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    Actual reality?????

    16 - The Almighty said: (Ikhalqkm in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation of the creature in the darkness of three meaning) 6: - It was not Mohammed a doctor, and he could not dissect a pregnant woman, and did not receive lessons in Anatomy and Embryology, and even did this science known before the nineteenth century, the meaning of the verse is quite clear Modern science has proven that there are three membranes surrounding the fetus These are: - First: the membranes that surround the conjoined fetus is composed of the membrane that makes up the lining of the uterus and placental membrane and membrane TB and these three membranes form the darkness first sticking together. - Second: the wall of the womb and the second is the darkness. Third: the abdominal wall and the third is the darkness. Where to Muhammad Muhammad, peace in this medical information??? 17 - The Almighty said: (Do you not see that Allah drives clouds? Then He brings them together, then He makes them into a mass, and you see the rain emerge from within it. And He sends down from the sky, mountains [of clouds] within which is hail, and He strikes with it whom He wills and averts it from whom He wills. The flash of its lightening almost takes away the eyesight. ) light 43: - Scientists say: begin to form cumulus clouds in several cells a few snippets of cotton blown by wind to incorporate some of them in some of the problem of cloud giant a mountain as high as 45 thousand feet and the summit will be a cloud too cold for the base, and because of this difference in temperature created eddies leads to the formation hail at the height of the cloud shape km mountainous lead to electrical discharges fired sparks spectacular light affect pilots in the sky including page called (the temporary blindness) and this is what the verse perfectly. Is Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace can come of this information is accurate as of him??? 18 - The Almighty said: (and they stayed in their Cave three hundred years and adding nine) Cave 25: - The meaning of the verse is that the people of the cave had stayed in their cave 300 years, solar and 309 lunar years, and was sure to mathematicians that the solar year is longer than the lunar year is 11 days, if we multiply the 11-day 300 years the result is 3300 and dividing this figure by the number day of the year (365) output becomes 9 years. Would the prophet Mohammed peace be upon him to know the length of stay of the people of the cave lunar and solar calendar??? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pzqB2dROfZ8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJHzwJrRC08 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7wtmtuygPg
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    Actual reality?????

    12 - The Almighty said: (and we send the winds fertilizing) Al-Hijr 22: - And this is proven by modern science as the benefits of wind they carry the pollen grains to pollinate the flowers that will later bear fruit, it is told Muhammad, peace be upon him, and that the wind is inoculated flowers? Is not that evidence that this Qur'aan is the word of God??? 13 - The Almighty said: (more mature skin Bdlnahm skins to taste the punishment) of women 56: - And modern science has proven that the particles competent physical pain and heat are present in the skin layer alone, and with that the skin will burn with what is beneath the muscles, etc., but the Koran does not mention it because the pain is specific to the skin layer alone. It is told Muhammad to this medical information? Is not God?? 14 - The Almighty said: (or Kzlmat in a dark place fraught with waves topped by waves, topped by clouds of darkness on each other if they are removed his hand was barely sees and of God did not make him light his final abode of light) the light 40: - Could not ancient man to dive more than 15 meters because it was unable to survive without breathing more than two minutes and because the veins of his body would explode from the pressure of the water and after that there submarines in the twentieth century, scientists found that the seabed very dark and discovered that each sea Xie two layers of water, the first is very deep and dark and covered by the waves very moving and another layer surface and is also a dark and covered by waves that we see on the surface of the sea, and was surprised the American world (Hill) of the greatness of the Quran and raised eyebrows when it was discussed with the miracle found in the second half of the verse he says: (the darkness of clouds on each other if they are removed his hand was barely seen) and said that such a cloud has not witnessed the Arabian Peninsula and this never bright weather does not occur only in North America, Russia and the States Scandinavian near the pole, and which were not discovered days of Mohammed may Allah bless him and grant him peace and must be the Holy Word of God. 15 - The Almighty said: (* Romans have been defeated in the lowest land) Romans 2-3: - The minimum land: spot lower on the surface of the earth and have overcome the Romans in Palestine near the Dead Sea, and when he discussed this verse with the geologist famous (Palmer) in the international scientific conference held in Riyadh in 1979 denied this immediately and announced to the world that there many places on the Earth's surface is lower asked scientists to make sure of his information, and to review the geographical Mkttanh surprised the world (Palmer) map of maps showing topography of Palestine and has been traced by the thick arrow points to the Dead Sea area and has written at its peak (the lowest spot on Earth's surface) were perplexed Professor and declared his admiration and appreciation, and stressed that this Quran must be the word of God. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8EOj_Rgk24 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5LoLQgPT24
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    Actual reality?????

    9 - The Almighty said: (and the mountains as pegs?) Report 7, and the Almighty said: (and Throw me in the earth lest it should shake with you) Luqman 10: - Since the earth's crust and from the mountains and plateaus and deserts over the depths of liquid and soft animation (known as Layer cinema), the earth's crust, and what it Westmead and constantly moving and will result in movement of cracks and huge earthquakes destroy everything .. But this did not happen .. Why? - Has been shown recently that two-thirds of any mountain rooted in the depths of the earth and in the (layer cinema) and only a third of a prominent above-ground therefore likeness of God Almighty mountains that hold the tent peg land as in the previous verse, and has made these verses at the Muslim youth, which was held in Riyadh in 1979 and has astonished professor America (Palmer) and the world geological Japanese (Slardo) and they said it is not reasonable in any way to be the words of a human, especially that it was said 1400 years ago because we did not arrive at the scientific facts only after extensive studies with the aid of technology of the twentieth century that were not in an era when there was ignorance and underdevelopment throughout the land) also attended the discussion of the world (Frank Bryce) Counsel American President (Carter) and specialized in geology and the sea and said, agape can not Mohammed become familiar with this information and must be the pinnacle of them is the creator of this universe, the knower secrets and laws and designs). 10 - The Almighty said: (view of the mountains and thinkest them firmly fixed and are going through a cloud over the work of God, who disposes of all things) till 88: - We all know that mountains are stationary in place, but we if we rise from the earth away from the attractiveness and atmosphere we will see the earth revolves rapidly (100 mph) and then we will see the mountains and to be going functioning of the clouds means that the movement is not self but of the motion of the Earth just like clouds, which does not move himself, but driven by the wind, and this is evidence of the movement of the Earth, who told Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace this? Is not God?? 11 - Almighty said: (Marj Bahrain meet them * do not transgress isthmus) Rahman: 19-20: - Has been shown through recent studies show that each sea its own special characteristics which distinguish it from other seas Khdp salinity and weight Allen awareness of water until the color of which varies from one place to another because of variations in temperature and depth and other factors, and stranger than this discovery of the delicate white line is taking shape by the confluence of water, Bahrain each other and this is exactly what is stated in the previous verses, and when discussed in the Qur'anic text with the world of the U.S. Professor of the Sea (Hill) and also the German geologist (Schroeder) responded, saying that this divine science one hundred percent and its trunks between and it is impossible for a person my mother's simple Kmamed be mastered this knowledge in an age dominated by the backwardness and ignorance. Is 75% of the Qu'ran a Copy of the Bible? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9MBJQF23p4 Ahmed Deedat Answers: "Corruption in Bible or Quran?" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVZ7MLQorwA
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    Actual reality?????

    Ahmed Deedat and Samuel Green https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJzBg955fvI Ahmed Deedat Answer - Mystery of the Godhead or is God Purely One? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Td5eixsYcyc Did you Read bible Properly..? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2T173I9z_SQ
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    Actual reality?????

    5 - The Almighty said: (the sun and a resting place for the estimation of Allah) Yassin 38: - And has proved by modern science that the sun traveling at 43200 miles per hour and as the distance between us and the sun 92 million miles, we see it fixed and does not move and was surprised Professor U.S. to hear the verse of the Koran and said, I find it very difficult to imagine that science Quran which to achieve these scientific facts which have not been able only recently. 6 - The Almighty said: (and who want to mislead him he makes his chest so narrow, as if breathging up in the sky) cattle 125: - And now when I get in an airplane and fly away with you and step up in the sky What do you feel? Do you feel tightness in the chest? Fberoik who told Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace so 1400 years ago? Did have a spacecraft of its own which could be unaware of this phenomenon physical? Or is it a revelation from God??? 7 - The Almighty and them is night, We withdraw therefrom the day, and if they are in darkness) Yassin 37, and the Almighty said: (and have adorned the lower heaven with lamps) King 5: - As indicated by the holy verses the universe is steeped in the dark dark and we were in broad daylight on the surface of the earth, and I have watched the scientists the earth and the rest of the planets of the solar lit in broad daylight while the heavens around submerged in darkness it is if he knows days of Muhammad God and peace that the darkness is the case dominates the universe? And that these galaxies and stars are not only lights a small and weak hardly dispel the darkness of the universe, plunging the surrounding seeming Kzeinp lamps and no more? And when I read these verses to hearing one of American Scientists stunned admiration and increased admiration and surprise surprise majesty and greatness of the Quran and said it can not be mentioned except in the words of sucking mm of the universe, the knower secrets and Dakkaigah. 8 - The Almighty said: (and made the sky a roof preserved) Prophets 32: - And has proved by modern science and the existence of the Earth's atmosphere, which is protected from harmful solar rays and meteorites destroyed when touching these meteorites the Earth's atmosphere, it is raging because of friction with the tags seems to us the night in the form of blocks, a small flare fell from the sky very quickly, estimated at about 150 miles in the second and then extinguished quickly and disappear, and this is what we call Balchb, who told Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace that the sky Calcagaf save Earth from meteorites and solar radiation harmful? Is this not evidence that peremptory this Qur'an, when the creator of this great universe??? * [Holy] Quran : Top Scientists Comments on Scientific Miracles in the Quran * # Faith and Science # https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUUPYs0gElU
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    Actual reality?????

    'Ashoora’ is the 10th day of Muharram. On this day, the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) fasted in Makkah with Quraysh. When He migrated to Al-Madeenah, he found the Jews fasting on this day. He continued fasting on this day and ordered the Muslims to fast too. Afterwards, Allah legislated the fasting during the Month of Ramadan. Then, the fast of 'Ashoora’ became a supererogatory fast. But it is desirable for a Muslim to fast on this day. If one fasts on this day, it is better for him to fast on the 9th of Muharram as well in order to be different from the Jews. The pieces of evidence for this point are as follows: 1 - Imam Al-Bukhari and Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him reported that 'Aa’ishah may Allaah be pleased with her said: "The tribe of Quraysh used to fast on the day of 'Ashoora’ in the pre-Islamic period, and Allah's Apostle used to fast on this day too. When he came to Al-Madeenah, he fasted on this day and ordered others to fast too. Later, when fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, he (the Prophet) said: "Whoever wishes to fast 'Ashoora’, he may do so, and whoever wishes not to fast it, he may do so as well”. 2 - Ibn ‘Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him narrated: When the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) came to Al-Madeenah, he found the Jews fasting on the day of 'Ashoora' (i.e. 10th of Muharram). They used to say: “This is a great day on which Allah saved Moses and drowned the folk of Pharoah. Moses observed the fast on this day as a sign of gratitude to Allah. Thereupon, the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "I am closer to Moses than them". So, he observed the fast (on this day) and ordered the Muslims to fast on it". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] 3 - It is reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Muslim that Ibn 'Abbas may Allaah be pleased with him said: "I never saw the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, (the day of 'Ashoora’) or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.” Moreover, Imam At-Tirmithi narrated from Abu Qatadah that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) said: ''I hope from Allah that the fast on the day of 'Ashoora’ atones for the sins of the preceding year." Imam Ahmad may Allaah have mercy upon him narrated that "it atones the sins of two years, past and subsequent year". 4 - Imam Muslim reported that Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allaah be pleased with him narrated: “When the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) fasted on the day of ‘Ashoora’ and recommended that it should be observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him: “O, Messenger of Allah! It is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon, the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) said: ''When the next year comes, Allaah willing, we would observe the fast on the 9th. But the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) died before the advent of the next year". This is the guidance of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) regarding 'Ashoora’. His Companions and their followers followed his example. They have not distinguished this day by any practice except by fasting. But many acts done by some ignorant Muslims which "deform the face of Islam" have no evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah. These acts include celebrating this day, slapping one's face, tearing off one's clothes, using swords and blood-shedding. Indeed, none of these acts have any authentic relevance to 'Ashoora’; rather, they are pure innovations and bad deeds. The enemies of Islam use them to misrepresent Islam. All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger Fasting on Muharram Ashura - Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzUpohNwsbc اهمية يوم الجمعة عند المسلمين - ذاكر نايك Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2A-nuovkfGU .
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    Actual reality?????

    1 - The Almighty said: (Then He turned to the sky when it was smoke) separated 11: - Made these verses in the conference's scientific miracle of the Qur'an, which was held in Cairo, and when he heard a Japanese professor (Yoshidi Kosei) that verse got surprised and said, did not reach science and scientists to the stunning fact only recently, after the cameras caught the satellite strong images and movies live show and a star is composed of a large mass of thick dark smoke and then had (if our information, the former by these movies and live images were based on false hypotheses that the sky was fog) and said (this may be added to the miracles of the Quran miracle Amazing confirmed that you tell about it is the God who created the universe billions of years ago). 2 - The Almighty said: (not those who disbelieve known that the heavens(sky) and the earth were sewn together) of the Prophets 3: - I was stunned scientists in the Islamic Youth Conference held in Riyadh in 1979 peak when they heard the verse and said: It was really the early universe is a nebulous cloud of smoke gas potential contiguous then turned gradually to the millions of millions of stars filled the sky. Then told the American Professor (Palmer), said that what was said can not in any way be attributed to a person who died 1400 years ago because he did not have telescopes and not space ships help to discover these facts, it must be, who told Muhammad is God and has announced Professor (Palmer) his conversion to Islam at the end of the conference. 3 - The Almighty said: (and made from water every living thing ,do you not believe in) the Prophets 30: - And modern science has proven that any organism consists of a high proportion of the water and if he lost 25 percent of its water, it inevitably will die because all chemical reactions within the cells of any living organism is not only in aqueous medium. Where to Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace in this medical information?? 4 - The Almighty said: (and the sky we have built ,and still going wide) 47: - And modern science has proved that the sky continuously increase the capacity of it is told Muhammad may Allah bless him and peace of this fact in those times, backward? Would have telescopes and satellites?! Or is it a revelation from God, the Creator of this great universe??? Is not this irrefutable evidence that the Qur'an is God right??? مولاي صلي وسلم دائما ابدا _ماهر زين انجليزي https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZa65zrNqIw معنى الحياة - أقوى راب إسلامي انجليزي و أقوى رد على الملحدين https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxS5AUM5dXU كوني مسيحية , هل سأدخل الجنة ام النار ؟ للدكتور ذاكر نايك https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3moLM03VnFk
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    Actual reality?????

    Hijrah from Mecca to Madinah order from allah to the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him because Quraish hurt the Prophet and the Muslims Hijrah, in essence, is a process of transfer to a better situation. It is not meant to find a comfortable place where one would relax and stop endeavor (attempt). Rather, it is a search for an environment more favorable to continuous and constructive effort. Immediately after reaching Madinah, the Prophet undertook an all-embracing process to establish a faithful and strong society. This is a significant aspect and important lesson to learn from Hijrah. In the Glorious Qur'an, Allah, Most High, says, "Those who believe, and migrate and strive in Allah’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of Allah: they are indeed the successful people. Their Lord does give them glad tidings of a Mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure, and of Gardens where enduring pleasure will be theirs: They will dwell therein forever. Verily in Allah’s presence is a reward, the greatest (of all)." (Al-Tawbah 9: 20-22) The calendar year of Islam begins not with the birthday of our prophet (peace be on him), not from the time that the revelation came to him (Bethat) nor from the time of his ascension to heaven, but with the migration (Hijra) from an undesirable environment into a desirable place to fulfill Allah's command. It was migration from a plot that was set by the leaders of the Quraysh who were plotting to kill prophet Muhammad, and to destroy the truth that today is being conveyed to mankind everywhere against tyranny and injustice. Their purpose was to destroy the foundation of the Islamic state, the Sunnah of the tradition of the prophet, and to prevent the revelation being delivered by Allah's messenger to mankind. The Islamic calendar is reckoned from the time of migration (Hijra) of Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) from Mecca to Madina. The Prophet's decision to migrate from Mecca came after several years of inhuman treatment of the faithful by the powerful tribes who were united despite all their feuds to stop the spread of Islam. Prophet Mohammad's decision to leave Mecca coincided with the infidel's plan to assassinate him. In 622 AD, the Quresh tribesmen held a meeting and decided that a band of young men, one from each tribe, should assassinate Prophet Mohammad collectively so that their responsibility for the murder could not be placed on any particular tribe. On the eventful night, the Prophet asked his cousin Ali Ben Abutalib to take his place in bed to make the Meccans think that he was asleep. The Prophet himself slipped out unobserved alongwith his loyal follower Abu Bakr (who was chosen as the first C aliph after the death of the prophet). They secretly made their way to a cave named Thawr, not far from Mecca and lay in hiding there for a day or two until Abu Bakr's son reported that the search for him had been given up. Then the two set out from Madina on camel back. They reached Quba, on the edge of the Madina oasis, on 12th Rabiul Awwal. With Mohammad's arrival in Quba a new phase of his career and glory of Islam started. This migration has a special significance in the history of Islam. It ended the Meccan period of humiliation and torture and began the era of success. His own people to whom he preached Islam for 13 years neglected the Prophet of Islam. But he was cordially received in Madina as an honored chief. In Madina his power enhanced day by day. Here he was not only the religious leader but took the role of a politician and statesman too. Prophet Mohammad expired ten years after his migration to Madina but only in one decade he changed the course of human history. Our religious calendar is the Hijri calendar. It is important for us to keep in mind the meaning and significance of Hijrah. Islamic months begin at sunset of the first day, the day when the lunar crescent is visually sighted. The lunar year is approximately 354 days long, so the months rotate backward through the seasons and are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar. The months of the Islamic year are: 1. Muharram ("Forbidden" - it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight) 2. Safar ("Empty" or "Yellow") 3. Rabia Awal ("First spring") 4. Rabia Thani ("Second spring") 5. Jumaada Awal ("First freeze") 6. Jumaada Thani ("Second freeze") 7. Rajab ("To respect" - this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited) 8. Sha'ban ("To spread and distribute") 9. Ramadan ("Parched thirst" - this is the month of daytime fasting) 10. Shawwal ("To be light and vigorous") 11. Dhul-Qi'dah ("The month of rest" - another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed) 12. Dhul-Hijjah ("The month of Hajj" - this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed) Hijrah was one of the most important events in the history of Islam. It is for this reason `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) adopted Hijrah date to calculate years. Muslims chose Hijrah as the focal point to reckon their chronology. In physical terms, Hijrah was a journey between two cities about 200 miles apart, but in its grand significance it marked the beginning of an era, a civilization, a culture and a history for the whole mankind. Islam progressed not only from the physical Hijrah, but because Muslims took Hijrah seriously in all its aspects and dimensions. DR. ZAKIR NAIK, TV AL HIJRAH, MALAYSIA - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrEybmhapFg Hijra of the Prophet Muhammad SAWS By Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TebwAAyMfh8 Seerah of Prophet Muhammed 27 - The Hijrah - Emigration to Madinah - Yasir Qadhi | March 2012 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utKZzIWZ0I4
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    What happens now in the pilgrimage?

    احمد ديدات كيف تقلب الطاولة على المبشرين – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CnCJndgZ3U Ahmed Deedat - Why non muslims are not allowed in ... ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4d5WP1b8Jlk New: Know why non-Muslims are not allowed to enter ... ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mgd_zW0wMHM why not allow non-Muslims to go to Mecca - YouTube ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jjoc3Fhly0
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    What happens now in the pilgrimage?

    Prophet Ibrahim built this House for devout worship to one God. But within his lifetime people disobeyed his orders and began to put idols inside the Kaaba. Ibrahim had to clean the House of these idols and of Idle worshippers. He told the people that this was a symbolic house of God. God does not live there for He is everywhere. People did not understand this logic and no sooner had Ibrahim died the people, out of reverence, filled the place with idols again. They thronged to this place annually and worshipped their personal gods, It was over Four Thousand years later that the last of the line of prophet (SA), Muhammad Ibne Abdullah entered Makka triumphantly, went inside the Kaaba and, with the help of his cousin and son in law Ali Ibne Abi Talib, (AS) destroyed all the idols of Kaaba with their own hands. Allaah The Almighty preserved the Ka‘bah: The following incident is mentioned in Surah Feel of the Holy Quran and it happened during the period of the birth-year of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Abraha Al-Ashram was the governor of Yemen on behalf of the king of Ethiopia. He (Abrahah) thought to build a house (like the Kabah at Makkah) in Sana (the capital of Yemen) and call the Arabs to perform the pilgrimage there in Sana instead of the Kabah in Makkah, with the intention of diverting the trade and benefits from Makkah to Yemen. He presented his idea to the king of Ethiopia who agreed to it. So the house (church) was built and he named it Al-Qullais; there was no church of its like at that time. Then a man from the Quraish tribe of Makkah came there and was infuriated by it, so he relieved his nature (stools and urine) in it, soiled its walls and went away. When Abrahah Al-Ashram saw that, he could not control his anger and raised an army to invade Makkah and demolish the Kabah. He had in that army thirteen elephants and amongst them was an elephant called Mahmud which was the biggest of them. So that army proceeded and none amongst the Arab tribes that faced them (fought against them) but was killed and defeated, till it approached near Makkah. Then there took place negotiations between Abrahah Al-Ashram and the chief of Makkah (Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim, the grandfather of the Prophet), and it was concluded that Abrahah would restore the camels of Abdul Muttalib which he had taken away, and then he (Abrahah) would decide himself as regards the Kabah. Abdul Muttalib ordered the men of Makkah to evacuate the city and go to the top of the mountains along with their wives and children in case some harm should come to them from the invading oppressors. Then that army moved towards Makkah till they reached valley Muhassir. While the army was marching towards Makkah, in the middle of the valley, suddenly it was overtaken by flocks of birds, flocks after flocks, air-raiding that army with small stones slightly bigger than a lentil seed. There never fell a stone on a soldier except it dissolved his flesh and burst it into pieces. So they perished with a total destruction. Abrahah Al-Ashram fled away while his flesh was bursting into pieces till he died on the way (back to Yemen). Such was the victory bestowed by Allah, (the All-Majestic, All-Powerful) to the people of Makkah and such was the protection provided by Him for His House (Kabah in Makkah) What is inside the kaaba? There are two pillars inside (others report 3 pillars) There is a table on the side to put items like perfume There are two lantern-type lamps hanging from the ceiling The space can accommodate about 50 people There are no electric lights inside The walls and floors are of marble There are no windows inside There is only one door The upper inside walls of the kaaba were covered with some kind of curtain with the Kalima written on it. س11 - لماذا تركعون للكعبة ان كنتم ضد عبادة الاصنام؟ || مفاهيم خاطئة عن الاسلام - ذاكر نايك https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yO0JKkVJXwg لماذا لا يؤمن الاسلام بعبادة الاصنام ؟ - ذاكر نايك Dr Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVD3lKJxwWM
  13. eninn

    What happens now in the pilgrimage?

    Hajj Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam, Allah has imposed on the Muslims in the sixth year Hijri, one of the best works, was asked the Messenger of Allah 🙂 Any business better? He said: (faith in Allah and His Messenger). It was said: Then what? He said: (Jihad in the way of Allah). It was said: Then what? He said: (accepted Hajj (the pilgrimage which was mixed with sin.) _ [Agreed] And Aisha - may Allah be pleased - said: O Messenger of Allah Jihad see the best work do you not strive? He said: (No, but the best Jihad accepted Hajj) _ [Agreed]. The Hajj is an expiation for sins, he said 🙂 (of Hajj and does not and does not immoral act, he returned the day his mother bore him) _ [Agreed]. He also said: ('umrah to an expiation for them, and accepted Hajj brings no less a reward than Paradise) _ [Agreed] said 🙂 (Amar delegation of pilgrims and God, who goes, and they asked him to them gave He) _ [Bazaar]. Hajj and cleanses the soul and restores clarity and fidelity, and that it would be human to be patient and endure, and Hajj implanted in the soul the spirit of bondage full of God, and submission true to the law of God, and the pilgrimage leads a person to God grateful for the blessing of money and blessing of wellness. Hajj and lead to long relationship with the Muslims, including different colors, languages and home, and feel more strongly the Association of Islamic brotherhood, and helps to spread the call of Islam, as it is a popular conference to address the Muslims and to identify the conditions, and discuss their problems. The conditions of Hajj being obligatory: 1 - Islam, Hajj is not obligatory on the infidel. 2 - puberty, there must be a boy, even pilgrimage boy before puberty, is not acceptable for duty after puberty, but to perform Hajj once again, for saying 🙂 (Any boy Ag then reached Perjury (age of reference), he should do Hajj again) _ [ Tabarani]. 3 - the mind, not on the pilgrimage crazy, but do not correct it. 4 - freedom, there must not be a slave. 5 - Being, so that it is able to withstand the hardship of travel, and that he has enough is enough of having to beg until he returns. And women, like men in the conditions of Hajj being obligatory but it is essential that accompanied a husband or a mahram, or be with her trustworthy women . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGuFlzgmn74 HAJJ 2017 MAKKAH TAWAF LIVE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwVb_QkDj6c 1-Ihram 2- Tawaf around the Ka'bah 3-Sa'i between Safa and Marwah 4- Going out to Mina on the day of Tarwiah 5- Departure to Arafat On the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah 6- The departure from Arafat to in Muzdalifah 7- Stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah 8- Slaughter of Sacrifice 9- Shaving the head or trimming the hair 10- Tawaf Al-Ifadhah 11-The pilgrim should return to Mina and spend there the days of Tashreeq (i.e. the I I th, 1 2th and 1 3th day of Thul-Hijjah). 12- Farewell Tawaf http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7jyqxiM0Ek انبهار مذيعة CNN من تنظيم الحج في السعودية، ومدى فرحة الحجاج بأداء حجهم https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4oiQWGoZO4 تكبيرات العيد من الاذاعة المصرية جميل جدا https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XVcF4WC1UbA
  14. eninn

    What happens now in the pilgrimage?

    لبيك اللهم لبيك / 2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoLIlTZBlEw تلبية الحج ساعة كاملة بصوت عذب وجميل https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1I1u2Jw_W44
  15. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    Zakat is obligatory on goats, sheep, cows, buffalos and camels which graze on wild grass, plant leaves and on some feed now and then given by the owner, and on the above animals meant for sale. The Prophet (Pbuh) said: �By Allah in whose hand my life is, whoever had camels or cows or sheep and did not pay their Zakat, those animals will be brought on the Day of Resurrection far bigger and fatter then before and they will tread him under their hooves, and will butt him with their horns and (those animals will come in circle) when the last does its turn, the first will start again and this punishment will go on till Allah has finished the judgments amongst the people.� (Bukhari) ديدات المتطرف - لقاء مُسجل بكاميرا سرية – مترجم https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYCoyeQXty8
  16. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    The Prophet (Pbuh) said: On a land irrigated by rain water or by natural water channels or if the land is wet due to a near by water channel Ushr (i.e. one-tenth) is compulsory (as Zakat); and on the land irrigated by the well, half of an Ushr (i.e. one twentieth i.e. 5%) is compulsory (as Zakat on the yield of the land). A basic principle has been laid down for the Sadaqa (Zakat) in the agricultural produce. If the land is irrigated by artificial methods, one twentieth part (5%) of the yield is to be paid is irrigated by rainfall, streams, rivers, fountains or by the inner moisture of the earth, i.e., by natural resources of water, then one tenth (Ushr) 10% is to be paid as Zakat. There is some difference of opinion whether Ushr is levied on all types of agricultural yield or on some particular types. According to Imam Abu Hanafi, Zakat is to be paid on all types of agricultural yield, provided the aim of cultivation is to improve upon the land and make it more useful for growing of crops. Thus only fuel, bamboo, grass and trees which bear no fruits are exempted from Zakat. He considers Zakat to be compulsory even on vegetables and fruits, which according to some Hadith, are exempted from Zakat. The scholars have reconciled the two views saying that the exemption granted in case of vegetables implies that the proceeds of the Zakat are not to be sent to the Bait ul Mal, but the owner may himself distribute it among the poor. Ushr is to be paid at the time of harvest. Whereas in the other types of Zakat one should be in possession of the wealth for one complete year. القرآن الكريم والعلم الحديث كاملة The Quran and Modern Science full Zakir naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFO4G7zXlUI
  17. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    According to Malliki school of thought the Zakat on Bank deposit is liable for all the years. And it has to paid when the amount is received. On the provident fund, since the person does not have any power to claim it, so Zakat is liable at the time when it is received and it has to be paid for one year only. According to Shafie school of thought the Zakat on the Bank Deposit has to be paid every year. The Zakat on provident fund has to be made for all the years and it has to be paid when he is entitled to receive it, though he may claim it or not in time. Both these fall under the status of debt. According to Hanafi school of thought: Both of them are liable for Zakat for all the years and it has to be paid when out of it an amount equivalent to the value of 10 1/2 Tolas of silver or more is claimed. According to Hanbali school of thought also that Zakat is liable on both for all the years. It has to be paid when an amount equivalent to the Nisab or more is claimed. اخبرني بشئ في القرآن لم يكتشفه العلم بعد ؟ شاهد اجابة الدكتور ذاكر نايك https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6ZA4vc9-6A ملحد يحاور د ذاكر لماذا خلقنا الله وهو يعلم ان بعض الناس سيدخلون النار؟ Atheist Asking D-Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-2cdRov0fo
  18. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    If any wealth or property is held jointly by two or more persons, then according to Imam Abu Hanafi and Imam Malik Zakat is not obligatory on any person until each individuals share is equal to the value of the Nisab. Zakat on Silver, Gold, Currency and Shares. The minimum prescribed limit on which Zakat becomes obligatory on silver is 52 1/2 Tolas (634 grams), and of gold 7 1/2 Tolas (88 grams) and is known as Nisab. Zakat on silver or gold items is one fortieth of its weight, i.e. 2 1/2%. Zakat on silver or gold is not calculated on its value but on its weight. However if one possesses some gold and some silver and neither of them is in the prescribed limit, then it their total cost is equal to the price of 634 grams of silver, Zakat becomes due on it. Zakat is due on all the gold and silver ornaments, jewellery, and gold or silver lace woven into clothe, gold thread embroidered dresses for ladies, etc. Hadrat Umm Salmah says that she used to put on (gold) bracelets. When she asked the Holy Prophet whether it was Kanz (Hoarded wealth) he replied. � When a piece of property reaches upto the prescribed limit and Zakat is duly pain on it, it is not Kanz�. (Abu Dawood) Imam Abu Hanafi, his disciples and some scholars hold the above opinion. According to Imam Malik, Shafie, Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal and other scholars there is no Zakat on the woman�s ornaments. According to some other scholars the Zakat on ornaments is due only once in a lifetime. The difference of opinion among scholars is only on the ornaments in use by the woman, but there is a consensus among all the scholars that Zakat is liable on the excess of the ornaments held in possession as wealth. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdViBmBlgWE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1KcDQ2v2rQ
  19. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    Zakat is obligatory of every Adult free Muslim man and woman provided the above two conditions are fulfilled. According to Imam Malik, Shafie and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal, Zakat is obligatory of the wealth of the Minor and insane person, and it has to be paid by the guardian. Where as according to Imam Abu Hanafi it is not obligatory. Since Zakat is an act of worship the intention is a must and hence it is not obligatory on the wealth of a minor and the insane person. According to Imam Abu Hanafi and Imam Malik, the wife need not pay Zakat on the Mehr amount still due by her husband. However Zakat will have bo be paid on the amount she has claimed provided it is equivalent to or more than the Nisab and on which one year has been completed. According to Imam Shafie the wife has to pay the Zakat every year (though she herself is not claiming the Mehr, even though it can be claimed). According to Hanbali the Wife has to pay the Zakat for the entire number of years at the time when she gets it. All types of goods for sale, whatever may be its form, whether hand made or machine products or fruits or books or jewellery or clothes or cattle or property brought with the intention of buying and selling etc., are liable for zakat. Provided it is in one�s possession for one complete lunar year and the rate of zakat applicable is 2 1/2% on its total value. The prescribed limit on goods is after conversion, in terms of its value, the total amount thus evaluated must be equivalent to the price of 634 grams of silver. If less, then zakat is not obligatory . لماذا لا يسمح للمرأة ان تطلق زوجها في الاسلام ؟ - ذاكر نايك Dr Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87P0Lv166Bs تعريف الاله من غير القرآن - ذاكر نايك Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8sQbG8bjiLg هل من الضروري اعتناق الاسلام لدخول الجنة ؟ - ذاكر نايك Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HreBda_MUHU
  20. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    There are two conditions for Zakat to be obligatory on the wealth. 1. Being in possession of Nisab i.e. possessing property in excess of a minimum exemption limit. 2. On completion of one Lunar year on the wealth. According to Hanafi if a person possess wealth equal to or in surplus of Nisab in the beginning and at the end of the lunar year, (even though in between the year, the wealth was less than the Nisab), Zakat is obligatory, but if at the end of the lunar year if the wealth is less than the Nisab (though one had wealth equal to or in surplus during the year) zakat is not obligatory. According to Shafie the passage of one lunar year is a must on the wealth (Nisab) (in Hanbali almost a year). The zakat is calculated on the day on which a year is completed on that wealth (Nisab). Nisab: Zakat is paid on the surplus of wealth which is left over after the passage of a year(Lunar Year). It is thus a payment on the accumulated wealth, leaving our animal and agricultural yield. Zakat is pain at almost a uniform rate of 2 1/2%. The minimum standard of surplus of wealth over which Zakat is charged is known as Nisab. It differs with different kinds of property. In case of silver it is 52 1/2 Tolas (634 grams), in case of gold it is 7 1/2 Tolas (88 grams). The Nisab for cash is the same as that of gold and silver. لماذا يخلق الله المعاقين والفقراء - د ذاكر نايك Dr Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Me7-Gt9MWXs أيهما أفضل الدفن أم الحرق"ذاكر نايك"- which is better burn or bury https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxK35OMEtjE
  21. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    13* If a person deserving Zakat is thought to be embarrassed in accepting it, the Zakat money could be given to him as a gift or present on a suitable occasion; but the intention of the giver must be of Zakat at the time of giving the money. Similarly, to give Zakat money as a gift to the children of the poor is also permissible. 14* If a person owes you money and is unable to repay it on account of poverty, you cannot pay yourself his debt with your own Zakat money and consider that the obligation of paying Zakat has been discharged. Zakat money must be handed to the debtor and payment asked for thereafter. 15* The amount of Zakat given to any one person should not be less than what could satisfy his needs for atleast one day. 16* If Zakat money is given to a person whom you thought deserved it but later found out that he does not, the obligation of paying Zakat will be discharged and you will not have to pay Zakat again. 17* If a person is not entitled to Zakat and is given Zakat money, then he should refuse to accept it: or if given, he should return it to the giver immediately because it is forbidden for him to accept Zakat. 18* The first claim on Zakat money is of deserving relatives, then the deserving poor of the village, town, city or country in which one lives. If the needs of the people of another area are more deserving and urgent, the Zakat could be sent to them too. 19* If the giver is doubtful about the position of the person seeking Zakat, then he should not give his Zakat to him at all, because the giving of Zakat in such circumstances is not permitted. أجمل رد على الإسلاموفوبيا Best answer to Islamophobia ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1ivAgab6nE الحلقة 3 برنامج ( #وياكم3 ) محمد العوضي ( لقاء مع الأمريكي خا ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9bd8qwowCI
  22. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    7* The determination of the minimum Nisab on trade goods will be according to the value of the goods in cash which would purchase 7 1/2 tolas of gold (88 gram) or 52 1/2 tolas of silver (632 gram). 8* When trading in partnership, each partner will be liable to pay Zakat on the proportion of the net share of profits coming to him which is added to his capital. 9* Zakat on shares owned by one shall be determined annually on the cash realisable market value of the shares, which must be included in the capital and Zakat paid on the total as required by Islam. 10* Persons who buy goods on credit for the purpose of trade must deduct the total amount of their debts and determine their net profits, and add these to their capital for calculating the payment of Zakat. 11* Money saved for Haj is also liable for Zakat if it is kept for a year or more and is within the Nisab. 12* If someone gives Zakat money to a person as a loan but makes niyyat (intention) of Zakat, then the obligation of paying Zakat will be discharged. He cannot thereafter collect the money given away as a loan. is belief enough - أسئلة دينية محيرة - د. بلال فيلبس - مترجم ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trdnkqE5MI4 وحدة الأديان - خالد ياسين - مترجم Peaceful Coexistence (Ca ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YYiEwy0Z68
  23. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    cases 1* If a person earns money from a fixed property but the whole amount is spent in the course of the year, then he does not become liable to pay Zakat. But if he has saved a portion of the income and if this saving reaches or exceeds the minimum Nisab limit, then he will be liable to pay Zakat, provided the amount in question remains in his possession for 12 months. (Lunar) 2* If a person owns buildings other than those meant for his own or his dependants use, and he has rented them out to others, the he will have to pay Zakat on the net income from the rent, provided the income is above the minimum Nisab limit and remains in his possession for 12 months. 3* The value of any vehicle used in the course of trade to earn a living is exempt from the obligation of Zakat. But the net income earned from its use, and which remains with the owner for one full year, will be subject to payment of Zakat. 4* There is no Zakat on farmland owned by a person, irrespective of the amount of its value or its size, provided it is not bought for speculation. 5* The capital involved in goods, properties and livestock owned for trade or commerce is subject to the payment of Zakat: that is, if a person began trading with a capital of Rs.50,000 and earned profits thereon, then he will have to pay Zakat on the total amount, and not just on the profits earned. 6* Therefore, a person having a capital of Rs. 50,000 and earned Rs. 50,000 profits in due course will have to pay Zakat on Rs. 60,000 (capital plus profit), which will be the total amount reflected in the balance-sheet. Who is eligible for Zakat? – Ramadan Essentials | Islamic Relief UK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgH_b1HpAug الحياة مثل ركوب قطار - الشيخ خالد ياسين (مترجم) Life Is Li ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8X2uGHGfPc
  24. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    Rulers established their legacy not only by building great structures, they also passed on Wisdom Sebayt (Teaching, Didache) to their offspring and future leaders on the concepts divinity and virtue. The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom literature in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty. James Henry Breasted credited Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health. Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life. The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. Sabayt Ptahhotep The Sebayt of Amenemope (Didache of Amenomope or Teaching of Amenemope) is pharonic wisdom literature thought to have been written by the Egyptian Pharoah Usermaatre Amenemope of the 21st Dynasty. This coincided during the time when the tribes of Israel first became a unified nation. In the prologue that Amenomope considered it extremely important for a ruler to know how to properly respond to his subjects and foreigners and follow the path of prosperity in life. Sabayt Amenemope Prologue It important that one seeking Sabayt pay strict attention to what is stated and learn how to control your tongue. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter I - The Sabayt The Chokhmah (Chinukh, Didache, Teaching) Meshlei (Proverbs) is Israelite wisdom literature thought to been written by King Solomon during his reign from 970 to 931 BCE. Solomon stressed wisdom begins with fearing our Creator. And understanding the teachings of the holy people brings insight on how to discern and respond to events around you. The knowledge you recieve it. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9 Similar to Amenemope, Solomon taught that a ruler should be on guard against seductive words of flattery that can influence unwanted actions. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 5 Solomon's father David taught that our Creator is the Shepherd of Creation like he was as a boy. It is our Creator's wisdom, not human that lead to a path of righteousness during our lives. If we stay on the Creator's path no evil shall fall upon us. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 23 In ancient Egyptian beliefs, serpents were considered both protectors and enemies of the people. The cobra is most often represented as the Uraeus, the fiercely protective serpent seen guarding the foreheads of Deities, kings, and queens. East of Alexandria, in the city of Dep the Uraeus was known as Wadjet, the serpent goddess often depicted as a cobra. The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. Wadjet is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a cobra's head, or as a woman wearing the Uraeus. The Uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus was the protector of the pharaoh and was believed to spit fire at enemies from its place on the forehead. Wadjet had a twin sister known as Nekhbet, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb) and later became the patron of Upper Egypt. She takes the form of woman with the head of a vulture, a woman with a vulture headdress or simply just white vulture symbolizing purity. Together, they represented the Uraeus – the two ladies (nebty) protecting the pharaoh and all of Egypt. When Egypt became one, these goddesses were believed to be present during the crowning of a pharaoh and their symbols were found the front of the crown itself. In this light, her role as a protector extended to common people as well. and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified. Apophis (Apep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter 8 : speak no evil The Literature Of Ancient Egypt The Story of Sinuhe Khnum was originally a water god who was thought to rule over all water, including the rivers and lakes of the underworld. He was associated with the source of the Nile, and ensured that the inundation deposited enough precious black silt onto the river banks to make them fertile. Khnum was similar to the the Creator's Holy Spirit as the Lord of Life of the body and the "ka" (spirit) of each newborn child. (52) his emotions & passions are constantly in a state of arousal ; Chapter 9 : avoid the heated CHAPTER 9 Chapter 10 : say what You think without injuring CHAPTER 10 Chapter 11 : abuse no poor Chapter 17 : do not corrupt the measure Chapter 21 : be reticent Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder), In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits. Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life. Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a Proverbs (especially the sentence literature of chs. 10ff. ) shows "a general parallelism of thought" with Egyptian and Babylonian Instruction. Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. The word literally means 'teachings' or 'instructions'[2] and refers to formally written ethical teachings focused on the "way of living truly". he book of Proverbs was principally written by King Solomon, David’s son, around 900 BC. Wisdom literature is one of the most important classes of texts from the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and sufficient examples survive to illustrate both the different national or cultural preferences and, at the same time, the underlying similarity of thought and expression Helck says, "that Proverbs 22:17-23:11 is largely dependent on the Teaching of Amenemope is now generally accepted".27 Erman demonstrated that the Teaching of Amenemope was closely parallel with the portion of Proverb sometimes subtitled "Words of the Wise" (22:17-24:22) the belly is the home of our passions, emotions, feelings and states of arousal & rest - our sage promotes tranquility ; He has mastered the "inner" conflict between his passions and his mind, namely between the icons of emotions and the symbols of proto-rational cognition, between "belly" and "heart". Egyptian Instructions (both pre-Demotic and Demotic) present collections of maxims and teachings on moral living, these max Amun is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400-2300) as a local god of Thebes along with his consort Amaunet. Amun as "The Obscure One" left room for people to define him according to their own understanding of what they needed him to be. A god who represented darkness could not also represent light, nor a god of water stand for dryness, etc. A god who personified the mysterious hidden nature of existence, however, could lend himself to any aspect of that existence; and this is precisely what happened with Amun. During the Twelfth dynasty, the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence. In the city of Thebes. Atum was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra. . In his role as Amun-Ra, the god combines his invisible aspect (symbolized by the wind which one cannot see but is aware of) and his visible aspect as the life-giving sun. In Amun, the most important aspects of both Ra and Atum were combined to establish an all-encompassing deity whose aspects were literally every facet of creation. Statue of the ram of Amun Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford This life-sized statue of a ram, the sacred animal of the god Amun, was one of a pair that flanked a threshold in Taharqa’s temple at Kawa c. 680 BC. The base is carved with a hieroglyphic inscription proclaiming the king to be the son of the god Amun. A small figure of Taharqa stands protected under the ram’s chin. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire Drusilla Dunjee Houston CHAPTER V. PREHISTORIC EGYPT, THE LAND OF WONDERS. Relief depicting the ram-headed Amun-ra on a shrine erected by Kushite King Taharqa in the court of the Temple of Amun built by him at Kawa in Nubia. Late Period, 25th Dynasty, 690-64 BC. NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS THE KINGDOM OF KUSH NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS p.16 Diodorus is an invaluable source on the history of Egypt and Ethiopia. What does he say about the Ethiopians? “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the fi rst of all men and proofs of the statement are manifest. For they did not come into their country as immigrants from abroad but were the natives of it and so justly bear the name of Autochone...Th ey that dwell beneath the noonday sun were in all likelihood the fi rst to be generated by the earth... it is reasonable to suppose that the region which was nearest was the fi rst to bring forth living creatures. And they say that they were taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifi ces and processions and festivals and other rites by which man honors the deity: and that in consequences their piety was published abroad among all men... they state by reason of their piety towards the deity they manifestly enjoy the favor of the gods, inasmuch as they have never experienced rule of an invader from; for from all time they have enjoyed a state of freedom abroad and peace with the other and though many powerful rulers have made war upon them, not one of them succeeded in this undertaking.” Th e fi rst Ethiopians who were mentioned in the bible were from the land of Kush (Cush), which according to the biblical tradition was a territory on the Upper Nile, south of Egypt; it was also later known as Nubia. Kush is the name of the eldest son of Noah and the territory inhabited by his descendants. Th e Kushites are the descendants of Noah who produced the sons: Shem, Ham, and Japhet, each with their own language, clan, and nation. According to Gen. 9:18, the three sons peopled the rest of the earth, which was indicative of the unity of humanity in the ancient mind. Ham’s son, Cush, went to Ethiopia; his son, Mizraim, went to Egypt; Canaan went to Canaan; Phut (Pwnt) went to Punt, which in Egyptian records, the fabulous land on the East coast of Africa, source of myrrh (which included present-day Somaliland, perhaps also Arabia. e Nag Hammadi Library is a collection of religious texts written by early Christians, known as Gnostics, who were excluded from the church as heretics. It is an invaluable source of Coptic lore, buried since 400AD in Nag Hammadi near Luxor in Egypt and discovered in 1945. Th e NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS 17 Apocalypse of Adam (v.5), one of the Nag Hammadi tracts cast a new light in the treatment of the fl ood biblical genealogy. “And God will say to Noah- whom all generations will call DeucalonBehold I have protected you in the ark. Th erefore I will give the earth to you and your son.” “Th en Noah will divide the whole earth among his sons Ham and Japhet and Shem. He will then say to them, “My sons listen to my words. I have divided the earth among you. But serve Him with all the days of your life. Let not your seed depart from the face of the Almighty.” “Th en others from the seed of Ham and Japhet will come Four thousand men, and enter another land and sojourn with those who come from the eternal knowledge. Th en the seed of Ham and Japhet will form twelve kingdoms of another people.”3 Th e strength of the Ethiopians or Kushites was detested to such a great degree, the prophet Isaiah, an agent of Yahweh (God), issued a proclamation to all: Disaster! Land of the whirring locust beyond the rivers of Cush, who send ambassadors by sea, in little reed- boats across the waters! NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 18 to a nation tall and bronzed, a mighty and masterful nation.33 We are told in the Old Testament when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the lord; she came to him with questions. Kings 10:11 Th e queen, who was a virgin and pure, learning about the history of the world, heard of Solomon’s wisdom and was curious to see what she had heard about, set on a long journey from Axum to Jerusalem, in those days when land and sea were not controlled by easy transportation. She proved his wisdom both material and spiritual. 4. And God gave her what she desired... and this gift was a conception of Menelik I, the son of Solomon who is from the tribe of Judah, the descendant of Abraham, and this Menelik was to rule after her, hence the motto “Th e conquering Lion of the Tribes of Judah” which motto is the basis of the country’s faith and key to their ancestry. I Kings 10:1-13 5. We are told in the New Testament that our Lord ...has praised her journey she made to hear the Wisdom of Solomon. Luke 11: 13. The Temple of Wadi es-Sebua “Es Sebua (“Th e Lions”) was the third temple built by Rameses II ninety- three moles from Aswan. Part of the temple is cut from rock. Rameses II dedicated the temple to Re- Harakhte and to Amun as he considered he was a god, by this time. He also worshiped in the temple. Th e entrance to the temple was formed by an avenue of Sphinxes (from which es-Sebua derives its name) that led up to the south pylon before which stood two colossal statues of Rameses II. At the far end of the sanctuary and above the solar bark on which the beetle-headed Re-Harakhte, the solar god is seated under a canopy while he is seated under a canopy while he is being adored on the left by the king and on the right by three baboons. Below is a niche that still shows traces of the three chiseled statues of the temples. Th ree principal gods are painted over the picture of St. Peter.92 Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1457) also campaigned in Nubia. Th utmose III, her youthful coregent and stepson supplanted her. Th e Queen ruled as a king with ceremonial beard and a fi rm hand for twenty years. Th e temple built at Deir el Bahri was the outstanding monument of her reign. Th e walls display her important trading expedition to Punt. However, it was Th utmose III who extended the Egyptian frontier to the foot of the Holy Mountain at Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract in his 47th regal year. His victory stele at Napata marked his triumph and the extent of the Egyptian frontier and in his temple of Amun-Re, he could boast of his satisfaction in both Egypt and Asia. Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten) (1352-1336) was a coregent with his father, Amenhotep the III, during his later reign. Amenhotep changed his name during his reign to Akhnaten, signifying his new devotion to the Sun god Aten, which was in confl ict with the Th eban god Amun, and the priesthood. Th e center of government remained at Th ebes while Akhnaten moved to Amarna with his beautiful wife Nefertari, and the adherents to the new religion that was a forerunner of Monotheism. Akhnaten built a temple at Karnak in honor of Aten. Th e gains made abroad were gradually diminished by lack of attention on the home front. Th e agreement of the factions of Aten and Amun seem to have begun under Semenekhara (1335-1332), who was coregent with Akhnaten for a short period. He was succeeded by Tutankhamon (1332-23) who was successful in returning the splintered worship of Amun to Th ebes. Th e death of Tutankhamon while still a youth made a place for an elderly noble named Ay (1323-1319) who legitimized his claim by marrying the widow of the deceased Alara’s prayer preserved in the Kawa VI relief refl ects his piety and his belief in the providence of the God Amun: O benefi cent god, swift, who calls upon him, look Upon my sister for me, a women born with me in one womb. Act for her (even) as you have acted for him [Alara] that acted For you , as a wonder, unpremeditated, and not disregarded by refl ective people. For you put a stop to him that plotted evil against me after you set me up as king A stela from Kawa, now located in the Ny Carlsberg Glypotek in Copenhagen, shows Alara making off erings to the god. Th e temple B at Kawa depicts the earliest post new Kingdom temple and affi rms that Alara was the fi rst signifi cant restorer of the Nubian Amun cult. Th e fi rst surviving sculptures of the dynasty are a series of ram sphinxes of heavy cut stone placed by Kashta by its pylon when he enlarged the mud-brick temple of Alara (B800) at Jebel Barkal. Kashta’s legitimacy as king was established through the installation of Alara’s sister as princess of Amun, which created the justifi cation for royal succession and facilitated the shared concepts of traditional Kushite practice with Egyptian concepts of kingship. Kashta was married to his sister Pebtatma indicated by her Abydos stela. Her roles are also given as Sistrum-player of Amen Re, King of the Gods, King’s sister, king’s daughter, mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Kashta was affi rmed king by the priests of Amun when he arrived in Th ebes. Adams posits that there was no suggestion of military activity connected with this visit. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. Pianhki’s genius as titular King of Egypt, liturgical wizard in the synthesis of Egyptian and Kushite concepts of order as priest, and military might as general is captured in his Great Triumphal Stela from the Gebel Barkal Temple of Amun in the year 727 B.C. which is now in Cairo. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the fi nest horses used in contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia. Th is splendid large stela of pink granite with a rounded top has a lunette relief which gives a pictorial summary of the event in the text that describes his wars fought under the protection of Amun bringing him the victory he envisioned. At the left of the lunette is Amun sitting on the throne with Mut the goddess standing behind Amun and Pianhki standing before him. King Namlot, of Hermopolis, is leading a horse in front of Pianhki shaking a sistrum in order to pacify him. Pianhki in the tradition of the pharaohs donated his tribute of war to the god NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 130 Amun which was vast: “a mass of copper or turquoise as large as yourself, fi nest horses, gold, silver, lapislazuli, property of all kinds, suits of apparel made of byssus of every quality, and couches and coverlets of linen, and anti perfume, vases of unguent, metal vessels or gold ornaments for the neck, crowns for your head, gold vases for ceremonies of purifi cation, precious inlaid stones...” At Kawa, Pianhki added a colonnaded forecourt where his stelae could be erected and pylons to the temple of Amun and built a paved processional road. On the walls of the temple, the ancient thirty-year Sed festival is depicted showing the king restoring his powers. At Kurru, he is entombed in a pyramid with subterranean chamber accessed by a stairway, and his wife Tabiry is buried nearby. Th e horses that he loved were buried as well at Kurru with elaborate trappings of silver and gold. Th e reign of the conqueror lasted 30 years. Pianhki is also remembered from the Sandstone Stela by his speech: ‘Th e Son of Re, lord of Diadems, “beloved of Amun, Pi(anh)ki says: Amun of Napata has granted me to be ruler of every foreign country. He to whom I say, you are chief, he is to be chief. He to whom I say ‘You are not king !’ he is not King . Amun in Dominion (Th ebes) has granted me to be ruler of Black-land. ...Gods make a king, men make a king, But it is Amun who has made me Th e earliest throne name of Pianhki, as Lord of Two Lands was indicative of his godship and kingship. Shabataka assumed the reign of the Kingdom of Kush and Egypt, following the death of his father. His attested wife was Arty, a daughter of Pianhki. Shabataka was enthroned at Th ebes in the great temple of Amun. His titulary included “Whose appearances -endure, Beloved of Ptah and Beloved of Amun. Th is ‘shadowy king’ falls through the cracks of history as so little has been found to affi rm his reign. Th e Karnak Nile level record, year three of Shabataka, records that he arrived at Th ebes, the compound of Amun on the fi fth day of the fi rst month of summer in his third regal year. ============================ Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I is presumed to be the Shishak (Shishak, Shishaq or Susac) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Sheshonq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3 All humans have been given the knowledge of good and evil. Our Creator bestowed Solomon the gift discerning whether the actions of others are good or evil. In return, the Creator had only the request that Solomon keep His statutes and My commandments. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 5 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 Ecclesiastes is presented as an autobiography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises Solomon's wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. One reason the Kohelet is identified as Solomon is that at one time Solomon was the king of Israel, and Ecclesiastes 1:1 identifies the Preacher as “king in Jerusalem.” Also in agreement with Ecclesiastes 1:1, Solomon was a “son of David.” Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 1 Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War President Abraham Lincoln Second Annual Message December 1, 1862 Egyptian influence on Israel was particularly strong in the reign of Solomon who became the son-in-law to an Egyptian Pharaoh. It has been suggested that Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between Israel and Egypt. Neterkheperre was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means 'son of Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen).' Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 King Solomon incorporated the teachings of Israel Egypt's Vizier Ptahhotep on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions. Ecclesiastes 10 Scripture presents Solomon had access to Egyptian and Babylonian literature. King Solomon's actions caused Israel to fall from the Creator's grace. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 11 Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 12 While Solomon did pay for his transgressions here on earth, his last word of wisdom does offer hope for his possible Salvation. Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: [ʃiʃaq], Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, translit. Sousakim) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I. Sheshonq I campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-12). According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE[2]), Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Kushites ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made;[3] Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones. According to Second Chronicles, Egyptian military conquests against Assyria and Israel, aided by Ethiopians are recorded in the Books of Kings, Acts, and the Chronicles. Mention is made of an Ethiopian army assisting Shishak ( Sheshonk) who ruled Egypt during the reign of Rehoboam, the King of Judah and the Son of Solomon. Shishak’s army swept across the land of Judah, with twelve hundred chariots and sixty thousand men, leaving in his wake fi re and destruction. Th e people of Lubim and Sukkim, and the Ethiopians are further described as a host with many horses and chariots. Subduing the Judeans in the south, Shishak continued north to Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the king which included all of the gold shields which Solomon had made.31 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 14 Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 12
  25. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11 Proverbs 16 The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess that was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives. The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality. 300 hundred years before Solomon, the Egyptian Royal scribe, Hunefer made a copy of the funerary Egyptian Book of the Dead for Pharaoh Seti I. Like the Creator in Judaism, Thoth gives long life on earth and the promise of eternal life in the after world to those who are just. Book of the Dead of Hunefer Chapter CLXXXIII Papyrus of Un'neferu 500 hundred years before Hunefer, the Babylonian King ,Hammurabi (Khammurabi. Awil Kurda) inscribed his code of law on a stone stele. The relief portrait of Hammurabi can be found in the House Gallery in the United States Capitol Building. Hammurabi Code of Laws Stele. The Sky god Anu (An) is considered the Chief Justice of the seven gods ( Anunnaki) who reside in the underworld and judge the fate of mankind. Ea (Enki) the god of righteousness and Lord (Bel) of Heaven and Earth who assigned lesser gods to oversee and represent particular regions on earth in the council of gods. It was It was Ea who proposed to the council that a mortal man should be created to serve the gods. Anu and Ea assigned the Sky Lord Marduk (Ea's son) to oversee the decrees of Anu on the fate of mankind with his Imhullu (divine wind storm weapon). Anu and Ea who bestowed on King Hammurabi the power to rule over the mortals with righteousness judgement over the wicked. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 1 King Hammurabi prayed at the temple of Siggil (Marduk) and asked his Lord (Bel) Marduk to increase the riches of Babylonia and the main temple of Sin (god of the moon and the one who created Hammurabi) called Gish-shir-gal ; reestablish the sacred city of Eridu dedicated Lord (Bel) Ea; and purify Apsu (a god encompasses all fresh drinking water) that eternally sleeps due to a spell Ea placed upon him. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Hammurabi referred to himself as a white king who knew of Shamash (Utu), son of the moon god Sin, and god of the Sun. Shamash was known for riding his sun chariot all day watching enforcing justice, and teaching morality and truth to mortals. Shamash established and guarded the cities of Sippara and Larsa. He then made the temple dedicated to him like Heaven. Shamash clothed the gravestones of his Malkat (Queen and consort) with green representing the resurrection of nature. With the help of Shamash, Hammurabi was able to restore and bring water to the ancient city of Uruk; raise the temple of E-Anna (Inanna, Istar), Queen of Heaven (twin sister of Shamash), perfectly depicted the beauty of the sky god Anu and the warrior and reproduction goddess Nana (Nanaya), who guard the kingdom of Babylon and reunited the people of the city of Isin. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Like the god Shamash bringing green life over death to Babylon, the Creator brought green life over death to Israel. Most Jewish scholars believe this to be prophecy of when Israel will rise to power over those that control it. Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 17 Hammurabi donated to money to the temple of E-gal-mach and protected the cities he controlled. He considered himself to be brother of the war god Zamama (Zababa, Ashtabi) protector of the city of Kish . Hammurabi glorified Zamama's temple E-me-te-ursag and established farms around the city of Kish. He also increased the treasury of the temple of the warrior god Nana (Nanaya) and the Temple Harsagkalama dedicated to the love and war goddess, Inanna, (Inana, Ishtar), daughter of the sky god Anu, and mother of the warrior goddess Nanaya Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 King Hammurabi used the a grave metaphor to define the destruction and subjection of his enemy. He increased the power of the city of Cuthah. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 According to the Tanakh, Cuthah was one of the five Syrian and Mesopotamian cities from which Sargon II, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites. These settlers would later be known as "Cuthim" in Hebrew and as "Samaritans" to the Greeks. The Assyrian King advisers marginalized God of the Israelites from the Creator of all mankind to just a regional God with power to kill unrespectful settlers. The Samaritans incorporated the Creator into their former pantheon of gods. 2 KINGS 17 In modern history, like the Cuthim, the Yoruba African slaves were coerced to accept the Catholic faith in Cuba. The masked their ancestral belief by syncretizing (combing) their Orisha (Orichás, orixá) spirits with the human form of Catholic saints. In the picture below King Hammurabi 'The Lawgiver' and 'Unifier of Babylonia' raises his right arm in worship. Detail of a votive monument. Limestone. Old Babylonian Period, reign of Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE. From Sippar, Iraq. The British Museum, London. In the book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches writes that inscription is dedicated for the saving of his life. In this he bears the title (incomplete) of “King of Amoria” (the Amorites), lugal Mar[tu], Semitic Babylonian sar mât Amurrî Theophilus Goldridge Pinches M.R.A.S. (1856 – 6 June 1934 Muswell Hill, London), was a pioneer British assyriologist and staff member of the Egyptian and Assyrian Department, British Museum, he gave assistance to scholars including Abraham Sachs and taught at London University. It was largely due to his "painstaking work" during his time as assistant keeper at the British Museum between 1895 and 1900, that many pieces acquired by the museum were joined together again. He also translated some Babylonian tablets which related to the Battle of the Vale of Siddim and was one of the editors of The Babylonian and Oriental Record from 1886. In 1890, Pinches discovered and published the correct reading of the name of Gilgamesh, instead of Izdubar. CUNEIFORM TEXTS FROM BABYLONIAN TABLETS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM PART 51 MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS EDITED BY C. B. F. WALKER Below is one plate that Pinches transcribed. Any scholar who attempted a translation between any two languages knows that it is never a straightforward matter of linguistic equivalence. In Pinches Plates 45 - 65 transcription and translation of Spartoli III, 2: Spartol; II, 987: Spartoli I, 58; and Spartoli II, 962. Spartoli III, 2 contains the names of Rudbula (Tidal), of Eri-aku's son, Durmah-ilani, and Kudur-lahmil (Chedorlaomer) we can see that there is no clear method of translation, but linguistic artifacts can be found that give us clues to understanding. The more linguistic artifacts in the data we find, the clearer the translation becomes. Jefferson would completely understand how even present translations can be changed to make the work more popular with foreign readers. Francois André Michaux to Thomas Jefferson, 10 August 1810 In translating the second Spartoli collection Theophilus Pinches identifies the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku, and Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal to be names Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer that are given in Genesis with Abraham. The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches pg 224 The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia by Theophilus Goldridge Pinches pg 227 In Volume 7, The Doorway Papers, The Hidden Things of God's Revelation, Arthur C. Custance also point sout Umman-Mandu by using the controversial Spartoli tablets found in mutilated form by Pinches. In the book, Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Author Gerard Gertoux abstract expands on Custance and Pinches work Abram with 318 soldiers retaliated with a surprise night attack and recovered Lot and the possessions the victorious kings had taken. National Gallery of Art Antonio Tempesta Florentine, 1555 - 1630 Abraham makes the enemies flee who hold his nephew 161 Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 14 Many scholars believe during the time of King Hammurabi, Abraham, ‘father of the faithful Hebrews, Christians, and Muslims' is said to have migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran, the chief city and commercial capital of Mesopotamia, and then into Palestine. The Biblical World notes that some of the Mari tablets use words from the Amorite tribes that are also found in Abraham's story, such as his father's name, Terah, and his brothers' names, Nahor and Haran (also ironically the name for their destination). From these artifacts and others, some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamia around 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C. It is now the prevailing view among both Assyriologists and Old Testament scholars that King Hammurabi and King Amraphel of Shinar are the same person. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia a partial clue to transformation of the name Hammurabi into the Hebrew form Amraphel is furnished by the explanation of the name in a cuneiform letter as equivalent to Kimta-rapashtu (great people or family). On this basis "'am" = "Kimta" and "raphel" = "rapaltu" = "rapashtu." Shinar is a general synonym for the region of Babylonia (Mesopotamia). The Expository Times identifies King Arioch of Ellasar of Genesis with King Eri-Aku (Eri-E-kua, servant of the moon god E-kua, Aku [Sin]) of Larsa. It is known that Eri-aku, king of Larsa was conquered by King Hammurabi (Amraphel), and later became subject to him. The city of Ellasar (Sumerian name Ararwa, Arauruwa, now known as Senqara) was known as Larsa a city of ancient Babylonia (Chaldea). The city was at first governed by its own kings, but became a part of the Babylonian empire some time after the reign of Hammurabi. In the article, Light on Scriptural Texts From Recent Discoveries, author William Hayes Ward states that the translation from the Semitic Rim-Sin to Akkadian is Eri-Agu or Eri-Aku. The Mari letters throw light are the dealings of Hammurabi with with Rim-Sin of Larsa, in the early and middle periods of his reign. He was not always, as the letters reveal the two neighboring kingdoms co-existed for thirty years on excellent terms, and standing in alliance of mutual defense. https://www.scribd.com/document/248006684/Rama-of-Larsa-libre THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY THIRD EDITION VOLUME II PART 1 HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE AEGEAN REGION c. 1800-1380 B.C. EDITED BY I. E. S. EDWARDS F.B.A. Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum EVENTS OF HAMMURABI'S REIGN page 179 In 1880 Book, The Chaldean Account of Genesis, George Smith speculates that the Semetic Chedorlaomer is translated to Kudar Lagamar, meaning 'servant of a god of Elam. The Chaldean Account of Genesis George Smith In the 1902 book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches, writes that the Akkadian King Kudur-laḫmal (Kutir-Lagamar, Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal), is a translation variant of the Bible's King Chedorlaomer of Elam. The Kingdom of Elam was located in present day Iran, Northeast of Babylon and Southwest of Ur. In the 2015 book Moses and the Exodus Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, author Gerard Gertoux states that Lagamar is an Elamite deity. The 1995 article, Theology and Worship in Elam and Achaemenid Iran, Heidemarie Koch concurs with Gertoux that the name Lagamar is found in middle Elamite texts is Akkadian in meaning the god that shows "No Mercy" that accompanies the god Ishme-karab meaning "He who grants the prayer." In the 1971 book, The Cambridge Ancient History by Geredigeerd Door, two goddesses Isme-karab and Lakamar (Lakamal) supported the god of oaths In-Shushinak (Insusiank, Nin-Suvina(k), Su'inak) in his position as 'judge of the dead.' Lakamar appeared in the later Elam middle period. In a legal context Lagamal would be the prosecutor and Ishmekarub would the Defense. We can implicitly conclude that Chedorlaomer the king of Elam was a Servant of the god Lagamar. Encyclopedia Iranica ELAM vi. Elamite religion The image below shows the god Lagamal holding the Disc and Rod Image source: Plate 6.5, p.185. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology) Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence GŽrard GERTOUX last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). Ashurbanipal, after his conquest of Elam and Susa ransacking, exposed (in 646 BCE) the capture of the goddess Nanaya (in Uruk) by Kudur-Lagamar which occurred around 1300 years earlier (in 1968 BCE). Chedoloamer. most likely resided in the Elamite Ziggurat complex Chogha Zanbil (Dur Untash) approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa. Chogha Zanbil is one of the few existent Ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. A Ziggurat is the largest building in the center of town and part of a multi temple complex. The Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat originally measured 105.2 m on each side and about 53 m in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient near East around 2000 BC. The "Elamites" spread their empire to west under King Chedorlaomer. The Elamites had struggled with the Assyrians for domination of Babylon. The great Babylonian dynasty of UR was brought to an end about 1950 BC by the Elamites, who destroyed the city and took its king prisoner. Many scholars believe that the Elamites empire boundaries included present day Taxila and the areas of Baluchistan and Sindh. Chedorlaomer’s vassal cities—Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboyim and Zoar—had become rebellious against him and it was time to exact vengeance. Another temple in Chogha Zanbil complex would be a "temple of the grove" (Husa. siyan husame) dedicated to either In-Shushinak, Lagamal, or other underworld deities. The temple of the dead would face east as the sun rises with a sculpture of In-Shushinak in the front of the gate adorned with with a copper-covered cedar bar (Potts, Archaeology of Elam). The temple of the grove would act as a transition passage of the dead spirit to separate from the body to the underworld through sacred grove of fragrant trees with edible fruits, flowering plants, sculptures, and tombs that would surround the Ziggurat. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” Brick with an inscription by Šilḫak-Inšušinak dedicated to the goddess Kiririša “lady of life." (published in Grillot & Vallat 1984) Collection National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK Museum no. NSM A.1960.228 Catalogue: 20140524 wagensonner CDLI no. P464356 https://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdln/php/single.php?id=45 Kiten (Akkadian kidinnu) denotes a protective shielding power that radiates from all dieties. With legal matters the kiten of the god In-shushinak united with the ruler judge violations of the law were committed. Any Elamite breaking an agreement would forfeit the protection of In-Shushinak will be outlawed and 'he shall pass by the graven image of the god and of the king' to be executed. https://books.google.com/books?id=FF5-7JVj4jYC&lpg=PA276&ots=Gem9XdejaO&dq="kiten" (protection)&pg=PA275#v=onepage&q="kiten" (protection)&f=false The deceased are burried in ribbed, clay coffins, covered with bitumen. The head of the deceased is covered with a cloth with gold, silver and bronze sewn onto it. Burial gifts are usualy clay idols, needles, weights and for the rich also gold and silver jewelry. Now, what was Abraham doing hanging out near the oaks of Mamre near Jerusalem when news arrived that Lot was taken captive (v. 13)? He was in the area because he was likely a nomadic vassal to Melchizedek, king of Jerusalem. http://geekychristian.com/biblical-insights-from-archaeology/ Understanding of the Elamite religion requires isolation in the Susian documentation of elements that can be compared with what is otherwise known from the Persian plateau and adjacent areas. Although many gods were associated with the cult of the dead, three played a particularly important role: Inšušinak, the weigher of souls, and his two assistants, Išnikarab and Lagamal. death seems to have been the principal preoccupation of the Elamites. Most religious buildings were connected with the cult of the dead, and the principal gods were closely associated with the passage of the dead into the next world. The association of the grove with the funerary cult is certain from Aššurbanipal’s narration of the sack of Susa: “Their secret groves, where no foreigner had penetrated, where no foreigner had trampled the underbrush, my soldiers entered and saw their secrets; they destroyed them by fire. The tombs of their kings, ancient and recent … I have devastated, I destroyed them, I exposed them to the sun, and I carried off their bones to the country of Aššur” (Aynard, 1957, pp. 56-57). . Tidal is a Hittite name. The original name Tudhaliya also appears in the Ugarit archives, and in Kimron’s opinion Tidal was the same as Tudhaliya II who conquered Syria. Onkelos translated Goyim not as a specific city but as meaning various nations; Ibn Ezra wrote likewise in his second commentary. In other words, Tidal ruled over several peoples. Rabbi Hertz claims that Tidal is the same as Tadgula, king of the Kurdish tribes, and Goyim is Gutium in Kurdistan. The gateway may have symbolized the entrance of the dead person into the next world. The one represented on the Nineveh relief is surmounted by three figures in the posture of prayer, which recalls an epithet of Kiririša: “lady of life, who has authority over the grove, the gateway, and he who prays” (Grillot and Vallat, 1984, p. 22). The gods to whom these gateways were dedicated were those most closely associated with the netherworld: Inšušinak (König, nos. 35, 36, 40), Išnikarab (König, no. 37), Lagamal (König, no. 30), and Napiriša and Inšušinak together (König, no. 79). It was also at the gateway of Inšušinak that Puzur-Inšušinak ordered the sacrifice of a sheep accompanied by chants, morning and evening (Scheil, 1902, p. 5). Some gods, particularly Inšušinak (whose name in Sumerian means “lord of Susa”), seem to have been specifically attached to Susa or Susiana; they include Išnikarab (Išmekarab, a god, not a goddess; W. G. Lambert, 1976-80), Lagamal (Lagamar; for variant signs, see Hinz and Koch), and Manzat (W. G. Lambert, 1989). http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/elam-vi Around 1767 B.C.E, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak formed a coalition with Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. He led this coalition against Eshnunna, conquering it and imposed direct rule from his sukkal Kudu-zulush in Susa.[2] This coalition turned against him as he attempted to expand his power into Babylon. Hammurabi, allied with Zimri-Lim, expelled the Elamite's forces from Eshnunna[2] In a clay tablet, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak refers to himself as "Governor of Elam" and "Enlarger of the Empire". It is speculated that the tablet was made after Siwe-Palar-Khuppak's defeat by Hammurabi's coalition, and that the title "Enlarger of the Empire" refers to conquests made to west in modern Iran to offset his defeat.[ Siwe-Palar-Khuppak - universally respected father of Elam Traces have been found on the inscribed bricks in Chaldea of a king Kudur mapula, who bears also the title of “ravager of the West.” Even nearer to the name is that of Kedar-el-Ahmar, or the red, a great hero in Arabian tradition. He was king of Elam. He appears as a settled king of great power, able to make war 2000 miles from his country, and holding other kings, among whom is the king of Babylon, under his supremacy. Tidal king of Goiim Tidal has been considered to be a transliteration of Tudhaliya In the Book of Genesis it is recorded that King Hammurabi (Amraphel) joined coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan and, in the process, took Lot captive. Amraphel is aligned with King Arioch (Eri-Aku), King Chedorlaomer (Kudur-laḫmal) and King Tidal (Tudhaliya ). Like allied coalitions (ie. Desert Storm) today, it was common practice for allied tribes and city states to accompany a powerful king during their conquests. Below is an excerpt from King Zimri-Lim of Mari. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY THIRD EDITION VOLUME II PART 1 HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE AEGEAN REGION c. 1800-1380 B.C. EDITED BY I. E. S. EDWARDS F.B.A. Formerly Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities, The British Museum NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA AND SYRIA page 10 Zimri-Lim was allied with Hammurabi in his wars against Elam, Eshnunna, and Larsa. Zimri-Lim lent troops to Hammurabi's campaigns, and although the two kept extensive diplomatic contacts, there are no records that ever met in person. After the defeat of Elam, there was no outside force to keep the precarious balance of power between the Kings of Mesopotamia. The alliance between Zimri-Lim and Hammurabi deteriorated after Babylon's conquest of Larsa. In 1762 BC, Hammurabi unified Babylonia, he conquered and sacked Mari (though it may be that the city had surrendered without a fight), despite the previous alliance. http://arabianprophets.com/?page_id=2158 The alliance of four states would have ruled over kingdoms that were spread over a wide area: from Elam at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent to Anatolia at the western edge of this region. Because of this, there is a limited range of time periods that match the Geopolitical context of Genesis 14. In this account, Chedorlaomer is described as the king to whom the cities of the plain pay tribute. Thus, Elam must be a dominant force in the region and the other three kings would therefore be vassals of Elam and/or trading partners. some scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamiaaround 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C. Zimri-Lim's court were the communications from the gods. During his time. the variety of paths by which th e opinion of the gods was coaxed multiplied dramalically, and some exceptionally creative methods were launched in Zimri-Lim's own household. As a result of Charpin's insight, it became possible to imagine that when kings were predisposed for it, gods readily dispensed advice in channels other t han exti!\flicy. (Something similar occurred, for example, in the court of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal of Assyria and probably also in the court of Zakkur of Hamatll.) If so, then prophecy need not origina le in a single area or period and need not follow a linear development. hut it could burst spontaneously and periodically. whenever rulers had doubts about the stability of their rule and whenever courtiers and administrators felt encouraged to comment on them. Not linearity, but opportunity. In a paper for the Birot memorial volume [FM 2], I explored the interplay between a divine message and those who were asked to communicate it to Zimri-Lim: in the palace, in the province, and beyond Mari's border. When they are transmitted from the palace, mostly through his wife, his sister, and his aunt (perhaps his mother), there is a tendency to also comment on them, frequently betraying a heightened sense of imminent danger that must be deflected by the king. This sort of fervor seems to dissipate as we move to the provinces, where bureaucrats dutifully (and mostly lackadaisically for that matter) transmitted divine messages to t he king. Yet we have no reason to believe that Zimri-Lim, despite his drive to know the will of god from as many sources as possible. ever felt obligated to follow the god's directives as channeled by prophets, visionary and dreamers. In fact, there is no evidence t hat he received their messages directly, but seemed content to ask people in diverse regional centers to keep their ears open (A RM 26 196), or to dispatch a trusted llpilum to investigate for him (via extispicy) oracles by Dagan of Terqa (ARM 26 199:8-9). But when Zimri-Lim really needed to learn what god wanted of h im at any particular moment, he turned to his resident-scholars, the b~rll-divin ers.76 And here is where I need to take a detour. Durand's pages in 26/1 on Mari divin ation are rich in documents as in comments.1l When diviners inspected the innards of a sheep for signs, what they saw was no longer a cluster of bloodied orgllns, but a tapestry of divine signs. Their perspective, therefore, was closest to that of astrologers of later times who drew insights from the shifting correspondences of heavenly orbs. https://my.vanderbilt.edu/jacksasson/files/2014/06/Sasson-About-Mari-the-Bible-RA92-1998.pdf There were periods when Elam was allied with Mari through trade.[16] Mari also had connections to Syria and Anatolia, who, in turn, had political, cultural, linguistic and military connections to Canaan.[17] The earliest recorded empire was that of Sargon, which lasted until his grandson, Naram Sin.[ we must keep in mind the possibility, that if the Babylonian king considered that disaster had in any way overtaken his arms, he may not have recorded it at all. Then there is the fact, that the expedition was undertaken in conjunction with allies—Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch—for none of whom, in all probability, Ḫammurabi had any sympathy. The Elamite was a conqueror from a land over which the Babylonians of earlier ages had held sway, and Arioch had dominion over a neighbouring tract, to which Ḫammurabi himself laid claim, and over which, as the texts above translated show, he afterwards ruled. Ḫammurabi, moreover, claimed also the West-land—mât Amurrī, the land of Amurrū—as his hereditary possession, and he found himself obliged to aid Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch to subjugate it—indeed, it was Chedorlaomer whom the five kings had acknowledged for twelve years as their overlord, and against whom, in the thirteenth, they rebelled. It is, therefore, likely that Ḫammurabi regarded himself as having been forced by circumstances to aid Chedorlaomer to reconquer what really belonged to Babylonia, and the probability that he would cause it to be used as one of the events to date by, is on that account still less, even if the news of any success which he might have considered himself entitled to reached his own domain in time to be utilized for such a purpose. when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer [pg 223] was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion. spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian ERI.AKU, meaning "Servant of the god Aku," Aku being a variant of the name of Nannar/Sin. It is known from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name "Servant of Sin There's only one Hamor mentioned in the Bible and he was a Hivite ruler (נשיא, nasi') and father of Shechem (in Acts 7:16 Stephen equates Hamor with Ephron). When Jacob returned from Paddan-aram and wanted to settle in Canaan, he bought land from Hamor and built the altar named El-Elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19). At some point, Jacob's only daughter Dinah, the sister of the twelve tribal patriarchs of Israel, went to the nearby town of Shechem to visit the Hivite women. She was noticed by prince Shechem, who fell in love with her and decided to express his feelings by raping her (34:2). Still, Hamor went to Jacob to ask for Dinah as a wife for Shechem, but Jacob's sons told Hamor that he and his people would have to be circumcised for their two families to intermarry. I was curious about this expression, especially in light of the fact that it is in this city that we find the remains of the temple of Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the chief deity of Shechem during most of the Bronze Age. The name Hamor is the same as the noun חמור (hamor), meaning ass or donkey, or more literal: red-one, from the root חמר (hamar III), meaning to be red: It appears to us here at Abarim Publications that to the Hebrews the color red denoted the rudiments or principal beginnings of civilization (and see our article on the Red Sea for a discussion on how the ancients saw the color red), whereas muddy substances metaphorized the transitional phase between ignorance (water) and understanding (dry land). or a meaning of the name Hamor, both NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names read Ass and BDB Theological Dictionary has He-Ass. Most literally, however, the name Hamor means Red One. Note that the color red signified the first stage of human civilization, and is connected to both Israel's Hivite nemesis as to Israel's national brother Edom (from Esau, Jacob's brother). Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/, also spelled Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכָם‬ / שְׁכֶם‬ Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[1] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[2] it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank. Shechem first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which says that Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.[6] According to Genesis (12:6-7) Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" at Shechem. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant he had first made with Abraham in Harran, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. In Jewish tradition, the old name was understood in terms of the Hebrew word shékém — "shoulder, saddle", corresponding to the mountainous configuration of the place. On a later sojourn, two sons of Jacob, Simeon (Hebrew Bible) and Levi, avenged their sister Dinah's rape by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land" of Shechem. Shimon and Levi said to the Shechemites that, if “every male among you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to ourselves.”[7] Once the Shechemites agree to the mass circumcision, however, Jacob's sons repay them by killing all of the city's male inhabitants.[8] Following the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan after their Exodus from Egypt, according to the biblical narrative, Joshua assembled the Israelites at Shechem and asked them to choose between serving the god who had delivered them from Egypt, the gods which their ancestors had served on the other side of the Euphrates River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land they now lived. The people chose to serve the god of the Bible, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God, and he then erected a memorial stone "under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord" in Shechem.[9] The oak is associated with the Oak of Moreh where Abram had set up camp during his travels in this area.[10] Shechem and its surrounding lands were given as a Levitical city to the Kohathites.[11] Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph's tomb (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel.[citation needed] Jerubbaal (Gideon), whose home was at Ophrah, visited Shechem, and his concubine who lived there was mother of his son Abimelech (Judges 8:31). She came from one of the leading Shechemite families who were influential with the "Lords of Shechem" (Judges 9:1-3, wording of the New Revised Standard Version and New American Bible Revised Edition).[12] A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem. —In Rabbinical Literature: The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision. “Those who were bound under the covenant having participated in this ritual became ‘sons of Hamor’ (‘sons of the ass’). The covenant of Hamor ‘was almost certainly related to Baal-Berith, who was the chief god of the city’… Toorn, K. Van Der, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem Van Der Horst. 1999. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids: Brill ; Eerdmans. p.143 And given Shechem (שכם) means “shoulder”, the expression “Hamor, father of Shechem”(חמור אבי שכם), can also be read “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם). This expression therefore suggests that Shechem was the ally of Babylon when it formed a covenant with king Hammurabi. In fact, standing “shoulder to shoulder” is something one does in times of a deadly threat and against an enemy. And I do explain in the book how Hammurabi was motivated to make a covenant with Abraham in order to secure control over the remote Valley of Siddim. Finally, the name Dinah (דינה) is the feminine of “din” (דין), which means “law” in reference to the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah (i.e. the original five books of the Old Testament). Clearly, the Shechemites wanted to continue serving the family of “Hamor, Shechem’s father” or “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם), which presumably could be referring to the legitimate descendants of Abraham, Hammurabi’s ally, and still referred to as the “father” of the faith to this day. http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/jubilees/30.htm Jacob's acquisition of land at Shechem (Gen. 33:19; cf. 48:22) and the connubium between the sons of Jacob and the sons of Hamor (as the Shechemites were then called) imply certain covenant agreements. Moreover, the strange name, "sons of Hamor" ( benei hamor, "sons of the ass"), who is said to be the "father of Shechem" (Gen. 34:6), seems to have something to do with covenant making. From the *Tell-el-Amarna Letters (c. 1400 B.C.E.) it is known that there was a strong Hurrian element in Shechem. The Septuagint is therefore probably correct in reading hhry ("the Horite," i.e., the Hurrian) instead of hhwy ("the Hivite") of the Masoretic Text in describing the ethnic origin of "Shechem" (Gen. 34:2); moreover, the uncircumcised Shechemites (Gen. 34:14, 24) were most likely not Semitic Canaanites (see E. A. Speiser, op. cit., 267). It is also known that the slaughtering of an ass played a role among the Hurrians in the making of a covenant. Thus, Baal-Berith or El-Berith may have been regarded by the Shechemites as the divine protector of covenants. Did the early Israelites perhaps regard El-Berith as the God of the covenant made between YHWH and Israel? It is a noteworthy fact that Joshua, who had apparently been able to occupy the region of Shechem without force because Israelites who - many scholars believe - had never been in Egypt were already iiving there, renewed the Covenant of Sinai with all Israel precisely at Shcchem, the city sacred to El-Berith, " the God of the Covenant" (Josh. 8:30-35; 24:1-28). Therefore, even though the late Deuteronomist editor of the Book of Judges (it is conjectured by the adherents of the documentary hypothesis) considered Baal-Berith one of the pagan Canaanite Ba'alim, this term may well have been regarded in early Israel as one of the titles of YHWH. Other terms such as "killing an ass" sheds light on customs which prevailed in patriarchal times and later. The idiom "to kill an ass," khayaram qatalum, is not Akkadian at all, but both words occur in Hebrew and indicated the sacrifice which accompanied the oath of alliance. The connection between sacrificing as ass and concluding a covenant seems to have been preserved by the Shechemites, with whom Jacob and his sons had such unpleasant dealings (Gen. 33:19; 34:1-31). Called the Bene Hamor, "sons of the ass" (Josh. 24:32), their tribal deity was Baal-Berith, "Lord of the covenant" (Judg. 9:4). Later, at the time of Conquest the Bene Hamor of Shechem were, it seems, like the four towns of the Gibeonite confederacy (Josh 9:1ff.), added to Israel by treaty, to judge from various early references to them and their god Baal-Berith." Joseph Vicek Kozar, who reads the narrative as supporting the brothers’ actions, 485 suggests that the significance of interethnic relations is substantiated by symbolic imagery within the story. He points out that the homonym of Hamor’s name (rwmx) is donkey, an animal that “lives among the herd but is not one of them, lacking cloven hooves and not chewing the cud.” 486 This, coupled with the fact that “[a]t the time of Dinah’s rape, her brothers are out with the cattle (34:5),” 487 illumines the resultant confrontation: “The…clash of cultures (and slaughter) shows that the sons of herds and flocks cannot conduct social intercourse with the sons of the ass. This symbolism underlies the group or tribal nature of the events behind the story.” 488 Like Sternberg, Kozar also retrojects later narrative concerns of Israelite interethnic relations onto the clash between the ancestral family and the Hivites. He concludes that Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem represents the larger Canaanite culture, and that the story illustrates the danger of Israel’s “being absorbed by the larger Canaanite culture.” 489 Douglas Earl echoes this symbolic thinking in his own analysis, according to which “Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem the nations.” 490 The narrative, Earl suggests, “serves to evoke affectually the disastrous consequences of exogamy and mingling, and the zeal with which exogamy is to be avoided. Shechem’s act is evaluated as disgraceful and unacceptable. This transfer is presented as a pretext for the text to come.” 492 The narrator’s repeated use of )m+, furthermore, invokes a “cultic and ritual cognitive domain” 493 (again an Israelite domain) that suggests that Shechem and the Hivites threaten the ancestral family with their outsiders’ impurity. Finally, the continuation of the narrative in Gen 35, in which Jacob commands his household to rid itself of its foreign gods, strengthens the negative socioreligious associations of Shechem. Where Jacob goes next, Bethel, stands in stark contrast: “Bethel, the place where Jacob met his God, represents the ideal of one place, one people and one God. It is opposed to the other place, Shechem, with alien people and alien gods, who have to be buried.” 494 Thus the Dinah interlude is the “hinge” of the ideological reversal from the preceding narrative’s “context of peace and mutual understanding with the Canaanites” to “a mono-ethnic position embedded in a mono-religious position.” 495 Indeed, as van Wolde notes, in Gen 35 the ancestral blessing undergoes a notable revision, as “the blessing of other people is not mentioned any more,” implying that the ancestral family is now the exclusive inheritor of the land BAAL-BERITH (Baʹal-beʹrith) [Owner of a Covenant; once, at Jg 9:46, El-berith, God of a Covenant]. The Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites began worshiping after the death of Judge Gideon. (Jg 8:33) The designation “Baal-berith” may denote that this particular Baal was believed to watch the keeping of covenants. A kind of treasury was evidently attached to the house or temple of Baal-berith at Shechem. (Jg 9:4) In connection with the grape harvest, the Shechemites apparently held a festival in honor of Baal-berith, climaxed by a kind of sacrificial meal in the temple of their god. It was in the temple of Baal-berith on the occasion of their eating and drinking and cursing Abimelech, likely under the influence of wine, that Gaal incited the Shechemites to revolt against King Abimelech. (Jg 9:27-29) Later, when threatened by Abimelech, the landowners of the tower of Shechem (Migdal-Shechem, AT) sought refuge in the vault of the house of El-berith (Baal-berith), only to perish in the conflagration when Abimelech and his men set the vault on fire.—Jg 9:46-49. Solomon understood that being submissive to the Creator and generous to other will be blessed with long life. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22 Hammurabi ruled as king of Babylonia Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic - Religions of The Ancient Near East Sīn /ˈsiːn/ or Suen (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. - He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". Sīn was also called "He whose heart can not be read" and was told that "he could see farther than all the gods". It is said that every new moon, the gods gather together from him to make predictions about the future. - Nana - Babylonian Moon God. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr121.htm Utu[a] later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, . Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers, The local god was Zamama, the Tammuz-like deity, who, like Nin-Girsu of Lagash, was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylon. Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing. the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit By making a persuasive art-historical case for beginning their study with our earliest civilizations, they demonstrate the cross-cultural, cross-temporal universality of some persistently compelling themes, such as the image of the scales, a judicial motif attested in both ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt.2 Picked up as well in ancient Greece, the scales are hefted aloft in the hands of embodied goddesses, who in the seventeenth century C.E. acquired a blindfold, s Law Stele of Hammurabi, Literally thousands of clay tablets documenting legal transactions have survived from ancient Mesopotamia. from around 1792 to around 1750 B.C.E. His reign is distinguished for political consolidation of territories neighboring his city-state of Babylon, which he brought under control through a combination of successful military engagements and the calculated making and breaking of diplomatic treaties." The "laws" that are probably the best known are those that seem to offer strong parallels to the Biblical precepts of justice, and are held up as exemplifying the principle of retributive justice, for example: § 196 If a freeman has blinded the eye of another freeman, his eye shall be blinded. § 197 If he has broken the bone of another freeman, his bone shall be broken. § 198 If he has blinded the eye of a dependent or broken the bone of a dependent, he shall pay sixty shekels of silver. § 199 If he has blinded the eye of a slave of a freeman, or broken the bone of a slave of freeman, he shall pay one-half his value in silver.22 It is this section that generally receives the most attention from legal and Biblical scholarship interested in ancient legal codes and covenants.23 Compare the Book of Exodus, 21:22: "If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." C. The Relief Sculpture The sculpted relief depicts Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god, seated facing left, and king Hammurabi, who, standing, faces right.26 Shamash is identified as a divinity by the stylized horned crown he wears and as the sun god by the wavy-line "rays" emanating from his shoulders and the surface detail of his footstool evoking mountainous terrain-the eastern and western locales of his rising and setting. As sun god, Shamash is the Mesopotamian deity of light and illumination, and by logical extension, the god of justice who illuminates the true situation. In addition to "rays," his frequent attribute is a saw, with which he opens the mountains at daybreak and sunset and with which he separates truth from falsehood. Here, instead, he extends or displays to Hammurabi the so-called "Rod and Ring," which occupies the center of the visual field. Opposite the god, Hammurabi is marked by his hea In the voice of Hammurabi, the Epilogue summarizes Hammurabi's purpose in erecting the monument: In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways for the orphan and the widow, I have inscribed my precious pronouncements upon my stele and set [them] before my image, the just king, in the city of Babylon . . .. By the order of [the god] Marduk, my lord, may my engraved design not be confronted by someone who would remove it. May my name always be remembered faithfully in the Esagil temple which I love. 32 Let any man who has a lawsuit come before my image, the just king, and have my words read out loud; let him hear my precious words, let my monument reveal to him the case. Let him see his judgment, let his heart become soothed [reciting the following short prayer]: "Hammurabi, lord, who is like a father and begetter to his people, submitted himself to the command of (the god) Marduk, his lord, and achieved victory everywhere. He gladdened the heart of Marduk, his lord, and he secured the eternal well-being of the people and provided just ways for the land. "3 In one Akkadian period cylinder seal, Shamash sits enthroned before a set of scales, tipping the balance of justice (presumably) in accordance with the petitions of his worshippers, who bring an animal offering before the god (Black 1992: 182-4) throne. Shamash and his wife, Aya, had two important children. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was law. Every morning, the gates in the East open up, and Shamash appears. He travels across the sky, and enters the gate in the West. He travels through the Underworld at night in order to begin in the East the next day the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice". Holland 2009, p. 115. The Phoenician Sydyk was equated with Roman Jupiter, and hence it has been suggested that Sydyk was connected to the worship of the planet Jupiter as the manifestation of justice or righteousness. the Babylonian Shamash has two sons called respectively Kettu (which, like Sedeq, means "righteousness") and Misharu ("rectitude"). These two deities are mentioned also in the Sanchoniatho fragments of Philo Byblios under the names of Sydyk and Misor, as culture-heroes who have discovered the use of salt. Phoenician inscriptions have Sedeqyathan, "Sedeq gave," as a personal name, as well as combinations of Sedeq with Ramman and Melek. Fr. Jeremias thinks that Sydyk and Misor were respectively the spring and autumn sun in sun-worship and the waxing and waning moon in moon worship. translated as truth, equity, justice kittu as truth Shamas often had a special saw Shamash the judge of heaven and earth had a special saw, call the shasharu. Mesopotamian Scales circa 2350 O Sun, when though goes to rest in mid-heaven May the bars of bright heaven speak peace to thee, May the gateway of of heaven approach thee May Misharu, they loving herald, direct thy pathway Of course Babylonian and Assyrian words may not always have the same content as our words "righteousness" and "truth," but the words kittu and misharu, which we render by "righteousness" and "truth", are derived from kanu, "to be firm," and eshem, "to be straight," respectively; and judging from what was considered "right" and "true," or kittu and misharu, there is no reason for that the standard was very hight misharu, represented the law May Misharu, thy well-beloved servant, guide aright thy progress, so that ebarra The West Semitic name Ammi-Saduqa is translated into Akkadian as Kitum-kittum showing an equivalence of meaning between the West Semitic ṣ-d-q and the Akkadian kittu. Kittu was similarly paired with the god Misharu whose name is a cognate of Misor, meaning "justice". Shamash and the mother of Misharu (god of law and order) and Kittu (god of justice). Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been a local male sun god whose gender was changed when the worship of the major sun god, Shamash, took precedence, the minor god becoming the female consort of Shamash. Her attendants were Kittu (truth) and Misharu (righteousness). Misharu, ---, God of law. Son of Aa. instead he became the spokesman for the nation (kemit), heavily indebtedto fairness and truth (maat in Egypt, kittu and misharu in Mesopotamia) Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from the Akkadian root kanu. Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’). One or both of these deities was described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand.’ Depictions of Shamash show him holding a ring of coiled rope and a rod, objects ascribed to surveyors and therefore, when linked to rulership, denoting the act of setting things right. The Akkadian words kittu and misharu, translated into English as “truth,” “equity,” or “justice,” describe the “straightening out” of a situation whose equilibrium, put out of balance, had become “crooked.” 2 Shamash is associated with two divinities personifying justice and equity, Kittu and Misharu, which are in fact two deified conceptions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is debated. According to D. Charpin, Hammu-Rabi of Babylon , Paris, 2003, p. 206-207, kittum would be "justice as guardian of public order", and mišarum "justice as restoration of equity" mi-ish-ri-c(!) ish-ru-16%-6-shd. Mi-ish-ri-e I take as a plural of misharu = mishru (ef. cpiru, epru; gimiru, gimru; Delitesch, Gram., p. 105, $45), “righteousness" (hence not of meshril, "riches," H. B. W., p. F88a), and dumqi, on nceount of the pardlclism, in the sense 0 The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice was Maat, who represented “the order which rules the world through balance.” PATRICIA TURNER & CHARLES RUSSELL COULTER, DICTIONARY OF ANCIENT DEITIES 298 (Oxford Univ. Press 2001) (2000). The Sumerian god of truth was Kittu, but, interestingly, his job title did not include justice; that job was his brother’s, Misharu. See James W. Bell, Sumerian Gods, Demons & Immortals Whose Names Start with “K”, http://www.jameswbell.com/geog0050knames.html (last visited March 29, 2007). Addanari is the Hindu goddess of truth, nature, and religion. TURNER & COULTER, supra, at 14. Shiva, among her many other jobs, is also associated with truth. Id. at 427. They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means “Truth”, and the god Misharu, whose name means “Justice”. Utu’s charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period. n the Hebrew Bible, and Kittu in the Babylonian pantheon, who is often invoked with Misharu. 768 Both of these Babylonian deities are described as being seated before Shamash or the minister of Shamash’s right hand.769 M Shamash and his wife Sherida (Aya for Akkadians and Babylonians) had two important sons. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was the law. Its main sanctuary was in the city of Sippar. Every morning, the eastern doors opened, and Shamash appeared. He traveled around the sky, and entered the west gate Shamu / Kittu, Truth revealed (Shamu), Truth understood (Kittu) Misharu, Justice at work in view of truth, Dayyanu, Judgment that discerns truth Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from Akk root kânu, cf. Heb root KWN). Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’)… One or both of these deities were described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand’. . . it appears that the deity known as Kittu in Babylonia was known further to the West under the names Išar and Ṣidqu/ Zedek—all three names having essentially the same meaning but operative in different linguistic communities… West Semitic personal names containing the root SDQ are attested at m Fortress Press, 1998] 66-67). Also, the Babylonian gods Kittu “Righteousness” and Misharu “Justice” parallel to the West Semitic gods Sedheq and Misor In this function Shamash is associated with gods personifying justice and equality, and Kittu Misharu, who actually deifies two notions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is discussed and Dayyanu god. The Great Hymn to Shamash already explicitly mentioned the role of the god of justice, the guardian of good decisions and honest behavior and punishments of unjust and dishonest behavior: Great Hymn to Shamash, translation MJ Seux.
  26. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    Locke, Blackstone, and Jefferson were well versed on Cicero, a Roman Philosopher that walked Earth 50 years before Jesus Christ. Cicero theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator has enabled man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil). Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814 In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator as both an equitable distribution of goods and discrimination of good and evil. Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato. Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming. Epicurus Letter to Menoeceus Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law. Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates. Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree. From Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 15 August 1820 Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 1. On God. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 2. On Christ. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 3. On the Holy Spirit The Great Isaiah Scroll - Digital Dead Sea Scrolls Chapter 6 The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, volume 2 Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Work The Ascension of Isaiah The Septuagint In the midst of two living creatures you will be known The Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek, the common language in Egypt at the time, but not in Hebrew. Habakkuk LXX - Chapter 3 Caesarious of Arles interpreted the two creatures t be the Old and New Testaments in the midst of which Christ is known spiritually. Roberts interpreted the two creatures to be the cherubium of the ark Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3 Luke 10 1 CORINTHIANS 2 TEACHINGS OF PRESIDENTS OF THE CHURCH: GORDON B. HINCKLEY CHAPTER 7: THE WHISPERINGS OF THE SPIRIT The First Book of Nephi Chapter 10 The Book of Mosiah Chapter 3 Doctrine and Covenants Section 11 Seraphim Wings by Holicia Watch Digital Art / 3-Dimensional Art / Abstract Chavakuk - Habakkuk - Chapter 3 Tractate Pesachim: Chapter 1 Regulations concerning the removal of leaven from the house on the eve of Passover and the exact time when this must be accomplished. By personifying wisdom Solomon was able to illustrate two things about it in these verses, both of which concern the guidance that is available in wisdom (understanding, insight). Wisdom is available everywhere (vv. 2-3) and to anyone (v. 5). It does not take a superior intellect to be wise in the biblical sense. As Creator, God counted wisdom most important. Wisdom is older than the universe, and it was essential in its creation. Nothing came into existence without wisdom. Wisdom leads to joy because creation produces joy (vv. 30-31) both for the Creator and for the creature. God made and did nothing without wisdom. Therefore it is very important that we obtain it. That is the point. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 8 Matthew 12 1 Kings 3 By referring to Jonah the same way He referred to the Queen of the South, Jesus strongly supported the view that Jonah was a historical person. The Queen of the South was the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1-13). She came from the Arabian Peninsula that for the Jews was the end of the earth (cf. Jer. 6:20; Joel 3:8). She visited Jerusalem because of reports about Solomon’s great wisdom that had reached her ears. The something greater than Solomon was Messiah, the embodiment of divine wisdom. The queen would join the Ninevites in condemning the unbelievers of Jesus’ day because they failed to acknowledge one with greater wisdom than Solomon, as well as one with a greater message than Jonah. Jesus was greater than Solomon in His wisdom, wealth, and works. Matthew 12 Colossians 1 An Incorporeal existence is without a physical body, presence or form that can readily observed or measured. In science there exists and incorporeal substance known as dark matter and an incorporeal force known as dark energy causing our visible universe to spread out. Right now mankind is creating an artificial superintelligence in hopes of re-engineering our known universe and answering our most profound question of why do we exist. Many creatures in nature use chemical pheromones to communicate. One cell bacteria communicates energy sources with other bacteria. Origen De Principiis (Book I) Chapter 7. On Incorporeal and Corporeal Beings Origen De Principiis (Book II) Chapter 1. On the World Matthew 5 The Shepard of Hermas The First Book of HERMAS VISION I. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 33 Origen De Principiis (Book II) Chapter 2. On the Perpetuity of Bodily Nature https://archive.org/details/sevenecumenicalc00perc/page/318 In post-Resurrection, Anathema (excommunication) was a Christian and Jewish sanction of God's displeasure with a person(s) because of their heresy of false teaching with established beliefs of the faithful. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him. Their were 15 teachings that the council fathers found heretical in Origen's discourse. THE ANATHEMAS AGAINST ORIGEN (1) The Fifth Ecumenical Council The Second Council of Constantinople A.D. 553 I II III If anyone shall say that the sun, the moon, and the stars are also reasonable things, and that they have only become what they are because they turned towards evil: let him be anathema. IV If anyone shall say that the reasonable creatures in whom the divine love had grown cold have been hidden in gross bodies such as ours, and have been called men, while those who have attained the lowest degree of wickedness have shared cold and obscure bodies and are become and called demons and evil spirits: let him be anathema. V If anyone shall say that a psychic condition has come from an angelic or archangelic state, and moreover that a demoniac and a human condition has come from a psychic condition, and that from a human state they may become again angels and demons, and that each order of heavenly virtues is either all from those below or from those above and below: let him be anathema. VI If anyone shall say that there is a twofold race of demons, of which the one includes the souls of men and the other the superior spirits who fell to this, and that of all the number of reasonable beings there is but one which has remained unshaken in the love and contemplation of God, and that that spirit is become Christ and the king of all reasonable beings, and that he has created all the bodies which exist in heaven, on earth, and between heaven and earth; and that the world which has in itself elements more ancient than itself, and which exist by themselves, viz: dryness, damp, heat and cold, and the image to which it was formed, was so formed, and that the most holy and consubstantial Trinity did not create the world, but that it was created by the working intelligence which is more ancient than the world, and which communicates to it its being: let him be anathema. VII If anyone shall say that Christ, of whom it is said that he appeared in the form of God, and that he was united before all time with God the Word, and humbled himself in those last days even to humanity, had (according to their expression) pity upon the divers falls which had appeared in the spirits united in the same unity (of which he himself is part), and that to restore them he passed through divers classes, had different bodies and different names, became all to all, an Angel among Angels, a Power among Powers, had clothed himself in the different classes of reasonable beings with a form corresponding to that class, and finally has taken flesh and blood like ours and is become man for man; [if anyone says all this] and does not profess that God the Word humbled himself and became man: let him be anathema. VIII If anyone shall not acknowledge that God the Word, of the same substance with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and who was made flesh and became man, one of the Trinity, is Christ in every sense of the word, but [shall affirm] that he is so only in an inaccurate manner, and because of the abasement, as they call it, of the intelligence; if anyone shall affirm that this intelligence united to God the Word, is the Christ in the true sense of the word, while the Logos is only called Christ because of this union with the intelligence, and e converso that the intelligence is only called God because of the Logos: let him be anathema. IX If anyone shall say that it was not the Divine Logos made man by taking an animated body with a rational spirit (anima rationalis) and VOEPA, that he descended into hell and ascended into heaven, but shall pretend that it is the NOUS which has done this, that NOUS of which they say (in an impious fashion) he is Christ, properly called, and that he is become so by knowledge of the Monad: let him be anathema. X If anyone shall say that after the resurrection the body of the Lord was ethereal, having the form of a sphere, and that such shall be the bodies of all after the resurrection; and that after the Lord himself shall have rejected his true body and after the others who rise shall have rejected theirs, the nature of their bodies shall be annihilated: let him be anathema. XI If anyone shall say that the future judgment signifies the destruction of the body and that the end of the story will be an immaterial [false appearance?] and that thereafter there will no longer be any matter, but only spirit: let him be anathema. XII If anyone shall say that the heavenly Powers and all men and the Devil and evil spirits are united with the Word of God in all respects, as the NOUS which is by them called Christ and which is in the form of God, and which humbled itself as they say; and [if anyone shall say] that the kingdom of Christ shall have an end: let him be anathema. XIII If anyone shall say that Christ [i.e., the NOUS] is in no wise different from other reasonable beings, neither substantially nor by wisdom nor by his power and might over all things but that all will be placed at the right hand of God, as well as he that is called by them Christ [the NOUS], as also they were in the feigned pre-existence of all things: let him be anathema. XIV If anyone shall say that all reasonable beings will one day be united in one, when the hypostases as well as the numbers and the bodies shall have disappeared, and that the knowledge of the world to come will carry with it the ruin of worlds, and the rejection of bodies as also the abolition of [all] names, and that there shall be finally an identity ... of the hypostasis; moreover, that in this pretended apocatastasis, spirits only will continue to exist, as it was in the feigned pre-existence; let him be anathema. XV If anyone shall say that the life of the spirits shall be like to the life which was in the beginning while as yet the spirits had not come down or fallen, so that the end and the beginning shall be alike, and that the end shall be the true measure of the beginning; let him be anathema. 50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. Demosthenes Against Aristocrates Section 75 Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them. Demosthenes Olynthiac 1 Section 11 Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality. To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not. SOCRATES AND JESUS COMPARED BY JOSEPH PRIESTLY page 22 Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost.
  27. The Didache - Introduction "Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy. Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of Science and Faith it can be difficult is discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of man. I have chosen to research the Didache of the 12 Apostles because it is honored as the 'first catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church. The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles is a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. For nonChristians the Didache is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles.The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. in life. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist the Didache is a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws give to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism and Unitarianism. In humble admiration, I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) to best present the truth in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural. President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813 I will follow the same method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to a particular Apostolic teaching. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition. I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it. In our pursuit for the truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence. As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.' Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of happiness and misery. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes. Chapter III No Innate Practical Principles An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke To understand how Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765. The Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England Introduction Of the Nature of Laws in General. In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States. But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document. Locke, Blackstone, Adams and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 9 August 1816 Smithfield, London was the location of executions of heretics and political rebels over the centuries, including Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace, and Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants' Revolt, among many other religious reformers and dissenters. From John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 8 December 1818 Πάν (Pan) the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
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