Jews, Christians, Diests, and Polytheist as the fundamental Architect of the Universe. 





    and the knowledge of good and evil actions and events that can benefit or harm them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator gave human beings a conscious mind to reason actions or events that cause benefit or harm.

    In Nature, human beings have observed actions and events that by which life arises from non-living matter. Jews and Christians believe and testify the that Creator's Holy Spirit breathed life into dust (non living matter) and formed the first living creatures. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator is responsible for the Origin of the Universe, Natural Law, and the Evolution of non living (inorganic) matter into living (organic) matter. Quantum physicists would consider matter in terms of energy and vibration, radiating a unique energy signature.


    In Nature, parents teach their offspring what to do in order to survive during life. Jews and Christians teach their children that the Creator communicate with the Righteous who then share the Gospel (Accepted Testimony) of Truth on how to survive and prosper both physically and spiritually through a proper Code of Conduct (Morality). There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has directly assisted human beings to survive and prosper during life and after death.


    but its gravitational effects are visible

    Dark matter is a type of matter that has not yet been directly observed, but is thought to form a fundamental part of the universe.


    Lord and His Angels (Messenger Spirits)


    Through Faith (Belief) the communities of Moses (Jews) and Jesus (Christians) believe and testify that the Holy Spirit is a Supernatural (beyond Natural Law) force of Will of the Creator (God) that can can create, modify, and destroy Nature and Natural Law.  

    In Nature and by Natural Law water moves throughout our planet to help bring forth and restore life. Like water, Jews and Christians believe and testify that in Nature the Lord's Spirit (Creator Spirit) moves Supernaturally by the Will of God throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Jews and Christians believe and testify that Creator's Holy Spirit has given certain loyal humble human spirits (Righteous) the Supernatural ability to perceive God's Will moving throughout our planet generating and restoring life. Christians believe in testify that the eternal water flows from within the Righteous. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings extrasensory perception (ESP) to perceive information of Unnatural (Supernatural) events where life was generated or restored that could not be viewed through normal senses.



    In Society, the community can reject members that break agreed upon laws. Jews and Christians testify that the Spirit of the Lord can reject Sinners (prideful unclean human spirits) and Demons (prideful unclean Angels) and that reject the Creator's Law (Will) on how to live with one another. Jews and Christians testify that the Lord's Spirit (Spirit of the Lord) can rebuke, condemn, and destroy an unclean Demon (Fallen Angel) and Sinners

    In Society, members of the community can bestow positions of power to individuals that are considered worthy of it. Jews and Christians testify that the Holy Spirit can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment of good and evil to Righteous to testify the truth about the Creator and lead followers according to His will. 


    In Nature, water is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures a way to regulate temperature and transport vital nutrients throughout the organism.  Similar to water, Jews and Christians believe and testify the Lord's Spirit moves unperceivable through Nature with Supernatural power to control matter and bring nourishment to living creatures according to the Creator's Will. Both Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that both the seen and unseen in the Universe have no Supernatural power unless God wills it to be. Through prayer (communication with God) Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Spirit of the Creator to bless them with beneficial water to sustain the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to locate water and modify weather that cannot be done under normal circumstances.

    In Nature, water is used to purify (wash) unclean matter that can harm or destroy living creatures. Similar to water, Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe and testify that God has the the power to purify the mind and body of all living creatures from that which is unclean to God's Will. Both Jews and Christians use water to perform a purification ritual (Tvilah and Baptism) over human beings that are initiates to their corresponding faith communities. Jews believe and testify that running water is used to temporarily purify the physical bodies of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to temporarily atone themselves from Sin (Transgression) and find fellowship with God. Christians believe and testify that the Righteous may ask the Lord's Spirit of Holiness to come and bless water that is used to purify the living spirits of defiled (Unclean) members who wish to atone themselves from Sin and the Desire of the Flesh in order to find fellowship with God and enter the Kingdom of Heaven when the Lord Jesus Christ calls out for them. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities to manipulate matter to purify the body and conscious of disease and unclean toxins. 

    In Nature, water can kill living creatures by floods and contamination. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has used water to punish sinful living spirits with overwhelming floods and contamination according to His Will. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has given the Righteous power of prophecy perceive floods and manipulate water to protect members of the community. There are many Deist and Polytheist that would agree with Jews and Christians that a Creator has given certain human beings supernatural abilities of precognition to see future flood events and manipulate matter to contaminate water with disease and unclean toxins.  

    In Nature, air is tasteless, odorless, and transparent molecule that used to provide living creatures with energy. 


    through the air, water, and Jews and Christians testify the Lord (another name for God) can permit a vile (evil unclean) spirit (evil unclean spirit) to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, possess, disease and death to rejected prideful unclean living human spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community.

    In Nature, drought can kill living creatures from the lack of drinking water. Jews and Christians believe and testify that God has taken away water to punish sinful living spirits with drought.

    In Nature, blood is the fluid that contains water and nutrients that sustains life in an organism. Jews and Christians testify that the blood within all living creatures (including human) is life.  

    Jews  testify that that the Lord has taught sanctioned priests of the community to use the blood of a living creature as an offering for the temporary atonement of sins that have been committed and for the purpose of making a covenant with the Lord for a prosperous life. Christians believe and testify that the Holy Spirit of Glory (Holy Spirit) has taught that there is no longer a need to offer living creatures to the Creator, the unblemished Lamb (Jesus Christ) was sanctioned to sacrifice his blood as a permanent offering for the atonement of sins that have been committed and a new covenant with the Father (the Lord) for eternal life.


    Christians believe that purified water of eternal life and the power of God's Spirit resides in the blood of glorified body of Jesus Christ.


    In Nature, Attraction is an instinctual physical connection behavior (Physical Beauty) between two or more creatures to survive and reproduce. Many Diest and Polytheist believe that it was the Creator's Will to form creatures with temporary Physical Beauty to arouse the desire to mate (Pairing) by sexual reproduction. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Lord formed living creatures with temporary Physical Beauty be to be fruitful and multiply populations around the planet.

    In Nature, affection is considered as an intense emotional connection behavior between two or more creatures. Jews and Christians believe and testify that the Creator has affection for all living creatures. 


    courtship is an instinctual physical attraction and the sending and receiving of pheromones. In Society

    believes and testifies that love is a term of selfless giving to others.  While the instin

    Jews and Christians believe that the Lord permitted the Father of lies,  the demon Adversary (Satan) to use Envy to tempt Eve and Adam to go against his will. The Lord used permitted Satan to mentally torment Job test to go against his will.

    Jesus  follow God's will like he had successfully done with Eve and Adam. Christ rebuked Satan in the desert and later condemned God's Adversary. The Holy Spirit of Glory can also command unclean demons and spirits to test living human spirits. 


    And we must not take or drink human blood (life) or face punishment. Catholics and Orthodox believe that through the sacrament (ritual) of communion (sharing) a real presence with the Messiah (Christ) can be made with humble living human spirits, in which Christ shares his Glorified blood for everlasting atonement of sins mankind has made against the Creator and other living creatures. Jesus blood also and contains the water of the Creator's new covenant with with living human spirits that grants eternal life to those that truly understand the command to Love.  


    2:7 The Lord God formed 20  the man from the soil of the ground 21  and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, 22  and the man became a living being. 

    Exodus 17

    17:4 Then Moses cried out to the Lord, “What will I do with 14  this people? – a little more 15  and they will stone me!” 16  17:5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go over before the people; 17  take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile and go. 17:6 I will be standing 18  before you there on 19  the rock in Horeb, and you will strike 20  the rock, and water will come out of it so that the people may drink.” 21  And Moses did so in plain view 22  of the elders of Israel.

    Exodus 24

    24:3 Moses came 8  and told the people all the Lord’s words 9  and all the decisions. All the people answered together, 10  “We are willing to do 11  all the words that the Lord has said,” 24:4 and Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. Early in the morning he built 12  an altar at the foot 13  of the mountain and arranged 14  twelve standing stones 15  – according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24:5 He sent young Israelite men, 16  and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls for peace offerings 17  to the Lord. 24:6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and half of the blood he splashed on the altar. 24:7 He took the Book of the Covenant 19  and read it aloud 20  to the people, and they said, “We are willing to do and obey 21  all that the Lord has spoken.” 24:8 So Moses took the blood and splashed it on 22  the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant 23  that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

    Exodus 30

    30:17 The Lord spoke to Moses: 38  30:18 “You are also to make a large bronze 39  basin with a bronze stand 40  for washing. You are to put it between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it, 41  30:19 and Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet from it. 42  30:20 When they enter 43  the tent of meeting, they must wash with 44  water so that they do not die.


    22:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 22:2 “Tell Aaron and his sons that they must deal respectfully with the holy offerings 1  of the Israelites, which they consecrate to me, so that they do not profane my holy name. 2  I am the Lord. 22:3 Say to them, ‘Throughout your generations, 3  if any man from all your descendants approaches the holy offerings which the Israelites consecrate 4  to the Lord while he is impure, 5  that person must be cut off from before me. 6  I am the Lord. 22:4 No man 7  from the descendants of Aaron who is diseased or has a discharge 8  may eat the holy offerings until he becomes clean. The one 9  who touches anything made unclean by contact with a dead person, 10  or a man who has a seminal emission, 11  22:5 or a man who touches a swarming thing by which he becomes unclean, 12  or touches a person 13  by which he becomes unclean, whatever that person’s impurity 14  – 22:6 the person who touches any of these 15  will be unclean until evening and must not eat from the holy offerings unless he has bathed his body in water. 22:7 When the sun goes down he will be clean, and afterward he may eat from the holy offerings, because they are his food. 22:8 He must not eat an animal that has died of natural causes 16  or an animal torn by beasts and thus become unclean by it. I am the Lord. 22:9 They must keep my charge so that they do not incur sin on account of it 17  and therefore die 18  because they profane it. I am the Lord who sanctifies them.

    1 Kings 19

    19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal 12  to the Lord, the sovereign God, 13  even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, 14  torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 15  19:11 The Lord 16  said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

    A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, 17  but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 18  19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden 19  a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 


    31:30 Charm is deceitful 73  and beauty is fleeting, 74 

    but a woman who fears the Lord 75  will be praised.

    31:31 Give 76  her credit for what she has accomplished, 77 

    and let her works praise her 78  in the city gates. 79 

    Wisdom of Solomon 2

    24 Nevertheless through envy of the devil came death into the world: and they that do hold of his side do find it.

    Mark 1

    1:21 Then 38  they went to Capernaum. 39  When the Sabbath came, 40  Jesus 41  went into the synagogue 42  and began to teach. 1:22 The people there 43  were amazed by his teaching, because he taught them like one who had authority, 44  not like the experts in the law. 45  1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

    Healings at Simon’s House
    1:29 Now 54  as soon as they left the synagogue, 55  they entered Simon and Andrew’s house, with James and John. 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, sick with a fever, so 56  they spoke to Jesus 57  at once about her. 1:31 He came and raised her up by gently taking her hand. Then the fever left her and she began to serve 58  them. 1:32 When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were sick and demon-possessed. 1:33 The whole town gathered by the door. 1:34 So 59  he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons. 60  But 61  he would not permit the demons to speak, 62  because they knew him. 63 

    Praying and Preaching
    1:35 Then 64  Jesus 65  got up early in the morning when it was still very dark, departed, and went out to a deserted place, and there he spent time in prayer. 66  1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him. 1:37 When they found him, they said, “Everyone is looking for you.” 1:38 He replied, 67  “Let us go elsewhere, into the surrounding villages, so that I can preach there too. For that is what I came out here to do.” 68  1:39 So 69  he went into all of Galilee preaching in their synagogues 70  and casting out demons.

    John 1 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

     10. He
    was in the world, and the world existed by his hand, and the world knew him not.
    11. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. 12. But those that
    received him, to them he gave authority to become the sons of God, even to them
    that believe on his Name, 13. Those who had not been born of blood, nor of the
    desire of the flesh, nor of the desire of a man, but of God.

    29. And the day after, Yohannan saw
    Yeshua Who came to him and Yohannan said : "Behold, The Lamb of God who
    takes away the sins of the world!
    " 30. "This is The One of whom I said: 'After me
    a man is coming and he was himself before me because he had priority over me.'"

    32. And Yohannan testified and said:
    "I saw The Spirit who was descending from Heaven like a dove and remaining
    upon him." 33. "And I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize in water,
    he said to me: 'The One on whom you see The Spirit descending and remaining,
    This is The One who baptizes in The Spirit of Holiness.' " 34. "And I have seen
    and have testified that This One is The Son of God." 35. And another day
    Yohannan was standing and two of his disciples; 36. And he gazed upon Yeshua
    as he was walking and said: "Behold: The Lamb of God."


    John 3 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    1. One man of the Pharisees was living there; his name was Nicodemus. He was a
    leader of the Judeans. 2. This man came to Yeshua at night and said to him:
    "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher sent from God, for no man is able to do
    these miracles that you are doing unless God were with him." 3. Yeshua answered
    and said to him: "Timeless truth I am telling you: If a person is not born again, it is
    impossible for that one to see the Kingdom of God.
    " 4. Nicodemus said to him:
    "How can an old man be born? Is it not impossible for him again to enter his
    mother's womb a second time and be born?" 5. Yeshua answered and said to him:
    "Timeless truth I am telling you: "If a person is not born from water and The Spirit,
    it is impossible that he shall enter the Kingdom of God. 6. That which is born from
    flesh is flesh, and that which is born from The Spirit is spirit.
    7. Do not be
    surprised that I said to you that all of you must be born again. 8. The Spirit
    breathes where he will, and you hear his voice, but you do not know from where he
    comes and where he goes; thus is everyone who is born from The Spirit.
    " 9.
    Nicodemus answered and said to him, "How can these things be?" 10. Yeshua
    answered and said to him: "You are the Teacher of Israel and you do not know
    these things? 11. Timeless truth I speak to you: The things that We know We are
    speaking and the things that We see We are testifying, and Our testimony all of
    you do not accept.
    12. If I have told all of you that which is in the earth and you
    are not believing, how shall you believe me if I tell you that which is in Heaven?
    13. And no man has gone up to Heaven except he who went down from Heaven:
    The Son of Man -- he who is in Heaven. 14. And just as Moses lifted up the
    serpent in the wilderness, thus The Son of Man is going to be lifted up, 15. So that
    every person who believes in him shall not be lost, but shall have eternal life
    . 16.
    For God loved the world in this way: so much that he would give up his Son, The
    Only One, so that everyone who trusts in him shall not be lost, but he shall have
    eternal life. 17. For God did not send his Son into the world that he would
    condemn the world, but that he would give life to the world by him. 18. Whoever
    believes in him is not judged, and whoever does not believe is judged already,
    because he does not believe in The Name of The Only Begotten Son of God. 19.
    This is the judgment: The Light has come into the world and the children of men
    loved the darkness more than The Light, because their works were evil. 20. For
    everyone who does what is hateful, hates The Light and does not come to The
    Light, lest his works should be convicted. 21. But he who does The Truth comes
    to The Light, so that his works may be revealed, that they are performed by God."

    John 4 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    6. And Jaqob's spring of water was there, and Yeshua,
    weary from walking, sat down by himself at the spring at the sixth hour. 7. And a
    woman from Samaria came to draw water and Yeshua said to her, "Give me water
    to drink." 8. For his disciples had entered the city to buy provisions for
    themselves. 9. And the Samaritan woman said to him, "How is it that you, a Jew,
    would ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?" For the Jews do not associate
    with the Samaritans. 10. Yeshua answered and said to her, "If only you knew what
    the gift of God is, and who this is who says to you, 'Give me to drink', you would
    have asked for what he has, and he would have given you living waters." 11. This
    woman said to him, "My Lord, you have no bucket and the well is deep. From
    where do you have living waters?" 12. "Are you greater than our forefather Jaqob,
    he who gave us this well, and he drank from it, also his children and his flock? "

    13. Yeshua answered and said to her, "Everyone who shall drink from these waters
    shall thirst again
    ; 14. But everyone who shall drink of the waters that I will give
    him shall not thirst for eternity, but those waters that I give him shall be springs of
    waters in him that shall spring up into eternal life."
    15. This woman said to him,
    "My lord, give me from these waters that I shall not thirst again, and so I am not
    coming to draw from here." 16. Yeshua said to her, "Go call your husband and
    come here." 17. She said to him, "I have no husband.'" Yeshua said to her, "You
    have said correctly, 'I have no husband'. 18. For you have had five husbands, and
    this man that is with you now is not your husband; this you have spoken truly."
    19. The woman said to him, "My lord, I perceive that you are a Prophet. 20. Our
    forefathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem is the place
    where it is necessary to worship." 21. Yeshua said to her, "Woman, believe me
    that the hour is coming in which neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you
    worship The Father. 22. You are worshiping what you do not know. We know
    what we are worshiping, for The Life is of the Jews. 23. But the hour is coming
    and now is, when the true worshippers will worship The Father in The Spirit and in
    The Truth, for The Father also is seeking such worshippers as these. 24. For The
    Spirit is God, and it is fitting that those who worship him worship in The Spirit and
    in The Truth."
    25. The woman said to him, "I know that The Messiah is coming,
    and when he comes, he will teach us all things." 26. Yeshua said to her, "I AM
    THE LIVING GOD , I who am speaking with you

    John 6 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    53. And Yeshua
    said to them, "Timeless truth I speak to you: Unless you eat the body of The Son of
    Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves." 54. "But whoever eats
    of my body and drinks of my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise him in the last
    day." 55. "For my body truly is food, and my blood truly is drink." 56. "Whoever
    eats my body and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him." 57. "Just as The
    Living Father has sent me, and I am living because of The Father, whoever will eat
    me, he also will live because of Me." 58. "This is the bread that came down from
    Heaven. It is not as your forefathers who ate manna and have died; whoever eats
    this bread shall live for eternity." 59. These things he said in the synagogue when
    he taught in Kapernahum. 60. And many of his disciples who heard were saying,
    "This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?" 61. But Yeshua knew in his soul that
    his disciples were murmuring about this, and he said to them, "Does this subvert
    you?" 62. "Truly you will see therefore The Son of Man ascending to the place
    where he was from the first." 63. "The Spirit is The Life Giver; the body does not
    benefit anything. The words that I speak with you are spirit and life."

    John 7 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    35. The Judeans were saying among themselves, "Where is
    This Man prepared to go that we cannot be, indeed to a region of the Gentiles? Is
    he prepared to go teach the pagans?" 36. "What is this statement that he spoke:
    'You will seek me and will not find me, and wherever I am, you are not able to
    come?' " 37. But at the great day, which is the last of the feast, Yeshua stood and
    he proclaimed and said: "If a man is thirsty, let him come to me and drink." 38.
    "Everyone who trusts in me, just as the scriptures have said, rivers of living water
    shall flow from within him
    ." 39. But this he spoke about The Spirit, Whom those
    who were trusting in him were being prepared to receive; for The Spirit had not yet
    been given, because Yeshua had not yet been glorified.

    Jesus' "cleansing blood," that is, to his death that purifies believers from sin.

    John 19 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    34. But one of the soldiers struck him on
    his side with his spear, and at once blood and water issued forth
    . 35. And he who
    saw testified and his testimony is true and he knows that he spoke the truth so that
    you also may believe. 36. For these things happened that the scripture should be
    fulfilled that says, "Not a bone of him will be broken", 37. And another scripture
    again, that says, "They shall gaze at him whom they pierced through,"

    Zech 12:10. Here a single phrase is quoted from Zech 12, but the entire context is associated with the events surrounding the crucifixion. The “Spirit of grace and of supplication” is poured out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the first part of v. 10. A few verses later in 13:1 Yahweh (typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT) says “In that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.” The blood which flowed from Jesus’ pierced side may well be what the author saw as the connection here, since as the shedding of the blood of the sacrificial victim it represents cleansing from sin. Although the Jewish authorities and Roman soldiers certainly “looked on the one whom they have pierced” as he hung on the cross, the author may also have in mind the parousia (second coming) here. The context in Zech 12-14 is certainly the second coming, so that these who crucified Jesus will look upon him in another sense when he returns in judgment.


    1:10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering 24  – from the sheep or the goats – he must present a flawless male, 1:11 and must slaughter it on the north side of the altar before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, will splash its blood against the altar’s sides. 


    12:1 The revelation of the word of the Lord concerning Israel: The Lord – he who stretches out the heavens and lays the foundations of the earth, who forms the human spirit within a person 1  – says, 12:2 “I am about to make Jerusalem 2  a cup that brings dizziness 3  to all the surrounding nations; indeed, Judah will also be included when Jerusalem is besieged. 12:3 Moreover, on that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy burden 4  for all the nations, and all who try to carry it will be seriously injured; 5  yet all the peoples of the earth will be assembled against it. 12:4 In that day,” says the Lord, “I will strike every horse with confusion and its rider with madness. I will pay close attention to the house of Judah, but will strike all the horses 6  of the nations 7  with blindness. 12:5 Then the leaders of Judah will say to themselves, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are a means of strength to us through their God, the Lord who rules over all.’ 12:6 On that day 8  I will make the leaders of Judah like an igniter 9  among sticks and a burning torch among sheaves, and they will burn up all the surrounding nations right and left. Then the people of Jerusalem will settle once more in their place, the city of Jerusalem. 12:7 The Lord also will deliver the homes 10  of Judah first, so that the splendor of the kingship 11  of David and of the people of Jerusalem may not exceed that of Judah. 12:8 On that day the Lord himself will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the weakest among them will be like mighty David, and the dynasty of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them. 12  12:9 So on that day I will set out to destroy all the nations 13  that come against Jerusalem.”

    12:10 “I will pour out on the kingship 14  of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to me, 15  the one they have pierced. They will lament for him as one laments for an only son, and there will be a bitter cry for him like the bitter cry for a firstborn. 16  12:11 On that day the lamentation in Jerusalem will be as great as the lamentation at Hadad-Rimmon 17  in the plain of Megiddo. 18  12:12 The land will mourn, clan by clan – the clan of the royal household of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the clan of the family of Nathan 19  by itself and their wives by themselves; 12:13 the clan of the descendants of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; and the clan of the Shimeites 20  by itself and their wives by themselves – 12:14 all the clans that remain, each separately with their wives.”


    13:1 “In that day there will be a fountain opened up for the dynasty 1  of David and the people of Jerusalem 2  to cleanse them from sin and impurity. 3  13:2 And also on that day,” says the Lord who rules over all, “I will remove 4  the names of the idols from the land and they will never again be remembered. Moreover, I will remove the prophets and the unclean spirit from the land. 13:3 Then, if anyone prophesies in spite of this, his father and mother to whom he was born will say to him, ‘You cannot live, for you lie in the name of the Lord.’ Then his father and mother to whom he was born will run him through with a sword when he prophesies. 5 

    13:4 “Therefore, on that day each prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies and will no longer wear the hairy garment 6  of a prophet to deceive the people. 7  13:5 Instead he will say, ‘I am no prophet – indeed, I am a farmer, for a man has made me his indentured servant since my youth.’ 8  13:6 Then someone will ask him, ‘What are these wounds on your chest?’ 9  and he will answer, ‘Some that I received in the house of my friends.’

    1 John 5

    6 This is the one who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. 

    John 21 The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English

    14. This was the third time Yeshua appeared to his disciples
    after he had risen from the tomb. 15. And after they had breakfast, Yeshua said to
    Shimeon Kaypha, "Shimeon, Bar Yonah, do you love me more than these things?"
    He said to him, "Yes, my Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him,
    "Shepherd my lambs for me." 16. He said to him again a second time, "Shimeon
    Bar Yonah, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, my Lord. You know that I
    love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my sheep for me." 17. He said a third
    time, "Shimeon Bar Yonah, do you love me?" And Kaypha was saddened that he
    said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "My lord, you
    discern everything; you know that I love you." Yeshua said to him, "Shepherd my
    ewes for me.


    John 6

    6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, 71  the one who believes 72  has eternal life. 73  6:48 I am the bread of life. 74  6:49 Your ancestors 75  ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6:50 This 76  is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person 77  may eat from it and not die. 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread 78  that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

    6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

    John 16

    16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate 15  will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he 16  comes, he will prove the world wrong 17  concerning sin and 18  righteousness and 19  judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because 20  they do not believe in me; 21  16:10 concerning righteousness, 22  because 23  I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, 24  because 25  the ruler of this world 26  has been condemned. 27 

    Many Followers Depart
    6:59 Jesus 96  said these things while he was teaching in the synagogue 97  in Capernaum. 98  6:60 Then many of his disciples, when they heard these things, 99  said, “This is a difficult 100  saying! 101  Who can understand it?” 102  6:61 When Jesus was aware 103  that his disciples were complaining 104  about this, he said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 105  6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascending where he was before? 106  6:63 The Spirit is the one who gives life; human nature is of no help! The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 108  6:64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus had already known from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) 109  6:65 So Jesus added, 110  “Because of this I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has allowed him to come.” 111 

    1 Corinthians 15 

    15:42 It is the same with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 25  15:43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 15:44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 15:45 So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living person”; 26  the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15:46 However, the spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and then the spiritual. 15:47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven. 15:48 Like the one made of dust, so too are those made of dust, and like the one from heaven, so too those who are heavenly. 15:49 And just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, let us also bear 27  the image of the man of heaven.

    15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen,

    “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” 32 

    15:55 “Where, O death, is your victory?

    Where, O death, is your sting?” 33 

    15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! 15:58 So then, dear brothers and sisters, 34  be firm. Do not be moved! Always be outstanding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.


    19  4:15 ...practicing the truth in love, 20  we will in all things grow up into Christ, who is the head. 4:16 From him the whole body grows, fitted and held together  through every supporting ligament. As each one does its part, the body grows in love. 4:17 So I say this, and insist in the Lord, that you no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking 4:18 They are darkened in their understanding,  being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts. 4:19 Because they are callous, they have given themselves over to indecency for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 4:20 But you did not learn about Christ like this, 4:21 if indeed you heard about him and were taught in him, just as the truth is in Jesus. 4:22 You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old man who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, 4:23 to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 4:24 and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image 29  – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth.

    Hebrews 9

    9:1 Now the first covenant, 1  in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 2  which contained 3  the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 4  is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 5  were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 6  were the cherubim 7  of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 8  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 9  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 10  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 11  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 12  and various washings; they are external regulations 13  imposed until the new order came. 14 
    9:11 But now Christ has come 15  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 16  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 17  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 18  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

    9:15 And so he is the mediator 19  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 20  since he died 21  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 22  9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 

    1 Peter 1

    1:10 Concerning this salvation,  the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully. 1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when he testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and his subsequent glory. 27  1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven – things angels long to catch a glimpse of.

    1 Peter 5

    5:8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, 14  is on the prowl looking for someone 15  to devour. 5:9 Resist him, 16  strong in your faith, because you know 17  that your brothers and sisters 18  throughout the world 19  are enduring 20  the same kinds of suffering. 21  5:10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ 22  will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you. 23  5:11 To him belongs 24  the power forever. Amen.



    The Peshitta Aramaic-English Interlinear Gospels
    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 10

    1. He called His disciples and He gave to them authority over filfthy spirits to cast them out and to heal every ailment and disease

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 11

    19. When they arrest you, not shall you be anxious how or what you will speak, it will be given to you for in that hour whatever you should speak. 20. Not it will be you speaking. but, The Spirit of your Father speaking in you, 21. will deliver but brother, his brother, to  death, and father, his son and will rise children against their parents, and they will put to death them. 22. And you will be hated of everyman, because of My name, whoever, but will endure until the end he will be saved.

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 12

    16. And he warned them that not they should reveal Him

    17. that it should be fulfilled the thing, that which is spoken by Isaiah the prophet which says

    18. Behold My Servant in Whom I delight in Him. My Beloved for Whom has longed for Him, My Soul, My Spirit, I shall put upon him and judgment to the nations He will preach.  19. not He will dispute neither will he cry out, nor a man will hear his voice in the streets

    27. And if I  am by Beelzebub I am casting out demons, you sons by whom do they cast  out them, because of this  they will be to you judges

    28. And if by the Spirit of God, I am casting out demons has come near. it unto you the Kingdom of God.

    29 Or How is able that man is able that he should enter the House of a mighty man. And his goods should plunder unless, only first he would bind him, the mighty man and then his house he may plunder 

    31. Because of this I say to you, that all sins and blasphemies they will be forgiven, to the children of men the blasphemy, but that is against the Spirit not will be forgiven, to the children of men.

    32. everyone who will say, a word against The Son of Man, it will be forgiven to him to everyone, but who against the Spirit of Holiness will talk, not it will be forgiven to him, not in this world and not in the world that is being prepared.

    33 either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad and its fruit bad, from its fruit is for known a tree.

    34. offspring of vipers, How are able you good things to speak who evil are? from the fullness of the heart speaks the mouth

    35. a man good from a treasure good, brings good things and a man evil from treasure evil brings evil things

    36. say I unto you for that every word idle, that will say children of men, they will give an answer for it in the day of judgement

    37. by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.

    43. whenever but a spirit vile goes out, from a son of man it wanders about in places, where there is no water in them and it seeks rest and does not find it.

    44 then it says I shall return to my house, from where I came out and it goes, finding that is empty and swept and decorated.

    45. then it goes bringing with it seven other spirits, than it worse and they enter and dwell in it, and the end of a man that worse than the beginning, thus it will be done to it, to this evil generation

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 18

    26. And falling down that servant worshiped him, and he said my lord prolong concerning me your spirit, and everything I shall pay you.

    27. And moved with pity his lord of servant that, and he released him and his debt forgiving him.

    28. went out but servant that and he found, one of his associates who had owed him a hundred danari and seized him and choked him, and he said to him give to m that which you owe to me.

    29. And that associate he fell before his feet, begging of him and saying to him, prolong concerning me your spirit and I shall pay you.

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 26

    41. watch and pray lest you enter into temptation, the spirit is ready but the body is weak

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 27

    50. but He Yeshua cried again, with a voice loud, and departed his Spirit

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Matthew 28

    therefore go you disciple all of them the and baptize them in the Name of the Father and the Son and the Spirit of Holiness

    The Holy Gospel Preaching of Mark 1

    8. I have immersed you in water He will immerse you in The Spirit of Holiness

    10. And at once as He came up from the waters He saw the heavens that were ripped open and the The Spirit as a dove who was descending upon Him.

    11. And a voice there was from the heavens You are My beloved Son with you I am delighted.

    12. And at once the spirit drove Him into the wilderness.

    23. And there was in their synagogue a man who had a vile spirit in him and he cried out.

    24. And he said, to us what? and to You Yeshua Nazarene, have you come to destroy us? I know Who You are. You are the Holy One of God

    25. And Yeshua rebuked and said to him shut your mouth and come out from him.

    26. And threw him down and he cried out and the foul spirit in a loud voice came out of him



  8. Genesis 9

    9:4 But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 

    9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood, 

    by other humans 

    must his blood be shed;

    for in God’s image 

    God has made humankind.”

    Leviticus 17

    17:10 “‘Any man 23  from the house of Israel or from the foreigners who reside in their 25  midst who eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from the midst of his people, 17:11 for the life of every living thing is in the blood. 28  So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 30  17:12 Therefore, I have said to the Israelites: No person among you is to eat blood, 31  and no resident foreigner who lives among you is to eat blood. 32 

    17:13 “‘Any man from the Israelites 33  or from the foreigners who reside 34  in their 35  midst who hunts a wild animal 36  or a bird that may be eaten 37  must pour out its blood and cover it with soil, 17:14 for the life of all flesh is its blood. 38  So I have said to the Israelites: You must not eat the blood of any living thing 39  because the life of every living thing is its blood – all who eat it will be cut off. 

    Numbers 35

    35:33 “You must not pollute the land where you live, for blood defiles the land, and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed there, except by the blood of the person who shed it. 


    12:23 However, by no means eat the blood, for the blood is life itself 34  – you must not eat the life with the meat! 

    EZEKIEL 16

    16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil.

    Ezekiel 22

    22:23 The word of the Lord came to me: 22:24 “Son of man, say to her: ‘You are a land that receives no rain 32  or showers in the day of my anger.’ 33  22:25 Her princes 34  within her are like a roaring lion tearing its prey; they have devoured lives. They take away riches and valuable things; they have made many women widows 35  within it. 22:26 Her priests abuse my law and have desecrated my holy things. They do not distinguish between the holy and the profane, 36  or recognize any distinction between the unclean and the clean. They ignore 37  my Sabbaths and I am profaned in their midst. 22:27 Her officials are like wolves in her midst rending their prey – shedding blood and destroying lives – so they can get dishonest profit.

    John 6

    6:52 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus 79  began to argue with one another, 80  “How can this man 81  give us his flesh to eat?” 6:53 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, 82  unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, 83  you have no life 84  in yourselves. 6:54 The one who eats 85  my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 86  6:55 For my flesh is true 87  food, and my blood is true 88  drink. 6:56 The one who eats 89  my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. 90  6:57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes 91  me will live because of me. 6:58 This 92  is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors 93  ate, but then later died. 94  The one who eats 95  this bread will live forever.”

    1 Corinthians 15

    15:50 Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: 28  Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 15:51 Listen, 29  I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, 30  but we will all be changed – 15:52 in a moment, in the blinking 31  of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 15:53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 15:54 Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen

    Hebrews 9

    9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 23  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 24  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 25  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 26  but the heavenly things themselves required 27  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 28  of the true sanctuary 29  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 30  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 31  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 32  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 33  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 34  but to bring salvation. 35 

    Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted
    10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 1  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 2  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 3  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 4  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

    “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

    10:6 “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

    10:7 “Then I said, ‘Here I am: 5  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 6 

    10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offeringsyou did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 7  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 8  He does away with 9  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 10  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 11  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 12  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 13  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 14  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 15  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 16  10:16 “This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 17  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 18  10:17 then he says, 19  “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 20  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

    Hebrews 10

    10:19 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 21  since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 10:20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us 22  through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 23  10:21 and since we have a great priest 24  over the house of God, 10:22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings, 25  because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience 26  and our bodies washed in pure water. 10:23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 10:24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, 27  10:25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day 28  drawing near. 29 

    10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 30  10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury 31  of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 32  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death 33  without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 34  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for 35  the Son of God, and profanes 36  the blood of the covenant that made him holy, 37  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 38  and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 39  10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.


    2:11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh – who are called “uncircumcision” by the so-called “circumcision” that is performed on the body 24  by human hands – 2:12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, 25  alienated from the citizenship of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, 26  having no hope and without God in the world. 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 27  2:14 For he is our peace, the one who made both groups into one 28  and who destroyed the middle wall of partition, the hostility, 2:15 when he nullified 29  in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man 30  out of two, 31  thus making peace, 2:16 and to reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by which the hostility has been killed. 32  2:17 And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 2:18 so that 33  through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 2:19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of God’s household, 2:20 because you have been built 34  on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, 35  with Christ Jesus himself as 36  the cornerstone. 37  2:21 In him 38  the whole building, 39  being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, 2:22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

    Paul's Relationship to the Divine Mystery
    3:1 For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 1  for the sake of you Gentiles – 3:2 if indeed 2  you have heard of the stewardship 3  of God’s grace that was given to me for you, 3:3 that 4  by revelation the divine secret 5  was made known to me, as I wrote before briefly. 6  3:4 When reading this, 7  you will be able to 8  understand my insight into this secret 9  of Christ. 3:5 Now this secret 10  was not disclosed to people 11  in former 12  generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by 13  the Spirit, 3:6 namely, that through the gospel 14  the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members 15  of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus. 

    The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches those the community that follows God's covenant with Moses that the blood of a living creature is life that we must not drink or face punishment. But, humble clean living human spirits may be use the blood of a living creature an offering to God for the atonement a sins that members of the community of Moses have committed. The Holy Spirit teaches that the blood of a living human spirit is life that we must not take or drink of face punishment. The Holy Spirit of Glory teaches the community that follows God's covenant with Jesus, that humble living human spirits are offered to drink His Glorified blood for the atonement and resurrection of all that believe in him. 

  9. The 189th Article

    Why this passion excites weeping.
    Now, a man
    weeps easily in this passion because love, sending much blood to the heart, causes many vapors to issue through the eyes; and the coldness of sadness retarding the agitation of these vapors converts them into tears, as has been formerly said.

    The 190th Article

    Of satisfaction of oneself.
    The satisfaction that they have, who constantly follow the paths of virtue, is a habit in their soul called tranquility or quiet of conscience. But that which a man acquires anew when he has lately done any action that he thinks good, is a passion, to wit, a sort of joy which I believe is the softest of all, because the cause thereof depends only on ourselves. Yet
    when this cause is not just, that is, when the actions from whence we deduct this satisfaction are not of consequence, or else are vicious, it is ridiculous and serves only to produce a pride and impertinent arrogance, which may particularly be observed in those who believing themselves to be devout are only hypocritical and superstitious, that is, who under pretense of frequenting the church, saying many prayers, wearing short hair, fasting, giving alms, suppose they are exquisitely perfect, and imagine they are God's so intimate friends that they can do nothing that can displease him; and whatsoever their passions dictate to them is a good zeal (devotion): although it sometime dictate to them the greatest crimes that can be committed by men, as betraying of cities murdering of princes, exterminating whole nations merely for this, that they are not of their opinion.

    The 191st Article

    Of repentance.
    Repentance is directly contrary to satisfaction of oneself. And it is a sort of sadness proceeding from a belief that
    a man has done some evil action, and it is very bitter because the cause comes only from ourselves. Yet nevertheless, this hinders it not from being very useful, when it is true, that the action we repent of is evil, and that we have a certain knowledge thereof, because it incites us to do better another time. But it oft-times comes to pass that weak spirits repent the things they have done, not knowing certainly that they are evil. They persuade themselves so, only because they fear it is so, and had they done the contrary, they had repented too--which is an imperfection in them to be pitied. And the remedies against this defect are the same that serve to take away irresolution.


    8:20 I walk in the path of righteousness,

    in the pathway of justice,

    8:21 that I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth,

    and that I may fill their treasuries.  

    8:22 The Lord created me as the beginning of his works, 

    before his deeds of long ago.

    8:23 From eternity I was appointed, 

    from the beginning, from before the world existed. 

    8:24 When there were no deep oceans I was born, 

    when there were no springs overflowing with water;

    8:25 before the mountains were set in place –

    before the hills – I was born,

    8:26 before he made the earth and its fields,

    or the beginning  of the dust of the world.

    8:27 When he established the heavens, I was there;

    when he marked out the horizon over the face of the deep,

    8:28 when he established the clouds above,

    when the fountains of the deep grew strong, 

    8:29 when he gave the sea his decree

    that the waters should not pass over his command, 

    when he marked out the foundations of the earth,

    8:30 then I was beside him as a master craftsman

    and I was his delight day by day,

    rejoicing before him at all times,

    8:31 rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth,

    and delighting in its people.

    John 1

    1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God. 1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning. 1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created. 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind. 1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it.



    28:9 “And you, Solomon my son, obey the God of your father and serve him with a submissive attitude and a willing spirit, 12  for the Lord examines all minds and understands every motive of one’s thoughts. If you seek him, he will let you find him, 13  but if you abandon him, he will reject you permanently. 

    Proverbs 8

    8:32 “So now, children, listen to me;

    blessed are those who keep my ways.

    Luke 11

    11:27 a woman in the crowd spoke out to him [Jesus], “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”  11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”

    John 14

    14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys them is the one who loves me. The one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.”

    8:33 Listen to my instruction so that you may be wise, 

    and do not neglect it.

    John 14

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you  everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.

    1 Peter 4

    4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. 4:13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. 4:14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.

    Job 32

    32:7 I said to myself, ‘Age should speak,

    and length of years should make wisdom known.’

    32:8 But it is a spirit in people,

    the breath of the Almighty,

    that makes them understand.

    Job 28

    28:20 “But wisdom – where does it come from?

    Where is the place of understanding?

    28:21 For it has been hidden

    from the eyes of every living creature,

    and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed.

    28:22 Destruction and Death say,

    ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’

    28:23 God understands the way to it,

    and he alone knows its place.

    28:24 For he looks to the ends of the earth

    and observes everything under the heavens.

    28:25 When he made the force of the wind

    and measured the waters with a gauge.

    28:26 When he imposed a limit for the rain,

    and a path for the thunderstorm

    28:27 then he looked at wisdom and assessed its value; 

    he established it and examined it closely.

    28:28 And he said to mankind,

    The fear of the Lord  – that is wisdom,

    and to turn away from evil is understanding.’

    Proverbs 8

    8:34 Blessed is the one who listens to me,

    watching at my doors day by day,

    waiting beside my doorway.

    8:35 For the one who finds me finds life

    and receives favor from the Lord.

    8:36 But the one who does not find me brings harm to himself;

    all who hate me love death.”

    Isaiah 11

    11:2 The Lord’s spirit will rest on him  –

    a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, 

    a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans,

    a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord.

    11:3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord.

    He will not judge by mere appearances,

    or make decisions on the basis of hearsay.

    11:4 He will treat the poor fairly, 

    and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth

    He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, 

    and order the wicked to be executed. 

    11:5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist,

    integrity will be like a belt around his hips.

    Matthew 3

    3:11 I baptize you with water, for repentance, but the one coming after me is more powerful than I am – I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.

    MARK 1

    1:9 Now in those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan River.  1:10 And just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens splitting apart and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my one dear Son; in you I take great delight.” 1:12 The Spirit immediately drove him into the wilderness. 


    12:1 With regard to spiritual gifts, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed. 12:2 You know that when you were pagans you were often led astray by speechless idols, however you were led. 12:3 So I want you to understand that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit.

    12:4 Now there are different gifts, but the same Spirit. 12:5 And there are different ministries, but the same Lord. 12:6 And there are different results, but the same God who produces all of them in everyone. 12:7 To each person the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the benefit of all. 12:8 For one person is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, and another the message of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 12:10 to another performance of miracles, to another prophecy, and to another discernment of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues. 12:11 It is one and the same Spirit, distributing as he decides to each person, who produces all these things.

    12:12 For just as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body – though many – are one body, so too is Christ. 12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves 4  or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit.

    John 14

    14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    Exodus 3

    3:13 Moses said to God, “If I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’  – what should I say to them?”

    3:14 God said to Moses, “I am that I am.” And he said, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must say this to the Israelites, ‘The Lord  – the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my name forever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.’

    1 KINGS 19

    19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”

    A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?”

    MARK 11

    11:20 In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots. 11:21 Peter remembered and said to him, Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered.” 11:22 Jesus said to them, “Have faith in God. 11:23 I tell you the truth,  if someone says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him. 11:24 For this reason I tell you, whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 11:25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will also forgive you your sins.”

     1 JOHN 5

    This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. 5:5 Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? 5:6 Jesus Christ is the one who came by water and blood – not by the water only, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 5:7 For there are three that testify, 5:8 the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are in agreement.

    Genesis 1

    1:2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface  of the water.

    Isaiah 44

    44:1 Now, listen, Jacob my servant,

    Israel whom I have chosen!”

    44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

    the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

    “Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

    Jeshurun, 1  whom I have chosen!

    44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground

    and cause streams to flow on the dry land.

    I will pour my spirit on your offspring

    and my blessing on your children.

    44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass,

    like poplars beside channels of water.

    44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’

    and another will use the name ‘Jacob.’

    One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

    and use the name ‘Israel.’” 

    Isaiah 58

    58:11 The Lord will continually lead you;

    he will feed you even in parched regions.

    He will give you renewed strength,

    and you will be like a well-watered garden,

    like a spring that continually produces water.

    JUDGES 15

    15:18 He [Sampson] was very thirsty, so he cried out to the Lord and said, “You have given your servant this great victory. But now must I die of thirst and fall into hands of the Philistines?” 15:19 So God split open the basin at Lehi and water flowed out from it. When he took a drink, his strength was restored and he revived. For this reason he named the spring En Hakkore. It remains in Lehi to this very day.

    Psalms 105

    105:26 He [God] sent his servant Moses,

    and Aaron, whom he had chosen.

    105:27 They executed his miraculous signs among them, 

    and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

    105:28 He made it dark

    they did not disobey his orders.

    105:29 He turned their water into blood,

    and killed their fish.

    Psalms 107

    107:33 He turned streams into a desert,

    springs of water into arid land,

    107:34 and a fruitful land into a barren place, 

    because of the sin of its inhabitants.

    107:35 As for his people, he turned a desert into a pool of water,

    and a dry land into springs of water.

    1 Kings 22

     22:20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die 20  there?’ One said this and another that. 22:21 Then a spirit 21  stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 22:22 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 22  said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 23  Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 22:23 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 22:24 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?”

    1 Samuel 16

    16:14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had turned away from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. 

    Isaiah 19

    19:3 The Egyptians will panic,

    and I will confuse their strategy.

    They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead,

    from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians.

    Mark 1

     1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, 46  and he cried out, 47  1:24 “Leave us alone, 48  Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 49  of God!” 1:25 But 50  Jesus rebuked him: 51  “Silence! Come out of him!” 52  1:26 After throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:27 They were all amazed so that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” 1:28 So 53  the news about him spread quickly throughout all the region around Galilee.

    John 4

    4:13 Jesus replied, 33  “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty 34  again. 4:14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again, 35  but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain 36  of water springing up 37  to eternal life.” 


    11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

    11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment. I will give directions about other matters when I come.

    1 John 4

    4:1 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to determine if they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4:2 By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses Jesus as the Christ who has come in the flesh is from God, 4:3 but every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming, and now is already in the world.

    4:4 You are from God, little children, and have conquered them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world. 4:5 They are from the world; therefore they speak from the world’s perspective and the world listens to them. 4:6 We are from God; the person who knows God listens to us, but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of deceit. 


    Water is used to purify those repenting sin against God.   strength was restored and he revived wash his clothes and bathe

    In nature water moves throughout our planet to bring forth and restore life. Water is used by man to drink, bathe, and wash clothes. The Holy Spirit of Glory is a force of God's will that moves everywhere through nature purifying and restoring life. The communities of Moses and Jesus testify that the Spirit of Glory can empower and bestow gifts of wisdom, knowledge, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment to loyal humble human spirits to testify the truth about God and lead followers according to His will.  Through prayer the communities of Moses and Jesus testify that humble living human spirits may ask God's Spirit to bless them with with clean water to purify repenting members from unclean sin.  The Lord's Spirit can manipulate nature to pollute and eradicate life from prideful living human spirits that reject God they know to be true and rebel against His will.  The Holy Spirit can also empower an evil unclean dead human spirit to move through nature to torment, give false guidance that brings destructive folly, disease and death to rejected prideful living humans spirits that betray or harm members of the Lord's community. 

    Psalms 114

    114:7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord –

    before the God of Jacob,

    114:8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,

    a hard rock into springs of water!

    Numbers 19

    19:7 ...the priest must wash his clothes and bathe himself in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, but the priest will be ceremonially unclean until evening. 19:8 The one who burns it must wash his clothes in water and bathe himself in water. He will be ceremonially unclean until evening.

    19:9 “‘Then a man who is ceremonially clean must gather up the ashes of the red heifer and put them in a ceremonially clean place outside the camp. They must be kept for the community of the Israelites for use in the water of purification  – it is a purification for sin.

    Numbers 27

    27:15 Then Moses spoke to the Lord: 27:16 “Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all humankind, appoint a man over the community, 27:17 who will go out before them, and who will come in before them,  and who will lead them out, and who will bring them in, so that the community of the Lord may not be like sheep that have no shepherd.”

    Psalms 51

    51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! 

    Renew a resolute spirit within me!

    51:11 Do not reject me! 

    Do not take your Holy Spirit away from me!

    51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance!

    Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 

    51:13 Then I will teach rebels your merciful ways,  

    and sinners will turn to you.

    51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, O God, the God who delivers me!

    Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance.

    51:15 O Lord, give me the words!  

    Then my mouth will praise you.

    51:16 Certainly you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it

    you do not desire a burnt sacrifice

    51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit  –

    O God, a humble and repentant heart you will not reject. 

    Job 14

    14:13 “O that 33  you would hide me in Sheol, 34 

    and conceal me till your anger has passed! 35 

    O that you would set me a time 36 

    and then remember me! 37 

    14:14 If a man dies, will he live again? 38 

    All the days of my hard service 39  I will wait 40 

    until my release comes. 41 

    14:15 You will call 42  and I 43  – I will answer you;

    you will long for 44  the creature you have made. 

    John 14

    14:15 “If you love me, you will obey 34  my commandments.  14:16 Then 36  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you forever – 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept, 38  because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides with you and will be in you.


    1:4 I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus. 1:5 For you were made rich 6  in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge 7  – 1:6 just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you – 1:7 so that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation 8  of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:8 He 9  will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son, Jesus Christ our Lord.


    3:23 Now before faith 51  came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 52  until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 53  until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 54  by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 55  3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 56  3:27 For all of you who 57  were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 58  nor free, there is neither male nor female 59  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 60  heirs according to the promise.

  10. The 186th Article

    Who are most pitiful.
    Those who feel themselves very weak and subject to the adversities of fortune seem to be more inclined to this passion than any else, because they fancy the evil of another as possible to befall them, and so they are moved to pity rather out of the love they bear themselves than that they bear to others.

    The 187th Article

    How the most generous men are sensible of this passion.
    But nevertheless, they who are most generous and have the greatest spirits so that they fear not any
    evil to themselves, and hold themselves above the power of fortune, are not exempted from compassion when they see the infirmity of other men and hear their complaints. For it is a part of generosity to bear goodwill to every man. But the sadness of this pity is not bitter, and like that which tragic actions personated (pretended) on the stage cause, is more in the exteriors and the senses, than the interiors of the soul, which in the meanwhile is satisfied to think she has done her duty, in that she has a fellow feeling with the afflicted. And there is this difference in it, that whereas the vulgar pity those who complain because they think the ills they suffer are very grievous (serious), the principal object of great men's pity is the weakness of those that they see complain; because they esteem not any accident that may befall to be so great an evil, as is the baseness of those who cannot suffer constantly; and though they hate the vices (wickedness), yet they hate not those they see subject to them, they only pity them.

    The 188th Article

    Who those are that are not sensible of it.
    But there are none but
    malignant and envious spirits who naturally hate all men, or else those who are so belluine (brutal) and blinded by good fortune, or desperate through ill, that they think no further evil can befall them who are insensible of pity.

    EZEKIEL 16

    16:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 16:2 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her abominable practices 16:3 and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your origin and your birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your umbilical cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water; you were certainly not rubbed down with salt, nor wrapped with blankets.  16:5 No eye took pity on you to do even one of these things for you to spare you; you were thrown out into the open field because you were detested on the day you were born.

    16:6 “‘I passed by you and saw you kicking around helplessly in your blood. I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” I said to you as you lay there in your blood, “Live!” 16:7 I made you plentiful like sprouts in a field; you grew tall and came of age so that you could wear jewelry. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, but you were still unclothed and bare.

    16:8 “‘Then I passed by you and watched you, noticing that you had reached the age for love. I spread my cloak over you and covered your nakedness. I swore a solemn oath to you and entered into a marriage covenant with you, declares the sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

    16:9 “‘Then I bathed you in water, washed the blood off you, and anointed you with fragrant oil. 16:10 I dressed you in embroidered clothing and put fine leather sandals on your feet. I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 16:11 I adorned you with jewelry. I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 16:12 I put a ring in your nose, earrings on your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. 16:13 You were adorned with gold and silver, while your clothing was of fine linen, silk, and embroidery. You ate the finest flour, honey, and olive oil. You became extremely beautiful and attained the position of royalty. 16:14 Your fame spread among the nations because of your beauty; your beauty was perfect because of the splendor which I bestowed on you, declares the sovereign Lord.  

    16:15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and capitalized on your fame by becoming a prostitute. You offered your sexual favors to every man who passed by so that your beauty became his. 16:16 You took some of your clothing and made for yourself decorated high places; you engaged in prostitution on them. You went to him to become his. 13  16:17 You also took your beautiful jewelry, made of my gold and my silver I had given to you, and made for yourself male images and engaged in prostitution with them. 16:18 You took your embroidered clothing and used it to cover them; you offered my olive oil and my incense to them. 16:19 As for my food that I gave you – the fine flour, olive oil, and honey I fed you – you placed it before them as a soothing aroma. That is exactly what happened, declares the sovereign Lord.

    16:20 “‘You took your sons and your daughters whom you bore to me and you sacrificed them as food for the idols to eat. As if your prostitution not enough, 16:21 you slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 16:22 And with all your abominable practices and prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth when you were unclothed and bare, kicking around in your blood.

    JOHN 14

    14:23 ...“If anyone loves me, he will obey my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him. 14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey my words. And the word you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.

    14:25 “I have spoken these things while staying with you. 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and will cause you to remember everything I said to you.


    JOHN 16

    16:5 But now I am going to the one who sent me, and not one of you is asking me, ‘Where are you going?’  16:6 Instead your hearts are filled with sadness  because I have said these things to you. 16:7 But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away. For if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you. 16:8 And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – 16:9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me;  16:10 concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father and you will see me no longer; 16:11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned.


    7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office,  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness,  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.


    3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise.

    4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians  and managers until the date set by his father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors,  were enslaved under the basic forces of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8  4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father! 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are a son, then you are also an heir through God. 

    4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless basic forces? Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again?



    6:10 Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. 6:11 Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 6:12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood,  but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens. 26  6:13 For this reason, take up the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand your ground on the evil day, and having done everything, to stand. 6:14 Stand firm therefore, by fastening the belt of truth around your waist, by putting on the breastplate of righteousness, 6:15 by fitting your feet with the preparation that comes from the good news of peace, 6:16 and in all of this, by taking up the shield of faith with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 6:18 With every prayer and petition, pray at all times in the Spirit, and to this end be alert, with all perseverance and requests for all the saints

    Is stoicheia tou kosmou (“the elemental things of the world”) the worthless basic forces  Paul is referencing? Event, occurrence, state, the force that came



    2:6 Therefore, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live your lives in him, 2:7 rooted and built up in him and firm in your faith just as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. 2:8 Be careful not to allow anyone to captivate you through an empty, deceitful philosophy that is according to human traditions and the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ. 2:9 For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form, 2:10 and you have been filled in him, who is the head over every ruler and authority. 2:11 In him you also were circumcisednot, however, with a circumcision performed by human hands, but by the removal of the fleshly body, that is, through the circumcision done by Christ. 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. 2:13 And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. 2:14 He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. 2:15 Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross.  

    2:16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you with respect to food or drink, or in the matter of a feast, new moon, or Sabbath days – 2:17 these are only the shadow of the things to come, but the reality is Christ! 2:18 Let no one who delights in humility and the worship of angels pass judgment on you. That person goes on at great lengths about what he has supposedly seen, but he is puffed up with empty notions by his fleshly mind. 37  2:19 He has not held fast to the head from whom the whole body, supported and knit together through its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God.

    2:20 If you have died with Christ to the elemental spirits of the world, why do you submit to them as though you lived in the world? 2:21 “Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!” 2:22 These are all destined to perish with use, founded as they are on human commands and teachings. 2:23 Even though they have the appearance of wisdom with their self-imposed worship and false humility achieved by an unsparing treatment of the body – a wisdom with no true value – they in reality result in fleshly indulgence. 

    Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

    If, in teaching the great doctrine of the divine nature. of the Soul, and in striving to explain its longings after immortality, and in proving its superiority over the souls of the animals, which have no aspirations Heavenward, the ancients struggled in vain to express the nature of the soul, by comparing it to FIRE and LIGHT, it will be well for us to consider whether, with all our boasted knowledge, we have any better or clearer idea of its nature, and whether we have not despairingly taken refuge in having none at all. And if they erred as to its original place of abode, and understood literally the mode and path of its descent, these were but the accessories of the great Truth, and probably, to the Initiates, mere allegories, designed to make the idea more palpable and impressive to the mind.

    They are at least no more fit to be smiled at by the self-conceit of a vain ignorance, the wealth of whose knowledge consists solely in words, than the bosom of Abraham, as a home for the spirits of the just dead; the gulf of actual fire, for the eternal torture of spirits; and the City of the New Jerusalem, with its walls of jasper and its edifices of pure gold like clear glass, its foundations of precious stones, and its gates each of a single pearl. "I knew a man," says PAUL, "caught up to the third Heaven; . . . . that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard ineffable words, which it is not possible for a man to utter." And nowhere is the antagonism and conflict between the spirit and body more frequently and forcibly insisted on than in the writings of this apostle, nowhere the Divine nature of the soul more strongly asserted. "With the mind," he says, "I serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin. . . .As many as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of GOD.... The earnest expectation of the created waits for the manifestation of the sons of God. . . . The created shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, of the flesh liable to decay, into the glorious liberty of the children of God."

    1 KINGS 8

    8:27 “God does not really live on the earth! Look, if the sky and the highest heaven cannot contain you, how much less this temple I have built! 8:28 But respond favorably to your servant’s prayer and his request for help, O Lord my God. Answer the desperate prayer your servant is presenting to you today. 8:29 Night and day may you watch over this temple, the place where you promised you would live. May you answer your servant’s prayer for this place. 8:30 Respond to the request of your servant and your people Israel for this place. Hear from inside your heavenly dwelling place and respond favorably.

    2 KINGS 2

    2:9 When they had crossed over, Elijah said to Elisha, “What can I do for you, before I am taken away from you?” Elisha answered, “May I receive a double portion of the prophetic spirit that energizes you. 2:10 Elijah replied, “That’s a difficult request! If you see me taken from you, may it be so, but if you don’t, it will not happen.”

    2:11 As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a fiery chariot pulled by fiery horses appeared. They went between Elijah and Elisha, and Elijah went up to heaven in a windstorm. 2:12 While Elisha was watching, he was crying out, “My father, my father! The chariot and horsemen of Israel!” Then he could no longer see him.


    12:1 ...Though it is not profitable, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. 12:2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago (whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows) was caught up to the third heaven. 12:3 And I know that this man (whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows) 12:4 was caught up into paradise and heard things too sacred to be put into words, things that a person is not permitted to speak. 12:5 On behalf of such an individual I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except about my weaknesses. 12:6 For even if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I would be telling the truth, but I refrain from this so that no one may regard me beyond what he sees in me or what he hears from me, 12:7 even because of the extraordinary character of the revelations. Therefore, so that I would not become arrogant, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to trouble me – so that I would not become arrogant.  12:8 I asked the Lord three times about this, that it would depart from me. 12:9 But he said to me, “My grace is enough for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” So then, I will boast most gladly about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may reside in  me. 12:10 Therefore I am content with weaknesses, with insults, with troubles, with persecutions and difficulties for the sake of Christ, for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.


    1:8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God – the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come – the All-Powerful! 

    1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus. 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day when I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, 1:11 saying: Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

    1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me,  and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands, 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. 1:14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 1:17 When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last, 1:18 and the one who lives! I was dead, but look, now I am alive – forever and ever – and I hold the keys of death and of Hades! 59  1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things. 60  1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this:   The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

    2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: 

    “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has a firm grasp on the seven stars in his right hand – the one who walks among the seven golden  lampstands: 2:2 ‘I know your works as well as your labor and steadfast endurance, and that you cannot tolerate evil. You have even put to the test those who refer to themselves as apostles (but are not), and have discovered that they are false. 2:3 I am also aware that you have persisted steadfastly, endured much for the sake of my name, and have not grown weary. 2:4 But I have this against you: You have departed from your first love! 2:5 Therefore, remember from what high state you have fallen and repent! Do the deeds you did at the first; if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place – that is, if you do not repent. 16  2:6 But you do have this going for you: You hate what the Nicolaitans practice  – practices I also hate.  2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, I will permit him to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.’

    Stars are a luminary, and they have a strong gravity. Similarly, a leader of a local church must be a luminary who shines brightly serving the Lord in a special way, with a charismatic gravity to draw people in fellowship and transform them into one family body in Christ. Nicolaitans were known in the cities of Ephesus and Pergamum.

    Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike

    The Will is a force; its limits as yet unknown. It is in the power of the will that we chiefly see the spiritual and divine in man. There is a seeming identity between his will that moves other men, and the Creative Will whose action seems so incomprehensible. It is the men of will and action, not the men of pure intellect, that govern the world.

    1 PETER 3

    4:9 Show hospitality to one another without complaining. 4:10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 4:11 Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.


    1:5 But now I ask you, lady (not as if I were writing a new commandment to you, but the one we have had from the beginning), that we love one another. 1:6 (Now this is love: that we walk according to His commandments.) This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning; thus you should walk in it. 1:7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, people who do not confess Jesus as Christ coming in the fleshThis person is the deceiver and the antichrist!  1:8 Watch out, so that you do not lose the things we have worked for, but receive a full reward. 

    1:9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not remain in the teaching (Didache) of Christ does not have God. The one who remains in this teaching (Didache) has both the Father and the Son. 1:10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching (Didache), do not receive him into your house and do not give him any greeting,   1:11 because the person who gives him a greeting shares in his evil deeds.


    6:14 Do not become partners with those who do not believe, for what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship does light have with darkness? 6:15 And what agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share in common with an unbeliever? 6:16 And what mutual agreement does the temple of God have with idols? For we are the temple of the living God, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.” 6:17 Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you, 6:18 and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,says the All-Powerful Lord. 

    TITUS 1

    1:10 ...there are many rebellious people, idle talkers, and deceivers, especially those with Jewish connections 1:11 who must be silenced because they mislead whole families by teaching for dishonest gain what ought not to be taught. 1:12 A certain one of them, in fact, one of their own prophets, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.”  1:13 Such testimony is true. For this reason rebuke them sharply that they may be healthy in the faith 1:14 and not pay attention to Jewish myths and commands of people who reject the truth. 1:15 All is pure to those who are pure. But to those who are corrupt and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their minds and consciences are corrupted. 1:16 They profess to know God but with their deeds they deny Him, since they are detestable, disobedient, and unfit for any good deed.

    2 TIMOTHY 3

    3:10 You, however, have followed my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, my endurance, 3:11 as well as the persecutions and sufferings that happened to me in Antioch, in Iconium, and in Lystra. I endured these persecutions and the Lord delivered me from them all. 3:12 Now in fact all who want to live godly lives in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 3:13 But evil people and charlatans will go from bad to worsedeceiving others and being deceived themselves. 3:14 You, however, must continue in the things you have learned and are confident about. You know who taught you 3:15 and how from infancy you have known the holy writings, which are able to give you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 3:16 Every scripture  is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 3:17 that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work.


    5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 5:18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.  5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law and the Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

    Until "everything takes place" is a subject of controversy

    LUKE 24

    24:44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled.” 24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures, 24:46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ would suffer and would rise from the dead on the third day, 24:47 and repentance for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 24:48 You are witnesses of these things.

    Hosea 6

    6:1 Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up.

    6:2 After two days will he revive us: in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.

    Luke 24

    24:13 Now that very day two of them were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. 24:14 They were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 24:15 While they were talking and debating these things,  Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 24:16 (but their eyes were kept from recognizing him). 24:17 Then he said to them, “What are these matters you are discussing so intently as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 24:18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him,  “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” 24:19 He said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet before God and all the people; 24:20 and how our chief priests and rulers handed him over to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24:21 But we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 24:22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us. They were at the tomb early this morning, 24:23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. 24:24 Then some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.” 24:25 So he said to them, “You foolish people  – how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 24:26 Wasn’t  it necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and enter into his glory? 24:27 Then  beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them the things written about himself in all the scriptures.


    Romans 11

    11:13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Seeing that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 11:14 if somehow I could provoke my people to jealousy and save some of them. 11:15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?


    15:12 Now if Christ is being preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead? 15:13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is futile and your faith is empty. 15:15 Also, we are found to be false witnesses about God, because we have testified against God that he raised Christ from the dead, when in reality he did not raise him, if indeed the dead are not raised. 15:16 For if the dead are not raised, then not even Christ has been raised. 15:17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is useless; you are still in your sins. 15:18 Furthermore, those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished. 15:19 For if only in this life we have hope in Christ, we should be pitied more than anyone.

    15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 12  15:22 For just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15:23 But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruits; then when Christ comes, those who belong to him. 13  15:24 Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. 15:25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15:26 The last enemy to be eliminated is death. 15:27 For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. But when it says “everything” has been put in subjection, it is clear that this does not include the one who put everything in subjection to him. 15:28 And when all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all.


    If our Lord Jesus Christ will submit to Yahweh in life and death, then we should really consider doing the same thing.

    1 CORINTHIANS 88:5 If after all there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we live, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we live. 

    MATTHEW 28

    28:16 So the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 28:17 When they saw him, they worshiped him, but some doubted. 28:18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,  “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 28:19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,  28:20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,  I am with you  always, to the end of the age.” 


     4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, who calls  “Abba! Father!” 



  11. The 183rd Article

    How it may be just or unjust.
    But when fortune sends goods to anyone whereof he is
    truly unworthy, and envy is not excited in us but because naturally, loving justice, we are vexed that it is not observed in the distribution of those goods, it is a zeal (passion) that may be excusable. Especially when the good a man envies others is of such a nature that it may turn to an evil in their hands, as if it be some command or office in the exercising whereof they may misdemean themselves. Yea, even when he desires that good for himself and cannot get it because others less worthy possess it. This makes this passion become the more violent; and yet it may be excusable, provided the hatred in it relate only to the ill distribution of the thing envied, and not to the persons that possess, or distribute it. But there are a few who are so just and generous as to bear no hatred against those that prevent them in the acquisition of a good that is not communicable to many, and that they desired it for themselves, though they who acquired it are as much or more worthy of it. And what is most usually envied is glory. For although that of others does not hinder us from aspiring thereunto, yet it makes the access to it more difficult, and enhances the price.

    The 184th Article

    From whence it comes that envious men have sallow complexions.
    there is no vice so baneful (harmful) to the felicity (happiness) of man as envy. For, besides that those who are tainted with it afflict themselves, they also, to the utmost of their power trouble the delight of others. And they have commonly sallow (pasty) complexions, that is, a pale mingled with yellow and black, and like blood in a bruise. Whence, envy is called in Latin "livor," which agrees very well with what has been said here before of the motions of the blood in sadness and hatred; for this causes the yellow choler coming from the lower part of the liver, and the black coming from the spleen, to spread from the heart through the arteries into all the veins; and that causes the blood of the veins to have less heat, and flow more slowly than ordinarily, which is sufficient to make the complexion livid. But because choler, as well as yellow as black, may be also sent into the veins by many other causes, and envy may not drive enough into them to alter the colour of the complexion, unless it be exceeding[ly] great, and of long continuance it ought not to be thought that all those of this complexion are thereunto inclined.

    The 185th Article

    Of pity.
    Pity is sort of sadness, mingled with love or goodwill towards those whom we see suffer any evil whereof we esteem them unworthy. So it is contrary to envy because of its object, and derision because it considers them in another manner.


    5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 52  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56 

    MATTHEW 27

    27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 18  whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 19  Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 20  Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 21  27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 22  27:19 As 23  he was sitting on the judgment seat, 24  his wife sent a message 25  to him: 26  “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 27  I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 28  about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 29  governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 30  They all said, “Crucify him!” 31  27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”


    11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

    11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, 8  and in this way 9  let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard 10  for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11  11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, 12  when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment.

    HEBREWS 10

    10:32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 10:33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 10:34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison, 40  and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly had a better and lasting possession. 10:35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it has great reward. 10:36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised. 10:37 For just a little longer 44  and he who is coming will arrive and not delay. 10:38 But my righteous one will live by faith [Isaiah  26:20 Go, my people! Enter your inner rooms! Close your doors behind you! Hide for a little while, until his angry judgment is over! 35  26:21 For look, the Lord is coming out of the place where he lives, to punish the sin of those who live on the earth. The earth will display the blood shed on it; it will no longer cover up its slain.], and if he shrinks back, I take no pleasure in him. 10:39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls. 

    TITUS 3

    3:1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and 1  authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work. 3:2 They must not slander 2  anyone, but be peaceable, gentle, showing complete courtesy to all people. 3:3 For we too were once foolish, disobedient, misled, enslaved to various passions and desires, spending our lives in evil and envy, hateful and hating one another. 3:4 3  But “when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, 3:5 he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, 3:6 whom he poured out on us in full measure 4  through Jesus Christ our Savior. 3:7 And so, 5  since we have been justified by his grace, we become heirs with the confident expectation of eternal life.

    1 JOHN 1

    2:3 Now 7  by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep his commandments. 2:4 The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person. 2:5 But whoever obeys his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in him. 2:6 The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk  just as Jesus walked.


  12. The 180th Article

    Of the use of jesting.
    As for modest jesting, which wholesomely reprehends (finds fault) 
    vices by making them appear ridiculous, so a man laugh not at them himself, nor show any hatred against persons, it is not a passion but a becoming quality in a man, that makes the liveliness of his disposition appear, and the tranquility of his soul, which are marks of virtue; and oft-times the nimblessness of his wit too, in that he knows how to set a handsome gloss on things he jests at.

    The 181st Article

    Of the use of laughter in jesting.
    And it is not
    unhandsome to laugh at the hearing of another man's jests: nay, perchance they may be such, that it were doltishness (foolish) not to laugh at them. But when a man jests himself, it is more seemly to abstain from it, that he may not seem to be surprised by the things he speaks, nor admire the dexterity of their invention; and that causes those who hear them to be surprised so much the more.

    The 182nd Article

    Of envy.
    That which commonly is called envy is a vice that consists in a perverseness (irrational behavior) of nature, which causes certain men to fret at the good that they see befalls other men. But I here use this word to signify a passion which is not always vicious. Envy then, as it is a passion, is a sort of sadness mixed with hatred which comes from seeing good betide those we think unworthy of it; which cannot be thought with reason, but of the goods of fortune. For, as for those of the soul, yea and the body too, seeing a man has them by birth, it is to be sufficiently worthy of them, that he received them from God before he was capable to commit any evil.

    Reparation means making of amends


    14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,  

    or you will not understand wise counsel. 

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

    but the folly of fools is deception.  

    14:9 Fools mock at reparation, 

    but among the upright there is favor.


    10:12 The words of a wise person win him favor, 

    but the words of a fool are self-destructive.

    10:13 At the beginning his words are foolish

    and at the end his talk is wicked madness,

    10:14 yet a fool keeps on babbling.

    No one knows what will happen;

    who can tell him what will happen in the future? 

    10:15 The toil of a stupid fool wears him out, 

    because he does not even know the way to the city. 


    5:1 Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. 5:3 But among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 7  5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting – all of which are out of character – but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.

  13. Ennin you wrote:

    Transition from the position of weakness, where the non-believers of Makkah — particularly the people of Quraish — humiliated, tortured and killed Muslims, to the position of strength. This is where Muslims were allowed to defend themselves and were able to defeat their adversaries.


    You would think that Muslims would have learned from being humiliated, tortured, and killed that they would have Love and Mercy towards Christians and other Muslims. But, then again the Jews were humiliated, tortured, and killed by the Christians, and the Nazis. They did not learn and do the same. Christians are just as guilty.


    What do all three have in common. No Love or Mercy. Jews, Christians, and Muslims that do not practice Love and Mercy will get none from the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah).


    I really liked this part. This is first time you really impressed me.


    Intercommunity and Interfaith Relations: Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also established good relations with other communities living in Madinah. There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) prepared a Mithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for relations between these communities.


    I believe in the 21st Century either two things will happen. First, Love and Mercy will continue to be replaced by Hate and Cruelty and there will be more blood shed. Or the Faiths will realize coercion (force) conversions do not work and the people will be drawn to the religion that shows the Most Love and Mercy.


    I pray that Protestant, Catholics, and Orthodox reconcile. I pray that Sunni and Shia reconcile. I pray that Orthodox, Conservative, and Reformed Jews reconcile with Messianic Jews. I pray that Jews, Christians, and Muslims realize they are brothers and sisters under the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah).


    People come together for the World Cup Soccer game. I pray to the the Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) that there be a day where Jews, Christians, and Muslims come together in prayer. Imagine 3 Billion plus people coming together praising our Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) and praying for peace and then breaking bread together in fellowship.


    Talk about Miracles. That is what our Creator (Hashem, The Father, Allah) wants. I think the Creator would consider it a Miracle for mankind to put aside selfish differences and come together for just one day to praise Him together as one body.


    Afterwards, all sides can debate using reason and not missiles, bombs, guns and knives.


    I bet many nonBelievers would covert of their own Free Will.



  14. Peace be with you Ennin. You wrote:

    only Jesus was pure enough to able to see the face of the Creator.
    not true
    all prophets are equal

    Jews and Christians do not believe that face of the Creator.

    Exodus 33

    33:14 And the Lord said, “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”

    33:15 And Moses said to him, “If your presence does not go with us, do not take us up from here.

    33:16 For how will it be known then that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people? Is it not by your going with us, so that we will be distinguished, I and your people, from all the people who are on the face of the earth?”

    33:17 The Lord said to Moses, “I will do this thing also that you have requested, for you have found favor in my sight, and I know 50 you by name.”

    33:18 And Moses said, “Show me your glory.”

    33:19 And the Lord said, “I will make all my goodness pass before your face, and I will proclaim the Lord by name before you; I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy.”

    33:20 But he added, “You cannot see my face, for no one can see me and live.”

    33:21 The Lord said, “Here is a place by me; you will station yourself on a rock.

    33:22 When my glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and will cover you with my hand while I pass by.

    33:23 Then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back, but my face must not be seen."

    Even the Quran writes that Moses could not see the Divine face of the Creator.

    Al-A'raf (The Heights)

    7:143 And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "My Lord, show me [Yourself] that I may look at You." [ Allah ] said, "You will not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it should remain in place, then you will see Me." But when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell unconscious. And when he awoke, he said, "Exalted are You! I have repented to You, and I am the first of the believers."

    Those instances where prophets saw the Creator involved visions, theophanies (limited manifestation tangible to the human senses), or anthropomorphic representations (human traits, emotions, and intentions) of the Creator rather than encounters with His unveiled Divine essence

    Christians believe Scripture that Jesus was always with the Creator and never ceased being the word of the Creator. Jesus testified the wisdom of the Creator which is eternal.

    John 1

    1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God.

    1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning.

    1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created.

    1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind.

    1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it.

    1:6 A man came, sent from God, whose name was John.

    1:7 He came as a witness to testify about the light, so that everyone might believe through him.

    1:8 He himself was not the light, but he came to testify about the light.

    1:9 The true light, who gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.

    1:10 He was in the world, and the world was created by him, but the world did not recognize him.

    1:11 He came to what was his own, but his own people did not receive him.

    1:12 But to all who have received him – those who believe in his name – he has given the right to become God’s children

    1:13 – children not born by human parents or by human desire or a husband’s decision, but by God.

    1:14 Now the Word became flesh and took up residence among us. We saw his glory – the glory of the one and only, full of grace and truth, who came from the Father.

    1:15 John testified about him and shouted out, “This one was the one about whom I said, ‘He who comes after me is greater than I am, because he existed before me.’”

    1:16 For we have all received from his fullness one gracious gift after another.

    1:17 For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ.

    1:18 No one has ever seen God. The only one, himself God, who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known.

    Those whom our Father has chosen for salvation among believe in Jesus and his teachings.

    John 6

    6:41 Then the Jews who were hostile to Jesus began complaining about him because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven,”

    6:42 and they said, “Isn’t this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How can he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?”

    6:43 Jesus replied, “Do not complain about me to one another.

    6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day.

    6:45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who hears and learns from the Father comes to me.

    6:46 (Not that anyone has seen the Father except the one who is from God – he has seen the Father.)

    6:47 I tell you the solemn truth, the one who believes has eternal life.

    6:48 I am the bread of life.

    6:49 Your ancestors ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died.

    6:50 This is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person may eat from it and not die.

    6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”


    Jude 1

    1:17 But you, dear friends – recall the predictions foretold by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.


    1:18 For they said to you, “In the end time there will come scoffers, propelled by their own ungodly desires.”


    1:19 These people are divisive, worldly, devoid of the Spirit.


    1:20 But you, dear friends, by building yourselves up in your most holy faith, by praying in the Holy Spirit,


    1:21 maintain yourselves in the love of God, while anticipating the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that brings eternal life.


    1:22 And have mercy on those who waver;


    1:23 save others by snatching them out of the fire; have mercy on others, coupled with a fear of God, hating even the clothes stained by the flesh.

    1:24 Now to the one who is able to keep you from falling, and to cause you to stand, rejoicing, without blemish before his glorious presence,


    1:25 to the only God our Savior through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority, before all time, and now, and for all eternity. Amen.


    I ask the Creator to bless you Ennin in searching for the truth.


    Here is a beautiful passage in the Jewish Bible on the Creator rewards for those that show compassion and Mercy towards others.

    112:1 Praise the Lord!

    How blessed is the one who obeys the Lord,

    who takes great delight in keeping his commands.


    112:2 His descendants will be powerful on the earth;

    the godly will be blessed.


    112:3 His house contains wealth and riches;

    his integrity endures.


    112:4 In the darkness a light shines for the godly,

    for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just.


    112:5 It goes well for the one who generously lends money,

    and conducts his business honestly.


    112:6 For he will never be upended;

    others will always remember one who is just.


    112:7 He does not fear bad news.

    He is confident; he trusts in the Lord.


    112:8 His resolve is firm; he will not succumb to fear

    before he looks in triumph on his enemies.


    112:9 He generously gives to the needy;

    his integrity endures.

    He will be vindicated and honored.


    112:10 When the wicked see this, they will worry;

    they will grind their teeth in frustration and melt away;

    the desire of the wicked will perish.


    I find it ironic how people can show love and mercy towards an animal, but cruelty towards a fellow human being. I pray for those that abuse any living creature.

  15. Ennin you wrote:

    Verse 17 "--the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you".


    in fact the Holy Spirit Gabriel.with Jesus and all the prophets only

    2.2 billion plus Christians, 1.6 billion plus Muslims, and 14 million Jews believe in the angel Gabriel came to the prophets.


    Daniel 8

    15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, was beholding the chazon, that I sought the meaning; then, hinei, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

    16 And I heard a kol adam (man's voice) amidst the Ulai, and he called, and said, Gavriel, cause this one to understand the vision [see Daniel 9:21].

    17 So he came near where I stood; and as he came, I was filled with fear, and I fell down upon my face, but he said unto me, Understand, O ben adam, the chazon (vision) points to the time of the ketz (end).

    18 Now while he was speaking with me, I swooned upon my face toward the ground, but he touched me, and made me stand upright.

    19 And he said, Hineni, I will cause thee to know that which shall take place in the latter part of HaZa'am (the Wrath period), since at a mo'ed (an appointed time) the Ketz (End) shall be.


    Luke 1


    1:26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,


    1:27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, a descendant of David, and the virgin’s name was Mary.


    1:28 The angel came to her and said, “Greetings, favored one, the Lord is with you!”


    1:29 But she was greatly troubled by his words and began to wonder about the meaning of this greeting.


    1:30 So the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God!


    1:31 Listen:


    You will become pregnant and give birth to a son, and you will name him Jesus.


    1:32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David.


    1:33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.”


    1:34 Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not had sexual relations with a man?”


    1:35 The angel replied, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called the Son of God.

    Acts 1

    1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts of the earth.


    Christians and Muslims are witnesses to Jesus Christ.


    Acts 2


    2:1 Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place.


    2:2 Suddenly a sound like a violent wind blowing came from heaven and filled the entire house where they were sitting.


    2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them.


    2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages as the Spirit enabled them.


    2:5 Now there were devout Jews from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem.


    2:6 When this sound occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, because each one heard them speaking in his own language.


    2:7 Completely baffled, they said, “Aren’t all these who are speaking Galileans?


    2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 16 in our own native language?


    2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia,


    2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, and visitors from Rome,


    2:11 both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!”


    2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?”


    2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, saying, “They are drunk on new wine!”

    2:14 But Peter stood up with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea and all you who live in Jerusalem, know this and listen carefully to what I say.


    2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.


    2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel:


    2:17 ‘And in the last days it will be,’ God says,

    ‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people,

    and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,

    and your young men will see visions,

    and your old men will dream dreams.


    2:18 Even on my servants, both men and women,

    I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.


    2:19 And I will perform wonders in the sky above

    and miraculous signs on the earth below,

    blood and fire and clouds of smoke.


    2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness

    and the moon to blood

    before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes.


    2:21 And then everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’


    2:22 “Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, wonders, and miraculous signs that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know –


    2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 44 by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles.


    2:24 But God raised him up, having released him from the pains of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power.


    2:25 For David says about him,

    ‘I saw the Lord always in front of me,

    for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.


    2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;

    my body also will live in hope,


    2:27 because you will not leave my soul in Hades,

    nor permit your Holy One to experience decay.


    2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;

    you will make me full of joy with your presence.’


    2:29 “Brothers, I can speak confidently to you about our forefather David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.


    2:30 So then, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne,


    2:31 David by foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did his body experience decay.


    2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it.


    2:33 So then, exalted to the right hand of God, and having received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father, he has poured out what you both see and hear.


    2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

    ‘The Lord said to my lord,

    “Sit at my right hand


    2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’


    2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified both Lord and Christ.”


    It was the Joel that prophesied the Creator's bestowing His Holy Spirit on mankind.


    Joel 2

    21 Fear not, O land; be glad and rejoice; for Hashem hath done great things.


    22 Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field; for the pastures of the midbar do spring up, for the etz beareth her fruit, the te'enah and the gefen do yield their strength.


    23 Be glad then, ye bnei Tziyon, and rejoice in Hashem Eloheichem; for He hath given you the former rain according to (His) tzedakah, and He will cause to come down for you the rain, the yoreh (former rain), and the malkosh (latter rain) as before.


    24 And the threshing floors shall be full of wheat, and the vats shall overflow with yayin and yitzhar.


    25 And I will restore to you the shanim (years) that the arbeh (great locust) hath eaten, the crawling locust, and the other locust, and the locust swarm, My great army which I sent among you.


    26 And ye shall eat in plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the Shem of Hashem Eloheichem, that hath dealt wondrously with you; and My people shall never be ashamed.


    27 And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Yisroel, and that I am Hashem Eloheichem, and there is no other; and My people shall never be put to shame.


    28 (3:1) And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out My Ruach [Hakodesh] upon all basar; and your banim and your banot shall prophesy, your zekenim shall dream chalomot, your bochurim shall see chezyonot (visions):


    29 (3:2) And also upon the avadim and upon the shefachot in those days will I pour out My Ruach [Hakodesh,


    30 (3:3) And I will show mofetim in the heavens and in the earth, dahm, and eish, and pillars of smoke.


    31 (3:4) The shemesh shall be turned into choshech, and the yarei'ach into dahm, before the great and terrible Yom Hashem come.


    32 (3:5) And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the Shem of the L- rd shall be saved; for in Mt Tziyon and in Yerushalayim shall be deliverance