Jump to content
DC Message Boards


  • Content count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

  • Days Won


Everything posted by Luke_Wilbur

  1. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 There consequences in the lack of faith appear to be greater for the most exalted followers of Hashem. Ignorance is more readily forgiven. Exodus 17 (Masoretic Text) Hashem is aware of every action you make and judge whether it is impulsive or deliberate. We can only glimpse into His judging process. But, what we see is that it is best to follow His every command. Numbers 20 (Masoretic Text) Moses did not get to spend time in the promised land, due to his transgression against Hashem. He could have received far worse for his misuse of borrowed power. But, Hashem does show mercy to those that serve him and repent. Although, the mercy may not at times be a full pardon. Deuteronomy 3 (Masoretic Text) Deuteronomion 3 (A New English Translation of the Septuagint) Accepting the truth that Hashem, Jesus and the Holy Spirit exist is not enough We must trust in our Creator's plan for us and not fail in our struggle to unconditionally love and forgive our enemies as Jesus has commanded all mankind to do. Those that fail Jesus command will be considered bad fruit and shown no mercy. Close your eyes and listen to Billie Holiday sing "Strange Fruit" originated as a poem written by American writer, teacher and songwriter Abel Meeropol under his pseudonym Lewis Allan, as a protest against lynchings. Meeropol cited this photograph of the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, August 7, 1930, as inspiring his poem. James Cameron stated in interviews that Shipp and Smith had, in fact, shot and killed Claude Deeter, a white man. Branford Clarke illustration in The Ku Klux Klan In Prophecy 1925 by Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church in Zarephath, NJ The line between justice of avenging a murder and committing another is an example of what are Lord has to told us not to do. We need to let our appointed judges and jury decide a man's fate like Hashem has commanded. At the same time, I do understand that this requires much discipline when your loved one has been murdered. The above photo primarily espouses the first female Bishop in the United States, Alma White's deep fear and hatred of the Roman Catholic Church while also promoting racism against African Americans, antisemitism, white supremacy, and women's equality. It was published in 1925 by the Pillar of Fire Church. Below is a photo of Bishop Alma White preaching at the pulpit https://archive.org/details/demonstongue00whit Hostility to Catholics was prominent among Protestants in Britain and Germany from the Protestant Reformation onwards. Immigrants brought that hostility with them to the American colonies. Two types of anti-Catholic rhetoric existed in colonial society. The first, derived from the theological heritage of the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars of the sixteenth century, consisted of the Biblical "Anti-Christ" and the "Whore of Babylon" variety and dominated anti-Catholic thought until the late seventeenth century. The second type was a secular variety which focused on the alleged intrigues of Catholic states which were hostile to both Marxism and Classical Liberalism. Historians have studied the motivations for anti-Catholicism. The basic motivations were political (the threat posed by Rome and its allies to Protestant nations) and theological. However, scholars have also speculated on the psychological motivations, usually concluding that a strong element of irrational bigotry was involved. Historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. characterized prejudice against the Catholics as "the deepest bias in the history of the American people." Conservative writer Peter Viereck once commented that (in 1960) "Catholic baiting is the anti-Semitism of the liberals." Historian John Higham described anti-Catholicism as "the most luxuriant, tenacious tradition of paranoiac agitation in American history". After 1980, the historic tensions between evangelical Protestants and Catholics faded dramatically. In politics the two often joined together in conservative social and cultural issues, such as opposition to abortion and gay marriage. By 2000 the Republican coalition included about half the Catholics and a large majority of white evangelicals. Matthew 7 Burning trees with Plum Pox virus, Adams County, 1999 (photo by Howard Nuernberger) I understand the metaphor of burning bad trees from experience. During my days as a tree farmer my Scotch pines were infected by the pinewood nematode. I tried my best to save the trees, but the USDA explained the best course was to burn the infected trees away from the others. Proverbs 11 The root system of Pando Aspen, at an estimated 80,000 years old, is among the oldest known living organisms in the world. During intense fires, the organism survived underground, with its root system sending up new stems in the aftermath of each wildfire. Jude 1 There are real life heroes saving souls every day. Here is a Firefighter saving little girl from a fire. Christians helping those in need in Pakistan Before baptizing our Messiah Jesus Christ, Saint John ministered the idea of selfless acts to the crowds that followed him. John the Baptist used the analogy of good and bad fruit. He also used the analogy of separating the spiritual wheat from the chaff. Luke 3:7 starts with John rebuking the Jews that being a descendant of Abraham is not enough. Righteous Jews must be selfless in their actions and money should not lead their life. Luke 3 Up to the very end of its lifecycle, grain and chaff are one and the same thing. The wheat is the inside and the chaff is the outside. In order to separate the useful from the useless, a winnower has to give the grain time to dry, separating the wheat from its sheath, scoop the grain up and toss it high into the air. The wind that blows through the threshing floor, the place chosen to toss wheat because of the wind, blows the dry chaff from the grain into an area where it can be collected. The grain, however, falls back down to the ground where it will be gathered for use. Read more... Listen to "The Police - Wrapped Around Your Finger" and contemplate who is the servant and who is the master. Luke 22 I think it can be quite difficult for people to understand some scripture when it relates to agriculture if they never worked on a farm or never tried to grow food to eat. I now understand that the 12 Apostles will judge the 12 Tribes of Israel. And more importantly how we need to humble ourselves to serve those around us.
  2. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Many Christians do not realize that the Roman Catholic Church does in fact place Jesus Christ as the head of the Church. MYSTICI CORPORIS CHRISTI ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XII ON THE MISTICAL BODY OF CHRIST TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN, PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHIOPS, AND OTHER LOCAL ORDINARIES ENJOYING PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE APOSTOLIC SEE Through baptism the Catholic faithful become part of one visible mystical body (church) of Christ, who is its founder and head. Each member is called to a function that helps grow and maintain the body and sanctify the Glory of Hashem through works of charity and mercy. Some members may become teachers, rulers and instruments of holiness that act according to Christ's will. Through confirmation, holy communion, marriage, and holy orders the Catholic faithful are strengthened to defend the mystical body of Christ through charity and divine grace received by the Holy Spirit. Members of the body learn how through his sacrifice cross, Christ voided the old laws of Moses and won dominion over all humankind through his new mystical body of the Catholic faithful. The disease of sin does it best to sever the faithful from the mystical body through schism, heresy or apostasy, causing the member to rebel away from the charity and divine grace given by Holy Spirit. When one member suffers from sin, the whole mystical body and Jesus feels the pain. Through penance a saving medicine is administered to members of the church that have fallen to sin that protects the mystical body from further contagion. Some members that rebel from grace cannot be cured or healed and are removed from the church body. Love Hashem not his creation, Love your neighbor not their possessions, Love your yourself not your possessions, Care for and do not take advantage of the widows and orphans Care for and do not take advantage of the poor Care for and do not take advantage of the sick and infirmed Rebuke the evil one, Rebuke the sin, not the sinner, Rebuke the hypocrite Pay attention to the instructions of Hashem and His faithful subjects Pay attention to the instructions of your leaders and judges. Pay attention to the instructions of your priests, rabbis, ministers, and pastors Discern the words of Hashem and his faithful subjects, Discern the words of your leaders and judges, Discern the words of your priests, rabbis, ministers, and pastors, Support and obey the truth of Hashem and His faithful subjects, Support and obey the truth of just leaders and judges, Support and obey the truth of your priests, rabbis, ministers, and pastors, Praise and sing to Hashem, Praise and sing to Jesus Christ, Praise and sing to the Holy Spirit. Hashem's obedient will suffer against the rebellious. Your good deeds will not go unnoticed. For the Kingdom of Hashem is near. I used to consider that when I entered heaven I would be judged by the weight of my sins vs. the weight of my good deeds. I was wrong. Ezekiel illustrates that Jesus knows whether my most current actions is sanctifying or rebelling against his mystical body. So if I lived good most of my life and then near the end my actions turned evil, The Holy Spirit will leave me and I will not be able to hear Jesus call. Instead, I will hear the voice of the evil one commanding me to follow him. In turn, if I had committed evil actions all my life and then near the end my actions turned good. The evil one will lose his grip on me. Instead, I will hear Jesus call to his flock to come to him. Ezekiel 18 Watch the Structure of Spur and Cane Pruned Grapevines while meditating on what it means for us to be producers of good fruit. http://youtu.be/pCs03Mc2HKM It is not just stating that Jesus Christ is our personal savior will save us from damnation. If we do not love one another, then the love of Jesus will not be with us. John 15 Watch the video, Help Each Other & Love Each Other. Never Stop Sharing. http://youtu.be/u8tzswROt70 The unconditional love of a man and his dog. The unconditional love of a mother for her child. The unconditional love for a spouse. Ephesians 4 Look for the Body of Christ standing on the corner of Truth and Love 2 John 1 1 Corinthians 12 Proverbs 8 Luke 6
  3. Bethesda Maryland 20817 Home For Sale

    Hi Christina, Sorry I did not see this. The house is open for viewing Monday through Friday.
  4. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Deuteronomy Chapter 32 Samaritans interpret "I kill and I make alive", as "I will give life to the dead" or aḥayei et ha-met. Also known as 4QPseudo-Ezekiel, and referred to in older reference sources as 4QSecond Ezekiel, Pseudo-Ezekiel is a fragmentary, pseudepigraphic Hebrew text found in Cave 4 at Qumran, and therefore belongs to the cache of manuscripts popularly known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is also classified as "parabiblical" and considered, in some accounts, as "apocalyptic" as well. Not known even in the scholarly world until the late 1980s, and not published until 2001, Pseudo-Ezekiel has emerged as one of the most controversial texts among Qumran finds in the early years of the twenty-first century. 4Q385c is illegible, and the remaining text is described as being "in poor condition," but all told the fragments yield four to six columns of text, with some measure of overlap among the various fragments. Other than the obvious flow of the text from Column 1 to Column 2, it is not known how they rightly fit together, although editor Devorah Dinant, who published the text in 2001, has suggested that the sequence of events in the canonical Book of Ezekiel provides a basis for the order currently observed. The text as a whole appears to be a discussion between Ezekiel and YHWH, beginning with YHWH promising to Ezekiel that the dry bones will be raised and knitted together again to resurrect the kingdom of Israel. The author has taken the biblical account of Ezekiel 37 as his source, but whereas the resurrection of Israel in Ezekiel 37 is a metaphor for national restoration, Pseudo-Ezekiel describes the resurrection of the righteous dead of Israel. Pseudo-Ezekiel therefore takes its place alongside 4Q521 as one of the only two texts found at Qumran which clearly refer to resurrection. This is followed by a prophecy that a "son of Belial" will come to oppress the Israelites, but he will be defeated and "his dominion will not exist." In remaining fragments, Ezekiel asks YHWH if time itself could be made to accelerate so that Israel may reclaim the promised land sooner rather than later. There is an stray segment which redresses the theme of resurrection, followed by a final evocation of the Merkabah, the chariot of YHWH mentioned in Ezekiel 1. http://www.deadseascrolls.org.il/explore-the-archive/manuscript/4Q386-1?locale=en_US Translation of column 2 of 4Q386 Pseudo Ezekiel fragment The majority of Septuagint manuscripts and a Masada biblical manuscript, makes the point that the dry bones symbolically stand for the whole house of Israel. Ezekiel 37 Christ's sacrifice of human death provided the basis for the resurrection of righteous saints who died before the Cross as well as after it. Matthew 27 (Codex Vaticanus) Mathew 17 (Codex Sinaiticus) Saint Paul proclaimed Jesus Christ was the firstborn from the dead. 1 Corinthians 15 1 Corinthians Will the Trinity evolve into one host of Hashem? Colossians 1 Revelation 1 Artist Thomas Blackshear says: “According to the Word of God, Jesus was born into the Jewish race. Jesus Christ is now the Risen Lord of all nations. Coat of many colors Here are examples of priest following the footsteps of Jesus serving and dying for Hashem. Catholic chaplain, serving God and country. Pope Francis washing the feet of prisoners in Italy. Yazidis and Syrian Christians Protest ISIS Violence [WARNING] Syrian Catholic priest beheaded by Jihadis as crowd cheers in a trance in Gassanieh. May Our Lord have mercy on the souls that participate in evil acts like this. For like Saul, they know not what they do. For the Pharisee Saul later became Saint Paul, the defender of Christian faith. May Our Jesus Christ bless his martyrs that died in holy name. Peace be upon him.
  5. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Great Isaiah Scroll Chapter 53 Jesus reminded the disciples that He had previously taught them that He would fulfill everything written about the Messiah in the Old Testament. The Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms were the three major divisions of the Hebrew Bible in Jesus’ day. Fulfillment was a divine necessity. A day in the Temple began with the sacrifice of a lamb and it concluded with the sacrifice of a lamb. Numbers 28 Paul knew that the righteous Lamb of Hashem was a greater sin offering than goats, bulls, or enemies of invading nations.. Hashem had His righteous Lamb willingly sacrifice himself to acquit the sins of His rebellious children for breaking the blood covenant with Moses. Hebrews 9 In Leviticus we read the commands of Hashem that burnt-offering do indeed bring atonement for the Jews under the Covenant of Moses. Then we read in Psalms King David stating that Hashem takes no delight in burnt offerings. Then Paul reiterates that burnt offerings are useless, but Christ has made the sacrifice of his life to atone all mankind. Icon of "Christ the Great High Priest" with Saint Sergius of Radonezh and Saint Euthymius of Suzdal George Zinoviev .1681 . Tempera on wood ; salary - silver , embossing , gilding. Size - 214 x 142 cm . The truth of the gospel, as Paul preached it, was at stake in the truthfulness of what he said, as was the error of what the false teachers were proclaiming. Galatians 1 Tertullus, the Jewish Attorney in Law, was hired to prosecute Saint Paul as the leader of a cult outside mainstream Judaism to Governor Felix. The Roman Empire tolerated Judaism, but the “sect of the Nazarenes” were not a part of Judaism to the Jewish leaders. This title is a unique name for Christianity found nowhere else in the New Testament. Tertullus evidently used this name to make “the Way” sound as bad as possible. Some biblical scholars state that there is no evidence of a town of Nazareth and point Acts 24:5 that it there was a misunderstanding in the translation. Jesus of Nazareth should actually be Jesus the Nazarene. Acts 24 Acts 21 Paul's statement about the resurrection of the dead(Teḥiyyat Ha-Metim)was a common component in Jewish (Babylonian) and Zoroastrian eschatology. Daniel 12 Watch the crowd get caught up in the trance of "I Am The Resurrection" by the Stone Roses. Biblical scholar James Crossley has noted the biblical language throughout the song where the singer takes on the role of a Christ-like or God-like figure ("I am the resurrection and I am the life"). In addition to the title alluding to John 11, he argues that there are references to stubbornness and repentance found in the prophetic literature of the Old Testament (which repeatedly uses the language of "turning" to God) and persistence and redemption in the New Testament which uses the language of knocking at doors (e.g. Luke 11.5-10; Luke 13.23-27). The song therefore partly functions as "a story of God and Israel/humanity in the Bible" but now "applied to a human relationship"
  6. Steve Rynecki is running for Ward 5 City Council. I agree with his following statements That would be a good start. We really need to improve the quality of life in my neighborhood. It took me a year of calling just to get a recycling bin. http://rynecki.blogspot.com/
  7. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Along with Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus is considered one of the most valuable manuscripts for establishing the original text (textual criticism) of the Greek New Testament, as well as the Septuagint. It is the only uncial manuscript with the complete text of the New Testament, and the only ancient manuscript of the New Testament written in four columns per page which has survived to the present day. With only 300 years separating the Codex Sinaiticus and the original manuscripts of the New Testament, it is considered to be more accurate than most later copies in preserving superior readings where many later manuscripts are in error. For the Gospels, Sinaiticus is generally considered among scholars as the second most reliable witness of the text (after Vaticanus); in the Acts of the Apostles, its text is equal to that of Vaticanus; in the Epistles, Sinaiticus is the most reliable witness of the text. In the Book of Revelation, however, its text is corrupted and is considered of poor quality, and inferior to the texts of Codex Alexandrinus, Papyrus 47, and even some minuscule manuscripts in this place (for example, Minuscule 2053, 2062). Comparison of codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Watch the video, "Dr. Dan Wallace - "Tischendorf and the Discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus: A Reassessment" http://youtu.be/7XmeV_0TsPY German Biblical scholar Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf discovered the worlds oldest and most complete bible from 325 AD in 1844, with complete New Testament not discovered before. Little is known of the manuscript's early history. According to Hort, it was written in the West, probably in Rome, as suggested by the fact that the chapter division in the Acts common to Sinaiticus and Vaticanus occurs in no other Greek manuscript, but is found in several manuscripts of the Latin Vulgate. Robinson countered this argument, suggesting that this system of chapter divisions was introduced into the Vulgate by Jerome himself, as a result of his studies at Caesarea. According to Kenyon the forms of letters are Egyptian and they were found in Egyptian papyri of earlier date. Gardthausen Ropes and Jellicoe thought it was written in Egypt. Harris believed that the manuscript came from the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea, Palestine. Streeter, Skeat, and Milne also believed that it was produced in Caesarea. Tischendorf wrote about his visit to the monastery in Reise in den Orient in 1846 (translated as Travels in the East in 1847), without mentioning the manuscript. Later, in 1860, in his writings about the Sinaiticus discovery, Tischendorf wrote a narrative about the monastery and the manuscript that spanned from 1844 to 1859. He wrote that in 1844, during his first visit to the Saint Catherine's Monastery, he saw some leaves of parchment in a waste-basket. They were "rubbish which was to be destroyed by burning it in the ovens of the monastery", although this is firmly denied by the Monastery. After examination he realized that they were part of the Septuagint, written in an early Greek uncial script. He retrieved from the basket 129 leaves in Greek which he identified as coming from a manuscript of the Septuagint. He asked if he might keep them, but at this point the attitude of the monks changed. They realized how valuable these old leaves were, and Tischendorf was permitted to take only one-third of the whole, i.e. 43 leaves. These leaves contained portions of 1 Chronicles, Jeremiah, Nehemiah, and Esther. After his return they were deposited in the Leipzig University Library, where they still remain. In 1846 Tischendorf published their contents, naming them the 'Codex Friderico-Augustanus' (in honor of Frederick Augustus and keeping secret the source of the leaves).[85] Other portions of the same codex remained in the monastery, containing all of Isaiah and 1 and 4 Maccabees.[86] In 1845, Archimandrite Porphyrius Uspensky (1804–1885), at that time head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem and subsequently Bishop of Chigirin, visited the monastery and the codex was shown to him, together with leaves which Tischendorf had not seen.[n 5] In 1846, Captain C. K. MacDonald visited Mount Sinai, saw the codex, and bought two codices (495 and 496) from the monastery. The codex was presented to Alexander II of Russia. In 1853, Tischendorf revisited the Saint Catherine's Monastery to get the remaining 86 folios, but without success. Returning in 1859, this time under the patronage of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, he was shown the Codex Sinaiticus. He would later claim to have found it discarded in a rubbish bin. (This story may have been a fabrication, or the manuscripts in question may have been unrelated to Codex Sinaiticus: Rev. J. Silvester Davies in 1863 quoted "a monk of Sinai who... stated that according to the librarian of the monastery the whole of Codex Sinaiticus had been in the library for many years and was marked in the ancient catalogues... Is it likely... that a manuscript known in the library catalogue would have been jettisoned in the rubbish basket." Indeed, it has been noted that the leaves were in "suspiciously good condition" for something found in the trash.[n 6]) Tischendorf had been sent to search for manuscripts by Russia's Tsar Alexander II, who was convinced there were still manuscripts to be found at the Sinai monastery. The story of how Tischendorf found the manuscript, which contained most of the Old Testament and all of the New Testament, has all the interest of a romance. Tischendorf reached the monastery on 31 January; but his inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On 4 February, he had resolved to return home without having gained his object: Saint Catherine's Monastery, commonly known as Santa Katarina, its official name being Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai, lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, in the city of Saint Catherine in Egypt's South Sinai Governorate. The monastery is Greek Orthodox and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Built between 548 and 565, the monastery is one of the oldest working Christian monasteries in the world, according to UNESCO report 60100 ha / Ref: 954. The monastery library preserves the second largest collection of early codices and manuscripts in the world, outnumbered only by the Vatican Library. It contains Greek, Arabic, Armenian, Coptic, Hebrew, Georgian, and Aramaic texts. In the area around the monastery, a small town has grown, with hotels and swimming pools, called Saint Katherine City. Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sinai, Egypt Watch the Video, "Lecture - Father Justin - Saint Catherine's Monastery - An Ark in the Wilderness" Evyn Kropf helped me discover that CodexSinaiticus.org website has an error of English translation of the Codex Sinaiticus. Here is a snapshot of the incorrect page. I plan on cross referencing the Codex Sinaiticus with this source in the future The New Testament translated from the Sinaitic manuscript discovered by Constantine Tischendorf at Mt. Sinai by H.T. Anderson. Published 1918 by Standard Pub. Co. in Cincinnati . Written in English. On September 13 1862, in an article of The Guardian, Constantine Simonides claimed that he is the real author of the Codex Sinaiticus and that he wrote it in 1839. Simonides lived in the monasteries on Mount Athos between 1839 and 1841 and again in 1852, during which time he acquired some of the biblical manuscripts that he later sold. According to Simonides it was "the one poor work of his youth". Simonides' uncle Benedict of Mt. Athos monastery in Greece, wanted to present Czar Nicholas of Russia with a fresh copy of the Greek Bible as thanks for the Czar's favors to the monastery. In 1856, Simonides presented the only known copy of the Shepherd of Hermas in Greek [actually it was from the Codex Fredrico-Augustanus that was later renamed and presented as the newly discovered Codex Sinaiticus] at the University of Leipzig and it was originally embraced by the scholars there as authentic. Henry Bradshaw, a scholar, didn't believe his claims. It is believed that Simonides made these claims in order to take revenge against Constantin Tischendorf, discoverer of the Codex Sinaiticus after Tischendorf disproved the authenticity of other forgeries by Simonides. Henry Bradshaw, a scholar, contributed to exposing the frauds of Constantine Simonides, and exposed the absurdity of his claims in a letter to the Guardian (26 January 1863). Bradshaw showed that the Codex Sinaiticus brought by Tischendorf from the Greek monastery of Mount Sinai was not a modern forgery or written by Simonides. Simonides' "claim was flawed from the beginning". The controversy seems to regard the misplaced use of the word 'fraud' or 'forgery' since it may have been a repaired text, a copy of the Septuagint based upon Origen's Hexapla, a text which has been rejected for centuries because of its lineage from Eusebius who introduced Arian doctrine into the courts of Constantine I and II. Saint Catherine's Monastery still maintains the importance of a letter, handwritten in 1844 with an original signature of Tischendorf confirming that he borrowed those leaves. However, recently published documents, including a deed of gift dated 11 September 1868 and signed by Archbishop Kallistratos and the monks of the monastery, indicate that the manuscript was acquired entirely legitimately. This deed, which agrees with a report by Kurt Aland on the matter, has now been published. Unfortunately this development is not widely known in the English-speaking world, as only German- and Russian-language media reported on it It appears that Czar Nicholas stole the Codex Sinaiticus from Saint Catherine's monastery, then sold it to the British. It also makes complete sense that Tischendorf did not realize scrolls were placed in baskets for storage. We know the Dead Sea scrolls were placed in pottery jars. Since he was unaccustomed to the monastery's way of keeping order, Tichendorf thought the monks were discarding the documents. Our culture puts discarded documents in trash baskets. I personally do it every day. A team of ethnographers should study the day-to-day operations of Saint Catherine's monastery to help outsiders understand its history better. in 2009. Doubts as to the legality of the gift arose because when Tischendorf originally removed the manuscript from Saint Catherine's Monastery in September 1859, the monastery was without an archbishop, so that even though the intention to present the manuscript to the Tsar had been expressed, no legal gift could be made at the time. Resolution of the matter was delayed through the turbulent reign of Archbishop Cyril (consecrated 7 December 1859, deposed 24 August 1866), and the situation only formalized after the restoration of peace. Here is a statement from Saint Catherine's Monastery on the Codex Sinaiticus document: Hashem works in mysterious ways. While the taking and not returning the codex was not a righteous act, spreading the word that confirms the testimony of Jesus Christ is a good for all humanity. Tischendorf was catalyst that sparked interest in the Codex Sinaiticus and strengthened the validity of our Bible. In the early 20th century Vladimir N. Beneshevich (1874–1938) discovered parts of three more leaves of the codex in the bindings of other manuscripts in the library of Mount Sinai. Beneshevich went on three occasions to the monastery (1907, 1908, 1911) but does not tell when or from which book he recovered. These leaves were also acquired for St. Petersburg, where they remain to the present day. For many decades, the Codex was preserved in the Russian National Library. In 1933, the Soviet Union sold the codex to the British Museum (after 1973 British Library) for £100,000 raised by public subscription (worth £6.2 million in 2015). After coming to Britain it was examined by T. C. Skeat and H.J.M. Milne using an ultra-violet lamp. In May 1975, during restoration work, the monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery discovered a room beneath the St. George Chapel which contained many parchment fragments. Among these fragments were twelve complete leaves from the Sinaiticus, 11 leaves of the Pentateuch and 1 leaf of the Shepherd of Hermas. Together with these leaves 67 Greek Manuscripts of New Testament have been found (uncials 0278 – 0296 and some minuscules). In June 2005, a team of experts from the UK, Europe, Egypt, Russia and USA undertook a joint project to produce a new digital edition of the manuscript (involving all four holding libraries), and a series of other studies was announced. This will include the use of hyperspectral imaging to photograph the manuscripts to look for hidden information such as erased or faded text.This is to be done in cooperation with the British Library. Prior to 1 September 2009, the University of the Arts London PhD student, Nikolas Sarris, discovered the previously unseen fragment of the Codex in the library of Saint Catherine's Monastery. It contains the text of Book of Joshua 1:10 The codex is now split into four unequal portions: 347 leaves in the British Library in London (199 of the Old Testament, 148 of the New Testament), 12 leaves and 14 fragments in the Saint Catherine's Monastery, 43 leaves in the Leipzig University Library, and fragments of 3 leaves in the Russian National Library in Saint Petersburg. The complete Codex Sinaiticus is now available online in digital form and available for scholarly study. The online version has a fully transcribed set of digital pages, including amendments to the text, and two images of each page, with both standard lighting and raked lighting to highlight the texture of the parchment. But, the untrained English reader should be cautious that some portions of the text may not be perfectly transcribed. In the event you have doubt review by H.T. Anderson's translation. If you do find an error let the staff working on translating the codex know. This is not the place to pass judgements, but perhaps I may say that, as it seems to me, both the monks and Tischendorf deserve our deepest gratitude, Tischendorf for having alerted the monks to the importance of the manuscript, and the monks for having undertaken the daunting task of searching through the vast mass of material with such spectacular results, and then doing everything in their power to safeguard the manuscript against further loss. If we accept the statement of Uspensky, that he saw the codex in 1845, the monks must have worked very hard to complete their search and bind up the results in so short a period I believe that the Holy Spirit guided me to discern this error and strengthen my spirit I know that Saint Paul's Testimony of the Trinity is true. During Mass today I had a revelation that while Angels are messengers from Our Father, the Holy Spirit comes down from Heaven to perform an action for Hashem or the Lord Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit brought life into our world. The Holy Spirit was there as a Pillar of Fire to the Jews. The Holy Spirit brought life into the Virgin Mary. The Holy Spirit came down to Jesus Christ and lifted the veil of our Lord's Destiny. The Holy Spirit entered the Apostles. The Holy Spirit guided an emperor to create a sanctuary to house testimonies of the Living Word at Mount Sinai that is held sacred by all monotheistic religions. The Holy Spirit guided monks to protect the testimony of the Living Word. The Holy Spirit guided Tischendorf to find Codex Sinaiticus. The Holy Spirit knew Tsar Nicholas would covet this Holy Relic. The Holy Spirit guided the faithful to acquire the greatest portion of the Codex Sinaiticus from an unholy Soviet Union. The Holy Spirit now has guided the British, German, Russian, and Egyptian monks to spread the good news to people of the East and West and eventually the rest of the world. I praise Our Father, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit for making it so. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the Love of God and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all Just like the Aaron and his physical descendants, Jesus and his spiritual descendants give opening and closing blessings to the faithful. Our Father's love created His Living Word and His Holy Spirit gave life and wisdom to His Living Word promised to His devoted children. Jesus Christ is the Living Word that has been revealed to the Prophets, Apostles, Saints in communion with the Holy Spirit. Concluding Rite Final Blessing (Priest) Bow your heads and pray for God's blessings. May the Lord bless you and keep you. (All) Amen. (Priest) May his face shine upon you, and be gracious to you. (All) Amen. (Priest) May he look upon you with kindness, and give you his peace. (All) Amen. (Priest) May almighty God bless you, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. (All) Amen. Dismissal (Priest) The Mass is ended, go now in peace to love and serve the Lord. (All) Thanks be to God. Luke 24 (Codex Sinaiticus) Luke 24 (King James Version) Luke 24 (Codex Vaticanus) The phrases "Carried up to Heaven" and "worshiped Him" are not included in the Codex Sinaiticus. Jesus departed and great joy filled the apostles hearts. The word "prostrated" is used instead of "worshiped" in the Codex Vaticanus. In this context the apostles kneeled or laid down in reverence to Jesus. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana p. 1304-1349 Evang. sec. Lucam http://shoebat.com/2015/01/21/just-found-oldest-copy-gospel-mark-just-discovered-ancient-egyptian-mummy/ http://www.livescience.com/49489-oldest-known-gospel-mummy-mask.html
  8. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 The Talmud states that Grace (An important, Biblical-commanded prayer) should be said after we have eaten and have been satisfied. This makes sense to me. Countless times I have thanked the person that prepared a meal for me, so giving thanks and praise to Hashem for being the true provider only makes sense. In Christian belief Jesus is one with Hashem, so giving thanks and praise to Jesus Christ would be a correct form of Grace. Jews do not believe Jesus is Hashem, giving thanks and praise to Jesus Christ for a meal is blasphemous. I would personally suggest using the term "Lord" when Christians and Jews are sharing a meal together. The Talmud also discusses the importance of purity during grace during a meal or reading the Torah. It is emphatically clear that the words of Hashem are not susceptible to those that are not ritually clean and can be recited. Hashem also has commanded Israel to share his story that was witnessed by his chosen to not forget His Grace and Mercy. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Berakoth Folio 21a Is Grace and benediction (Berachot) the same thing to a Jew as to a Christian? A benediction (Latin: bene, well + dicere, to speak) is a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually at the beginning and/or end of worship service. Judaism developed ritualized benedictions (Berachot) for use at the Temple of Jerusalem, and the home. These Berachot often took the form of a blessing upon the fulfillment of a mitzvah (divine commandment). The most important benediction was the Priestly Blessing pronounced by the Kohenim (priests descended from Aaron). Numbers 6 In Judeo-Christianity, the concept is the manifestation of Our Father rather than a remote immanence or delegation of an angel, even though a mortal would not be able to gaze directly upon him. In Jewish mysticism, it is traditionally believed that even the angels who attend Him cannot endure seeing the divine countenance directly. Where there are references to visionary encounters, these are thought to be either products of the human imagination, as in dreams or, alternatively, a sight of the divine glory which surrounds Our Father, not the godhead itself. With complete respect to my Jewish and Muslim brother, I only show this image for understanding. Creation of the Sun and Moon by Michelangelo, face detail of God. The Ancient of Days (1794) Watercolor etching by William Blake Aaron's First Offering (engraving by Gerard Jollain from the 1670 La Saincte Bible) Leviticus 9 Verse 2 Corinthians 13:13 (sometimes14 or not mentioned at all) is the most common benedictions used in Christian worship. King James 2 Corinthians 13 Catholic Mass begins with the entrance chant/song. The celebrant and other ministers enter in procession and reverence the altar with a bow and/or a kiss. The altar is a symbol of Christ at the heart of the assembly and so deserves this special reverence to honor the sacrifice Jesus made for our salvation. The entire procession is a means of focusing and calling the people to prayer. We have a sense of being gathered before the altar to begin the celebration. All make the Sign of the Cross and the celebrant extends a greeting to the gathered people in recites a benediction (blessing) to the faithful taken from Saint Paul. Holy Mass Introductory Rite Entrance Song V. In the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. R. Amen. V. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. R. And with your spirit. New Jerusalem Bible 2 Corinthians 13 Communion and fellowship appear to be synonymous with each other in this context. Holy Ghost and Holy Spirit appear to be synonymous with each other. Was 2 Corinthians 13:14 is not included in the Codex Sinaiticus, but is included in the King James. Through the centuries, many words were added or omitted from the New Testament. What is truly important is to discern change in the meaning of these passages. Codex Sinaiticus 2 Corinthians 13 The world's oldest existing manuscript of the letters of St. Paul (P.Mich.inv.6238, also known in NT scholarship as P46). Thirty leaves of this manuscript, written in about 200 C.E., were found in Egypt and purchased by the University of Michigan Papyrology Collection in 1931 and 1933 (another 56 leaves, not included in this app, are housed in the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin; 18 leaves are missing completely). I contacted Evyn Kropf, the Librarian for the University of Michigan's Near Eastern and Religious Studies; Curator, Islamic Manuscripts Collection (734) 764-1220 The Codex Sinaiticus is generally dated to the fourth century, and sometimes more precisely to the middle of that century. It is possible that it is done at the same time as the P46. This passage is dedicated to Joesph Knight. He graciously downloaded the app on his Ipad. I was able to transcribe the translation of Papyrus 46 (P46) to English by Edgar Ebojo, University of Birmingham. Papyrus 46 2 Corinthians 13 The Acacian schism between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches lasted thirty-five years, from 484–519. It resulted from a drift in the leaders of Eastern Christianity toward Monophysitism, and Emperor Zeno's unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the parties with the Henotikon. Monophysitism was born in the theological "School of Alexandria", which began its Christological analysis with the (divine) eternal Son or Word of God and sought to explain how this eternal Word had become incarnate as a man—in contrast to the "School of Antioch" (birthplace of Nestorianism, the antithesis of Monophysitism), which instead began with the (human) Jesus of the Gospels and sought to explain how this man had become united with the eternal Word in the Incarnation. Both sides agreed, of course, that Christ was both human and divine, but the Alexandrians emphasized divinity (including the fact that the divine nature was itself "impassible" or immune to suffering) while the Antiochines emphasized humanity (including the limited knowledge and "growth in wisdom" of the Christ of the Gospels). Is it possible that the difference of 2 Corinthians 13 between the Codex Sinaiticus and Papyrus 46 has to do with Acacian schism?
  9. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Deuteronomy 19 Psalms 51 Great Isaiah Scroll When comparing the Great Isaiah Scroll with the Chaldee paraphrase on the prophet Isaiah we find bold-hearted is synonymous with stout-hearted; triumph is synonymous with righteousness; and deliverance is synonymous with salvation. The Chaldee paraphrase on the prophet Isaiah Chapter XLVI Great Isaiah Scroll When comparing the Great Isaiah Scroll with the Chaldee paraphrase on the prophet Isaiah we find Hashem's servant is also called the Messiah. The Great Isaiah Scroll and the Chaldee paraphrase exalt Hashem's servant. The Great Isaiah Scroll lifts up Hashem's servant will be lifted up and will be very high. The Chaldee paraphrase does not have Hashem's servant lifted up high, but extolled (praised) and very strong. The Great Isaiah Scroll has Hashem servant marred (disfigured, blemished, damaged) in his appearance. The Chaldee paraphrase has no mention of Hashem's servant being marred, but the appearance of the Israelite people being less bright and worse than other nations. The Chaldee paraphrase has the House of Israel waiting for Hashem's servant, but the Great Isaiah Scroll has no mention of Israel waiting for Hashem's servant. The Great Isaiah scroll has Hashem's servant startling many nations. The Chaldee has no mention of Hashem's servant startling many nations, instead has Hashem's servant scattering nations. The Great Isaiah scroll's has the king's shutting their mouths at Hashem's servant, which is synonymous with the Chaldee paraphrase having the kings putting their hands upon their mouths and keep silent at Hashem's servant. The Great Isaiah mentions what had not been told to the kings they will see, while the Chaldee paraphrase mentions what the kings have been told they will see. The Great Isaiah Scroll mention that what the kings heard they will understand. The Chaldee paraphrase mentions what the kings not heard they will consider. The Chaldee paraphrase on the prophet Isaiah Chapter LII If we are to consider both the Great Isaiah Scroll and Chaldee paraphrase as divinely inspired, and then combine their narrative, then we find the dark and disfigured House of Israel waiting for the appearance of their Messiah, Hashem's servant. He will be strong and yet marred startling and scattering many nations. Hashem's servant, the Messiah will lifted up and be praised. When the kings of these nations see the Messiah they will put their hands on the mouths, remain silent, and see what they have been both told and not known. These kings will hear what they have heard and not known. They will then understand and consider all that has been revealed to them. While listening to "SHEMA YISRAEL" by Micha'el Ben David, contemplate on the future prophet Hashem promised Moses, Kind David requesting Hashem's gracious mercy, and Issiah's revelation that Hashem's servant will deliver His people. WORDS from Deuteronomy 6:4 and a small excerpt from Zechariah 14:9 except for the yada dai of course! That's spiritual language ;-) YAIDA DAI YADA DAI YAIDADAI.... SHEMA YISRAEL ADONAI ELOHEINU ADONAI ECHAD [ U'SHEMO ECHAD ] V'AHAVTA ET HASHEM ELOHEICHA B'CHOL LEVAVCHA U'VCHOL NAFSHECHA U'VCHOL MEODECHA YAIDA DAI YADA DAI YAIDADAI.... HEAR O ISRAEL THE LORD OUR GOD THE LORD IS ONE [ AND HIS NAME IS ONE ] AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL OF YOUR HEART AND WITH ALL OF YOUR SOUL AND WITH ALL YOUR RESOURCES YAIDA DAI YADA DAI YAIDADAI....then Whistle part REPEAT YADA DAI HEBREW VERSE TIL FAD Grace is a free and unmerited favor of Hashem as manifested in the salvation of sinners and the bestowing of blessings. The grace of Jesus Christ was given as a face for all mankind to recognize. The mission of Jesus Christ is to be the Shepard Hashem promised that leads and delivers righteous brothers and sisters back home to the kingdom of Heaven. As Hashem's servant, Jesus has given us the ability to justify the law of Moses by his devout love and obedience to Our Father. His words and deeds were done for us to witness the truth about Hashem great love and mercy for all his children. Indeed Our heavenly Father has kept his promise. Amazing grace! How sweet the sound That saved a wretch like me! I once was lost, but now am found; Was blind, but now I see. ’Twas grace that taught my heart to fear, And grace my fears relieved; How precious did that grace appear The hour I first believed. Through many dangers, toils and snares, I have already come; ’Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far, And grace will lead me home. The Lord has promised good to me, His Word my hope secures; He will my Shield and Portion be, As long as life endures. Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail, And mortal life shall cease, I shall possess, within the veil, A life of joy and peace. The earth shall soon dissolve like snow, The sun forbear to shine; But God, who called me here below, Will be forever mine. When we’ve been there ten thousand years, Bright shining as the sun, We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise Than when we’d first begun. Many of us are lost sheep looking for our good Shepard to bring us back home. John 1 Luke 2 The grace of Hashem brings salvation of eternal life to everyone through our savior His servant and son Jesus Christ. Hashem wants us to abate our earthly desires and focus on good works and loving our neighbor. Titus 2
  10. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Matthew 5 Revelation 20 Salome receives the Head of John the Baptist 1607-10, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London The Beheading of Saint Paul Enrique Simonet, 1887 Catedral de Málaga, Spain The tradition that Saint Paul was decapitated with a sword was deduced from his status as a Roman citizen, as this was the chosen method of executing criminals of his class at the time. The Emerald Throne Scene (Rev. 4:2-11) Pat Marvenko Smith Revelation Productions Halacha - Jewish law and jurisprudence, based on the Talmud. Mishnah Torah Melachim uMilchamot - Chapter 10 I have learned that Jews believe only they are commanded to sanctify Hashem's name. But, if anyone Jew or gentile blaspheme the name of the Lord that individual is obligated to die. Now if a Jew or gentile blesses the ineffable name of Hashem, with an idol (another god, which includes Jesus Christ) then that individual is obligated to die. There is debate whether a gentile is obligated to die if a substitute of ineffable name is used (ie. Hashem, Adonai, etc...) during this blasphemy. Punishment for Jews is stoning. Punishment for gentiles is decapitation. I asked Rabbi Yosef Mizrachi about blasphemy. At this point I have received a response by an individual with an alias name. I contacted Noahide Nations on whether it is permissible for Catholics to study the Torah? Members of Noahide Nations were very kind and genuine in their response. Ironically, it reminded me of a passage I read in the Torah. Leviticus 19 Here are some excerpts from Noahide Nations members: David Barnes suggested that I watch the following youtube video of Rabbi Moishe Weiner, author of Sheva Mitzvos Hashem. It appears that it is permissible by some Sages for a non-Jew to study the Torah with humility and good intentions for gathering information to consider becoming a member of the Judaism faith and not intentionally causing a Jew to break the mitzvot (Commandments of Hashem). But, it is important to understand that the Sages appear to be in agreement that reading and following the Torah is not a command from Hashem to non-Jews. I believe that Rabbis know that the righteous are drawn to scripture for answers. Psalms Chapter 111 I am waiting for a response on whether it is not permissible for a Catholic Priest or Christian Minister to study the Torah to use in their homily or sermon? Although, Annelise of the Noahide Nations rumored speculation that there may be future rabbinic authority' for other gentiles, under the supervision of Jewish rabbis. Ecclesiastes John 5
  11. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 The Genesis Apocryphon, originally called the Apocalypse of Lamech and labeled 1QapGen, is one of the original seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in Cave 1 near Qumran in the West Bank. Composed in Aramaic, this document consists of four sheets of leather, and is the least well preserved document of the original seven. An online translation of the Genesis Apocryphon has been made available by the University of North Carolina, Charlotte Blumenthal Professor of Judaic Studies John C. Reeves. The Genesis Apocryphon describes Enoch more as a favored Prophet and grandfather to Lamech. And father to Methuselah. There is no mention of Enoch or Metatron. Translation Of 1Q Genesis Apocryphon II-XIX Painting - The sons of God saw the Daughters of Men that they were fair Maurice Greiffenhagen (born London, 15 Dec 1862, died 26 Dec 1931) Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Gent Seir or Edom representing the predecessors of Rome; Paran, those of Ishmael, Gen. XXI, 21. The Rabbis held that God had given Noah seven commandments embracing the whole of natural religion: against (i) idol worship, (ii) blasphemy, (iii) bloodshed, (iv) adultery, (v) robbery, (vi) for the establishment of courts of justice, (vii) against eating the limb torn off a living animal. These were imposed on all men, Jews and non-Jews alike. V. Sanh. 56a ff. Cf. Maimonides' Guide for Perplexed, III, 48. Watch these two videos to get a better understanding of the Noahide commandments. As a Christian, if I profess to a Jew, "Bless [name of Hashem], in the name of Jesus Christ, the son of [name of Hashem]" would that be defined as breaking the Noahide and Leviticus law of blaspheme? Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin Folio 56a While he was on earth, Jesus never cursed or criticized Our Father. Jesus also told his disciples to listen and follow the Jewish Sages since they held the judgement seat of Moses. But, Jesus did criticized and condemn Jewish Sages living during his presence on earth. Our Lord Jesus was tortured and crucified under false charges that He practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Luke 22 Jews have had to be on guard against any corruptible displays of magic and idolatry. This is why they do not like displays of the cross or pictures of Jesus. But, some of them do display amulets to ward off evil as I previously discussed. Deuteronomy 18 Deuteronomy 29 The Isaiah that Christians follow knew that the righteous Lamb of Hashem would have suffer the ignorant punishment by the children of Israel. This was the will of Hashem have His righteous Lamb willingly sacrifice himself to acquit the sins of His rebellious children. Isaiah 53 The Isaiah that Rabbi Jonathan Ben Uziel paraphrased declares the the invading nations are the Lamb, the Messiah will have slaughtered as a sin atonement for Hashem and vengeance for Israel.. Like Moses the future Messiah will remove the invading nations from ruling the children of Israel. And all the wicked shall be thrown into Hell. The Chaldee Paraphrase on The Prophet Isaiah Chapter LIII (53) So we see two different works of Issiah's prophecy. One is of peace, the other is of vengeance. The first matches with Jesus teachings about retaliation and loving your enemies.The second emphasizes a more Talmudic view. Like the prophets before him, Jesus emphasized that it better to admonish sins against us and let appointed Judges deal with a just punishment then to avenge and cause harm to the transgressor ourselves. Hashem will judge the decision of those appointed as well as the the fate of every man's heart. We must do our best to not let our emotions get the best of us and sin ourselves. There is no good in evil and it is evil that has the power to destroy us if we will it. We must not fear or want vengeance against the rebellious that want to harm us. Rather we must pray that they understand their transgressions and come to know the Lord our Savior. And we must also forgive those who transgress against us when they repent for the transgression against us. Our Lord's Holy Spirit is near when the sinner feels remorse and begins to understand what it means to fear Our Heavenly Father. Hallowed be his name. True vengeance against the wicked is His alone. The prophets before Jesus believed that is was not bad to wish misfortune or hate an enemy. Even if that enemy was a member of your family. But, the prophets before Jesus did not believe in placing a curse of death or vengeance upon an enemy. And if an enemy was in distress, Hashem commanded his children to help them. Jesus Christ expanded Hashem's command to loving and giving to your enemy and expecting nothing in return. We should not resist or exile ourselves from the evil of our enemy. We need to ask the Holy Spirit to give us strength and courage to walk and live among them, while keeping our faith like Jesus did with Satan in the desert. Our selfless deeds will be honored in heaven. I have color coded this passage; blue are the words of Jesus Christ. purple are the words of Hashem, aqua blue are the words of the Prophets and Saints, and red represents rebellion and punishment. Green are prophecy from Jewish Sages. I have inserted other passages to strengthen understanding of the words of Jesus Christ. Matthew 5 Jewish Sages interpreted not bearing vengeance and grudges against scrooges (cold-hearted stingy, insensitive, selfish, unkind misers) that will not freely lend or help you in times of need. Scrooges may also insult you. Scrooges who appose Hashem's commands will be punished. But, those scrooges that learn to love Hashem and repent for their transgressions will be given mercy.
  12. In a cashful society

    Not in my opinion. People should have the liberty to have currency and precious metals. Already we are seeing the credit card and retail companies are sharing our consumer data. Then there is the hacking and identity theft. And banks have been known to make errors. Finally, the IRS and Federal Reserve gets to know exactly where every cent is going.
  13. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 As the son of Deacon in the Catholic Church I was brought up thinking those of the Jewish faith believed in the Old Testament in the same manner as Christians. They just did not believe in Jesus or the New Testament. But, what I did not realize is that they believe in an expanded version of the Old Testament revealed in the Talmud, Targums, Midrash, etc. And they resent Christians reading the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy, Leviticus). I am still not sure if all Jews believe in the Zohar. Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel was alive approximately thirty years before the birth of Jesus Christ. He was one of the 80 tannaim (Rabbinic Sages who studied under Hillel the Elder. He is the author of Targum Jonathan and a book of kabbalah known as Megadnim. I am quite sure our Lord Jesus Christ knew well Rabbi Uzziel's work. The Talmud relates that Yonatan ben Uziel, a student of Hillel, fashioned an Aramaic translation of the Prophets (Megillah 3a). It makes no mention of any translation by him of the Torah. So all scholars agree that this Targum on Genesis is not due to Yonatan ben Uziel. Indeed, de Rossi (16th century) reports that he saw two very similar complete Targumim to the Torah, one called Targum Yonatan Ben Uziel and the other called Targum Yerushalmi. For these reasons, scholars call it "Targum Pseudo-Jonathan". The first of these manuscripts cited by de Rossi is thought to have been the basis of the first printing in Venice (1591) where the false title Targum Yonatan ben Uziel is used. The second manuscript - the only known one to still exist - is in the British Museum and was published by Ginsburger in 1903. This targum is more than a mere translation. It includes much Aggadic material collected from various sources as late as the Midrash Rabbah as well as earlier material from the Talmud. So it is a combination of a commentary and a translation. In the portions where it is pure translation, it often agrees with the Targum Onkelos. The date of its composition is disputed. The majority opinion, on the basis of much internal evidence, is that it cannot date from before the Arab conquest of the Middle East despite incorporating some older material. For example, Ishmael's wife is called by the legendary Arabic name Fatimah. Gottlieb puts the time of composition toward the end of the 8th century. On the other hand, since the Geonim are unfamiliar with it, and Rashi does not mention it, Rieder puts the composition some time after Rashi, perhaps during the period of the crusades. On any view, it cannot have been composed later than the early 14th century, as it is referred to repeatedly by Rabbi Menahem Recanati (1250-1310) in his Perush 'Al ha-Torah. Here is an example of what I term 'Replacement Theology.' We are led to believe that the idea of Enoch being Metatron came before the time of Christ. When actually it was fabricated a millennia later. For those not familiar with his work it would appear authentic and put authenticity of the New Testament in question. Metatron the Great Saphra The Targum of Pseudo-Jonahan Ben Uzziel On the Book of Genesis SECTION I. BERASHITH. The Rabba Genesis rabbinic commentary does not agree with The Targum of Pseudo-Jonahan Ben Uzziel. Rabba Genesis Midrash Rabbah Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman, B.A., PH.D And Maurice Simon M.A. There is an actual Targum of Jonahan Ben Uzziel. In fact, his work revealed that the Jews in his time clearly understood the divinity of the Messiah to come was revealed in Isaiah. The Synagogue maintains that the Prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi gave Jonathan Ben Uziel the Paraphrase written upon a roll spread over his head. Zebi Nasi Hirsch Prinz (Hebrew Tzvi Nassi) in German Heinrich Prinz, and later Rev. Christian William Henry Pauli (Breslau 11 August 1800 – Amsterdam 4 May 1877) was a convert to Christianity, missionary for the London Jewish mission, and Hebrew grammarian. He was born as the youngest of six children, and orphaned at 14. Although he is referred to as "Rabbi Tzvi Nassi" in some Messianic Jewish reprints of his proof of the Trinity from the Zohar, there is no indication that he was ever a rabbi. At the age of 21 he published in German, under the name Heinrich Prinz Sermons for pious Israelites. He was converted by L. A. Petri. In England Rev. Christian William Henry Pauli became a missionary for the London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews of Joseph Frey, first in Berlin, then at Amsterdam. In 1839 as C. W. H. Pauli he published Analecta Hebraica, a Hebrew grammar. The Targum of Palestine, Commonly Entitled The Targum of Jonahan Ben Uzziel The Chaldee Paraphrase on The Prophet Isaiah Translated by Rev. C. W. H. Pauli 1871 1 Enoch was widely known during the development of the Hebrew Bible canon, but 1 Enoch was excluded from both the formal canon of the Tanakh and the typical canon of the Septuagint and therefore, also the writings known today as the Deuterocanon. One possible reason for Jewish rejection of the book might be the textual nature of several early sections of the book that make use of material from the Torah; for example, 1 En 1 is a midrash of Deuteronomy 33.The content, particularly detailed descriptions of fallen angels, would also be a reason for rejection from the Hebrew canon at this period – as illustrated by the comments of Trypho the Jew when debating with Justin Martyr on this subject. Trypho: "The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God." (Dialogue 79) 1 Enoch also reveal that angel Gadriel (Gadreel, Gael) led Eve astray. And the angel Azazel was the one that revealed cosmetics, ornaments, colored dyes to enhance garments. The Book of Enoch translation by M. Knibb of the Ethiopian text in the S.O.A.S. Library at the University of http://www.revelation2seven.org/WebPages/SideLinks/TheDivineChariot.htm Vision” of the Biblical book of Ezekiel, chapter 1, made by Matthäus Merian (1593-1650), for his “Icones Biblicae” (a.k.a. “Iconum Biblicarum”). In 3 Enoch we read Metatron telling the story of the flood and using the narrative from Job. Ismael ben Elisha was alleged to have been been born just before the Destruction of the Second Temple (three decades after Jesus Christ Ascension to Heaven). Metatron (formerly Enoch) gives a very detailed account of all the holy beings in Heaven and Earth. Jesus Christ is not mentioned to be there. Further much of Metatron's duties are those mentioned to be Jesus Christ. 3 Enoch The Book of Enoch Rabbi Ishmael ben Elisha High Priest Adonai on His Throne of Glory The Great Isaiah Scroll Chapter 63 Let us view the differences the Great Isaiah Scroll and the Targum of Palestine. 63:8 For he said, Surely they are my people, children who will not act falsely, and so He became their savior. 63:9 In all their distress he was not distressed, but the angel of his presence that saved them; in his acts of love and in his pity he redeemed them; he carried them and lifted them up all the days of old. The Great Isaiah Scroll states because Israel was good, Hashem became the Savior and sent his angel of His presence to save them. 8.And He said, Surely, they are my people, children that will not lie: and His Word became their salvation. 9. Whenever they sinned against Him, that He might have brought them distress, He did not distress them; but an angel was sent from Him, who in His mercy redeemed them; and in His compassion, behold, He delivered them; and He bare them, and carried them all the days of old. The Targum of Palestine states because Israel spoke the the truth Hashem's holy name became their salvation and he sent down his angel to redeem them. 64:5 You meet those who gladly do right, those who remember you in your ways. See, you were angry, and we sinned against them for a long time, but we will be saved. The Great Isaiah Scroll shows confidence that the Jews will be saved in the future. 64:4 The works of our righteous fathers were acceptable in Thy sight, who rejoiced to do Thy will in truth and in righteousness: in the way of Thy goodness and mercy they remembered Thy fear whenever Thy wrath from Thy presence was upon us, because we had sinned: on account of the works of our righteous fathers, we have been saved. The Targum of Palestine states the Jews are already have been saved. Now let's review an authentic Targum of Rabbi Jonahan Ben Uzziel. The Chaldee Paraphrase on The Prophet Isaiah Translated by Rev. C. W. H. Pauli 1871 I find it interesting that the debate of whether Jews will be saved vs. Jews are already saved based on the works of their righteous ancestors is the same as whether Christians will be saved vs. Christians are already saved based on the works of Jesus Christ. Does Faith in Hashem's word alone save us? Or does Faith and good works save us? Metatron, the angel, the Prince of Presence depicted as a boy. 3 Enoch Exodus reveals that Faith in Hashem's word alone would not save the Israelites for harm. The Israelites had to follow all Hashem's commands and statutes to gain his protection. The above statement in 3 Enoch reveals that if Israel follows Metatron as Hashem's messenger, then Hashem will fight their battles and protect them from diseases. The Israelite nation will physically remain pure, if their minds and hearts stay pure. The question here is whether Metatron was Hashem's messenger. Metatron on His Throne of Glory. Apostasy? You decide. MERKABAH one of the eight great angelic princes of the throne of judgement who ranks higher than Metatron? Apostasy? You decide. As a Catholic I was taught that it was Jesus Christ the son of man, that was the unique one in Heaven that was glorified by Hashem and rules over all angels and children in heaven. It is Jesus words and deeds that brought salvation to all mankind. It is Jesus Christ that is the Son of Hashem. Jesus on His Throne of Glory The Apostles Paul and Silas revealed salvation comes by believing in the Lord Jesus Christ and learning his holy words. Acts states believing in Jesus is tied to believing in G-d. Acts 16 Did faith save the jailer from harm or save his soul from damnation? Or both. Every generation until the coming of our Lord must forgive the Jews of the past for crucifying Jesus. We must remember Jesus was a Jew himself. And Jesus mission was focused on teaching Apostles the Word of Hashem. The Apostles were Jews. And their mission spread the word of Jesus what one must do to received by Hashem to other Jews like themselves and the gentiles of the world. If one fears Hashem and does what is right is welcomed by receiving Hashem's Holy Spirit and made ritually clean. This is baptism. It is right to give Jesus, Hashem's sacrificial lamb thanks and praise. It is right to believe that Hashem gives him the power to judge the living and the dead. It is right to believe that Jesus is our eternal priest to Our Father Hashem who has been given the power to forgive our sins. It is right to Fear Hashem the Creator and Destroyer over all. I believe that Jews and Christians know that Jesus is not Enoch. I believe that Jews and Christians know that Jesus is not Metatron. I believe that Jews and Christians know that Jesus did not teach about or mention Metatron. I believe that Christians know that Moses and the Prophets did not mention Metatron. I believe that Christians know that the bible does not mention Metatron. The Talmud mentions Metatron, but the Hebrew bible does not. Commonalities Jesus Christ and Metatron are considered the living word of Hashem. Jesus Christ and Metatron are glorified by God. Preference Jews believe that they are preferred by Hashem, because He made an exclusive covenant with the Israel. A Jewish baby has the potential to be resurrected if they fear Hashem and follow his words given to Moses. Christians believe that they are preferred by Our Father, because Jesus made a covenant with all mankind. A Christian baby has the potential to be resurrected if they fear Hashem and follow his words given to Jesus. Difference Metatron is an Ambassador to Hashem and uses Hashem's holy name when speaking to mortals. Jesus is Priest, Prophet, and King and uses his earthly name when speaking to mortals. Jesus Christ is not an Angel. Enoch became the angel Metatron Metatron is considered by Jews to be an angel. Metatron is not considered by Jews and Christians to be the Holy Spirit. Take a break and listen to "Jesus, King of Angels" by Fernando Ortega. I find it soothing when I have trouble falling asleep. Do all Jews believe Enoch is Metatron? I do not know at this point.
  14. Mystic I am

    Do you believe in the Creator?
  15. 2pac's murder mystery

    What is the motive?
  16. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 The Doctrine of Addai is a Syriac Christian text, perhaps written about 400 AD, which recites the Legend of the Image of Edessa as well as the legendary works of Addai and his disciple Mari in Mesopotamia. In the origin of the legend, Eusebius had been shown documents purporting to contain the official correspondence that passed between Abgar and Jesus, and he was well enough convinced by their authenticity to quote them extensively in his ecclesiastical history. THE DOCTRINE OF ADDAI THE APOSTLE 1876 English Translation The first version of the letter is found in Eusebius of Cæsarea or Eusebius Pamphili. (260 - 340 A.D) History of the Church (1.13.5-1.13.22). The former designation arose from the fact that he was bishop of the church in Cæsarea for many years; the latter from the fact that he was the intimate friend and devoted admirer of Pamphilus, a presbyter of Cæsarea and a martyr. The bishop was also given the title Eusebius the Palestinian by Marcellus Basil. Eusebius was acquainted with Syriac as well as with Greek, which circumstance taken in connection with his ignorance of Latin points to the region of Syria as his birthplace. Moreover, we learn from his own testimony that he was in Cæsarea while still a youth. Caesarea (Hebrew: קֵיסָרְיָה; Arabic: قيسارية‎, Kaysaria; Greek: Καισάρεια) is a town in Israel located mid-way between Tel Aviv and Haifa (45 km), on the Israeli coastal plain near the city of Hadera. Modern Caesarea as of December 2007 has a population of 4,500 people. The town was built by Herod the Great about 25–13 BCE as the port city Caesarea Maritima. It served as an administrative center of Judaea Province of the Roman Empire, and later the capital of the Byzantine Palaestina Prima province during the classic period. Caesarea is believed to have been built on the ruins of Stratonospyrgos (Straton's Tower), founded by Straton I of Sidon, and was likely an agricultural storehouse in its earliest configuration. In 90 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus captured Straton's Tower as part of his policy of developing the shipbuilding industry and enlarging the Hasmonean kingdom. Straton's Tower remained a Jewish city for two generations, until the area became dominated by the Roman in 63 BCE, when the Romans declared it an autonomous city. The pagan city underwent vast changes under Herod the Great, who renamed it Caesarea in honor of the Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus. Jesus ministry while on earth was for the Jews and did not include the pagan city. But, the formerly pagan town of Caesarea was truly made famous for being the location of the first baptism of an uncircumcised Gentile by the Apostle Peter. Acts 10 It is also worth noting like the Talmud, Peter states that Jesus was hung from a tree. “hang on a tree” is by the time of the 1st century became an idiom for crucifixion. Deuteronomy 21 Some Jewish rabbis have come to reason the conversion Cornelius the centurion to be the in line with the commands Hashem gave to Noah and his offspring. Peter’s explanation was satisfactory to his critical Jewish brethren who too had been saved by Christ, but strictly followed Jewish cannon. They agreed that Hashem was saving Gentiles simply by faith in Jesus Christ just as He was saving Jews and that they should no longer regard Gentiles as “unclean.” They recognized and yielded to God’s initiative in this event. The Talmud gives Christians a glimpse to this line of thinking. It is similar to the New Testament in the aspect that the sages gather and interpret quotes from the Old Testament to create new prophecy. Documents like the Zohar, Enoch, further this line of thinking. The Talmud prophesy is that when the Messiah will come; Rome then Persia will be judged first. 3 Enoch states that both are being controlled by two fallen angels; SAMMAEL, the Prince of Rome, and DUBBIEL, the Prince of Persia. The Talmud further states that all non-Jews will complain to Hashem that they are not being rewarded as the Jews. Being that the Hashem does not deal imperiously with His creatures, the Talmud states He will give them one mitzvah to see if they will fulfil it properly. When they fail the test, G-d will “laugh” for the vindication of the Jewish people and the expression of evidence that the reward for the Jewish people is justified. I have color coded this Talmud passage: purple to represent the voice of Hashem (G-d), red to represent Hashem's punishment, reddish-brown to represent the Jewish rabbinical thought, aqua-blue to represent the voice of the prophets, and green to represent Jewish prophecy. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah 2b According to Rabbi Chaim Clorfene "Asmachta means proof or support. When a Torah scholar offers an innovative idea, he looks for a support teaching from one of the prophets or sages. That support teaching is an asmachta. It does not give conclusive proof, but strengthens the validity of the innovative idea." This is what I have been doing with Didache. Listen to Händel´s Messiah - "Why Do The Nations / Let Us Break Their Bonds Asunder" while reading the next tractate. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah Folio 3a ‘ In this tract we read that during the time of the Messiah, many people will want to become Jews or Noahides, but they will not be accepted. We also learn from the Talmud, Zohar and 3 Enoch that a great angel Metatron (formally Enoch) unknown to Christians has been teaching the Jewish sages the wisdom of the Torah since the time of Moses. Abodah Zarah 3b Prince Michael the Archangel - Protector of Israel Prince Metatron the Archangel - Witness and Wisdom Timothy 4 Is the belief of Metatron idolatry and the Noahide Laws apostasy? Neither is mentioned in the bible by name.
  17. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Jesus came to illustrate to the entire nation of Israel, Hashem's firstborn, what an obedient son is supposed to look like. Exodus 4 Hebrews 4 Jesus acknowledged that the Biblical authority rests in the hands of the Rabbinic Sages. But, what the Pharisees and Scribes did not understand or acknowledge that Jesus was one true Rabbi Sage (teacher) who was a living example of what he preached. Matthew 23 Jesus prophesied that religious leaders of his time would be considered the worst generation. Jesus Christ's prediction is 2000 years old and they are still believed to be the worst today. Jesus fully understood that a Levitical priest would judge his actions. Deuteronomy 17 One reason why the Jewish leaders rejected Jesus is that they publicly considered Our Lord's miracles to be a sign of a false prophet encouraging rebellion against the Torah. It is written that those who knew him believed different. In fact, Jesus was encouraging his disciples to not deviate from all of Hashem's commands by living a sinless righteous life. Deuteronomy 13 In the Gospel of John the Jewish Sanhedrin revealed their reasons for killing Jesus. He was a threat to their leadership. Caiaphas viewed Jesus as the perfect scapegoat whose sacrifice would guarantee the life of Israel’s leaders. Christians view Jesus as the sacrificial lamb of Hashem who would die to guarantee the life of believers. Ironically Jesus’ death would condemn these unbelieving leaders, not save them. Moreover it did not save them from losing their power to the Romans who dismantled the Sanhedrin when they destroyed the city in the war of A.D. 66-70. John 11 Jesus never spoke in secret. He taught in public places to anyone that would listen the true teachings of the Torah and how the Jewish leadership were not following the commands of Hashem in their personal actions. Jewish leadership responded by branding Jesus like Satan, teaching rebellion against the Creator. John 18 Devout Jews that do not follow the curse of Moses know that they will be severely punished. The Talmud mentions that on the eve of the Passover Yeshu Nasarean was hanged, because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. The Talmud reveals Theocracy in action. Some Christian theologians believe that that Folio 43a refers to Jesus Christ and His disciples: Matthai (Matthew), Nakai (Nicodemus), Nezer (general term for Nazarene), Buni (Naqdimon ben Gurion, a rich individual of Jerusalem, whose nickname was Buni) and Todah (Thaddeus) are tried in court. They cite passages from Hebrew Bible to defend their actions. The Court responds with passages from the Hebrew Bible as well and finds each one guilty and sentenced to death. Some scholars view the depictions of Jesus in the Talmud as a manifestation of Jewish inter-sect rivalries (Pharisees, Sadducees, Essene, Nazarene, etc..) – thus the depictions can be read as polemics by the rabbinic authors of the Talmud which indirectly criticized the rival sect (Christianity), which was growing and becoming more dominant. Some Jewish theologians believe Yeshu in this passage refers to Ben Strada mentioned by Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, the teacher of Akiba, and the founder of the Lud school. Eliezer ben Hurcanus or Eliezer ben Hyrcanus was one of the most prominent Tannaim (Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah) of the 1st and 2nd centuries. Peter Schäfer concluded that the references were not from the early tannaitic period (1st and 2nd centuries) but rather from the 3rd and 4th centuries, during the amoraic period. He asserts that the references in the Babylonian Talmud were "polemical counter-narratives that parody the New Testament stories, most notably the story of Jesus' birth and death" and that the rabbinical authors were familiar with the Gospels (particularly the Gospel of John) in their form as the Diatessaron and the Peshitta, the New Testament of the Syrian Church. Schäfer argues that the message conveyed in the Talmud was a "bold and self-confident" assertion of correctness of Judaism, maintaining that "there is no reason to feel ashamed because we rightfully executed a blasphemer and idolater The debate will go on until the end of time, which both faiths believe. Nevertheless, there can be no argument that this a logical deduction of how the court reasoned to execute Jesus Christ. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin Folio 43a The Talmud confirms Jesus prophesy that religious leaders of his time would be considered by Hashem to be the worst generation. For forty years before the destruction of the Temple the thread of scarlet tied on the temple doors never turned white to confirm atonement for the people of Israel. Talmud - Mas. Rosh HaShana 31b
  18. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 http://www.biblesearchers.com/yahshua/beithillel/SederOlamRabbahVezuta.shtml One could reasonably consider the candidates for the Essene prophecy to be King Alexander as the Wicked Priest, Simeon ben Shetach the Righteous Teacher, and Eleazar b. Po'irah the Man of the Lie.The seduction of position and power corrupted quite a few priest, sages, and kings. Alvar Ellegård follows argues that the Teacher of Righteousness was not only the leader of the Essenes at Qumran, but was also identical to the original Jesus about 150 years before the time of the Gospels. H. Stegemann suggests that the reason that nothing is said in 1 Maccabees about a High Priest between Alcimus and Jonathan was apologetic:to conceal the fact that the Hasmoneans obtained the High Priesthood by usurping it from its rightful holder, the Teacher of Righteousness. My heart tells me it was Caiaphas as the wicked priest, Jesus as the Righteous Teacher, and Judas Iscariot as the Man of the Lie. The Pesher Habakkuk mentions the House of Absalom, which is accused of standing idle while the Man of the Lie worked against the Teacher. King David's rebellious third son Absalom who failed in his attempt to take his father's throne. The name Absalom was considered synonymous of a traitor. From what I have researched not too much is said about Abasalom's descendants. He did have three boys and a daughter. But, what is known is that none of David's descendants did not regain the throne until the birth of Jesus. And many Jews did accept him as the Messiah. The temple establishment did not. As an aside, I find it quite interesting that there is good amount archeological and historical evidence during the Maccabean dynasty to the time of Jesus Christ. But, little biblical reference to the period when Israel's name is changed to Judea by the Romans. That is why the Dead Sea Scrolls are so interesting. Teacher of Righteousness is as mysterious to me as the priesthood of Melchizedek. My heart tells me Jesus fills both roles. Watch this short and powerful video from Jerusalem, for illuminating insights and fascinating perspectives into how the holiday of Hanukkah is relevant today. Hanukkah - In Those Days, at This Time Now you know what the miracle of Hanukkah really about? One days' worth of olive oil lasting for 8 days, was indeed, miraculous.... but there is so much more to this holiday than meets the eye. Hanukkah is the miraculous story of the Jewish People, and as you will see -the story never ended. It lives today in our times, through the miracle of the State of Israel, and the modern day Maccabees who answer to the call"Mi LeHashem Elai" - "Who is with Hashem is with me!" Website: https://TheLandofIsrael.com National Hanukkah Menorah, Washington DC Many Christians do not realize Jesus observed Hanukkah. He was in His Father's Temple during this special religious holiday. It was during Hanukkah that Jesus was confronted by Jewish leaders and proclaimed that he was the Son of Hashem. I pray this post helps all Christians understand the transition between the old an new testament. And I think it is appropriate to celebrate the wonderful holiday as well John 10 Jesus loving obedient relationship with Hashem is unlike any man in history. Jesus rebuked those that did not practice or fully understand the commands of what they preached. Jesus understood the the lyrics of Asaph stressed the differences between the moral and physical judgments of man and Hashem. Psalm 82 reveals the strong bonds between moral and physical order of Hashem's creation. Hashem rebuked Israel's leaders for not protecting the poor with respect. Jesus rebuked Israel's leaders for not following his deeds on protecting the poor with respect. He knew that their self righteous hearts were set on listening to Hashem's word made flesh. It is truth that sheep are able to discern the voice of their Shepard. Are you able to discern the words of Jesus Christ? http://wordmadeflesh.org Psalms 82 Hashem appointed Israel's judges to discern whether or not Israelites were following his commands. Kings, Presidents, and Judges may be considered as gods to some people, but in reality Hashem is Lord over all. Deuteronomy 16 Deuteronomy 17 Just has Hashem vetted his son to be man's judge, Jesus vetted his apostles to judge the 12 tribes of Israel in the day of reckoning. Matthew 19 Protestant leaders decided not to include the seven Greek books of Maccabees in the Old Testament (because they weren’t written in Hebrew like the rest of the Old Testament) while Orthodox and Catholic leaders decided to retain them since they were important to our Jewish ancestors. Augustine wrote in The City of God that Maccabees were preserved for their accounts of the martyrs. It is interesting to note that the Jewish faith accept the first book of Maccabees (above) as historically accurate. The first book is dated to be between 135 B.C. and 63 B.C. A median time would be 99 BC. http://www.biblesearchers.com/hebrewchurch/primitive/losttribesisrael7.shtml The Hasideans (Hasidæans or Assideans, Greek asidaioi; plural plural Ḥasidim, or Chasidim ) were a Jewish religious party which commenced to play an important role in political life only during the time of the Maccabean wars, although it had existed for quite some time previous. When the Hasideans were freed from Babylonian captivity returned to their homeland they differed in customs with their Zadikim cousins in the south who were not forced to leave. The Hasidean Jews followed the traditions of their elders, while the Zadikim Jews strictly followed the laws of Moses. It is believed that the Hasideans later evolved into the Pharisees and the Zadikim Jews evolved into the Sadducees. The Hasideans supported the Asmonean Jewish priestly family in Judea in the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C. that included the Maccabees.They trusted the wicked Alcimus, since he was priest of Aaron's line. Alcimus broke his promise and slayed them. This was the beginning of Jewish distrust of high priests. Let start with Mattathias ben Johanan was from a rural priestly family from Modi'in. Like all fit priests, he served in the Temple in Jerusalem. He was a son of Yohannan, grandson of Simeon, the Hasmonean, and great-grandson of Asmon or Hasmonaeus, a Levite of the lineage of Joarib for being the 5th grandson of Idaiah, son of Joarib and grandson of Jachin, in turn a descendant of Phinehas, 3rd High Priest of Israel, according to Mattathias' own words in 1 Maccabees. After Mattahias death two factions sprang out. The next candidate would Menahem the Essene. Mattathias and the Apostate engraving Doré's English Bible Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré Note: The Faravahar symbols of Zoroastrianism inscribed on the Modin (12 miles northwest of Jerusalem) temple wall. http://www.wikiart.org/en/gustave-dore The rise of the Pharisees was a reaction and protest against Hyrcanus ascension After defeating the Seleucid forces, Matthias grandson, John Hyrcanus established a new monarchy in the form of the priestly Hasmonean dynasty in 152 BCE — thus establishing priests as political as well as religious authorities. Although the Hasmonean decendants of Matthias were heroes for resisting the Seleucids, their reign lacked the legitimacy conferred by descent from the Davidic dynasty of the First Temple era. In addition, Eleazar's accusation that John Hyrcanus may not even be of Matthias blood diminished trust in a legitimate high priest even further. When Rome took over Israel they appointed High Priest that supported the Republic. From a political standpoint the conflict between the Pharisees and the Sadducees reminds me of the Liberal vs. Conservative divide that still exists today in the United States. Liberals are more like the Pharisees when viewing the law. Both Liberals and Pharisees interpretation of the law are according to the age people are living. Conservatives are more like the Sadducees. The Libertarians would be the Essenes. The Progressives would be the Zealots. You can see this same battle constantly played throughout history. Change can be costly to humanity. The Sadducees supported John Hyrcanus, Aristobulus II, Alexander Maccabeus, and Mattathias Antigonus II. The ending of the Hasmonean reduced the Sadducee nobility power and paved the way for the rise of the Pharisees as both political party and later as a key religious force, leading ultimately to the rabbinical tradition in Judaism. The Pharisees began to to teach against only following the Septuagint (Hebrew Bible) written for Ptolemy II Philadelphus The Pharisees believed that the Rabbis were free to interpret it as culture changes from the time of Moses and revealed the concept of resurrection. Therefore, the written Torah should be supplemented with an oral tradition of the Torah. The Sadducees held a similar view of Protestants today that salvation is found from the Bible alone, not through the tradition of men. Antigonus of Sokho (Hebrew: אנטיגנוס איש סוכו‎) was the Jewish first scholar the first half of the third century BCE. According to the Mishnah, he was the disciple and successor of Simon the Just (Hebrew: שמעון הצדיק‎). Traditional Jewish sources from the Chazalic period connect Antigonus with the origin of the Sadducees and Boethusians. Antigonus is the first noted Jew to have a Greek name, a fact commonly discussed by scholars regarding the extent of Hellenic influence on Judaism following the conquest of Judaea by Alexander the Great. His sole surviving quotation ran: "Be not like servants who serve their master for the sake of reward; rather, be like servants who do not serve their master for the sake of reward, and let the awe of Heaven be upon you" (Artscroll translation) It sums up the Pharisaic doctrine that good should be done for its own sake, and evil be avoided, without regard to consequences, whether advantageous or detrimental. The conception dominant in the Hebrew Bible, that God's will must be done to obtain His favor in the shape of physical prosperity, was rejected by Antigonus' disciple (see below), as well as the view, specifically called "Pharisaic," which makes reward in the afterlife the motive for human virtue. Without denying reward in the afterlife, Antigonus points out that men's actions should not be influenced by the lowly sentiment of fear of mortals, but that there is a divine judgment of which men must stand in awe. The expression "Heaven" for "God" is the oldest evidence in postexilic Judaism of the existence of the idea of a transcendental Deity. Antigonus taught Boethus and Tzadok (Zadok). Tzadok was most likely founder of the Sadducees. Tzadok misconstrued Antigonus teachings (the above motto) to mean that there is no afterlife. Tzadok should not be confused with the priest during the time of King David. Boethus formed the Boethusians. Historical in this story is the statement that these two sects denied the immortality of the soul and resurrection. Again, the Midrash is on the whole correct in saying that the sects found their followers chiefly among the wealthy; but the origin of the sects is legendary. The Mishnah, as well as the Baraita, mentions the Boethusians as opposing the Pharisees in saying that the sheaf due at the Passover (compare Omer) must be offered not on the second feast-day, but on the day after the actual Shabbat of the festival week, and, accordingly, that Pentecost, which comes seven weeks and one day later, should always be celebrated on Sunday. In another passage it is narrated that the Boethusians hired false witnesses in order to lead the Pharisees astray in their calculations of the new moon. Another point of dispute between the Boethusians and the Pharisees was whether the high priest should prepare the incense inside or outside the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement It is important to fast forward in time to when Rabbi Jesus enlightened the Sadducees that the answer to whether there is resurrection after death was indeed revealed in the Torah. Jesus then expounded what the Pharisees professed and added that those of us chosen to eternal life are equal to angels and sons of Hashem. Saint Luke the physician, painter, and writer revealed intimate details of Jesus Christ's interaction with the Jewish religious parties and priesthood that he learned from the Apostle Saint Paul, Mary the mother of Jesus, and other Disciples. His skills as a healer and his devotion to our Lord gained him great trust with the leaders of the new church. Some theologians consider Saint Luke once to be a Jewish Pharisee himself. But, through the power of the Holy Spirit, Luke's writing revealed far more than what the Pharisees or any mortal man could have imagined. Luke 20 The Sadducees had misinterpreted what Moses had stated about God’s relationship to the patriarchs. Jesus pointed out when Moses spoke of Hashem being the Lord of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, all of whom had died in the present tense. He inferred from this that God could only be their God then if they would rise from the dead eventually. God will raise all people eventually. All live to Him in that sense. Therefore “to Him all are alive”. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob will experience resurrection at the Second Coming and will live in the kingdom as “sons of the resurrection” Exodus 3 Jesus Christ quoted from the prophets Daniel and Jeremiah, which confirms that Hashem was indeed communicating with the Jews he was punishing at the time for not following his commands. The Hasideans eventually came to realize their transgression and Hashem forgave and brought them back to their homeland. In turn they taught the wisdom they had gained to the Zakikim, who did not know the Hasidean prophets and elders. This caused much friction between the Northern and the Southern Jews. A third faction, the Essenes, emerged out of disgust with the other two. This sect believed the others had corrupted the city and the Temple. They moved out of Jerusalem and lived a monastic life in the desert, adopting strict dietary laws and a commitment to celibacy. Jesus preached the positives and negatives of both liberal and conservative sides of Judiasm. In turn, both sides rebuked him. This leads me to believe that Jesus definitely would be closer to Essene tradition. Now with a better understanding between the two parties once again let us go back in time to the year 67 BC. Queen Salome Alexandra was terminally ill and one of her last royal commands before her death was to name her son Hyrcanus II as High Priest of the kingdom. Hyrcanus and his Pharisee party had scarcely reigned three months when his younger brother Aristobulus II, with the support of the Sadducee party rose against him in rebellion. Aristobulus II followed his father's belief in the Sadducean party. A civil war proceeded between the two brothers for the crown of Zion. Ancient coin minted in Jerusalem dedicated to John Hyrcanus II. Note: No coins appeared to be minted during Aristobulus II brief reign. At the battle near Jericho many of Hyrcanus' soldiers defected and handed Aristobulus II victory. Hyrcanus took refuge in the citadel of Jerusalem; but the capture of the Temple by Aristobulus compelled Hyrcanus to surrender. A peace was then concluded, according to the terms of which Hyrcanus was to renounce the throne and the office of high priest, but was to enjoy the revenues of the latter office. This agreement however did not last, as Antipater convinced Hyrcanus that Aristobulus was planning his death and to take refuge with Aretas III, King of the Nabataeans. Aretas III was king of the Nabataean kingdom from 87 to 62 BCE. Aretas ascended to the throne upon the death of his brother, Obodas I, in 87 BCE. During his reign, he extended his kingdom to cover what now forms the northern area of Jordan, the south of Syria, and part of Saudi Arabia. Probably the greatest of Aretas' conquests was that of Damascus, which secured his country's place as a serious political power of its time. Aretas, who agreed to support Hyrcanus after receiving the promise of having the Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans returned to Nabataea by Hyrcanus' chief advisor, Antipater the Idumaean. The Nabataeans advanced toward Jerusalem with an army of 50,000 and besieged the city for several months. Events in Judea prompted Aemilius Scaurus, Pompey's legate in Damascus, to arrive in Jerusalem.Scaurus was approached by both parties, but the issue was settled by a bribe of 400 talents from Aristobulus, and Scaurus ordered Arestas to lift his siege of the city. As the Nabataean army withdrew towards Philadelphia, Aristobulus set off in pursuit and defeated the Nabataeans at Papyron. When Pompey himself arrived in Damascus in 63 BC, both Hyrcanus and Aristobulus visited him there. Pompey put off resolving the issue, informing the opposing parties he would resolve it once he arrived in Judea in person. Aristobulus did not wait for Pompey's decision and left Damascus to assemble his armies. He was defeated numerous times and captured at his fortress of Alexandrium. When Aulus Gabinius led a force to take Jerusalem, however, Aristobulus' supporters refused to let the Roman troops in. Incensed, Pompey had Aristobulus arrested and prepared to besiege the city. Hyrcanus II supporters opened a gate in the northwestern part of the city wall, and let the Romans in. This allowed Pompey to take hold of Jerusalem's upper city, including the Royal Palace, while Aristobulus' party held the eastern portions of the city—the Temple Mount and the City of David. Pompey offered Aristobulus forces the chance to surrender, but when they refused, he began prosecuting the siege with vigour. After three months, Pompey's troops finally managed to overthrow one of the Baris' towers and were able to enter the Temple precinct and soon overcame the defending slaughtered 12,000 Jews. Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem ended Jewish independence and the incorporation of Judea into the Roman Republic as a client kingdom. Pompey reinstated Hyrcanus II as the High Priest but stripped him of his royal title, though Rome recognize him as an ethnarch. Political authority rested with the Romans, and their interests were represented by Antipater, whose second son would be Herod the Great. Judea remained autonomous but obliged to pay tribute and dependent on the Roman administration in Syria. The kingdom was dismembered; it was forced to relinquish the coastal plain, depriving it of access to the Mediterranean, as well as parts of Idumea and Samaria. Several Hellenistic cities were granted autonomy to form the Decapolis, leaving the state greatly diminished. Alexander Maccabeus, son of Aristobulus II, was taken prisoner, with his father and his brother Antigonus, by the Roman general Pompey, on the capture of Jerusalem in 63 BC, but escaped his captors as they were being conveyed to Rome. He took up arms with the object of depriving his uncle Hyrcanus II of the high-priesthood. In 57 BC, Alexander Maccabeus appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 10,000 infantry and 1500 cavalry, and fortified Alexandrium and other strong posts. Alexander's uncle Hyrcanus (with whom Alexander's father Aristobulus had clashed) applied for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army against Alexander, and sent Mark Antony with a body of troops in advance. In a battle fought near Jerusalem, Alexander was soundly defeated, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexandrium. Through the mediation of his mother he was permitted to depart, on condition of surrendering all the fortresses still in his power. In the following year, during the expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, Alexander again incited the Jews to revolt, and collected an army. He massacred all the Romans who fell in his way, and besieged the rest, who had taken refuge on Mount Gerizim. After rejecting the terms of peace which were offered to him by Gabinius, he was defeated near Mount Tabor with the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his adherents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in 53 BC, on the death of Marcus Licinius Crassus, he again collected some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by Cassius in 52 BC. In 49 BC, on the breaking out of the civil war, Julius Caesar set Alexander's father Aristobulus II free, and sent him to Judaea to further his interests there. He was poisoned on the journey, and Alexander, who was preparing to support him, was seized at the command of Pompey, and beheaded at Antioch. After the death of his older brother Alexander, Mattathias Antigonus II claimed that his uncle Hyrcanus was a puppet in the hands of the Idumean Antipater and attempted to overthrow him with the help and consent of the Romans. He visited Julius Cæsar, who was in Syria in 47, and complained of the usurpation of Antipater and Hyrcanus. The excessive taxation wrung from the people to pay for the extravagances of Antony and Cleopatra had awakened a deep hatred against Rome. Mattathias Antigonus II gained the adherence of both the aristocratic class in Jerusalem and the leaders of the Pharisees. The Parthians, who invaded Syria in 40 BCE, preferred to see an anti-Roman ruler on the throne of Judea. When Antigonus promised them large sums of gold and five hundred female slaves besides, they put a troop of five hundred warriors at his disposal. Hyrcanus was sent to Babylon after suffering the mutilation of his ears, which rendered him unfit for the office of high priest. Herod fled from Jerusalem. In 40 BCE Antigonus was officially proclaimed king and high priest by the Parthians. His three year reign was a continuous struggle. Herod succeeded in having himself declared king of Judea by Rome. On Herod's return from Rome in 39 BCE he opened a campaign against Antigonus and laid siege to Jerusalem. In the spring of 38 BCE, Herod wrested control of the province of Galilee and eventually all of Judea as far as Jerusalem. Due to the approach of winter, Herod postponed his siege of Jerusalem, where Antigonus and the remnants of his army took refuge, until spring. Herod was held off for 3–5 months but the Romans did eventually capture the city; however, the supporters of Antigonus fought until the Romans reached the inner courtyard of the Temple. Mattathias Antigonus II was taken to Antioch and executed, ending Hasmonean rule. Aristobulus III (53 BC – 36 BC) was the last scion of the Hasmonean royal house, brother of Herod the Great's wife Mariamne, and paternal grandson of Aristobulus II. He was a favorite of the people on account of his noble descent and handsome presence, and thus became an object of fear to Herod, who at first sought to ignore him entirely by debarring him from the high priesthood. But his mother Alexandra Maccabeus (63 BC – 28 BC), through intercession with Cleopatra and Mark Antony, compelled Herod to remove Hananel from the office of High Priest and appoint Aristobulus instead. To secure himself against danger from Aristobulus, Herod instituted a system of espionage against him and his mother. This surveillance proved so onerous that they sought to gain their freedom by taking refuge with Cleopatra. As told by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus, their plans were betrayed and the disclosure had the effect of greatly increasing Herod's suspicions against his brother-in-law. As Herod dared not resort to open violence, he caused him to be drowned while he was bathing in a pool in Jericho during a banquet organized by Aristobulus' mother. The vacuum left by the demise of the independent Hasmonean kings and distrust of high priests gave rise to increasing hopes of messianic prophecy against Roman oppression and judicial power of the Sanhedrin theocratic politic. 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia GERUSIA (γερονσία) The members of the Great Assembly are designated in the Jewish Mishnah (Ab. i. 1) as those who occupied a place in the chain of tradition between the Prophets and the earliest scholars known by name. The Prophets transmitted the Torah to the men of the Great Synagogue. . . . Simon the Just was one of those who survived the Great Synagogue, and Antigonus of Soko received the Torah from him. (Ab. i. 1 et seq.). The first part of this statement is paraphrased as follows in Ab. R. N. i.; Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi received from the Prophets; and the men of the Great Synagogue received from Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. In this paraphrase the three post-exilic prophets are separated from the other prophets, for it was the task of the former to transmit the Law to the members of the Great Synagogue. It must even be assumed that these three prophets were themselves included in those members, for it is evident from the statements referring to the institution of the prayers and benedictions that the Great Synagogue included prophets. According to R. Johanan, who wrote in the third century, The men of the Great Synagogue instituted for Israel the benedictions and the prayers, as well as the benedictions for Kiddush and habdalah (Ber. 33a). This agrees with the sentence of R. Jeremiah (fourth century), who states (Yer. Ber. 4d), in reference to the "Shemoneh 'Esreh," that one hundred and twenty elders, including about eighty prophets, have instituted these prayers. These one hundred and twenty elders are undoubtedly identical with the men of the Great Synagogue. The number given of the prophets must, however, be corrected according to Meg. 17b, where the source of R. Jeremiah's statement is found: R. Johanan said that, according to some, a baraita taught that one hundred and twenty elders, including some prophets, instituted the 'Shemoneh 'Esreh.' Hence the prophets were in a minority in the Great Synagogue. Another statement regarding the activity of this institution alludes to the establishment of the Feast of Purim according to Esth. ix. 27 et seq., while the Babylonian Talmud (Meg. 2a) states, as a matter requiring no discussion, that the celebration of the Feast of Purim on the days mentioned in Meg. i. 1 was instituted by the men of the Great Synagogue. But in the Jerusalem Talmud, R. Johanan (Meg. 70d; Ruth R. ii. 4) speaks of eighty-five elders, among them about thirty prophets. Number These divergent statements may easily be reconciled (see Krochmal, "Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman," p. 97) by reading, in the one passage, "beside them" instead of "among them" ; and in the other passage, "thirty" instead of "eighty." The number eighty-five is taken from Neh. x. 2-29; but the origin of the entire number (120) is not known. It was undoubtedly assumed that the company of those mentioned in Neh. x. was increased to one hundred and twenty by the prophets who took part in the sealing of the covenant, this view, which is confirmed by Neh. vi. 7, 14, being based on the hypothesis that other prophets besides Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were then preaching in Israel. These passages indicate that this assembly was believed to be the one described in Neh. ix.-x., and other statements regarding it prove that the Amoraim accepted this identification as a matter of course. According to Abba b. Kahana, the well-known haggadist of the latter half of the third century (Shem-Tob on Ps. xxxvi., end): Two generations used the 'Shem ha-Meforesh,' the men of the Great Synagogue and the generation of the 'shemad' (the persecution of Hadrian and the Bar Kokba revolt). This reference is explained in a statement by Giddel, a pupil of Rab (Yer. Meg. iii., end; Yoma 69b): The word in Neh. viii. 6 indicates that Ezra uttered the great Tetragram in his praise of God. We now need to better understand the Jewish politics after the Roman conquest. The people have little to no trust in the Roman puppet king or high priest. There is only the Sanhedrin, to oppose the Romanization of Jewish beliefs. During the Zugot [zuˈɡot] (Hebrew: תְּקוּפַת) הַזּוּגוֹת), (təqûphath) hazZûghôth) period of the Second Temple (515 BCE – 70 CE), in which the spiritual leadership of the Jewish people was zugot (pairs), which began with Jose and Yose then ended with Hillel and Shammai. According to an old tradition, the member of the "zugot" mentioned first occupied the office of Nasi (president) of the Sanhedrin, while the one mentioned second served in the capacity of vice-president. There were five pairs (zugot) of these Sanhedrin leaders and teachers Over the years, one member of each of the Zugot would be Nasi (President, Prince) the Sanhedrin (the Jewish council, senate) and the other Vice-President and lead the court. Jose ben Joezer, and Jose ben Johanan - who flourished at the time of the Maccabean wars of independence Joshua ben Perachyah, and Nittai of Arbela - at the time of John Hyrcanus Sh'maya, and Abtalion - at the time of Hillel, and Shammai - at the time of King Herod the Great Yehuda ben Tabai led the Jewish Nation along with Shimon ben Shetach as the third pair of Zugot. There are various opinions as to which of the two was the Nasi - Head of the Sanhedrin and which served as Av Bais Din - Vice president. Their leadership was during the reign of King Yani (Alexander Jannæus). Queen Salome Alexandra, Hyrcanus II. Yehuda ben Tabai was a student of Yehoshua ben Perachya and Nitai haArbeli. His students were Shemaya and Avtolyon. Shmaya (Hebrew: שמעיה, or Shemaiah, Samaias or Sameas) was a rabbinic sage in the early A leader of the Pharisees in the middle of the 1st century BC and by tradition President of the great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem. Shmaya studied under Shimon ben Shetach and Yehuda ben Tabai, the third pair of Zugos and leaders of their generation. When the wicked king Yani (Alexander Jannaeus) killed all the Torah Sages, Yehuda ben Tabai escaped to Alexandria, Egypt. It can be assumed that Shmaya went into exile along with his teacher to escape the massacre. They returned after the death of Yani under the reign of Queen Shelomtzion (Alexandra Salome). Shmaya is a combination of the words 'Shma', listen and 'Ka', Hashem. When put together it means 'Listen to me Hashem'. It can also be interpreted as a call 'listen all' or 'listen up' which would elude to his destiny of eventually serving as Nasi, and having the entire nation heed his words. Shmaya's main students were Hillel and Shami. Hillel was careful to use the exact wording of his teachers when he quoted them. Leadership of Shemaya and Avtalyon lasted for a short period of six years. After Shimaya and Avtalyon passed away, the Jewish leadership was given to the Beni Besera who eventually passed it on to Hillel and Menachem. Eventually Menachem was replaced by Shami. Hillel openly declared that his superiority in Torah knowledge over the Beni Besera was due to his nullification to Shmaya and Avtalyon. Avtalyon was also a rabbinic sage, Pharisees leader, and presiding judge (vice-president) of the great Sanhedrin. Shmaya and Avtalyon are known as one of the zuggot ("couples"). In addition, both Shmaya and Avtalyon were converts to Judaism and were descendants of King Sancheriv of Assyria who destroyed the northern Kingdom of Israel. Avtalvon shared much wisdom on the responsibility of leadership and teaching. Chapter 1: Mishna 11: Part 1 Hanameel the Egyptian (also known as Ananel, Ananelus) was the first Roman approved Jewish High priest in the 1st century BCE. He was appointed by Herod to fill the office of high priest made vacant by the ignominious death of Antigonus. Hanameel was an Egyptian according to the Mishnah (Parah 3:5), and a Babylonian according to Josephus ("Ant." xv. 2, § 4). Though of priestly descent, he was not of the family of the high priests. He was later removed by Herod. Jesus, son of Fabus (also known as Jesus, son of Phabet, Jesus son of Phiabi or Joshua ben Fabus) was a Jewish High priest (ca. 30 – 23 BCE) in the 1st century BCE. He was appointed and removed by Herod. Simon son of Boethus (also known as Simon son of Boëthus, Simeon ben Boethus or Shimon ben Boethus) was a Jewish High priest in the 1st century BCE and father-in-law of Herod the Great.His family may be connected to the source of the school of the Boethusians. Joshua ben Sie also known as Jesus ben Sie was the first Jewish High Priest of Israel in 1st century. Annas [also Ananus or Ananias , son of Seth (23/22 BC–death date unknown, probably around 40CE), was appointed by the Roman legate Quirinius (Governor of Syria) as the first High Priest of the newly formed Roman province of Iudaea in 6 AD; just after the Romans had deposed Archelaus, Ethnarch of Judea, thereby putting Judea directly under Roman rule. Annas held the office of high priest seven years under Coponius, the first governor (Prefect) of Iudea province, about 6 CE. During his administration occurred the revolt of Judas the Galilean, the cause of which was not so much the personality of Coponius as the introduction of Roman soldiers. Owing to the reconstruction of the province of Judea then in progress, the census was being taken by Quirinius, which was a further cause of offense. Marcus Ambivulus was Roman Prefect of the province of Judea and Samaria. Originally a cavalry officer, Ambivulus succeeded Coponius in 9 AD and ruled the area until 13 AD when he was succeeded by Annius Rufus. Annius Rufus tenure as Prefect of Judea began in 12 CE. and was apparently without incident since the only event that Josephus reports as occurring while he was in office is the death of Augustus in Rome in 14 CE. He was succeeded by Valerius Gratus in 15 CE. Gratus removed Annas from the high priesthood and then appointed Joseph Caiaphas to the office. Yet while having been officially removed from office, Annas He still bore the title of high priest, just as ex-presidents of the United States are still called president. Annas remained as one of the most influential political and social individuals in Judea. References in the Mosaic Law to "the death of the high priest" (Num 35:25, 28) suggest that the high-priesthood was ordinarily held for life. Perhaps for this reason, Annas was still called "high priest" even after his dismissal, along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). He also may have been acting as president of the Sanhedrin, or a coadjutor of the high priest. Annas retained power through his five sons and his son-in-law as appointed High Priests. His death is unrecorded, but his son Annas the Younger, also known as Ananus ben Ananus was assassinated in 66 AD for advocating peace with Rome. Annas was called by Josephus the "ancientest of the high-priests" [Josephus, Wars 4.3.7]. He also states that it was Annas’ death that "was the beginning of the destruction of the city" [ibid., 4.5.2]. Annas was slain in the midst of Jerusalem. At the time of Yahshua's trial and execution, he served as ab bet din, the "father of the court". It was his duty to bring forth the formal accusation. As stated above, while Caiaphas was the high priest, Annas held the actual power. History is quite clear about this. His wealthy family, in fact, held the office of the high priesthood for fifty years without interruption. In the words of one scholar they were "haughty, audacious, and cruel" [Dale Foreman, Crucify Him, p. 110]. Josephus gives us this report about his government: ut for the high-priest Ananias [Annas], he increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had obtained the favor and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner; FOR HE WAS A GREAT HOARDER UP OF MONEY; he therefore cultivated the friendship of Albinus, and of the high-priest [Jesus], BY MAKING THEM PRESENTS; HE ALSO HAD SERVANTS WHO WERE VERY WICKED, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, AND TOOK AWAY THE TITHES THAT BELONGED TO THE [conservative] PRIESTS BY VIOLENCE, AND DID NOT REFRAIN FROM BEATING SUCH AS WOULD NOT GIVE THESE TITHES TO THEM. SO THE OTHER HIGH-PRIESTS ACTED IN THE LIKE MANNER, AS DID THOSE HIS SERVANTS WITHOUT ANYONE BEING ABLE TO PROHIBIT THEM; so that [some of the] priests, that of old were wont to be supported with those tithes, died for want of food [Josephus, Antiquities 20.9.2]. High Priesthood of the House of Annas (Sadduc) Ananus ben Seth (6–15) [Annas I] Eleazar ben Ananus (16–17) Joseph-Caiaphas (18–36/37) son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13) Jonathan ben Ananus (36/37–44) Theophilus ben Ananus (37–41) Matthias ben Ananus (43) Ananus ben Ananus (63) [Annas II - Ananias] (Acts 23 & 24) Matthias ben Ananus (grandson, 65–68) Ishmael ben Fabus also known as Ishmael ben Phiabi was a High Priest of Israel High Priest appointed by the Roman governor, Valerius Gratus, from 15AD to 16 AD. to replace the Annas. He appears to have been a very unpopular High Priest. It is said of him that he was "the handsomest man of his time, whose effeminate love of luxury was the scandal of the age" Annas and Caiaphas J.J. Tissot Brooklyn Museum Caiaphas held the office of high priest during the entire term of Pilate’s procuratorship (25-36 C.E.). He was appointed by Valerius Gratus in 25 C.E. [Josephus, Antiquities 18.2.2]. Pontius Pilate succeeded Valerius Gratus as prefect of Judaea in AD 26. Once in his post he offended the religious sensibilities of his subjects, leading to harsh criticism from Philo and Josephus. According to Josephus, he was ordered back to Rome after harshly suppressing a Samaritan uprising, arriving just after the death of Tiberius, which occurred on 16 March in AD 37. Pilate is best known for presiding over the trial of Jesus and ordering his crucifixion. He was replaced by Marcellus. Little is known about him, except that his "father-in-law" (or ab bet din) was Annas. As stated earlier, I believe it was to his title that the author of John referred, rather than to any notion of kinship by marriage. That is not to say Caiaphas was not a member of the House of Hanan. He was, however, a mere puppet who held no real political power. In the case of Yahshua, he presided as nasi over the Sanhedrin and pronounced the final verdict of blasphemy. He was deposed from his office in the same year that Pilate was recalled to Rome. This fact would seem to indicate that the two were, perhaps, intimately connected. That Caiaphas sought such a confession from Yahshua, even to the point of placing him under oath, is ordinarily seen as nullifying the proceedings. It goes even farther, FOR IT MAKES NO USE WHATEVER OF ADMISSIONS OR OF CONFESSIONS OF GUILT, EITHER IN OR OUT OF COURT; [Deuteronomy 19:15] is understood as EXCLUDING THE MOUTH OF THE ACCUSED; and THE PRINCIPLE IS LAID DOWN, "NO ONE CAN MAKE HIMSELF OUT GUILTY" (OR WICKED), and it appears often throughout the Talmud [The Jewish Encyclopedia, Accusatory and Inquisitorial Procedure, p. 163]. Caiaphas, after Yahshua's statement claiming he was "Son of Man" (i.e. a frail human), that he would sit on the right hand of "Power" and come in the clouds, declared no further need for witnesses. Mishnaic law, if on no other single point, is quite clear about the necessity of qualified eyewitnesses, two or three, agreeing as to what they had seen. Capital punishment in rabbinic law, or indeed any other punishment, must not be inflicted, except by the verdict of a regularly constituted court (Lesser Sanh.) of three and twenty qualified members (Sanh. 1:1; Sifre, Num. 160), and except on the most trustworthy and convincing testimony of at least two qualified eye-witnesses to the crime...who must depose that the culprit had been forewarned as to the criminality and the consequences of his project (Sanh. 5:1 140b et seq.) [The Jewish Encyclopedia, Capital Punishment, p. 556]. Archaeologists in 1990 discovered a burial cave on the outskirts of Jerusalem which contained a collection of bone boxes. During the first century, bodies of the dead were laid in caves. After the flesh had decomposed, the bones were gathered and put into boxes, indicating a belief in the resurrection. One of the casket-like boxes found in the cave was elaborately carved and is inscribed with the words: "Yehosef bar Kayafa (Joseph, son of Caiaphas), known more commonly as Caiaphas. The box contains the actual remains of the Biblical figure Caiaphas. In 36 CE Caiaphas was replaced by Lucius Vitellius the Elder, who appointed another member of the Ananias clan Jonathan son of Ananias the Elder. Under Emperor Tiberius, he was Consul in 34 and Governor of Syria in 35. He deposed Pontius Pilate in 36 after complaints from the people in Samaria. He supported Emperor Caligula, and was a favorite of Emperor Claudius' wife Empress Valeria Messalina. During Claudius' reign, he was Consul twice in 43 and 47, and governed Rome while the Roman Emperor was absent on his invasion of Britain. Around the time that Claudius married Agrippina the Younger in 48 or 49, Vitellius served as a Censor. "Ananos son of Ananos" var: Ananias, Latin: Anani Ananus or Ananus filius Anani), d. 68 CE, was a Herodian-era High Priest of Israel in Jerusalem, Iudaea Province. He is most well known as the high priest who allegedly ordered the execution by stoning of James the Just, according to the surviving fragments of The Antiquities of the Jews. However, popular opinion against Hanan due to this act led the recently appointed Roman governor Lucceius Albinus to depose the high priest, after only three months. Ananus was succeeded by Jesus ben Damneus, who was himself deposed before the end of the year. I pray to Hashem to give me more wisdom on the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and the High Priests in their relationship Jesus Christ. Further I hope to differentiate the high priest, Caiaphas with the high priest Jesus Christ. Ciaphas was appointed by Valerius Gratus to be high priest of Hashem's temple. Jesus was appointed by Hashem to be the eternal high priest in the order of Melchizedek.
  19. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    The Didache Chapter 5 Below is a digest of quotes from my previous post concerning Essene prophecies of the coming Messiah. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL95031EFB8234EC88 The truth of the prophecy Qumran texts needs to be investigated to see if there is any outside influence. I have written extensively on Judea during the heirs of David, but I know little of Babylonian Judea, Persian Judea, Alexandrian Judea, Egyptian Judea, Hasmonean Judea, Herod Judea, and Roman Judea. Were the Essenes similar to the Sadducee people that were not exiled out of the lands of their ancestors. These Jews knew and followed the torah, but were subjected to different apostasy and cultural influences than their Babylonian counterparts. The Essene pesher states that among the Teacher of Righteousness opponents were the Wicked Priest and the Man of the Lie. The Wicked Priest is portrayed as a false religious leader who was at one point trusted by the Teacher. Towards the end of the pesher, the Wicked Priest is reported to have been captured and tortured by his enemies. His true identity is also unlikely to be named with certainty, though just about every contemporary Hasmonean priest has at some point been suggested by scholars as the Wicked Priest. It is even argued that this was a title attributed to multiple individuals.The Man of the Lie is accused by the author of attempting to discredit the Teacher, as well as the Torah. His true name is likewise indiscernible. It is apparent to understand the context of the above quotes and paragraph, the reader will need to be familiarized with what the Essenes describe as "the era of despicableness" which is most likely after the after the Dead Sea Scrolls were written. To achieve the best understanding we will journey back further in time to see what was happening to Hashem's chosen people during the Maccabees wars with Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, then move forward to Roman conquests of Judah. Hopefully we will take notice of the Hellenization and Roman apostasy occurring to the Jewish nation. Somewhere in this time period we may get an understanding why Essene separated with the Pharisee and Sadducee and their migration to the North. The story of the Maccabees is told in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, are considered deuterocanonical books in most Christian biblical canons, and in 3 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees, which are in a few Eastern Christian canons. 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees are part of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox canons, but not part of the Protestant Old Testament. 1 Maccabees is included in the Jewish Bible. Most modern scholars argue that the king was reacting to a civil war between traditionalist Jews in the countryside and Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem, though the king's response of persecuting the religious traditionalists was unusual in antiquity, and was the immediate provocation for the revolt. Here is a map of Judea during the rule of Judas Maccabaeus. Below are 9 chapters of Maccabees. The story starts out during the last years of Alexander the Great and how his divided empire affected the Jewish nation. 1 Maccabees From the reading above, Alcimus (Jacimus, or Joachim) would be a candidate for the Wicked Priest. His 3 years as High Priest was a catalyst to start distrust of the Jewish Pontificate. But, his time was before the Damascus Scroll was written. So Alcimus is ruled out. Simon Maccabeus (Simon the Hasmonean) also referred to as Simon Thassi ("the Director", "the Guide", "the Man of Counsel", and "the Zealous" are all possible meanings of the term) and Simon Tarsus. Simon Maccabeus was the second son of the priest Matthias and was in turn elected as high priest and president of Jews beginning in 143 BC . Antiochus VII Sidetes could not defeat Simon in battle, so he opted to murder him. In 134 BC King Antiochus ordered Simon's son-in-law to, Ptolemy son of Abubus and Seleucid Governor of the Jericho region of Israel to commit the evil deed. Ptolemy was also able to murder his father-in-law, Simon and his two sons, but failed to find and kill his third son, Yehohanan ben Simon (John Hyracanus I, John Hyreanus). Ptolemy fled to Fort Dagon with John Yehohanan ben Simon's mother as a hostage. When John Hyracanus attempted to seige Fort Dagon Ptolomy would subject Hyracanus's mother to cruel tortures on the walls of the fort whenever her son attempted to attack it. Ptolemy eventually killed Yehohanan ben Simon's mother and managed to flee eastward to the partly Hellenized city of Philadelphia, the former Ammonite capital (Rabbath Ammon), controlled by Governor Zenon (Zeno) Cotylas and Arab mercenaries. Once Antiochus VII Sidetes got word of what transpired between Ptolemy and Hyrcanus he sent his troops to invade Judea and lay siege to Jerusalem. After a protracted conflict John Hyrcanus made peace with the Seleucids. The treaty left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian King Antiocus VII. When it came time to choose the next high priest Pharisee leader, Eleazar, reminded the Sandharin that Hyrcanus might not be be qualified. This was not the first time the President's mother been held hostage. The wife of Simon Maccabeus was previously captured and prisoner by the Seleucids just prior to Hyrcanus birth. There was speculation that she might have been raped, thus raising some doubt about Hyrcanus true father. (Ant. 13:292) If Hyrcanus might not be the son of Simon Maccabeaus, the Pharisees reasoned he should not be given the office of High Priest and just be happy being President of Judah. Hyrcanus became enraged and wanted Eleazar put to death. When this did not happen President Hyrcanus joined the Sadducees and their aristocratic Hellenistic supporters who previously belonged to the pro-Greek party and with their support became the 50th High Priest of the Temple. The Pharisees were expelled from membership in the Sanhedrin and branded with the name Perushim, 'the expelled ones.' This was meant as a taunt, but its alternate Hebrew significance is 'exponents' which made the name acceptable to them." It would not be until the reign of Queen Salome Alexandra that the Pharisees would regain control of the interpretation and administration of Mosaic law. Talmud - Mas. Kiddushin 66a Antiochus VII spent the final years of his life attempting to reclaim the lost eastern territories, overrun by the Parthians under their "Great King", Mithridates I. Marching east, with what would prove to be the last great Seleucid royal army (including a force of Judean mercenaries under John Hyrcanus), he defeated Mithridates in two battles, killing the aged Parthian king in the last of these. He restored Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Media to the Seleucid empire, before dispersing his army into winter quarters. After this Antiochus offered a peace, by which he would regain Mesopotamia and large parts of Iran. The Parthian realm would be restricted to its core territories and would pay a heavy tribute. Phraates II could not accept these high demands, so he refused the offer. In the following winter (129 BC), Antiochus VII quartered himself and his army in Ecbatana, where he completely alienated the local people from himself because he forced the local people to pay for the upkeep of his soldiers and because, it seems, the soldiers assaulted the locals. Thus when Phraates II attacked the Seleucid army in its winter quarters, the local people supported him. Antiochus VII was defeated and killed or committed suicide, ending Seleucid rule east of the Euphrates. Just before Antiochus defeat, Phraates II made what he thought was a powerful move: he released the former King Demetrius, hoping that the two brothers would start a civil war. In 139 BC King Demetrius against Mithradates I, king of Parthia and was initially successful, but was defeated in the Iranian mountains and taken prisoner the following year. Phraates II set people to pursue Demetrius, but he managed to safely return home to Syria and regained his throne and his queen as well. Antiochus's heirs did not have the power to go to war against the state of Judea and this period is characterized by constant struggles between the heirs to the Seleucid throne. The Syrian supremacy of Judah came to an end. President Hyrcanus conquered the Edomite kingdom and gave the Edomites the choice of either death or conversion to the religion, language, and culture of Judah. During the time of Moses, the King of Edom refused to let the Israelites have safe passage through their land. The Israelites later conquered and subjected Edom. But, this was the first time they were forced into conversion. This is similar to the Catholic inquisition of Jews later in the Dark Age period in Europe. The Antiquities of the Jews Joseph Flavius Bronze Coin Of The Maccabean King Yehohanan Hyrcanus I 1 Maccabees Chapter 16 President Hyrcanus and his wife, Marium had five sons: Judah Aristobulus I, first Antigonus , Alexander Yanai , Absalom, another son whose name is not known. Before Hyrcanus death he appointed his wife to the office of Governor, and his son Aristobulus to become the next high priest. In 104 BC, after thirty-one years of presidency, and is about sixty John Hyracanus died. Zion's high priest, Judas Aristobulus I went against his father wishes and seized rule with support of his brother Antigonus, who he appointed minister of the army. Aristobulus immediately threw his mother the Governor into prison, where she starved to death. Judas immediately crowned himself the first king since the return to Zion. Judas Aristobulus married Salome (Shelomit, Shelamziyyon meaning peace of Zion, or wholeness of Zion) Alexandra as the new Queen of Zion. As time progressed, Aristobulus began to worry about his brother Antigonus growing fame from victories in battle. He feared his brother's army would compel him take takeover rule of the kingdom, so he ordered his killed if came to visit him armed. Queen Salome sent out a message of deceit to Antigonus that the King wanted to see his brother wanted to see him in his glorious armor. So Antigonus came armed as expected and the kings guards killed him. Guilt over his brother's death increased the disease first Aristobulus king until his death in 103 BC. Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Jonathan Alexander and Alexander Jannai/Yannai; Hebrew: אלכסנדר ינאי) declared himself the second king of Judea from 103 BC to 76 BC. The son of John Hyrcanus, he inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus I, and married his brother's widow, Queen Salome Alexandra to secure the throne. Alexander Jannaeus ordered 800 Pharisees he despised to be crucified during a party he held with his mistresses. During the end of Alexander's life he made amends with Queen Salome's Pharisee brother Simeon ben Shetach and invited him back into the Sanhedrin (Assembly somewhat similar to Rome's ritualistic judicial body that met to decide important cases and rule on disputed points of religious law). King Alexander actions against his own people makes him the best candidate for the title "Wicked Priest" in the Qumran texts. The execution of the Pharisees by Alexander Jannaeus, showing the King and his Court feasting during the executions. Engraving by Willem Swidde, 17th century. Map of Israel during the time of Alexander Jannaeus Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sotah Folio 47a The Wars of the Jews Flavius Joseph Jewish Antiquities Book 13 Joseph Flavius After the death of Alexander, Queen Salome took the crown royal, Her eldest son, Hyrcanus II, became High Priest. Her youngest son, Judah Aristobulus II took command of the royal army. Because she was a woman, Queen Salome could not hold a dual role of ruler and high priest . She appointed to her son Hyrcanus II as High Priest of the kingdom.Hyrcanus II shared his mother's religious views and was sympathetic to the Pharisees. Queen Salome changed the administration policy of her deceased husband Alexander, who was the harshest opponent of the Pharisees. She sought to heal the rift between the royal family. Queen Salome decided to transfer the power into the hands of her Pharisee brother Simeon ben Shetach, who became Nasi (Prince of the Sanhedrin). The Pharisees gained formal authority in all areas of life in the kingdom, Laws were enacted by the Pharisees and the power to ban or imprison citizens, release prisoners and allow allied exiles to return back to Judea. The earliest record of a Sanhedrin is by Josephus who wrote of a political Sanhedrin convened by the Romans in 57 B.C.E. Hellenistic sources generally depict the Sanhedrin as a political and judicial council headed by the country’s ruler.
  20. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 I believe that many Christians overlook the pagan corruption that took place in both the First and Second temples dedicated to our Creator. The conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE spread Greek culture and colonization—a process of cultural change called Hellenization—over non-Greek lands, including the Levant, also known as the Eastern Mediterranean between Anatolia and Egypt". The period after Alexander's death in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt in 30 BC. is known as the Hellenistic Age. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, Africa and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the brilliance of the Greek Classical era. The period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and Kingdoms in Asia and Africa, the most famous being Alexandria in Egypt. New cities were established composed of colonists who came from different parts of the Greek world. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death on June 10, 323 BC. In 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Judea was under Ptolemaic rule until 200 BC. Upper class Jews, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikover, the main motive for the Tobiads' Hellenism was economic and political. The Hellenizing Jews built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, competed in international Greek games, "removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant". Jason (Hebrew: Yason, יאסון) of the Oniad family, brother to Onias III, was a High Priest in the Temple in Jerusalem. Josephus records that his name, before he Hellenized it, was originally Jesus (Hebrew יֵשׁוּעַ Yēshua`). Jason became high priest in 175 BCE after the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes IV to the throne of the Seleucid Empire. In an ongoing dispute between the current High Priest, Onias III, and Simon the Benjamite, Jason offered to pay Antiochus in order to be confirmed as the new High Priest in Jerusalem. Antiochus accepted the offer and further allowed Jason to build a gymnasium in Jerusalem and create a Greek-style Polis named after the king, Antioch. With the creation of Antioch, Jason abandoned the ordinances given under Antiochus III, which defined the polity of the Judeans according to the Torah. Jason's time as High Priest was brought to an abrupt end in 172 BCE when he sent Menelaus, the brother of Simon the Benjamite, to deliver money to Antiochus. Menelaus took this opportunity to "outbid" Jason for the priesthood, resulting in Antiochus confirming Menelaus as the High Priest from 171 BC to about 161 BC. According to II Maccabees, Menelaus belonged to the tribe of Benjamin and was the brother of the Simeon who had denounced Onias III to Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Jason fled Jerusalem and found refuge in the land of the Ammonites. In 168 BCE Jason made a failed attempt to regain control of Jerusalem. Fleeing again to Ammon, he then continued to Egypt, then finally to Sparta, where he died and was buried. Antiochus IV decided to side with Menalaus and the Hellenized Jews by outlawing Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and by ordering the worship of Zeus as the supreme god. Antiochus IV ruled the Jews from 175 to 164 BC. He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees and the "Scroll of Antiochus". Rabbinical sources refer to him as הרשע harasha ("the wicked"). He has been identified as the "eleventh horn of the beast" in the Book of Daniel (chapters 7 to 12). The Maccabean Revolt began at 167 to 160 BC, between a Judean rebel group known as the Maccabees and the Seleucid Empire. In the narrative of I Maccabees, after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean Mattathias ben Johanan (Hebrew: מַתִּתְיָהוּ בֶּן יוֹחָנָן הַכֹּהֵן, Matityahu ben Yoḥanan HaKohen) (died 165 BC) sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BC, his son Judah Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Hellenized Jews, of whom there were many. Judah Maccabee is acclaimed as one of the greatest warriors in Jewish history alongside Joshua, Gideon, and David. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry. The term Maccabees as used to describe the Jewish army is taken from the Hebrew word for "hammer". In the early days of the rebellion, Judah received a surname Maccabee. Several explanations have been put forward for this surname. One suggestion is that the name derives from the Aramaic maqqaba ("makebet" in modern Hebrew), "hammer" or "sledgehammer" (cf. the cognomen of Charles Martel, the 8th century Frankish leader), in recognition of his ferocity in battle. It is also possible that the name Maccabee is an acronym for the Torah verse Mi kamokha ba'elim Adonai, "Who among the gods is like you, O Adonai?", his battle-cry to motivate troops. (Exodus 15:11). Rabbi Moshe Schreiber writes that it is an acronym for his father's name Mattityahu Kohen Ben Yochanan. Some scholars maintain that the name is a shortened form of the Hebrew maqqab-ya ¯hû (from na ¯qab, ‘‘to mark, to designate’’), meaning ‘‘the one designated by Yahweh.’ Mindful of the superiority of Seleucid forces during the first two years of the revolt, Judah's strategy was to avoid any engagement with their regular army, and to resort to guerrilla warfare, in order to give them a feeling of insecurity. The strategy enabled Judah to win a string of victories. At the battle of Nahal el-Haramiah (wadi haramia), he defeated a small Assyrian force under the command of Apollonius, governor of Samaria, who was killed. Judah took possession of Apollonius's sword and used it until his death as a symbol of vengeance. After Nahal el-Haramiah, recruits flocked to the Jewish cause. Shortly thereafter, Judah routed a larger Seleucid army under the command of Seron near Beth-Horon, largely thanks to a good choice of battlefield. Then in the Battle of Emmaus, Judah proceeded to defeat the Seleucid forces led by generals Nicanor and Gorgias. This force was dispatched by Lysias, whom Antiochus left as viceroy after departing on a campaign against the Parthians. By a forced night march, Judah succeeded in eluding Gorgias, who had intended to attack and destroy the Jewish forces in their camp with his cavalry. While Gorgias was searching for him in the mountains, Judah made a surprise attack upon the Seleucid camp and defeated the Seleucid at the Battle of Emmaus. The Seleucid commander had no alternative but to withdraw to the coast. The defeat at Emmaus convinced Lysias that he must prepare for a serious and prolonged war. He accordingly assembled a new and larger army and marched with it on Judea from the south via Idumea. After several years of conflict Judah drove out his foes from Jerusalem, except for the garrison in the citadel of Acra. He purified the defiled Temple of Jerusalem and on the 25th of Kislev (December 14, 164 BCE) restored the service in the Temple. The reconsecration of the Temple became a permanent Jewish holiday, Hanukkah, which continued even after the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE. Hanukkah is still celebrated annually. The liberation of Jerusalem was the first step on the road to ultimate independence. Upon hearing the news that the Jewish communities in Gilead, Transjordan, and Galilee were under attack by neighboring Greek cities, Judah immediately went to their aid. Judah sent his brother, Simeon, to Galilee at the head of 3,000 men; Simeon proceeded to successfully fulfill his task, achieving numerous victories and transplanted a substantial portion of the Jewish settlements, including women and children, to Judea. He personally led the campaign in Transjordan, taking with him his brother Jonathan. After fierce fighting, he defeated the Transjordanian tribes and rescued the Jews concentrated in fortified towns in Gilead. The Jewish population of the areas taken by the Maccabees was evacuated to Judea. At the conclusion of the fighting in Transjordan, Judah turned against the Edomites in the south, captured and destroyed Hebron and Maresha. He then marched on the coast of the Mediterranean, destroyed the altars and statues of the pagan gods in Ashdod, and returned to Judea with much spoils. Judah then laid siege to the Assyrian garrison at the Acra, the Seleucid citadel of Jerusalem. The besieged, who included not only Assyrians but also Hellenistic Jews, appealed for help to Lysias, who effectively became the regent of the young king Antiochus V Eupator after the death of Antiochus Epiphanes at the end of 164 BCE during the Parthian campaign. Lysias together with Eupator set out for a new campaign in Judea. Lysias skirted Judea as he had done in his first campaign, entering it from the south, and besieged Beth-Zur. Judah raised the siege of the Acra and went to meet Lysias. In the Battle of Beth-zechariah, south of Bethlehem, the Seleucids achieved their first major victory over the Maccabees, and Judah was forced to withdraw to Jerusalem. Beth-Zur was compelled to surrender and Lysias reached Jerusalem, laying siege to the city. The defenders found themselves in a precarious situation because their provisions were exhausted, it being a sabbatical year during which the fields were left uncultivated. However, just as capitulation seemed imminent, Lysias and Eupator had to withdraw when Antiochus Epiphanes's commander-in-chief Philip, whom the late ruler appointed regent before his death, rebelled against Lysias and was about to enter Antioch and seize power. Lysias decided to propose a peaceful settlement, which was concluded at the end of 163 BCE. The terms of peace were based on the restoration of religious freedom, the permission for the Jews to live in accordance with their own laws, and the official return of the Temple to the Jews. The Jews accepted; however, in order to ensure they would not rise against them soon again, the Syrian king and regent broke their promise and tore down the walls of Jerusalem before leaving. Lysias defeated Philip, only to be overthrown by Demetrius, the true heir to the Assyrian throne. During the first years of the restoration of the Jewish worship Menelaus still remained (though only nominally) high priest. He is said to have been put to death by Antiochus V Eupator and his regent, general Lysias. The young 9 year old Seleucid King charged Menelaus responsible for the Jewish rebellion. Demetrius appointed Alcimus (from Greek Alkimos (Ἄλκιμος), "valiant" or Hebrew אליקום Elyaqum, "God will rise"), also called Jacimus, or Joachim (Ἰάκειμος), was, a Hellenist Jew, who served as High Priest of Israel for three years, 162 BCE-159 BCE. , a choice the Hasidim (Pietists) might have accepted since he was a descendant of the Biblical Aaron, brother of Moses. But, Alcimus was not in the high-priestly line;and being ambitious for the office of high priest, it he traveled to Antioch to petition the assistance of the Seleucid king Demetrius I Soter, who had just overthrown Antiochus Eupator. Alcimus was of the Hellenizing party, and therefore bitterly opposed by the Maccabees. Demetrius sent an army under Bacchides to establish Alcimus in the high priesthood at Jerusalem. The favor with which Alcimus was received by the Jews at Jerusalem on account of his Aaronic descent was soon turned to hate by his cruelties. When Bacchides and his army returned to Antioch, the Hasmonean Judah Maccabee attacked and overcame Alcimus, and drove him also to Syria. There he secured from Demetrius another army, led by Nicanor, who, failing to overcome Judah by treachery, attacked him directly, but was defeated and killed. A third and greater army, under Bacchides again, was dispatched to reinstall Alcimus. Judah was defeated and killed, Alcimus established as high priest and a strong garrison left in Jerusalem to maintain him. But he did not long enjoy his triumph, since he died soon after, while he was pulling down the wall of the temple that divided the court of the Gentiles from that of the Israelites. To further understand the time of period of Jesus Christ I plan on focusing more on the world around Israel during the period after Alcimus 159 BC through the destruction of the temple 70 AD. The first document I plan on studying is the "Damascus Document". Evidence from the 'Damascus scroll' indicates that this group of Essene, also known as 'The Way,' first organized outside of Israel in Damascus, Syria. The origin of a fraternity is not known with precision. It speculated Essenes were formed during Babylonian captivity (6th century BC), as a reaction to the religious relaxation had occurred. Other researchers put their creation much earlier, during the building of the Temple of Solomon in the 10th BC century and identify themselves as the first Masons. The name Essene comes from 'Es' which means 'fire' and 'sene' meaning 'worshiper.' Initiates had to go through a ritual purification by fire. Hence, in the future Khirbet-Qumran would be known as 'Damascus,' among members of the sect. This was during the early to mid second century BC. Texts from the scroll indicate that at that time the group consisted of rather typical Torah observant Jews with little Zorastrian eschatology and no Pythagorean influence. It is in this document that we find a reference to the Testament of Judah, "A Star shall come forth out of Jacob" which the community interpreted as the coming of an interpreter of the law who would be known as the 'Unique Teacher.' It is this individual, c 170 BCE, who prophesied the coming of the Messiah and the annihilation of the wicked c 130 BCE. This 40 year period was to be known as the 'the whole period of wickedness.' Often in these documents we have references to the wicked or 'wicked priest.' To the Jews and in this case the Essene, wicked simply meant not Torah observant, and it is clear that they considered the non-Davidian, non-Zadokite Hasmonean rulers who usurped the throne of Israel and the office of high priest to be just that. While the Pharisee awaited the arrival of a Davidian Messiah who would enable the Jews to rule over a vast empire, the Essene that correctly envisioned a supernatural Messiah of Moral Judgment that we know as Jesus Christ. It was the Pharisee who developed Temple worship and the ritual of blood sacrifice both of which were rejected by the Essene. Around 100 BCE there is evidence that a leader arose among the Essene, who having travelled the known world absorbed influences from other religions in the region and introduced the doctrines of Pythagoras to the Judaeo/Zorastrian community. Evidence from the 'Damascus scroll' indicates that this group of Essene, also known as 'The Way,' first organized outside of Israel in Damascus, Syria. The name Essene comes from 'Es' which means 'fire' and 'sene' meaning 'worshipper.' Initiates had to go through a ritual purification by fire. Hence, in the future Khirbet-Qumran would be known as 'Damascus,' among members of the sect. This was during the early to mid second century BCE. Texts from the scroll indicate that at that time the group consisted of rather typical Torah observant Jews with little Zorastrian eschatology and no Pythagorean influence. It is in this document that we find a reference to the Testament of Judah, "A Star shall come forth out of Jacob" which the community interpreted as the coming of an interpreter of the law who would be known as the 'Unique Teacher.' It is this individual, c 170 BCE, who prophesied the coming of the Messiah and the annihilation of the wicked c 130 BCE. This period was to be known as the 'the whole period of wickedness.' Often in these documents we have references to the wicked or 'wicked priest.' To the Jews and in this case the Essene, wicked simply meant not Torah observant, and it is clear that they considered the non-Davidian, non-Zadokite Hasmonean rulers who usurped the throne of Israel and the office of high priest to be just that. Qumrân Cave 4 22 T 4Q266 Damascus Documenta 1954 +/- 38 44 BCE-129 CE The Damascus Document was Carbon dated in Tuscon, Arizona, to anywhere from 44 years before the birth of Jesus Christ to 96 years after the death and resurrection of Christ. An average mean would put it 53 years after the death and resurrection Jesus Christ. The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library Damascus Document 4Q266 – 4Q Da If John the Baptist was an Essene preacher, as many scholars believe, the Damascus Document may give an insight into the reported differences between John's disciples and Jesus' disciples over such issues as fasting. It also may hint at the reason that the ascetic John never himself joined Jesus and apparently harbored doubts about his Messiahship (Matthew 11:2). Issues such as hand-washing, Sabbath observance, and keeping oneself away from the corrupting company of sinners and Gentiles were essential to the Qumran group. If John the Baptist shared their view, it would be difficult for him to give up his tradition of purity for the broader way that Jesus taught and practiced. It appears Humankind is like a grape vine to Hashem. He snips away the bad shoots and grafts on good ones from time to time. Exhortation from the Damascus Document (Geniza A + B, 4Q266 – 272) Jackson Snyder The Hebrew word malakh comes from a root meaning "to send" and is used both in the ordinary sense of a messenger and in the sense of an angel "sent" by God. (The English word "angel" is derived from the Greek angelos with the same meaning of messenger.) 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia FALL OF ANGELS Belial and Mammon are examples of terms that initially represented aspects of the human condition occurring in the the old and new testaments which later became personified as demons in Jewish and Christian texts. Judges 19 Belial is a word that originated in the early 13th century, from Hebrew bel'yya'al "destruction," literally "worthless," from b'li "without" + ya'al "use." Wickedness as an evil force (Deut. xiii:13). Belial was later treated as a common proper name for Satan (2 Cor. vi:15), or the personification of evil. Founder of the Church of Satan, Anton LaVey choose to portray Belial as meaning "Without Master." 2 Corinthians 6 Belial was a fallen angel in John Milton's (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) epic poem "Paradise Lost" (1667). Paradise Lost Book One John Milton Paradise Lost Book Two John Milton The characterization of Belial is Milton's, but the tradition may have been taken from Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft (1665). Here we see that imagination of man creates the demons that represent the worst of the world around us. They believe that the powers they receive from these abominations comes with a price. They do not realize that the power of the Holy Spirit is free gift to all those that seek it.
  21. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 It appears that a parallel belief of Solomon's failure in righteousness is understood in freemasonry. THE LOST KEYS OF FREEMASONRY or The Secret of Hiram Abiff by Manly P. Hall Masonry elevates Hiram of Tyre to symbolize the true master of Hashem's temple and seal. THE LOST KEYS OF FREEMASONRY or The Secret of Hiram Abiff by Manly P. Hall While the story of Hiram Abiff getting murdered by his 3 specters (maybe golems) is an interesting allegory that lacks continuity with the Bible. Hiram "finished all the work on the Lord’s temple." Anything built on a bad foundation eventually collapses into ruins. Photo of Tower of Babel Manly P. Hall wrote that the word Shamir signifies the electrical light of the Sun, which is derived from the Chaldean word Chiram. The name Hiram is derived from Chiram, which Hall associates with Hermes. THE SHAMIR AND THE STONE WORM Superman had laser vision just like the Shamir. 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Solomon "The Secret of Hiram Abiff," Manly P. Hall states that King Hiram of Tyre was the Master Builder. But in the Hiramic Legend Hall changes his story and states the Master Builder was not King Hiram, but rather the Grand Master of the Dionysiac Architects, CHiram Abiff, a Widow's Son, who had no equal among the craftsmen of the earth. The giant souless spectres that Hiram created in the first story are transform into three fellow craftsmen Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum in the second. Both stories have him killed. The Hiramic Legend Manly Palmer Hall The Lion's Paw The picture shows how the grip of the Lion's Paw was given in the Pyramid Mysteries. The allegory of the fictional CHiram is am imaginative Messianic prototype of humanity. But, the of our Lord Jesus Christ is the original source begotten from Hashem. CHiram (Hiram) was not the son of Hashem. CHiram (Hiram) was the master builder of material things. Jesus was the master builder of living saints. It is Jesus who states the new temple lives within our hearts. And it is through Jesus Christ, not CHiram (Hiram) that Wisdom far greater than Solomon can be obtained. If you can close your eyes and take the leap of faith God will grant the Wisdom you need. I can see where Lego got its idea of an ordinary man going through trials to fulfill the prophecies and become the "Special Master Builder." From a Mason's point of view I can see promoting media the helps express complex ideas in simple ways makes sense. If everyone understands the concept, then everyone can move onto a more complex theorem on how we can be illuminated. Watch the video "Mystery of the Widow's Son - The Legend of the Craft" to learn more about Hiram Abiff James 1 1 Kings 7 1 Corinthians 3 According to Masonic historian Arturo de Hoyos, the word JahBalOn was first used in the 18th century in early French versions of the Royal Arch degree. It relates a Masonic allegory in which Jabulon was the name of an explorer living during the time of Solomon who discovered the ruins of an ancient temple. Within the ruins he found a gold plate upon which the name of God (Jehovah) was engraved. This story is similar to Joseph Smith finding golden plates with the word of God. 1. Jah. the Chaldean name of God, and signifies, 'His essence in Majesty - incomprehensible.' It is also a Hebrew word, signifying, 'I am and shall be' thereby expressing the actual future and eternal existence of the Most High. 2. Bal. is a Syriac word which signifies 'Lord or Powerful' also 'Lord in heaven or on high.' 3. On. is an Egyptian word signifying 'Father of all' as is expressed in the Lord's prayer." http://www.light-lodge-alpha.org/raset22%206%206/mason%20ea.htm http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/dart/dart00.htm I pray to Hashem that Masons and Kabbalist see that their esoteric constructs mean little compared to the actual Word of our Creator. Jesus and the Communion of Saints are examples on how to live one's life. Looking for patterns in chaos is truly chasing the wind. I do not believe Hashem has given revelation to any Freemason that I have read, except Joesph Smith. From his readings I currently discern him to be a false prophet moralist that took constructs from these mystery schools and monastic faiths and created a religion. From what I have read I believe Masonry to is a false religion based on gnostic knowledge and secular faith. Masonry believes that both dead and new religions hold pieces of the grand puzzle. I do admit that I have met very nice Kabbalist, Masons, and Mormons. But, I do not believe that Hashem has spoken to any of them. While I believe Hiram Abiff, the Angel Maroni, and the Sepherot are idolatry, I do believe the congregations of these belief systems follow the three tenets I use to discern whether they follow the wisdom of Hashem. Love our Creator, Not our Creator's possessions. Love your Neighbor, not your neighbor's possessions. Love yourself, not your possessions. The true power of 3 I AM JESUS It is wise to respect what is not known, then to provoke the light which governs all life.
  22. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 Through the glory of the Holy Spirit and the body of Jesus Christ, each one of us has the opportunity to be Hashem's living temple. 1 Corinthians 3 For Christians the next temple will not dedicated to Hashem. For it has already been built on Faith and Love. 2 Thessalonians 2 Is the next temple the Temple where the "Lawless One" will sit on? Or will it be the Jew's Messiah? The Temple Institute Youtube Channel https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/build-the-third-temple--3 http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/12498 According to Revelation the Jewish antagonists who attacked early Followers of The Way since the Resurrection will eventually have to acknowledge that Christians are the true followers of Hashem. In Revelation, Jesus personally addresses 7 churches in the Middle East, commending most and condemning all but the Church of Philadelphia, a city of ancient Lydia in Asia Minor on the Cogamus River, 105 miles from Smyrna. Revelation 3 Here is a map of Turkey. Alasehir is on the bottom right hand corner. Twice, in 1306 and 1324, Alasehir was besieged by the Seljuk Turks, but it retained its independence until after 1390, when it was captured by the combined forces of the Turks and Byzantines. Double Headed Eagle lagash emblem of the House of Seljuq. Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government. Nizam-al-Mulk, became one of the greatest statesmen of medieval Islam. For twenty years he administered the Seljuk. In 1403 Tamerlane captured Alasehir, and, it is said, built about it a wall of the corpses of his victims. Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turko-Mongol ruler of Barlas lineage. He conquered West, South and Central Asia and founded the Timurid dynasty. Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Turkicized Mongol origin, they had embraced Persian culture, converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Emblem of Timur Ala-shehir is still a Christian town; one-fourth of its modern population is Greek, and a Greek bishop still makes his home there. Ruins of the Byzantine cathedral dedicated to St. John the Theologian located in Ala-shehir. I need to do research on the golden eagle correlation with Solomon and Cyrus the Great. Solomon built the first temple. Cyrus built the second temple. Golden Eagles are very powerful birds that can take down 50 pound mammals. It is hard to imagine an eagle big enough to carry Solomon. Imagine an eagle carrying King Solomon The Seal of Solomon on top of an American eagle. Isaiah 46 Achaemenian Persian Golden Eagle Standard of Cyrus the Great. Xenophon of Athens (430 - 354 BC) reports in his work, Cyropaedia (The Education of Cyrus) that Cyrus the Great's standard was a golden eagle with spread wings, mounted on a long lance. CYROPAEDIA The Education of Cyrus Book II 1 Kings 10 Solomon and Hiram Abiff were very good business partners. The locatio of Ophir was likely Southern India or Northern Sri Lanka, where the Dravidians were well known for their sandalwood, gold, ivory and peacocks. Sandalwood grows naturally in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Australia, Indonesia, Hawaii, and other Pacific Islands. The most well-known, highest oil content (6 to 7%) and economically important species is Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood. Most likely Solomon's and Hirams fleets stopped in Southwest Arabia in the region of modern Yemen. In the ancient period, it would seem that South Arabia and the Horn of Africa were the major suppliers of incense. The port authorities must have relayed to Queen Sheba the goods the Phoenician and Israeli trade ships were carrying and the wealth of Solomon and Hiram. The key to Solomons success was the port city of Ezion-Geber. This was an extremely valuable port and Solomon built a fortress to protect it. Israel's naval alliance with Phoenicia kept the port well protected by land and sea. Numbers 33:36 says Ezion-Geber was located on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom, very near Elat. Both Elat and Ezion Geber are located at the north end of the Gulf of Aqaba. After Solomon's death the kingdom split into two parts and according to Book of II Chronicles, Jehoshaphat, the King of Judah, joined with Ahaziah, the King of Israel, to make ships in Ezion-geber; but God disapproved the alliance, and the ships were broken in the port. It appears that Solomon time and money spent on building forts, ships, chariots, and militia's payed big dividends for Hashem's kingdom. Possessions corrupted Solomon's priorities and he lost favor with Hashem. Israel would never be the same. In essence Solomon became the very thing that his father, David defeated. Solomon became Saul. 1 Kings 11 http://youtu.be/2V-fRcKbR2M I pray that atheist and agnostics have less trouble understanding religious conflict. They promote understanding of the "Golden Rule" taken from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Their ethical genesis is based on the beliefs and traditions of the faithful. But, they are blind to righteous truth that we are more than the forces of communal nurture. Many atheist believe that there is no Creator except themselves and random luck. Evolution comes from observing our common molecular and social past. Their harvesting of moral knowledge from faith belief of Creator commands is similar to an inorganic molecule next to an organic spark of life. The soft sciences of Atheist and agnostics cannot see their unintended agitating effects with faithful beliefs. Few truly understand conflict stems from the material possessions of greed. There is a vale to spiritual warfare they are not permitted to see. Only the outputs of good and evil are known to those without grace. The construct of Hashem does not interfere with the liberty of the rebellious and ignorant. We are all given free will to believe the testimony of the Righteous. But, we are not given discernment unless we first accept in a higher power, then and only then, can we begin a path of obtaining wisdom. And as quickly as we receive grace, it can be lost again, never to be found. The first tenet is humbling our minds to know that our Creator is also our Destroyer. It wise for a believer to fear a being that can turn something into nothing. As above, so below. It is wise for an unbeliever to fear those that can do harm to us. The second tenet is realizing that our Creator and Destroyer freely gives mercy and love to those that do the same during our physical existence. As above, so below. It is considered wise to forgive those that trespass against us. Many atheist and agnostic rebel against faithful understanding and categorize it into a psychosomatic mental disorder. Anyone that converses with G-d should medically treated to stop his voice in our head. At the same time many atheist and agnostic embrace the esoteric works of artists that help give purpose to living. Nonsense talking sense. Sense talking nonsense. It is all semantic babble. The only value comes from understanding wisdom. http://www.esotericarchives.com/oracle/oraclez.htm http://iranpoliticsclub.net/culture-language/mythology2/ http://omegafoundation.siriuscomputing.net/Poetry/I.htm http://theheavensdeclare.net/ MerKaBa is the sphere where the trinity is united. In ancient Egypt this trinity was called the Ka-Akh-Ba
  23. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 The True Wisdom of Solomon Ecclesiastes 1 It can be construed that King Solomon teachings reveal that it is better to focus on life of the living rather than our destiny with death. The righteous are 1 in a 1000. Not a very good ratio to for the common man to obtain. And according to Solomon women have a more difficult journey. He teaches about a Creator that all humankind has rebelled against, but his words show no belief in afterlife. Long life and peaceful death is reward enough. Not much has changed for those that do not accept the words of Jesus Christ. The above passage gives me sense that Professor Marvel of the Wizard of Oz is based on a wise King Solomon that markets legends his magic ring and carpet to get people to follow him. When in reality Solomon was a gifted man that lost his way encouraging pagan idolatry. SOLOMON TURNING TO IDOLATRY, Pierre Reymond, c. 1553-84, enamel on copper, 30 x 24 cm, acc. num. 44-197, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (by permission) Ancient Jewish Seal of Solomon Ring 13th-14th Cent AD. http://www.pinterest.com/djinnknight0065/magic-rings/ Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Riding a Flying Carpet, an 1880 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov Here Jesus clearly states that his Wisdom is greater than Solomon. Jesus is fully Hashem and fully man. Solomon is fully man and nothing more. Jesus was sinless throughout his life. Solomon was corrupted by sin and rebelled against Hashem. Therefore, Jesus is greater and Solomon is lesser. Solomon built the first temple. Jesus built the last temple within himself. John 2 Revelation 21 John 6 Tabernacle in front of the Blessed Sacrament Chapel at Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, Italy. A virtual tour of St. Peter's Basilica may be found here. LECTURE BY H.E. CARDINAL RATZINGER AT THE BISHOPS' CONFERENCE OF THE REGION OF CAMPANIA IN BENEVENTO (ITALY) ON THE TOPIC: "EUCHARIST, COMMUNION AND SOLIDARITY" Sunday 2 June 2002
  24. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 Colossians 3 Luke 14 Luke 12 There is no luggage rack on a funeral Hurst. Watch "You'll be there", by George Strait. Acts 2 I had an theological discussion with a Jewish lawyer about our faiths. He stated that Christians have it easy. All we have to do is believe in Jesus Christ and be saved. Jews on the other hand, have 613 laws and commands to follow or be cursed. Then there is the Talmud, Zohar, and Kabbalah to name a few Midrash commentaries that Jewish people have to discern whether or not their sages are stating the truth about understanding the Torah. Galatians 3 Dennis Kreiss is Pastor of Pine Grove Community Church and author of several books including "The Resurrection Files," wrote such a good article on understanding the meaning of the curse and redemption of Christ. Blasphemy! The Tachrichim Shrouds and Dressing Rectification of the soul is something new for me. Tikkun HaKlali (Hebrew: תיקון הכללי‎, lit., "The General (or Comprehensive) Rectification"), also known as The General Remedy, is a set of ten Psalms whose recital serves as teshuvah (repentance) for all sins — in particular the sin of wasted seed through involuntary nocturnal emission or masturbation. God indicated the tremendous power of the sexual organ. When it is used in the context of marriage, the sexual organ is elevated and man becomes a partner with God in creation. But when it is used for personal gratification, it distances a person from God and leaves him unfulfilled, frustrated and depressed. Note. The term "Selah" above has no grammatical connection with the psalm text. It is either a liturigico-musical mark or a sign of another character with a bearing on the intonation of the reading or the verbal form of the psalm. It is quite difficult for an atheist or agnostic to understand how a person of faith views human created laws. Atheist can only see that civil and common law has roots in faith based morality. Where ethics constantly change to the winds of opinion polls, moral law is constant for each faith. But, interpretation of moral commands of our Creator do lead to new branches of religious faith. The same can be said of the soft social and psychological sciences that derived for faith based discussions. They revise their beliefs based on the politics of their governing body and how the public perceives them. 1 Corinthians 10 I pray that atheist, agnostic, naturalist, humanist, materialist to stop worshiping our Lord's creation. The path path to rectifying our existence by humbling our pride knowing that we can become more than just grains of dust in Cosmic time. If one accepts she or here are nothing more than but dust nurturing the Tree of Life, then she or he get their wish and will revert to dust when they die. You are more than just dust in the wind. Read the true Wisdom of Solomon. The Philospher King explains the steps he took looking for grace. At the very least you will understand where the musical group Kansas got their inspiration from.
  25. The Didache (The Teaching) First Christian Catechism

    Chapter 5 Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Mezi'a 60b CHAPTER V Neshek, from 'to bite', denotes usury, 'bitten out', as it were, from the debtor, something received for nothing given. Tarbith, marbith, and ribbith from [H], 'to increase', denotes increase, profits. The question of the Mishnah is posited on Lev. XXV, 36: Take thou no neshek from him, nor tarbith. Babylonian Talmud Tractate Baba Mezi'a 61a Raba may refer to any one of the following Talmudic sages: Rava, (Hebrew: רבא‎) (ca. 270—350) Rabbah, (Hebrew: רבה‎) (ca. 270—ca. 330) Babylonian Talmud Tractate Baba Mezi'a 61b Indirect Interest is when a person having a direct or indirect financial interest in a management contract. Baba Mezi'a 62a Babylonian Talmud Tractate Baba Mezi'a 62b Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Mezi'a 63a Usufruct is a property right, deriving from Roman law, that unites the two rights of usus and fructus: Usus (usage) is the right to use or enjoy a thing possessed, directly and without altering it. Fructus (fruit, in a figurative sense) is the right to derive profit from a thing possessed: for instance, by selling harvest, renting real estate or devices, taxing for entry.. Usufruct is either titled to another person or held in common ownership, as long as the property is not damaged or destroyed. Usufruct comes from civil law, under which it is a subordinate real right (or in rem right) (ius in re aliena) of limited duration, usually for a person's lifetime. The holder of a usufruct, known as a usufructuary, has the right to use (usus) the property and enjoy its fruits (fructus). In modern term, fructus more or less corresponds to profit one may make, as when selling the "fruits" (in both literal and figurative senses) of ground or renting a house. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Mezi'a 63b We can thank the Babylonians for legal terms, forms, and interest. Babylonian contracts exist in the thousands, including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts, and most important of all, actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts. Historical inscriptions, royal charters and rescripts, dispatches, private letters and the general literature afford welcome supplementary information. Even grammatical and lexicographical texts contain many extracts or short sentences bearing on law and custom. The so-called "Sumerian Family Laws" are preserved in this way. Much Babylonian legal precedent remained in force, even through the Persian, Greek and Parthian conquests, which had little effect on private life in Babylonia; and it survived to influence Romans. The laws and customs that preceded the Code may be called "early"; that of the Neo-Babylonian empire (as well as the Persian, Greek, etc.), "late". The law of Assyria was derived from the Babylonian, but it conserved early features long after they had disappeared elsewhere. The god of a city was originally considered the owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner ring of irrigable arable land and an outer fringe of pasture; the citizens were his tenants. The god and his vice regent, the king, had long ceased to disturb tenancy and were content with fixed dues in naturalia, stock, money or service. Here is a good his history outline of usury by the Americans for Fairness in Lending, a former nonprofit organization dedicated to reforming the nation’s lending industry to protect Americans’ financial assets. It was launched in 2007 and dissolved in 2010. Watch the video "Godsmack - Greed" and ponder what is the meaning of idolatry in context with interest and possessions. Sully Erna is a practicing Wiccan. "We respect every other religion because we think all gods and goddesses are the same. People just worship them in a different way. Wicca is often mistakenly associated with evil, but we believe in Karma and if we do something bad it comes back to haunt us, as a godsmack!" The video for "Greed" is rather unusual for Godsmack in that it follows an actual story rather than loosely connected elements and aesthetics The world runs and involves on Greed. Milton Freedman believes that Greed rewards our labors. But, that argument fails with a growing population that has a lesser chance of gaining real property or tangible wealth from the few that inherit it. According to a 2007 article in Commentary magazine, Freedman's "parents were moderately observant [Jews], but Milton, after an intense burst of childhood piety, rejected religion altogether." He described himself as an agnostic. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second most popular economist of the twentieth century after John Maynard Keynes, and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century ... possibly of all of it." Friedman was an economic adviser to Republican U.S. President Ronald Reagan. His political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating U.S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment, and his support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. The effects of consumerism. The aftermath How much of our world's debt trash? Is it 80%? Only Hashem knows. The made-made idol of Mammon is hidden in plain sight.