Human Swine Influenza Outbreak Investigation - Symptoms
Posted 26 April 2009 - 04:06 AM
The flu is characterized by a collection of symptoms that can often occur suddenly, including:
Fever (higher than 100° F)
A fever occurs when your body temperature increases in response to illness or injury. Your temperature is considered elevated when it is higher than 100°F.
Body chills that are not related to a cold environment can be a sign of the flu.
A headache associated with the flu may appear suddenly, and be related to body aches or nasal congestion you're experiencing.
It's normal to feel tired at the end of a long day or when you don't get adequate sleep, but unexplained tiredness can be a sign of the flu.
Know your cough. A productive cough (coughing up mucus) is common with a cold, while a non-productive or dry cough (with no mucus) is associated with the flu.
Swelling in the throat can lead to a sore throat.
Runny nose may also occur but is more common in children than adults.
While it is normal to feel body aches from physical overexertion, body aches that are sudden and unexplained can be a sign of the flu.
Stomach symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are more common in children than in adults
Chest discomfort is often severe with the flu.
Think you might have the flu? Or does someone you know have it?
The typical incubation period, the time between when a person is first exposed to an infectious disease to when signs and symptoms develop, for seasonal influenza is 1-4 days, with an average of 2 days.
Adults can be infectious from the day before symptoms begin through approximately 5-7 days after illness onset.
Children can be infectious for more than 10 days after the onset of symptoms.
Severely immunocompromised persons can be infectious for weeks or months.
Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in the U.S. in San Diego County and Imperial County, California as well as in San Antonio, Texas and Kansas. Internationally, human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in Mexico. Investigations are ongoing to determine the source of the infection and whether additional people have been infected with similar swine influenza viruses.
In the Federal District of Mexico, surveillance began picking up cases of influenza-like-illnesses starting on March 18th, 2009. The number of cases has risen steadily through April and as of April 23rd, there were more than 854 cases of pneumonia from the capital. Of those, 59 have died. In San Luis Potosi, located in central Mexico, 24 cases of influenza-like-illness, with three deaths, have been reported. And from Mexicali, near the border with the United States, four cases of influenza-like-illness, with no deaths, have been reported.
The majority of these cases have occurred in otherwise healthy young adults. Seasonal influenza normally affects the very young and the very old, but these age groups have not been heavily affected in Mexico based on the information above.
CDC has confirmed that seven of 14 respiratory specimens sent to the CDC by the Mexican National Influenza Center are positive for swine influenza virus and are similar to the swine influenza viruses recently identified in the US among residents of California and Texas.
The Swine Influenza A/H1N1 viruses characterized in this outbreak have not been previously detected in pigs or humans. The viruses so far characterized have been sensitive to oseltamivir, but resistant to both amantadine and rimantadine.
Oseltamivir is indicated for the treatment of infections due to influenza A and B virus in people at least one year of age, and prevention of influenza in people at least one year and older.
LIMIT SOCIAL INTERACTION
Posted 26 April 2009 - 10:19 AM
Texas 2 cases
Kansas 2 cases
TOTAL COUNT 11 cases"
Nothing to get alarmed about.
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Posted 27 April 2009 - 12:00 PM
Do any swine have the virus that has infected humans?
There is no evidence at this time that swine in the United States are infected with this virus strain.
Can I get this new strain of virus from eating pork or pork products?
According to USDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food so you cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills all viruses.
The USDA suggests, as it has in the past, cooking pork and pork products to the proper internal temperature and preventing cross-contamination between raw and cooked food is the key to safety. You should:
Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling raw pork;
Prevent cross-contamination by keeping raw pork away from other foods;
After cutting raw meat, wash cutting board, knife, and countertops with hot, soapy water;
Sanitize cutting boards by using a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water; and
Use a food thermometer to ensure pork has reached the safe internal temperature of at least 160 °F to kill foodborne germs that might be present.
Can I get this flu by touching pork that is not yet cooked?
There is no evidence at this time that the virus is in swine or that touching uncooked pork could infect someone with the virus.
What is this flu that people are talking about in the news?
It is a new strain of flu that consists of a mixture of genetic material from swine, avian and human influenza viruses.
Is USDA testing and monitoring to make sure swine are not infected with the virus and if so, how?
A network of Federal veterinarians, state animal health officials and private practitioners are regularly involved with monitoring U.S. swine for signs of significant disease.
To date, there have been no reports that the influenza virus currently causing illness in humans is circulating anywhere in the U.S. swine herd.
As a proactive measure, USDA is reaching out to all state animal health officials to affirm they have no signs of this virus type in their state.
USDA has put U.S. pork producers on a high alert for safety.
How will the public be notified if the government finds that people should not eat swine?
Delivering factual, timely information is a priority for USDA. Should there be a detection of influenza in the U.S. swine herd, those results would be shared with the public in a timely fashion.
Can you get this flu from being around or touching swine?
The CDC says that the spread of swine flu can occur in two ways:
Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses.
Through contact with a person with swine flu. Human-to-human spread of swine flu has been documented also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.
Is my potbelly pig in danger?
Can I get it from my pet?
There is no evidence at this time that the virus is in U.S. swine.
Swine owners should learn the warning signs of swine influenza. Signs of swine flu in pigs can include sudden onset of fever, depression, coughing (barking), discharge from the nose or eyes, sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and going off feed. If your pig is showing any of these signs, call your veterinarian.
Buy your animals from reputable sources and ensure that you have documentation of your new pet's origin. Be sure that you get your new animals checked by a veterinarian.
Keep your pigs and areas around them clean. If you have been around other animals, make sure that you clean your shoes, clothing, and other items. And don't forget to wash your hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling your pet.
How do we ensure that we take the appropriate measures to protect our swine?
We encourage commercial pork producers to intensify the bio-security practices they've long had in place. They should not loan equipment or vehicles to or borrow them from other farms. Swine from outside sources, such as live bird markets should not be brought back to the farm.
They should permit only essential workers and vehicles to enter the farm. Swine workers should disinfect their shoes, clothes and hands. They should thoroughly clean and disinfect equipment and vehicles entering and leaving the farm and avoid visiting other livestock farms without proper cleaning and disinfection.
Also, they should report sick animals immediately. The industry understands the importance of eradicating the virus as quickly as possible to protect the industry.
Is there a vaccine for humans for this new strain?
The CDC should answer any questions about a vaccine. According to the CDC, there is no vaccine to protect humans from this new variant swine flu. Go to www.cdc.gov for more information.
Posted 28 April 2009 - 01:43 PM
Posted 28 April 2009 - 01:45 PM
Posted 28 April 2009 - 01:51 PM
IF YOU DO GO OUT, IT PROVIDES GUIDANCE INTO HOW YOU CAN INTERACT SAFELY IN THE COMMUNITY.
IT PROVIDES RECOMMENDATIONS IN TERMS OF CONTACT, AVOIDING CROWDED PLACES AND TRYING TO STAY HOME AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. IT TALKS ABOUT THE CLOSURE OF A SCHOOL OR DISMISSAL OF STUDENTS AT A TIME WHEN THERE′S AN IDENTIFIED CASE IN THE SCHOOL. AGAIN, THIS IS OUT OF AN ABUNDANCE OF WHERE THERE′S BEEN ADDITIONAL TRANSMISSION AND IT TALKS ABOUT OTHER GATHERINGS. WE KNOW THAT IN SOME COMMUNITIES WHERE THERE′S BEEN A CASE, THEY′VE CANCELED SCHOOL FUNCTIONS RELATED TO THAT AFFECTED SCHOOL. WE THINK THAT MAKES SENSE.
ALL OF THESE GUIDELINES NEED TO BE TAILORED BASED ON THE LOCAL SITUATION AND WE EXPECT TO SEE AND IT′S APPROPRIATE TO SEE DIFFERENT APPLICATION OF THESE GUIDANCES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.
I -- I ALWAYS LIKE TO MAKE THE POINT THAT CONTROL OF AN OUTBREAK OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IS A SHARED RESPONSIBILITY AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT INDIVIDUALS NEED TO DO AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT COMMUNITIES NEED TO DO AND THERE ARE THINGS THAT THE GOVERNMENT NEEDS TO DO AND IT′S IMPORTANT THAT INDIVIDUALS REALIZE THEY HAVE A KEY ROLE TO PLAY IN REDUCING THEIR OWN LIKELIHOOD OF GETTING INFECTED. THOSE ARE THE TYPICAL GUIDELINES FOR RESPIRATORY INFECTION. FREQUENT HAND WASHING IF YOU DON′T HAVE ACCESS TO SOAP AND WATER AND ALCOHOL GEL AND COVERING YOUR COUGH OR YOUR SNEEZE, THAT′S VERY IMPORTANT.
IF YOU′RE SICK, AND IF YOU HAVE A FEVER AND YOU′RE SICK OR YOUR CHILDREN ARE SICK, DON′T GO TO WORK AND DON′T GO TO SCHOOL. THAT CAN HELP REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD THAT YOU WILL SHARE THAT INFECTION, BUT IT′S ALSO TIME FOR PEOPLE TO BE THINKING ABOUT,
WHAT WOULD I DO IF MY CHILD′S SCHOOL WERE CLOSED?
WHAT WOULD I DO FOR CHILD CARE?
WOULD I BE ABLE TO WORK FROM HOME?
IT′S TIME TO THINK ABOUT THAT SO THAT YOU′RE READY IN THE EVENT THAT THERE WERE A CASE IN YOUR CHILD′S SCHOOL. IT′S TIME FOR BUSINESSES TO REVIEW THEIR PLANS AND THINK ABOUT WHAT WOULD I DO IF SOME OF MY WORKERS COULDN′T COME TO WORK? HOW WOULD MY BUSINESS FUNCTION? THINK ABOUT THAT.
THERE′S BEEN TREMENDOUS PLANNING THAT′S BEEN GOING ON AROUND THE COUNTRY OVER THE PAST NUMBER OF YEARS. IT′S TIME FOR PEOPLE TO REVIEW THOSE PLANS AND THINK ABOUT WHAT THEY WOULD DO.
IT′S TIME FOR SCHOOLS AND FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS TO THINK ABOUT AS WELL, WHAT WOULD I DO IF THERE WERE AN ONGOING OUTBREAK IN MY COMMUNITY.
HOPEFULLY THIS OUTBREAK WOULD NOT PROGRESS, BUT LEANING FORWARD AND THINKING ABOUT WHAT YOU WOULD DO IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES CAN UNDERTAKE RIGHT NOW. IT MATTERS LESS WHAT WE CALL THIS THAN WHAT ACTIONS WE TAKE, AND WE ARE ACTING AGGRESSIVELY BASED ON WHAT WE KNOW TODAY AND WHETHER THE TERM CHANGES, THAT′S NOT GOING TO CHANGE OUR APPROACH TO THAT SITUATION AND THAT′S A VERY IMPORTANT POINT. WE TRIGGER OUR ACTIONS BASED ON WHAT′S GOING ON IN THE COMMUNITY AND NOT BASED ON WHAT LABEL IS PUT ON A PARTICULAR OUTBREAK. THERE′S NO SINGLE ACTION THAT WILL CONTROL AN OUTBREAK, BUT THE COMBINED ACTIONS THAT WE ARE PROPOSING AND THEY′RE BEING UNDERTAKEN AROUND THE COUNTRY WILL HELP TO STEM THE TIDE OF ANY INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAK AND THIS ONE IN PARTICULAR. I WANT TO REITERATE THAT EVERYONE HAS A RESPONSIBILITY AND IT′S BEEN ABSOLUTELY INCREDIBLE TO SEE PEOPLE AROUND THE COUNTRY STANDING UP AND TAKING RESPONSIBILITY AND DOING THE THINGS THAT THEY NEED TO DO TO HELP REDUCE THE IMPACT OF THIS OUTBREAK. I WANT TO RECOGNIZE THAT MUCH IS UNKNOWN.
I KNOW SOME PEOPLE FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE HAVING A MASK AND THERE ARE CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE THAT MAY BE OF VALUE, BUT I WOULD RATHER PEOPLE REALLY FOCUS HAND WASHING, NOT GIVING THAT LITTLE KISS OF GREETING WHEN YOU′RE MEETING SOMEBODY RIGHT NOW. DOING THOSE SORTS OF THINGS AND COVERING YOUR COUGH AND YOUR SNEEZE AND THEN IF YOU FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE WITH A MASK, IF YOU′RE IN A COMMUNITY OR SETTING WHERE THERE′S ONGOING DISEASE TRANSMISSION AND THEN YOU CAN THINK ABOUT THAT, BUT THE OTHER THINGS WHERE THERE IS THAT EVIDENCE ARE THE THINGS WE′RE REALLY TRYING TO PUSH.
Posted 28 April 2009 - 03:22 PM
By the way;
Closing the Borders will not do any good, it already has left "Point of Origin".
OH!!!!I took the subway home today, and I sneezed and you should have seen the folks step away from me real fast. One of the few times I didn't feel crowded on the metro.
Just don't get paranoid about it. We ARE getting to the beginning of Allergy Season "Spring".
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:07 AM
Dr. Richard Besser said Wednesday health authorities had been anticipating that the virus would cause deaths, and said that "as a pediatrician and a parent, my heart goes out to the family."
But Besser said in a nationally broadcast network interview that it's too soon to say if the death in Texas suggests the virus is spreading to more states. Nor would he say whether officials think it will become a nationwide problem.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health officials are investigating swine influenza cases in people in several U.S. states, including Texas. Investigations are ongoing to determine the source of the infection and whether additional people have been infected with swine influenza viruses.
Case Count: DSHS has confirmed six human cases of swine influenza this year in Texas.
Counties with cases are: Dallas (3) and Guadalupe (3)
Earliest Known Onset Date: April 11
Latest Known Onset Date: April 24
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:29 AM
1.Whenever possible, rather than relying on the use of facemasks or respirators, close contact with people who might be ill and being in crowded settings should be avoided.
2.Facemasks should be considered for use by individuals who enter crowded settings, both to protect their nose and mouth from other people's coughs and to reduce the wearers' likelihood of coughing on others; the time spent in crowded settings should be as short as possible.
3.Respirators2 should be considered for use by individuals for whom close contact with an infectious person is unavoidable. This can include selected individuals who must care for a sick person (e.g., family member with a respiratory infection) at home.
California 10 cases
Kansas 2 cases
New York City 45 cases
Ohio 1 case
Texas 6 cases
TOTAL COUNT 64 cases
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:36 AM
Swine Flu is going to hit major population centers where there is greater density of people. A 1968 "Hong Kong" flu pandemic killed about 1 million people globally. The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate. In the United States, approximately 33,800 people died.
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:45 AM
Posted 29 April 2009 - 03:03 AM
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10 respirators per box
Posted 29 April 2009 - 05:08 AM
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:21 PM
The following countries have reported laboratory confirmed cases with no deaths - Austria (1), Canada (13), Germany (3), Israel (2), New Zealand (3), Spain (4) and the United Kingdom (5).
Further information on the situation will be available on the WHO website on a regular basis.
WHO advises no restriction of regular travel or closure of borders. It is considered prudent for people who are ill to delay international travel and for people developing symptoms following international travel to seek medical attention, in line with guidance from national authorities.
There is also no risk of infection from this virus from consumption of well-cooked pork and pork products. Individuals are advised to wash hands thoroughly with soap and water on a regular basis and should seek medical attention if they develop any symptoms of influenza-like illness.
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:33 PM
In October 2005, the Indian drug company Cipla announced their plan to begin manufacture of generic oseltamivir without license from Roche. Most patent laws allow governments to authorise supply from generic companies, subject to remuneration to patent owners to address public health problems, including emergencies, although Roche has announced its intention to remain the sole supplier of the drug. Cipla argues that it can legally sell oseltamivir to India and 49 other developing countries.
In November 2005, U.S. President George W. Bush requested that Congress fund US$7.1 billion in emergency spending for flu pandemic preparedness (the Senate had already passed an US$8.1 billion bill). Bush's plan included US$1.4 billion for government purchases of antiviral drugs.
There are concerns that oseltamivir may cause dangerous psychological, neuropsychiatric side effects including self harm in some users. These dangerous side effects occur more commonly in children than in adults.
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:38 PM
This medication was designed to attack the infected host cells, preventing the virus from spreading throughout other cells in the body and thus reducing the amount of time the virus can survive.
Relenza is a safe and effective treatment for influenza, but must be administered soon after the first symptoms appear. Six to 12 hours is ideal. In most countries the drugs can only be obtained with a doctor's prescription, and usually the time taken to get a prescription renders them ineffective (Professor Graeme Laver,2007)
A further limitation is the poor oral bioavailability of zanamivir. This meant that oral dosing was impossible, limiting dosing to the parenteral (that is, intravenous) routes. This restricted its usage when treating the elderly because it may induce bronchospasm (F.G. Hayden, 2001). Zanamivir, therefore, is administered by inhalation - a route that was chosen for patient compliance with therapy. But this route of administration is not acceptable to many in the community.
Zanamivir is specific to the influenza virus, has not been known to cause toxic effects, and does not spread around through the body's systemic circulation. It also shows no signs of viral resistance. However, due to a lack of reports or evidence about its toxicity, the FDA does not license it for use in children under 7 years of age.
The FDA has issued a Public Health Advisory warning that it has received reports of respiratory problems following inhalation of Relenza by patients with underlying asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Relenza package insert contains precautionary information regarding risk of bronchospasm in patients with respiratory disease.
Posted 29 April 2009 - 02:43 PM
It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1966 as a prophylactic agent against Asian influenza and eventually received approval for the treatment of Influenzavirus A in adults.
Amantadine has been associated with several central nervous system side effects, likely due to amantadine's dopaminergic and adrenergic activity, and to a lesser extent, its activity as an anticholinergic. CNS side effects include nervousness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and exacerbations of pre-existing seizure disorders and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease.
In 2005, Chinese poultry farmers were reported to have used amantadine to protect birds against avian influenza. In western countries and according to international livestock regulations, amantadine is approved only for use in humans. Chickens in China have received an estimated 2.6 billion doses of amantadine. Avian flu (H5N1) strains in China and southeast Asia are resistant to amantadine, but strains circulating elsewhere seem to be sensitive. If amantadine-resistant strains of the virus spread, the drugs of choice in an avian flu outbreak will probably be restricted to the scarcer and costlier oseltamivir and zanamivir, which work by a different mechanism and are less likely to trigger resistance.
Early in the 2005/2006 flu season, the United States' Center for Disease Control [CDC] found rates of amantadine resistance to be much higher than in previous seasons. Looking at samples from 26 states yielded the following findings:
A resistance rate of 92% for the major flu strain was called "alarmingly high". The CDC issued an alert to doctors not to prescribe amantadine any more for the season. Among some Asian countries, A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 resistance has reached 100%.
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