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  2. eninn

    What happens now in the pilgrimage?

    لبيك اللهم لبيك / 2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoLIlTZBlEw تلبية الحج ساعة كاملة بصوت عذب وجميل https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1I1u2Jw_W44
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  4. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    Zakat is obligatory on goats, sheep, cows, buffalos and camels which graze on wild grass, plant leaves and on some feed now and then given by the owner, and on the above animals meant for sale. The Prophet (Pbuh) said: �By Allah in whose hand my life is, whoever had camels or cows or sheep and did not pay their Zakat, those animals will be brought on the Day of Resurrection far bigger and fatter then before and they will tread him under their hooves, and will butt him with their horns and (those animals will come in circle) when the last does its turn, the first will start again and this punishment will go on till Allah has finished the judgments amongst the people.� (Bukhari) ديدات المتطرف - لقاء مُسجل بكاميرا سرية – مترجم https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYCoyeQXty8
  5. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    The Prophet (Pbuh) said: On a land irrigated by rain water or by natural water channels or if the land is wet due to a near by water channel Ushr (i.e. one-tenth) is compulsory (as Zakat); and on the land irrigated by the well, half of an Ushr (i.e. one twentieth i.e. 5%) is compulsory (as Zakat on the yield of the land). A basic principle has been laid down for the Sadaqa (Zakat) in the agricultural produce. If the land is irrigated by artificial methods, one twentieth part (5%) of the yield is to be paid is irrigated by rainfall, streams, rivers, fountains or by the inner moisture of the earth, i.e., by natural resources of water, then one tenth (Ushr) 10% is to be paid as Zakat. There is some difference of opinion whether Ushr is levied on all types of agricultural yield or on some particular types. According to Imam Abu Hanafi, Zakat is to be paid on all types of agricultural yield, provided the aim of cultivation is to improve upon the land and make it more useful for growing of crops. Thus only fuel, bamboo, grass and trees which bear no fruits are exempted from Zakat. He considers Zakat to be compulsory even on vegetables and fruits, which according to some Hadith, are exempted from Zakat. The scholars have reconciled the two views saying that the exemption granted in case of vegetables implies that the proceeds of the Zakat are not to be sent to the Bait ul Mal, but the owner may himself distribute it among the poor. Ushr is to be paid at the time of harvest. Whereas in the other types of Zakat one should be in possession of the wealth for one complete year. القرآن الكريم والعلم الحديث كاملة The Quran and Modern Science full Zakir naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFO4G7zXlUI
  6. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    According to Malliki school of thought the Zakat on Bank deposit is liable for all the years. And it has to paid when the amount is received. On the provident fund, since the person does not have any power to claim it, so Zakat is liable at the time when it is received and it has to be paid for one year only. According to Shafie school of thought the Zakat on the Bank Deposit has to be paid every year. The Zakat on provident fund has to be made for all the years and it has to be paid when he is entitled to receive it, though he may claim it or not in time. Both these fall under the status of debt. According to Hanafi school of thought: Both of them are liable for Zakat for all the years and it has to be paid when out of it an amount equivalent to the value of 10 1/2 Tolas of silver or more is claimed. According to Hanbali school of thought also that Zakat is liable on both for all the years. It has to be paid when an amount equivalent to the Nisab or more is claimed. اخبرني بشئ في القرآن لم يكتشفه العلم بعد ؟ شاهد اجابة الدكتور ذاكر نايك https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6ZA4vc9-6A ملحد يحاور د ذاكر لماذا خلقنا الله وهو يعلم ان بعض الناس سيدخلون النار؟ Atheist Asking D-Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-2cdRov0fo
  7. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    If any wealth or property is held jointly by two or more persons, then according to Imam Abu Hanafi and Imam Malik Zakat is not obligatory on any person until each individuals share is equal to the value of the Nisab. Zakat on Silver, Gold, Currency and Shares. The minimum prescribed limit on which Zakat becomes obligatory on silver is 52 1/2 Tolas (634 grams), and of gold 7 1/2 Tolas (88 grams) and is known as Nisab. Zakat on silver or gold items is one fortieth of its weight, i.e. 2 1/2%. Zakat on silver or gold is not calculated on its value but on its weight. However if one possesses some gold and some silver and neither of them is in the prescribed limit, then it their total cost is equal to the price of 634 grams of silver, Zakat becomes due on it. Zakat is due on all the gold and silver ornaments, jewellery, and gold or silver lace woven into clothe, gold thread embroidered dresses for ladies, etc. Hadrat Umm Salmah says that she used to put on (gold) bracelets. When she asked the Holy Prophet whether it was Kanz (Hoarded wealth) he replied. � When a piece of property reaches upto the prescribed limit and Zakat is duly pain on it, it is not Kanz�. (Abu Dawood) Imam Abu Hanafi, his disciples and some scholars hold the above opinion. According to Imam Malik, Shafie, Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal and other scholars there is no Zakat on the woman�s ornaments. According to some other scholars the Zakat on ornaments is due only once in a lifetime. The difference of opinion among scholars is only on the ornaments in use by the woman, but there is a consensus among all the scholars that Zakat is liable on the excess of the ornaments held in possession as wealth. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdViBmBlgWE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1KcDQ2v2rQ
  8. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    Zakat is obligatory of every Adult free Muslim man and woman provided the above two conditions are fulfilled. According to Imam Malik, Shafie and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal, Zakat is obligatory of the wealth of the Minor and insane person, and it has to be paid by the guardian. Where as according to Imam Abu Hanafi it is not obligatory. Since Zakat is an act of worship the intention is a must and hence it is not obligatory on the wealth of a minor and the insane person. According to Imam Abu Hanafi and Imam Malik, the wife need not pay Zakat on the Mehr amount still due by her husband. However Zakat will have bo be paid on the amount she has claimed provided it is equivalent to or more than the Nisab and on which one year has been completed. According to Imam Shafie the wife has to pay the Zakat every year (though she herself is not claiming the Mehr, even though it can be claimed). According to Hanbali the Wife has to pay the Zakat for the entire number of years at the time when she gets it. All types of goods for sale, whatever may be its form, whether hand made or machine products or fruits or books or jewellery or clothes or cattle or property brought with the intention of buying and selling etc., are liable for zakat. Provided it is in one�s possession for one complete lunar year and the rate of zakat applicable is 2 1/2% on its total value. The prescribed limit on goods is after conversion, in terms of its value, the total amount thus evaluated must be equivalent to the price of 634 grams of silver. If less, then zakat is not obligatory . لماذا لا يسمح للمرأة ان تطلق زوجها في الاسلام ؟ - ذاكر نايك Dr Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87P0Lv166Bs تعريف الاله من غير القرآن - ذاكر نايك Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8sQbG8bjiLg هل من الضروري اعتناق الاسلام لدخول الجنة ؟ - ذاكر نايك Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HreBda_MUHU
  9. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    There are two conditions for Zakat to be obligatory on the wealth. 1. Being in possession of Nisab i.e. possessing property in excess of a minimum exemption limit. 2. On completion of one Lunar year on the wealth. According to Hanafi if a person possess wealth equal to or in surplus of Nisab in the beginning and at the end of the lunar year, (even though in between the year, the wealth was less than the Nisab), Zakat is obligatory, but if at the end of the lunar year if the wealth is less than the Nisab (though one had wealth equal to or in surplus during the year) zakat is not obligatory. According to Shafie the passage of one lunar year is a must on the wealth (Nisab) (in Hanbali almost a year). The zakat is calculated on the day on which a year is completed on that wealth (Nisab). Nisab: Zakat is paid on the surplus of wealth which is left over after the passage of a year(Lunar Year). It is thus a payment on the accumulated wealth, leaving our animal and agricultural yield. Zakat is pain at almost a uniform rate of 2 1/2%. The minimum standard of surplus of wealth over which Zakat is charged is known as Nisab. It differs with different kinds of property. In case of silver it is 52 1/2 Tolas (634 grams), in case of gold it is 7 1/2 Tolas (88 grams). The Nisab for cash is the same as that of gold and silver. لماذا يخلق الله المعاقين والفقراء - د ذاكر نايك Dr Zakir Naik https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Me7-Gt9MWXs أيهما أفضل الدفن أم الحرق"ذاكر نايك"- which is better burn or bury https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxK35OMEtjE
  10. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    13* If a person deserving Zakat is thought to be embarrassed in accepting it, the Zakat money could be given to him as a gift or present on a suitable occasion; but the intention of the giver must be of Zakat at the time of giving the money. Similarly, to give Zakat money as a gift to the children of the poor is also permissible. 14* If a person owes you money and is unable to repay it on account of poverty, you cannot pay yourself his debt with your own Zakat money and consider that the obligation of paying Zakat has been discharged. Zakat money must be handed to the debtor and payment asked for thereafter. 15* The amount of Zakat given to any one person should not be less than what could satisfy his needs for atleast one day. 16* If Zakat money is given to a person whom you thought deserved it but later found out that he does not, the obligation of paying Zakat will be discharged and you will not have to pay Zakat again. 17* If a person is not entitled to Zakat and is given Zakat money, then he should refuse to accept it: or if given, he should return it to the giver immediately because it is forbidden for him to accept Zakat. 18* The first claim on Zakat money is of deserving relatives, then the deserving poor of the village, town, city or country in which one lives. If the needs of the people of another area are more deserving and urgent, the Zakat could be sent to them too. 19* If the giver is doubtful about the position of the person seeking Zakat, then he should not give his Zakat to him at all, because the giving of Zakat in such circumstances is not permitted. أجمل رد على الإسلاموفوبيا Best answer to Islamophobia ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1ivAgab6nE الحلقة 3 برنامج ( #وياكم3 ) محمد العوضي ( لقاء مع الأمريكي خا ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9bd8qwowCI
  11. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    7* The determination of the minimum Nisab on trade goods will be according to the value of the goods in cash which would purchase 7 1/2 tolas of gold (88 gram) or 52 1/2 tolas of silver (632 gram). 8* When trading in partnership, each partner will be liable to pay Zakat on the proportion of the net share of profits coming to him which is added to his capital. 9* Zakat on shares owned by one shall be determined annually on the cash realisable market value of the shares, which must be included in the capital and Zakat paid on the total as required by Islam. 10* Persons who buy goods on credit for the purpose of trade must deduct the total amount of their debts and determine their net profits, and add these to their capital for calculating the payment of Zakat. 11* Money saved for Haj is also liable for Zakat if it is kept for a year or more and is within the Nisab. 12* If someone gives Zakat money to a person as a loan but makes niyyat (intention) of Zakat, then the obligation of paying Zakat will be discharged. He cannot thereafter collect the money given away as a loan. is belief enough - أسئلة دينية محيرة - د. بلال فيلبس - مترجم ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trdnkqE5MI4 وحدة الأديان - خالد ياسين - مترجم Peaceful Coexistence (Ca ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YYiEwy0Z68
  12. eninn

    Actual reality?????

    cases 1* If a person earns money from a fixed property but the whole amount is spent in the course of the year, then he does not become liable to pay Zakat. But if he has saved a portion of the income and if this saving reaches or exceeds the minimum Nisab limit, then he will be liable to pay Zakat, provided the amount in question remains in his possession for 12 months. (Lunar) 2* If a person owns buildings other than those meant for his own or his dependants use, and he has rented them out to others, the he will have to pay Zakat on the net income from the rent, provided the income is above the minimum Nisab limit and remains in his possession for 12 months. 3* The value of any vehicle used in the course of trade to earn a living is exempt from the obligation of Zakat. But the net income earned from its use, and which remains with the owner for one full year, will be subject to payment of Zakat. 4* There is no Zakat on farmland owned by a person, irrespective of the amount of its value or its size, provided it is not bought for speculation. 5* The capital involved in goods, properties and livestock owned for trade or commerce is subject to the payment of Zakat: that is, if a person began trading with a capital of Rs.50,000 and earned profits thereon, then he will have to pay Zakat on the total amount, and not just on the profits earned. 6* Therefore, a person having a capital of Rs. 50,000 and earned Rs. 50,000 profits in due course will have to pay Zakat on Rs. 60,000 (capital plus profit), which will be the total amount reflected in the balance-sheet. Who is eligible for Zakat? – Ramadan Essentials | Islamic Relief UK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgH_b1HpAug الحياة مثل ركوب قطار - الشيخ خالد ياسين (مترجم) Life Is Li ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8X2uGHGfPc
  13. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    Rulers established their legacy not only by building great structures, they also passed on Wisdom Sebayt (Teaching, Didache) to their offspring and future leaders on the concepts divinity and virtue. The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep (2500 - 2400 BC) is considered the oldest collection of wisdom literature in the world written by composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty. James Henry Breasted credited Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible Ptahhotep considered the heart (ka) the way to measure life, prosperity and health. Those with the strongest heart are those that listen, understand and follow the laws given to keep order (Ma'at) in ones life. The one who listens to to those that do not follow law and order other, but looks for only pleasures to the body will grow a weak heart and only know death, punishment and appear foolish to others. Sabayt Ptahhotep The Sebayt of Amenemope (Didache of Amenomope or Teaching of Amenemope) is pharonic wisdom literature thought to have been written by the Egyptian Pharoah Usermaatre Amenemope of the 21st Dynasty. This coincided during the time when the tribes of Israel first became a unified nation. In the prologue that Amenomope considered it extremely important for a ruler to know how to properly respond to his subjects and foreigners and follow the path of prosperity in life. Sabayt Amenemope Prologue It important that one seeking Sabayt pay strict attention to what is stated and learn how to control your tongue. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter I - The Sabayt The Chokhmah (Chinukh, Didache, Teaching) Meshlei (Proverbs) is Israelite wisdom literature thought to been written by King Solomon during his reign from 970 to 931 BCE. Solomon stressed wisdom begins with fearing our Creator. And understanding the teachings of the holy people brings insight on how to discern and respond to events around you. The knowledge you recieve it. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 9 Similar to Amenemope, Solomon taught that a ruler should be on guard against seductive words of flattery that can influence unwanted actions. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 5 Solomon's father David taught that our Creator is the Shepherd of Creation like he was as a boy. It is our Creator's wisdom, not human that lead to a path of righteousness during our lives. If we stay on the Creator's path no evil shall fall upon us. Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 23 In ancient Egyptian beliefs, serpents were considered both protectors and enemies of the people. The cobra is most often represented as the Uraeus, the fiercely protective serpent seen guarding the foreheads of Deities, kings, and queens. East of Alexandria, in the city of Dep the Uraeus was known as Wadjet, the serpent goddess often depicted as a cobra. The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. Wadjet is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a cobra's head, or as a woman wearing the Uraeus. The Uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus was the protector of the pharaoh and was believed to spit fire at enemies from its place on the forehead. Wadjet had a twin sister known as Nekhbet, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb) and later became the patron of Upper Egypt. She takes the form of woman with the head of a vulture, a woman with a vulture headdress or simply just white vulture symbolizing purity. Together, they represented the Uraeus – the two ladies (nebty) protecting the pharaoh and all of Egypt. When Egypt became one, these goddesses were believed to be present during the crowning of a pharaoh and their symbols were found the front of the crown itself. In this light, her role as a protector extended to common people as well. and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified. Apophis (Apep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. Teaching of Amenemope Chapter 8 : speak no evil The Literature Of Ancient Egypt The Story of Sinuhe Khnum was originally a water god who was thought to rule over all water, including the rivers and lakes of the underworld. He was associated with the source of the Nile, and ensured that the inundation deposited enough precious black silt onto the river banks to make them fertile. Khnum was similar to the the Creator's Holy Spirit as the Lord of Life of the body and the "ka" (spirit) of each newborn child. (52) his emotions & passions are constantly in a state of arousal ; Chapter 9 : avoid the heated CHAPTER 9 Chapter 10 : say what You think without injuring CHAPTER 10 Chapter 11 : abuse no poor Chapter 17 : do not corrupt the measure Chapter 21 : be reticent Like the Egyptian concept of Ma'at (Order) and Apepi (Disorder), In the Talmud (Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a) Jews believe that the soul of person has both a good spirit (Yezter hatov, impulse, inclination, instinct, genii) and a evil spirit (Yezter hara, impulse, inclination instinct, genii) battling for control.The problem, however, arises when one makes a willful choice to "cross over the line," and seeks to gratify the evil spirits. Rabbi Levi explains the meaning to King David's wisdom on how to maintain Selah (balance, Ma'at) in one's life by praying to the Creator for help to transform our Yezter hara into a good force in our life. Tractate Berakoth Folio 5a Proverbs (especially the sentence literature of chs. 10ff. ) shows "a general parallelism of thought" with Egyptian and Babylonian Instruction. Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. The word literally means 'teachings' or 'instructions'[2] and refers to formally written ethical teachings focused on the "way of living truly". he book of Proverbs was principally written by King Solomon, David’s son, around 900 BC. Wisdom literature is one of the most important classes of texts from the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and sufficient examples survive to illustrate both the different national or cultural preferences and, at the same time, the underlying similarity of thought and expression Helck says, "that Proverbs 22:17-23:11 is largely dependent on the Teaching of Amenemope is now generally accepted".27 Erman demonstrated that the Teaching of Amenemope was closely parallel with the portion of Proverb sometimes subtitled "Words of the Wise" (22:17-24:22) the belly is the home of our passions, emotions, feelings and states of arousal & rest - our sage promotes tranquility ; He has mastered the "inner" conflict between his passions and his mind, namely between the icons of emotions and the symbols of proto-rational cognition, between "belly" and "heart". Egyptian Instructions (both pre-Demotic and Demotic) present collections of maxims and teachings on moral living, these max Amun is first mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400-2300) as a local god of Thebes along with his consort Amaunet. Amun as "The Obscure One" left room for people to define him according to their own understanding of what they needed him to be. A god who represented darkness could not also represent light, nor a god of water stand for dryness, etc. A god who personified the mysterious hidden nature of existence, however, could lend himself to any aspect of that existence; and this is precisely what happened with Amun. During the Twelfth dynasty, the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence. In the city of Thebes. Atum was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra. . In his role as Amun-Ra, the god combines his invisible aspect (symbolized by the wind which one cannot see but is aware of) and his visible aspect as the life-giving sun. In Amun, the most important aspects of both Ra and Atum were combined to establish an all-encompassing deity whose aspects were literally every facet of creation. Statue of the ram of Amun Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford This life-sized statue of a ram, the sacred animal of the god Amun, was one of a pair that flanked a threshold in Taharqa’s temple at Kawa c. 680 BC. The base is carved with a hieroglyphic inscription proclaiming the king to be the son of the god Amun. A small figure of Taharqa stands protected under the ram’s chin. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire Drusilla Dunjee Houston CHAPTER V. PREHISTORIC EGYPT, THE LAND OF WONDERS. Relief depicting the ram-headed Amun-ra on a shrine erected by Kushite King Taharqa in the court of the Temple of Amun built by him at Kawa in Nubia. Late Period, 25th Dynasty, 690-64 BC. NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS THE KINGDOM OF KUSH NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS p.16 Diodorus is an invaluable source on the history of Egypt and Ethiopia. What does he say about the Ethiopians? “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the fi rst of all men and proofs of the statement are manifest. For they did not come into their country as immigrants from abroad but were the natives of it and so justly bear the name of Autochone...Th ey that dwell beneath the noonday sun were in all likelihood the fi rst to be generated by the earth... it is reasonable to suppose that the region which was nearest was the fi rst to bring forth living creatures. And they say that they were taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifi ces and processions and festivals and other rites by which man honors the deity: and that in consequences their piety was published abroad among all men... they state by reason of their piety towards the deity they manifestly enjoy the favor of the gods, inasmuch as they have never experienced rule of an invader from; for from all time they have enjoyed a state of freedom abroad and peace with the other and though many powerful rulers have made war upon them, not one of them succeeded in this undertaking.” Th e fi rst Ethiopians who were mentioned in the bible were from the land of Kush (Cush), which according to the biblical tradition was a territory on the Upper Nile, south of Egypt; it was also later known as Nubia. Kush is the name of the eldest son of Noah and the territory inhabited by his descendants. Th e Kushites are the descendants of Noah who produced the sons: Shem, Ham, and Japhet, each with their own language, clan, and nation. According to Gen. 9:18, the three sons peopled the rest of the earth, which was indicative of the unity of humanity in the ancient mind. Ham’s son, Cush, went to Ethiopia; his son, Mizraim, went to Egypt; Canaan went to Canaan; Phut (Pwnt) went to Punt, which in Egyptian records, the fabulous land on the East coast of Africa, source of myrrh (which included present-day Somaliland, perhaps also Arabia. e Nag Hammadi Library is a collection of religious texts written by early Christians, known as Gnostics, who were excluded from the church as heretics. It is an invaluable source of Coptic lore, buried since 400AD in Nag Hammadi near Luxor in Egypt and discovered in 1945. Th e NUBIAN PHARAOHS AND MEROITIC KINGS 17 Apocalypse of Adam (v.5), one of the Nag Hammadi tracts cast a new light in the treatment of the fl ood biblical genealogy. “And God will say to Noah- whom all generations will call DeucalonBehold I have protected you in the ark. Th erefore I will give the earth to you and your son.” “Th en Noah will divide the whole earth among his sons Ham and Japhet and Shem. He will then say to them, “My sons listen to my words. I have divided the earth among you. But serve Him with all the days of your life. Let not your seed depart from the face of the Almighty.” “Th en others from the seed of Ham and Japhet will come Four thousand men, and enter another land and sojourn with those who come from the eternal knowledge. Th en the seed of Ham and Japhet will form twelve kingdoms of another people.”3 Th e strength of the Ethiopians or Kushites was detested to such a great degree, the prophet Isaiah, an agent of Yahweh (God), issued a proclamation to all: Disaster! Land of the whirring locust beyond the rivers of Cush, who send ambassadors by sea, in little reed- boats across the waters! NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 18 to a nation tall and bronzed, a mighty and masterful nation.33 We are told in the Old Testament when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the lord; she came to him with questions. Kings 10:11 Th e queen, who was a virgin and pure, learning about the history of the world, heard of Solomon’s wisdom and was curious to see what she had heard about, set on a long journey from Axum to Jerusalem, in those days when land and sea were not controlled by easy transportation. She proved his wisdom both material and spiritual. 4. And God gave her what she desired... and this gift was a conception of Menelik I, the son of Solomon who is from the tribe of Judah, the descendant of Abraham, and this Menelik was to rule after her, hence the motto “Th e conquering Lion of the Tribes of Judah” which motto is the basis of the country’s faith and key to their ancestry. I Kings 10:1-13 5. We are told in the New Testament that our Lord ...has praised her journey she made to hear the Wisdom of Solomon. Luke 11: 13. The Temple of Wadi es-Sebua “Es Sebua (“Th e Lions”) was the third temple built by Rameses II ninety- three moles from Aswan. Part of the temple is cut from rock. Rameses II dedicated the temple to Re- Harakhte and to Amun as he considered he was a god, by this time. He also worshiped in the temple. Th e entrance to the temple was formed by an avenue of Sphinxes (from which es-Sebua derives its name) that led up to the south pylon before which stood two colossal statues of Rameses II. At the far end of the sanctuary and above the solar bark on which the beetle-headed Re-Harakhte, the solar god is seated under a canopy while he is seated under a canopy while he is being adored on the left by the king and on the right by three baboons. Below is a niche that still shows traces of the three chiseled statues of the temples. Th ree principal gods are painted over the picture of St. Peter.92 Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1457) also campaigned in Nubia. Th utmose III, her youthful coregent and stepson supplanted her. Th e Queen ruled as a king with ceremonial beard and a fi rm hand for twenty years. Th e temple built at Deir el Bahri was the outstanding monument of her reign. Th e walls display her important trading expedition to Punt. However, it was Th utmose III who extended the Egyptian frontier to the foot of the Holy Mountain at Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract in his 47th regal year. His victory stele at Napata marked his triumph and the extent of the Egyptian frontier and in his temple of Amun-Re, he could boast of his satisfaction in both Egypt and Asia. Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten) (1352-1336) was a coregent with his father, Amenhotep the III, during his later reign. Amenhotep changed his name during his reign to Akhnaten, signifying his new devotion to the Sun god Aten, which was in confl ict with the Th eban god Amun, and the priesthood. Th e center of government remained at Th ebes while Akhnaten moved to Amarna with his beautiful wife Nefertari, and the adherents to the new religion that was a forerunner of Monotheism. Akhnaten built a temple at Karnak in honor of Aten. Th e gains made abroad were gradually diminished by lack of attention on the home front. Th e agreement of the factions of Aten and Amun seem to have begun under Semenekhara (1335-1332), who was coregent with Akhnaten for a short period. He was succeeded by Tutankhamon (1332-23) who was successful in returning the splintered worship of Amun to Th ebes. Th e death of Tutankhamon while still a youth made a place for an elderly noble named Ay (1323-1319) who legitimized his claim by marrying the widow of the deceased Alara’s prayer preserved in the Kawa VI relief refl ects his piety and his belief in the providence of the God Amun: O benefi cent god, swift, who calls upon him, look Upon my sister for me, a women born with me in one womb. Act for her (even) as you have acted for him [Alara] that acted For you , as a wonder, unpremeditated, and not disregarded by refl ective people. For you put a stop to him that plotted evil against me after you set me up as king A stela from Kawa, now located in the Ny Carlsberg Glypotek in Copenhagen, shows Alara making off erings to the god. Th e temple B at Kawa depicts the earliest post new Kingdom temple and affi rms that Alara was the fi rst signifi cant restorer of the Nubian Amun cult. Th e fi rst surviving sculptures of the dynasty are a series of ram sphinxes of heavy cut stone placed by Kashta by its pylon when he enlarged the mud-brick temple of Alara (B800) at Jebel Barkal. Kashta’s legitimacy as king was established through the installation of Alara’s sister as princess of Amun, which created the justifi cation for royal succession and facilitated the shared concepts of traditional Kushite practice with Egyptian concepts of kingship. Kashta was married to his sister Pebtatma indicated by her Abydos stela. Her roles are also given as Sistrum-player of Amen Re, King of the Gods, King’s sister, king’s daughter, mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Kashta was affi rmed king by the priests of Amun when he arrived in Th ebes. Adams posits that there was no suggestion of military activity connected with this visit. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. Pianhki’s genius as titular King of Egypt, liturgical wizard in the synthesis of Egyptian and Kushite concepts of order as priest, and military might as general is captured in his Great Triumphal Stela from the Gebel Barkal Temple of Amun in the year 727 B.C. which is now in Cairo. Pianhki (Piye) : conqueror and deliverer It was Pianhki, the son of Kashta, who completed the submission of Egypt. Th e Sandstone Stela of Piye (747 B.C.) records that Pianhki was appointed by Amun as lord of the Th rones of the Two Lands. Pianhki’s mother was Pebatma; sister was “Sistrum-player of Amun Re, King of the Gods and Mother of the Divine Adoratrice (Amenerdis I). Pianhki married Tabiry, sister of Kashta. Pianhki’s daughter was Shepenwepet II whom he installed when he became king, as God’ Wife of Amun Elect. His other daughters were Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Arty. His brother, Prince Pakartror, was buried at Abydos with the Kushite Royal wives of Kashta and Pianhki. Pianhki also had three sons: Khaluit, Taharqa and Piye-Har. It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the fi nest horses used in contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia. Th is splendid large stela of pink granite with a rounded top has a lunette relief which gives a pictorial summary of the event in the text that describes his wars fought under the protection of Amun bringing him the victory he envisioned. At the left of the lunette is Amun sitting on the throne with Mut the goddess standing behind Amun and Pianhki standing before him. King Namlot, of Hermopolis, is leading a horse in front of Pianhki shaking a sistrum in order to pacify him. Pianhki in the tradition of the pharaohs donated his tribute of war to the god NECIA DESIREE HARKLESS 130 Amun which was vast: “a mass of copper or turquoise as large as yourself, fi nest horses, gold, silver, lapislazuli, property of all kinds, suits of apparel made of byssus of every quality, and couches and coverlets of linen, and anti perfume, vases of unguent, metal vessels or gold ornaments for the neck, crowns for your head, gold vases for ceremonies of purifi cation, precious inlaid stones...” At Kawa, Pianhki added a colonnaded forecourt where his stelae could be erected and pylons to the temple of Amun and built a paved processional road. On the walls of the temple, the ancient thirty-year Sed festival is depicted showing the king restoring his powers. At Kurru, he is entombed in a pyramid with subterranean chamber accessed by a stairway, and his wife Tabiry is buried nearby. Th e horses that he loved were buried as well at Kurru with elaborate trappings of silver and gold. Th e reign of the conqueror lasted 30 years. Pianhki is also remembered from the Sandstone Stela by his speech: ‘Th e Son of Re, lord of Diadems, “beloved of Amun, Pi(anh)ki says: Amun of Napata has granted me to be ruler of every foreign country. He to whom I say, you are chief, he is to be chief. He to whom I say ‘You are not king !’ he is not King . Amun in Dominion (Th ebes) has granted me to be ruler of Black-land. ...Gods make a king, men make a king, But it is Amun who has made me Th e earliest throne name of Pianhki, as Lord of Two Lands was indicative of his godship and kingship. Shabataka assumed the reign of the Kingdom of Kush and Egypt, following the death of his father. His attested wife was Arty, a daughter of Pianhki. Shabataka was enthroned at Th ebes in the great temple of Amun. His titulary included “Whose appearances -endure, Beloved of Ptah and Beloved of Amun. Th is ‘shadowy king’ falls through the cracks of history as so little has been found to affi rm his reign. Th e Karnak Nile level record, year three of Shabataka, records that he arrived at Th ebes, the compound of Amun on the fi fth day of the fi rst month of summer in his third regal year. ============================ Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I is presumed to be the Shishak (Shishak, Shishaq or Susac) mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Sheshonq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu and Tehenu inhabited. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3 All humans have been given the knowledge of good and evil. Our Creator bestowed Solomon the gift discerning whether the actions of others are good or evil. In return, the Creator had only the request that Solomon keep His statutes and My commandments. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 5 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 Ecclesiastes is presented as an autobiography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises Solomon's wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. One reason the Kohelet is identified as Solomon is that at one time Solomon was the king of Israel, and Ecclesiastes 1:1 identifies the Preacher as “king in Jerusalem.” Also in agreement with Ecclesiastes 1:1, Solomon was a “son of David.” Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 1 Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War President Abraham Lincoln Second Annual Message December 1, 1862 Egyptian influence on Israel was particularly strong in the reign of Solomon who became the son-in-law to an Egyptian Pharaoh. It has been suggested that Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the unnamed pharaoh of the Bible who gave in marriage his daughter to king Solomon in order to seal an alliance between Israel and Egypt. Neterkheperre was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the 21st Dynasty after Psusennes I. Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Divine is The Manifestation of Ra, Chosen of Amun" while his name means 'son of Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen).' Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 9 King Solomon incorporated the teachings of Israel Egypt's Vizier Ptahhotep on how to keep good moral sense when making decisions. Ecclesiastes 10 Scripture presents Solomon had access to Egyptian and Babylonian literature. King Solomon's actions caused Israel to fall from the Creator's grace. Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 11 Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - Chapter 12 While Solomon did pay for his transgressions here on earth, his last word of wisdom does offer hope for his possible Salvation. Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: [ʃiʃaq], Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, translit. Sousakim) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I. Sheshonq I campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25 and 2 Chronicles 12:1-12). According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE[2]), Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Kushites ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made;[3] Rehoboam replaced them with brass ones. According to Second Chronicles, Egyptian military conquests against Assyria and Israel, aided by Ethiopians are recorded in the Books of Kings, Acts, and the Chronicles. Mention is made of an Ethiopian army assisting Shishak ( Sheshonk) who ruled Egypt during the reign of Rehoboam, the King of Judah and the Son of Solomon. Shishak’s army swept across the land of Judah, with twelve hundred chariots and sixty thousand men, leaving in his wake fi re and destruction. Th e people of Lubim and Sukkim, and the Ethiopians are further described as a host with many horses and chariots. Subduing the Judeans in the south, Shishak continued north to Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the king which included all of the gold shields which Solomon had made.31 Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 14 Divrei Hayamim II - II Chronicles - Chapter 12
  14. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    600 years before Socrates, Aristotle and Demosthenes, the Israelite King Solomon wrote and shared words of wisdom to his people that a perfect weight on honest scales and balances are the Creator's will. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 11 Proverbs 16 The Egyptian scale and balance concept of 'Ma’at' predated the Torah by 2000 years, but had a similar meaning of an active Creative Force of Nature involved in the scales and balances of Justice. Ma’at originated as a concept and evolved into belief in a goddess that was a manifestation of the Creator and Sun god, Amun Ra (Amun Re, Yamānu, Hidden One) to maintain truth, justice and natural universal order by balancing the flow of Ka (vital energy, life force, magic) from opposing powers. Ma’at is also a blatant counter force to the Egyptian term isfet (disorder). As a goddess, through the activation of the Ka (Heka) Ma’at was created by Amun Ra and opponent of Apepi (Aapep) the giant serpent and Lord of Chaos. Egyptians had no concept of Hell after death, Judgement came to those that followed Apepi and heart was not pure during life, their punishment was to devoured by the female demon Ammit into non-existence. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Maat represents the ethical and moral principle of truth and honor that every citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives. The soul, ka (vital energy, and Chu (Shu, breath of life) originated on earth and were connected to immortality. 300 hundred years before Solomon, the Egyptian Royal scribe, Hunefer made a copy of the funerary Egyptian Book of the Dead for Pharaoh Seti I. Like the Creator in Judaism, Thoth gives long life on earth and the promise of eternal life in the after world to those who are just. Book of the Dead of Hunefer Chapter CLXXXIII Papyrus of Un'neferu 500 hundred years before Hunefer, the Babylonian King ,Hammurabi inscribed his code of law on a stone stele. The relief portrait of Hammurabi can be found in the House Gallery in the United States Capitol Building. Hammurabi Code of Laws Stele. The Sky god Anu (An) is considered the Chief Justice of the seven gods ( Anunnaki) who reside in the underworld and judge the fate of mankind. Ea (Enki) the god of righteousness and Lord (Bel) of Heaven and Earth who assigned lesser gods to oversee and represent particular regions on earth in the council of gods. It was It was Ea who proposed to the council that a mortal man should be created to serve the gods. Anu and Ea assigned the Sky Lord Marduk (Ea's son) to oversee the decrees of Anu on the fate of mankind with his Imhullu (divine wind storm weapon). Anu and Ea who bestowed on King Hammurabi the power to rule over the mortals with righteousness judgement over the wicked. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 1 King Hammurabi prayed at the temple of Siggil (Marduk) and asked his Lord (Bel) Marduk to increase the riches of Babylonia and the main temple of Sin (god of the moon and the one who created Hammurabi) called Gish-shir-gal ; reestablish the sacred city of Eridu dedicated Lord (Bel) Ea; and purify Apsu (a god encompasses all fresh drinking water) that eternally sleeps due to a spell Ea placed upon him. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Hammurabi refers to himself as a white king who knew of Shamash (Utu), son of the moon god Sin, and god of the Sun. Shamash was known for riding his sun chariot all day watching enforcing justice, and teaching morality and truth to mortals. Shamash established and guarded the cities of Sippara and Larsa. He then made the temple dedicated to him like Heaven. Shamash clothed the gravestones of his Malkat (Queen and consort) with green representing the resurrection of nature. With the help of Shamash, Hammurabi was able to restore and bring water to the ancient city of Uruk; raise the temple of E-Anna (Inanna, Istar), Queen of Heaven (twin sister of Shamash), perfectly depicted the beauty of the sky god Anu and the warrior and reproduction goddess Nana (Nanaya), who guard the kingdom of Babylon and reunited the people of the city of Isin. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 2 Like the god Shamash bringing green life over death to Babylon, the Creator brought green life over death to Israel. Most Jewish scholars believe this to be prophecy of when Israel will rise to power over those that control it. Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 17 Hammurabi donated to money to the temple of E-gal-mach and protected the cities he controlled. He considered himself to be brother of the war god Zamama (Zababa, Ashtabi) protector of the city of Kish . Hammurabi glorified Zamama's temple E-me-te-ursag and established farms around the city of Kish. He also increased the treasury of the temple of the warrior god Nana (Nanaya) and the Temple Harsagkalama dedicated to the love and war goddess, Inanna, (Inana, Ishtar), daughter of the sky god Anu, and mother of the warrior goddess Nanaya Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 King Hammurabi used the a grave metaphor to define the destruction and subjection of his enemy. He increased the power of the city of Cuthah. Code of Hammurabi Prologue 3 According to the Tanakh, Cuthah was one of the five Syrian and Mesopotamian cities from which Sargon II, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites. These settlers would later be known as "Cuthim" in Hebrew and as "Samaritans" to the Greeks. The Assyrian King advisers marginalized God of the Israelites from the Creator of all mankind to just a regional God with power to kill unrespectful settlers. The Samaritans incorporated the Creator into their former pantheon of gods. 2 KINGS 17 In modern history, like the Cuthim, the Yoruba African slaves were coerced to accept the Catholic faith in Cuba. The masked their ancestral belief by syncretizing (combing) their Orisha (Orichás, orixá) spirits with the human form of Catholic saints. King Hammurabi raises his right arm in worship. Detail of a votive monument. Limestone. Old Babylonian Period, reign of Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE. From Sippar, Iraq. The British Museum, London. In the book, The Old Testament In the Light of The Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, Theophilus G. Pinches writes that inscription is dedicated for the saving of his life. In this he bears the title (incomplete) of “King of Amoria” (the Amorites), lugal Mar[tu], Semitic Babylonian sar mât Amurrî It is interesting to note that it is is the same time period that King Hammurabi and Abraham, ‘father of the faithful Hebrews and friend of God’, who is said to have migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran, the chief city and commercial capital of Mesopotamia, and then into Palestine. It is now the prevailing view among both Assyriologists and Old Testament scholars that King Hammurabi and Amraphel the king of Shinar are the same person. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia a partial clue to transformation of the name Hammurabi into the Hebrew form Amraphel is furnished by the explanation of the name in a cuneiform letter as equivalent to Kimta-rapashtu (great people or family). On this basis "'am" = "Kimta" and "raphel" = "rapaltu" = "rapashtu." Shinar is a general synonym for the region of Babylonia. The Expository Times identities Arioch of Ellasar with Eri-Aku of Larsa . Eri-Aku is a Sumerian name, Servant of the god Aku,' who is identified by the Semitic-Babylonian scribes with the Moon god Sin. Eri is an abbreviated form of erim or eriv, and the character of the Hebrew Arioch indicates that the final semi-consonant was pronounced. Hence, the king was known as Rim-Sin to a portion of his Semitic subjects, ·erim (en'v) being assimilated to the Semitic 'a wild bull.' In some late Babylonian texts the name is written Eri-E-kua, (servant of the moon god E-kua, Aku). It is also generally held that Arioch, king of Ellasar, is identical with Eri-aku, king of Larsa, conquered by King Hammurabi (Amraphel), and later became subject to him. At this point comes the line mentioning Kudur-laḫmal, supposed to be Chedorlaomer. It reads as follows— “Kudur-laḫmal, his son, pierced his heart with the steel sword of his girdle.” The reverse begins with a reference to Elam, and some one (perhaps the king of that country) who “spoiled from the city Aḫḫê (?) to the land of Rabbātum.” Something was made, apparently by the same personage, into heaps of ruins, and the fortress of the land of Akkad, and “the whole of Borsippa(?)” are referred to. At this point comes the line mentioning Kudur-laḫmal, supposed to be Chedorlaomer. It reads as follows— “Kudur-laḫmal, his son, pierced his heart with the steel sword of his girdle.” After this there is a passage where the various kings mentioned seem to be referred to, and it is stated that Merodach, the king of the gods, was angry against them, and they were, to all appearance, made to suffer for what they had done. The scribe who had composed this record now speaks, in favourable words, of the king then reigning, and seems to refer to the restoration of the inscription to its place by the person (prince) who, in later days, should find it (as was the [pg 225] custom among the Babylonians and Assyrians). He ends with a pious wish that a sinful man might not exist, or something to that effect. The second tablet, though in a more satisfactory state of preservation, is still sufficiently incomplete, none of the lines being altogether perfect. After referring to Babylon, and to the property of that city, “small and great,” it is said that the gods (apparently) “in their faithful counsel to Kudur-laḫgumal, king of the land of Elam ... said ‘Descend.’The thing which unto them was good (he performed, and) he exercised sovereignty in Babylon, the city of Kar-Duniaš.” It would therefore appear that this Elamite ruler, by the will of the gods (such was the way with conquerors in those days—they annexed other countries to their dominions by the will of the gods of the lands annexed), took possession of Babylon, capital (such seems to be the meaning of the phrase) of Kar-Duniaš. After referring to Babylon, and to the property of that city, “small and great,” it is said that the gods (apparently) “in their faithful counsel to Kudur-laḫgumal, king of the land of Elam ... said ‘Descend.’The thing which unto them was good (he performed, and) he exercised sovereignty in Babylon, the city of Kar-Duniaš.” The Babylonian and Oriental Record, A Monthly Magazine of the Antiquities of the East, First Volume, November 1886 - 1887. t this point occurs Gen. ch. xiv., which contains the description of the conflict of the four kings against five—evidently one of the struggles of the Amorites and their allies to throw off the yoke of the Babylonians, [pg 209] who were in this case assisted by several confederate states. Much has been written concerning this interesting chapter of the Bible. The earlier critics were of opinion that it was impossible that the power of the Elamites should have extended so far at such an early epoch. Later on, when it was shown that the Elamites really had power—and that even earlier than the time of Abraham—the objection of the critics was, that none of the names mentioned in the fourteenth chapter of Genesis really existed in the inscriptions. The history of Abraham was a romance, and the names of the Eastern kings with whom he came into contact equally so. It was true that there were Elamite names commencing with the element Kudur, the Chedor of the sacred text, but Chedorlaomer did not occur, Amraphel and Tidal were equally wanting, and that Arioch was the same as Eri-Aku or Rim-Aku could not be proved. The first step in solving the riddle was that made by Prof. Eberhard Schrader, who suggested that Amraphel was none other than the well-known Babylonian king Ḫammurabi. This, naturally, was a theory which did not soon find acceptance—at least by all the Assyriologists. There were, however, two things in its favour—this king ruled sufficiently near to the time of Abraham, and he overcame a ruler named Rim-Sin or Rim-Aku, identified by the late George Smith with the Arioch of the chapter we are now considering. Concerning the latter ruler, Rim-Aku, there is still some doubt, but the difficulties which attended the identification of Ḫammurabi with Amraphel have now practically disappeared. The first step was the discovery of the form Ammurabi in one of the numerous contracts drawn up during his reign at Sippara, the city of the Sun-god. This form shows that the guttural was not the hard guttural kh, but the softer h. Yet another step [pg 210] nearer the Biblical form is that given by Ašaridu, who, in a letter to “the great and noble Asnapper,” writes as follows— https://ia801503.us.archive.org/8/items/theoldtestamenti38732gut/38732-h/38732-h.html#toc17 ' (the shrine of Merodach), and Eri-Ea-ku, 'the servant of Ea-ku.' The temple area included an outer, central and inner court. The shrine of Ishtar and Zamama occupied the central court, and the ziggurrat the inner court. In the temple proper, the shrine Ekua was located, in which stood the golden image of Marduk. This, the ancient writers say, was 40 ft. high. E~iv-Aku was the son of an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabug, who was 'governor of the land of the Amorites,' as Canaan was called by the Babylonians; and after the conquest of Babylonia by the Elamites, in the reign of Khammu-rabi's father, he was made vassal king· of Southern Babylonia, with Larsa for his capital, while Khammurabi, who must have been a boy at the time, was allowed to remain at Babylon. It was not 1until the thirtieth year of Khammu-rabi's reign that the war of independence began, which was followed in the succeeding year by the conquest of Eriv-Aku, anq in the year after by that of the Manda or 'Nations.' From this time forward Khammu-rabi reigned -over an empire which extended to the Mediterranean, and set about the compilation of a code of iaws. Ellasar is probably for al-Lada, 'the city of Lar5a.' Theophilus Pinches cuneiform tablet 1787 The tablets discovered by Dr. Pinches make Eriv-Aku and Tudghula or Tid'al the contemporaries of a king of Elam called Kudur- . · . mar, which Dr. Pinches gave reasons for believing should be read -Kudur-laomer. I have lately found proof in the lexical tablets that the actual reading is Kudur-Laghghamar, 'the servant(?) of the god Laghghamar;' the Hebrew transliteration of which would be iOlh. The spelling, however, is remarkable, since Lagamar (also written Lagameri and Lagamal) was an Elamite deity whose name was borrowed from the Sei;nitic-Babylonian La-gamilu, 'not sparing'; and thoughg becomesgh in Sumerian, it does not do so in Seinitic-Babylonian.1 · Hence the Hebrew io,l/S must have been copied from a cuneiform document in which the -;~a~e 'of the· :Efam1Fe:1dng ,vas written in the same cu~ious way as in th~ Spartali tablets. . ' · Tudghula, i.e. Syin, was a vassal ally of KudurLaghghamar; and since the allies whom the latter called to his help, and at whose head he marched, we must keep in mind the possibility, that if the Babylonian king considered that disaster had in any way overtaken his arms, he may not have recorded it at all. Then there is the fact, that the expedition was undertaken in conjunction with allies—Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch—for none of whom, in all probability, Ḫammurabi had any sympathy. The Elamite was a conqueror from a land over which the Babylonians of earlier ages had held sway, and Arioch had dominion over a neighbouring tract, to which Ḫammurabi himself laid claim, and over which, as the texts above translated show, he afterwards ruled. Ḫammurabi, moreover, claimed also the West-land—mât Amurrī, the land of Amurrū—as his hereditary possession, and he found himself obliged to aid Chedorlaomer, Tidal, and Arioch to subjugate it—indeed, it was Chedorlaomer whom the five kings had acknowledged for twelve years as their overlord, and against whom, in the thirteenth, they rebelled. It is, therefore, likely that Ḫammurabi regarded himself as having been forced by circumstances to aid Chedorlaomer to reconquer what really belonged to Babylonia, and the probability that he would cause it to be used as one of the events to date by, is on that account still less, even if the news of any success which he might have considered himself entitled to reached his own domain in time to be utilized for such a purpose. when two tablets were referred to at the Congress of Orientalists held at Geneva in 1894 as containing the names Tudḫula, Êri-Eaku (Êri-Ekua), and another name read doubtfully as Kudur-laḫ(gu)mal, no publicly-expressed objection to their possible identification with Tidal, Arioch, and Chedorlaomer [pg 223] was made. The names were placed before the Semitic section of the Congress of Orientalists referred to, as recent discoveries, which were certain as far as they went, their identification being a matter of opinion. spelled Eri-e-a-ku in the Babylonian cuneiform script, stood for the original Sumerian ERI.AKU, meaning "Servant of the god Aku," Aku being a variant of the name of Nannar/Sin. It is known from a number of inscriptions that Elamite rulers of Larsa bore the name "Servant of Sin In the Book of Genesis it is recorded that King Hammurabi (Amraphel) joined coalition of kings from Mesopotamia invaded Canaan and, in the process, took Lot captive. Amraphel is there associated with Arioch king of Ellasar, usually identified with Rîm-Sin king of Larsa, with Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of ‘Nations’. Abram with 318 soldiers retaliated with a surprise night attack and recovered Lot and the possessions the victorious kings had taken. Bereishit - Genesis - Chapter 14 There's only one Hamor mentioned in the Bible and he was a Hivite ruler (נשיא, nasi') and father of Shechem (in Acts 7:16 Stephen equates Hamor with Ephron). When Jacob returned from Paddan-aram and wanted to settle in Canaan, he bought land from Hamor and built the altar named El-Elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19). At some point, Jacob's only daughter Dinah, the sister of the twelve tribal patriarchs of Israel, went to the nearby town of Shechem to visit the Hivite women. She was noticed by prince Shechem, who fell in love with her and decided to express his feelings by raping her (34:2). Still, Hamor went to Jacob to ask for Dinah as a wife for Shechem, but Jacob's sons told Hamor that he and his people would have to be circumcised for their two families to intermarry. I was curious about this expression, especially in light of the fact that it is in this city that we find the remains of the temple of Baal Berith (“Lord of Covenant”), the chief deity of Shechem during most of the Bronze Age. The name Hamor is the same as the noun חמור (hamor), meaning ass or donkey, or more literal: red-one, from the root חמר (hamar III), meaning to be red: It appears to us here at Abarim Publications that to the Hebrews the color red denoted the rudiments or principal beginnings of civilization (and see our article on the Red Sea for a discussion on how the ancients saw the color red), whereas muddy substances metaphorized the transitional phase between ignorance (water) and understanding (dry land). or a meaning of the name Hamor, both NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names read Ass and BDB Theological Dictionary has He-Ass. Most literally, however, the name Hamor means Red One. Note that the color red signified the first stage of human civilization, and is connected to both Israel's Hivite nemesis as to Israel's national brother Edom (from Esau, Jacob's brother). Shechem /ˈʃɛkəm/, also spelled Sichem (/ˈsɪkəm/; Hebrew: שְׁכָם‬ / שְׁכֶם‬ Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[1] Traditionally associated with Nablus,[2] it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank. Shechem first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 12:6-8, which says that Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Genesis, Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges hallow Shechem over all other cities of the land of Israel.[6] According to Genesis (12:6-7) Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" at Shechem. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant he had first made with Abraham in Harran, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. In Jewish tradition, the old name was understood in terms of the Hebrew word shékém — "shoulder, saddle", corresponding to the mountainous configuration of the place. On a later sojourn, two sons of Jacob, Simeon (Hebrew Bible) and Levi, avenged their sister Dinah's rape by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land" of Shechem. Shimon and Levi said to the Shechemites that, if “every male among you is circumcised, then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to ourselves.”[7] Once the Shechemites agree to the mass circumcision, however, Jacob's sons repay them by killing all of the city's male inhabitants.[8] Following the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan after their Exodus from Egypt, according to the biblical narrative, Joshua assembled the Israelites at Shechem and asked them to choose between serving the god who had delivered them from Egypt, the gods which their ancestors had served on the other side of the Euphrates River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land they now lived. The people chose to serve the god of the Bible, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God, and he then erected a memorial stone "under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord" in Shechem.[9] The oak is associated with the Oak of Moreh where Abram had set up camp during his travels in this area.[10] Shechem and its surrounding lands were given as a Levitical city to the Kohathites.[11] Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob's Well (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph's tomb (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel.[citation needed] Jerubbaal (Gideon), whose home was at Ophrah, visited Shechem, and his concubine who lived there was mother of his son Abimelech (Judges 8:31). She came from one of the leading Shechemite families who were influential with the "Lords of Shechem" (Judges 9:1-3, wording of the New Revised Standard Version and New American Bible Revised Edition).[12] A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean "the God of the Covenant." In considering what the covenant (or covenants) was over which this Ba'al presided, it must not necessarily be concluded that certain definite treaties of the time were alone referred to, such as the Canaanitic league of which Shechem was the head, or the covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv.). The term is too abstract to have been occasioned by a single set of conditions. Moreover, the temple of the god (Judges ix. 4, 46) in Shechem implies a permanent establishment. Probably the name and the cult were wide-spread and ancient (see Baalim), though it happens to have been mentioned only in connection with the affairs of Shechem. —In Rabbinical Literature: The idol Baalberith, which the Jews worshiped after the death of Gideon, was identical, according to the Rabbis, with Baal-zebub, "the ba'al of flies," the god of Ekron (II Kings i. 2). He was worshiped in the shape of a fly; and so addicted were the Jews to his cult (thus runs the tradition) that they would carry an image of him in their pockets, producing it, and kissing it from time to time. Baal-zebub is called Baal-berith because such Jews might be said to make a covenant (Hebr. "Berit") of devotion with the idol, being unwilling to part with it for a single moment (Shab. 83b; comp. also Sanh. 63b). According to another conception, Baal-berith was an obscene article of idolatrous worship, possibly a simulacrum priapi (Yer. Shab. ix. 11d; 'Ab. Zarah iii. 43a). This is evidently based on the later significance of the word "berit," meaning circumcision. “Those who were bound under the covenant having participated in this ritual became ‘sons of Hamor’ (‘sons of the ass’). The covenant of Hamor ‘was almost certainly related to Baal-Berith, who was the chief god of the city’… Toorn, K. Van Der, Bob Becking and Pieter Willem Van Der Horst. 1999. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids: Brill ; Eerdmans. p.143 And given Shechem (שכם) means “shoulder”, the expression “Hamor, father of Shechem”(חמור אבי שכם), can also be read “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם). This expression therefore suggests that Shechem was the ally of Babylon when it formed a covenant with king Hammurabi. In fact, standing “shoulder to shoulder” is something one does in times of a deadly threat and against an enemy. And I do explain in the book how Hammurabi was motivated to make a covenant with Abraham in order to secure control over the remote Valley of Siddim. Finally, the name Dinah (דינה) is the feminine of “din” (דין), which means “law” in reference to the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah (i.e. the original five books of the Old Testament). Clearly, the Shechemites wanted to continue serving the family of “Hamor, Shechem’s father” or “Hammurabi’s shoulder” (חמוראבי שכם), which presumably could be referring to the legitimate descendants of Abraham, Hammurabi’s ally, and still referred to as the “father” of the faith to this day. http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/jubilees/30.htm Jacob's acquisition of land at Shechem (Gen. 33:19; cf. 48:22) and the connubium between the sons of Jacob and the sons of Hamor (as the Shechemites were then called) imply certain covenant agreements. Moreover, the strange name, "sons of Hamor" ( benei hamor, "sons of the ass"), who is said to be the "father of Shechem" (Gen. 34:6), seems to have something to do with covenant making. From the *Tell-el-Amarna Letters (c. 1400 B.C.E.) it is known that there was a strong Hurrian element in Shechem. The Septuagint is therefore probably correct in reading hhry ("the Horite," i.e., the Hurrian) instead of hhwy ("the Hivite") of the Masoretic Text in describing the ethnic origin of "Shechem" (Gen. 34:2); moreover, the uncircumcised Shechemites (Gen. 34:14, 24) were most likely not Semitic Canaanites (see E. A. Speiser, op. cit., 267). It is also known that the slaughtering of an ass played a role among the Hurrians in the making of a covenant. Thus, Baal-Berith or El-Berith may have been regarded by the Shechemites as the divine protector of covenants. Did the early Israelites perhaps regard El-Berith as the God of the covenant made between YHWH and Israel? It is a noteworthy fact that Joshua, who had apparently been able to occupy the region of Shechem without force because Israelites who - many scholars believe - had never been in Egypt were already iiving there, renewed the Covenant of Sinai with all Israel precisely at Shcchem, the city sacred to El-Berith, " the God of the Covenant" (Josh. 8:30-35; 24:1-28). Therefore, even though the late Deuteronomist editor of the Book of Judges (it is conjectured by the adherents of the documentary hypothesis) considered Baal-Berith one of the pagan Canaanite Ba'alim, this term may well have been regarded in early Israel as one of the titles of YHWH. Other terms such as "killing an ass" sheds light on customs which prevailed in patriarchal times and later. The idiom "to kill an ass," khayaram qatalum, is not Akkadian at all, but both words occur in Hebrew and indicated the sacrifice which accompanied the oath of alliance. The connection between sacrificing as ass and concluding a covenant seems to have been preserved by the Shechemites, with whom Jacob and his sons had such unpleasant dealings (Gen. 33:19; 34:1-31). Called the Bene Hamor, "sons of the ass" (Josh. 24:32), their tribal deity was Baal-Berith, "Lord of the covenant" (Judg. 9:4). Later, at the time of Conquest the Bene Hamor of Shechem were, it seems, like the four towns of the Gibeonite confederacy (Josh 9:1ff.), added to Israel by treaty, to judge from various early references to them and their god Baal-Berith." Joseph Vicek Kozar, who reads the narrative as supporting the brothers’ actions, 485 suggests that the significance of interethnic relations is substantiated by symbolic imagery within the story. He points out that the homonym of Hamor’s name (rwmx) is donkey, an animal that “lives among the herd but is not one of them, lacking cloven hooves and not chewing the cud.” 486 This, coupled with the fact that “[a]t the time of Dinah’s rape, her brothers are out with the cattle (34:5),” 487 illumines the resultant confrontation: “The…clash of cultures (and slaughter) shows that the sons of herds and flocks cannot conduct social intercourse with the sons of the ass. This symbolism underlies the group or tribal nature of the events behind the story.” 488 Like Sternberg, Kozar also retrojects later narrative concerns of Israelite interethnic relations onto the clash between the ancestral family and the Hivites. He concludes that Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem represents the larger Canaanite culture, and that the story illustrates the danger of Israel’s “being absorbed by the larger Canaanite culture.” 489 Douglas Earl echoes this symbolic thinking in his own analysis, according to which “Dinah symbolizes Israel and Shechem the nations.” 490 The narrative, Earl suggests, “serves to evoke affectually the disastrous consequences of exogamy and mingling, and the zeal with which exogamy is to be avoided. Shechem’s act is evaluated as disgraceful and unacceptable. This transfer is presented as a pretext for the text to come.” 492 The narrator’s repeated use of )m+, furthermore, invokes a “cultic and ritual cognitive domain” 493 (again an Israelite domain) that suggests that Shechem and the Hivites threaten the ancestral family with their outsiders’ impurity. Finally, the continuation of the narrative in Gen 35, in which Jacob commands his household to rid itself of its foreign gods, strengthens the negative socioreligious associations of Shechem. Where Jacob goes next, Bethel, stands in stark contrast: “Bethel, the place where Jacob met his God, represents the ideal of one place, one people and one God. It is opposed to the other place, Shechem, with alien people and alien gods, who have to be buried.” 494 Thus the Dinah interlude is the “hinge” of the ideological reversal from the preceding narrative’s “context of peace and mutual understanding with the Canaanites” to “a mono-ethnic position embedded in a mono-religious position.” 495 Indeed, as van Wolde notes, in Gen 35 the ancestral blessing undergoes a notable revision, as “the blessing of other people is not mentioned any more,” implying that the ancestral family is now the exclusive inheritor of the land BAAL-BERITH (Baʹal-beʹrith) [Owner of a Covenant; once, at Jg 9:46, El-berith, God of a Covenant]. The Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites began worshiping after the death of Judge Gideon. (Jg 8:33) The designation “Baal-berith” may denote that this particular Baal was believed to watch the keeping of covenants. A kind of treasury was evidently attached to the house or temple of Baal-berith at Shechem. (Jg 9:4) In connection with the grape harvest, the Shechemites apparently held a festival in honor of Baal-berith, climaxed by a kind of sacrificial meal in the temple of their god. It was in the temple of Baal-berith on the occasion of their eating and drinking and cursing Abimelech, likely under the influence of wine, that Gaal incited the Shechemites to revolt against King Abimelech. (Jg 9:27-29) Later, when threatened by Abimelech, the landowners of the tower of Shechem (Migdal-Shechem, AT) sought refuge in the vault of the house of El-berith (Baal-berith), only to perish in the conflagration when Abimelech and his men set the vault on fire.—Jg 9:46-49. Solomon understood that being submissive to the Creator and generous to other will be blessed with long life. Mishlei - Proverbs - Chapter 22 Hammurabi ruled as king of Babylonia Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic - Religions of The Ancient Near East Sīn /ˈsiːn/ or Suen (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. - He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means "lord of wisdom". Sīn was also called "He whose heart can not be read" and was told that "he could see farther than all the gods". It is said that every new moon, the gods gather together from him to make predictions about the future. - Nana - Babylonian Moon God. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr121.htm Utu[a] later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, . Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers, The local god was Zamama, the Tammuz-like deity, who, like Nin-Girsu of Lagash, was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylon. Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld, and of healing. the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit By making a persuasive art-historical case for beginning their study with our earliest civilizations, they demonstrate the cross-cultural, cross-temporal universality of some persistently compelling themes, such as the image of the scales, a judicial motif attested in both ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt.2 Picked up as well in ancient Greece, the scales are hefted aloft in the hands of embodied goddesses, who in the seventeenth century C.E. acquired a blindfold, s Law Stele of Hammurabi, Literally thousands of clay tablets documenting legal transactions have survived from ancient Mesopotamia. from around 1792 to around 1750 B.C.E. His reign is distinguished for political consolidation of territories neighboring his city-state of Babylon, which he brought under control through a combination of successful military engagements and the calculated making and breaking of diplomatic treaties." The "laws" that are probably the best known are those that seem to offer strong parallels to the Biblical precepts of justice, and are held up as exemplifying the principle of retributive justice, for example: § 196 If a freeman has blinded the eye of another freeman, his eye shall be blinded. § 197 If he has broken the bone of another freeman, his bone shall be broken. § 198 If he has blinded the eye of a dependent or broken the bone of a dependent, he shall pay sixty shekels of silver. § 199 If he has blinded the eye of a slave of a freeman, or broken the bone of a slave of freeman, he shall pay one-half his value in silver.22 It is this section that generally receives the most attention from legal and Biblical scholarship interested in ancient legal codes and covenants.23 Compare the Book of Exodus, 21:22: "If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." C. The Relief Sculpture The sculpted relief depicts Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god, seated facing left, and king Hammurabi, who, standing, faces right.26 Shamash is identified as a divinity by the stylized horned crown he wears and as the sun god by the wavy-line "rays" emanating from his shoulders and the surface detail of his footstool evoking mountainous terrain-the eastern and western locales of his rising and setting. As sun god, Shamash is the Mesopotamian deity of light and illumination, and by logical extension, the god of justice who illuminates the true situation. In addition to "rays," his frequent attribute is a saw, with which he opens the mountains at daybreak and sunset and with which he separates truth from falsehood. Here, instead, he extends or displays to Hammurabi the so-called "Rod and Ring," which occupies the center of the visual field. Opposite the god, Hammurabi is marked by his hea In the voice of Hammurabi, the Epilogue summarizes Hammurabi's purpose in erecting the monument: In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways for the orphan and the widow, I have inscribed my precious pronouncements upon my stele and set [them] before my image, the just king, in the city of Babylon . . .. By the order of [the god] Marduk, my lord, may my engraved design not be confronted by someone who would remove it. May my name always be remembered faithfully in the Esagil temple which I love. 32 Let any man who has a lawsuit come before my image, the just king, and have my words read out loud; let him hear my precious words, let my monument reveal to him the case. Let him see his judgment, let his heart become soothed [reciting the following short prayer]: "Hammurabi, lord, who is like a father and begetter to his people, submitted himself to the command of (the god) Marduk, his lord, and achieved victory everywhere. He gladdened the heart of Marduk, his lord, and he secured the eternal well-being of the people and provided just ways for the land. "3 In one Akkadian period cylinder seal, Shamash sits enthroned before a set of scales, tipping the balance of justice (presumably) in accordance with the petitions of his worshippers, who bring an animal offering before the god (Black 1992: 182-4) throne. Shamash and his wife, Aya, had two important children. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was law. Every morning, the gates in the East open up, and Shamash appears. He travels across the sky, and enters the gate in the West. He travels through the Underworld at night in order to begin in the East the next day the god Misharu, whose name means "Justice". Holland 2009, p. 115. The Phoenician Sydyk was equated with Roman Jupiter, and hence it has been suggested that Sydyk was connected to the worship of the planet Jupiter as the manifestation of justice or righteousness. the Babylonian Shamash has two sons called respectively Kettu (which, like Sedeq, means "righteousness") and Misharu ("rectitude"). These two deities are mentioned also in the Sanchoniatho fragments of Philo Byblios under the names of Sydyk and Misor, as culture-heroes who have discovered the use of salt. Phoenician inscriptions have Sedeqyathan, "Sedeq gave," as a personal name, as well as combinations of Sedeq with Ramman and Melek. Fr. Jeremias thinks that Sydyk and Misor were respectively the spring and autumn sun in sun-worship and the waxing and waning moon in moon worship. translated as truth, equity, justice kittu as truth Shamas often had a special saw Shamash the judge of heaven and earth had a special saw, call the shasharu. Mesopotamian Scales circa 2350 O Sun, when though goes to rest in mid-heaven May the bars of bright heaven speak peace to thee, May the gateway of of heaven approach thee May Misharu, they loving herald, direct thy pathway Of course Babylonian and Assyrian words may not always have the same content as our words "righteousness" and "truth," but the words kittu and misharu, which we render by "righteousness" and "truth", are derived from kanu, "to be firm," and eshem, "to be straight," respectively; and judging from what was considered "right" and "true," or kittu and misharu, there is no reason for that the standard was very hight misharu, represented the law May Misharu, thy well-beloved servant, guide aright thy progress, so that ebarra The West Semitic name Ammi-Saduqa is translated into Akkadian as Kitum-kittum showing an equivalence of meaning between the West Semitic ṣ-d-q and the Akkadian kittu. Kittu was similarly paired with the god Misharu whose name is a cognate of Misor, meaning "justice". Shamash and the mother of Misharu (god of law and order) and Kittu (god of justice). Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been a local male sun god whose gender was changed when the worship of the major sun god, Shamash, took precedence, the minor god becoming the female consort of Shamash. Her attendants were Kittu (truth) and Misharu (righteousness). Misharu, ---, God of law. Son of Aa. instead he became the spokesman for the nation (kemit), heavily indebtedto fairness and truth (maat in Egypt, kittu and misharu in Mesopotamia) Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from the Akkadian root kanu. Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’). One or both of these deities was described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand.’ Depictions of Shamash show him holding a ring of coiled rope and a rod, objects ascribed to surveyors and therefore, when linked to rulership, denoting the act of setting things right. The Akkadian words kittu and misharu, translated into English as “truth,” “equity,” or “justice,” describe the “straightening out” of a situation whose equilibrium, put out of balance, had become “crooked.” 2 Shamash is associated with two divinities personifying justice and equity, Kittu and Misharu, which are in fact two deified conceptions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is debated. According to D. Charpin, Hammu-Rabi of Babylon , Paris, 2003, p. 206-207, kittum would be "justice as guardian of public order", and mišarum "justice as restoration of equity" mi-ish-ri-c(!) ish-ru-16%-6-shd. Mi-ish-ri-e I take as a plural of misharu = mishru (ef. cpiru, epru; gimiru, gimru; Delitesch, Gram., p. 105, $45), “righteousness" (hence not of meshril, "riches," H. B. W., p. F88a), and dumqi, on nceount of the pardlclism, in the sense 0 The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice was Maat, who represented “the order which rules the world through balance.” PATRICIA TURNER & CHARLES RUSSELL COULTER, DICTIONARY OF ANCIENT DEITIES 298 (Oxford Univ. Press 2001) (2000). The Sumerian god of truth was Kittu, but, interestingly, his job title did not include justice; that job was his brother’s, Misharu. See James W. Bell, Sumerian Gods, Demons & Immortals Whose Names Start with “K”, http://www.jameswbell.com/geog0050knames.html (last visited March 29, 2007). Addanari is the Hindu goddess of truth, nature, and religion. TURNER & COULTER, supra, at 14. Shiva, among her many other jobs, is also associated with truth. Id. at 427. They were believed to have two offspring: the goddess Kittu, whose name means “Truth”, and the god Misharu, whose name means “Justice”. Utu’s charioteer Bunene is sometimes described as his son. Bunene was worshipped independently from Utu as a god of justice in Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period. n the Hebrew Bible, and Kittu in the Babylonian pantheon, who is often invoked with Misharu. 768 Both of these Babylonian deities are described as being seated before Shamash or the minister of Shamash’s right hand.769 M Shamash and his wife Sherida (Aya for Akkadians and Babylonians) had two important sons. Kittu represented justice, and Misharu was the law. Its main sanctuary was in the city of Sippar. Every morning, the eastern doors opened, and Shamash appeared. He traveled around the sky, and entered the west gate Shamu / Kittu, Truth revealed (Shamu), Truth understood (Kittu) Misharu, Justice at work in view of truth, Dayyanu, Judgment that discerns truth Truth or Right was personified and deified as the god Kittu (‘Truth’, ‘Right’; from Akk root kânu, cf. Heb root KWN). Kittu was often invoked together with the god Misharu (‘Justice’)… One or both of these deities were described as ‘seated before Shamash’, i.e. Shamash’s attendant, or as ‘the minister of (Shamash’s) right hand’. . . it appears that the deity known as Kittu in Babylonia was known further to the West under the names Išar and Ṣidqu/ Zedek—all three names having essentially the same meaning but operative in different linguistic communities… West Semitic personal names containing the root SDQ are attested at m Fortress Press, 1998] 66-67). Also, the Babylonian gods Kittu “Righteousness” and Misharu “Justice” parallel to the West Semitic gods Sedheq and Misor In this function Shamash is associated with gods personifying justice and equality, and Kittu Misharu, who actually deifies two notions of "justice", the exact meaning of which is discussed and Dayyanu god. The Great Hymn to Shamash already explicitly mentioned the role of the god of justice, the guardian of good decisions and honest behavior and punishments of unjust and dishonest behavior: Great Hymn to Shamash, translation MJ Seux.
  15. Luke_Wilbur

    The Didache (The Teaching) 2nd Revision

    Marcus Cicero believed in a Actively Involved Creator (Divine Providence) over a Do Nothing Creator (Prime Mover) defined by the Greek Philosopher Epicurus that walked this earth 200 years before him. Epicurus taught that pain and death are not evil unto themselves. Cicero believed in the immortality of the soul, and the tranquility of the good after death, and the punishment of the wicked defined by Plato. Epicurus also believed in divine beings, but man cannot be divine and should not expect anything good or bad to come from the gods. Epicurus taught that if one understands that he or she is not immortal, then one can be free of the fear of death and the pain caused from its coming. Epicurus Letter to Menoeceus Marcus Cicero agreed with Epicurus that death and pain are not evil unto themselves. But, he maintained that it was reason that links us to the Creator. It is this Provident Creator that generated man to transcend over the other creatures by reason and thought. And it is the right (successful) reason between the Creator and Man we find self evident, which we call Law. Epicurus believed that circumstance was the Prime Mover and Natural Order of matter. While Cicero maintained that through right reasoning we can take notice of the natural link between our indestructible spirit and our Creator through natural and morally just laws that derive from loving our associates. Epicurus taught that some outcomes happen out of necessity, others by chance, and our own through our own agency (course of action). Epicurus considered Law to be Truth as long as through Prudent Reasoning it is considered to be useful (Natural Justice and Honorable) and successful (pleasurable) to all parties (self evident). The chain of Epicurian reasoning has led us to now consider the infinite outcome reality of quantum self interest over one outcome reality of an outside Creative force of nature watching and interacting with us. It is in only the successful outcome of our decisions that those that believe in either a Provident Creator, a Prime Mover, or No God can agree. 50 years before Epicurus, a sage by the name of Aristotle tutor of Alexander the Great, argued that is through contrary outcomes that we can find Natural Justice. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Another great orator that both born and died the same years as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) by the name of Demosthenes led a failed revolt against Alexander the Great and took his life rather than being arrested. Demosthenes believed that unjust actions to be wicked and just actions to be good and honest. Demosthenes Against Aristocrates Section 75 Demosthenes argued that those who fail to see and act upon god given opportunities during their lifetime will be judged their denial of the divine good in them. Demosthenes Olynthiac 1 Section 11 Demosthenes and Aristotle would have known Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher that proceeded them. In Joeseph Priestly's work, Socrates and Jesus Compared, Socrates devout religious belief to help citizens and others to be good was greatly admired. He taught the one Law of Nature is to do good in return for good received; or face the penalty of being deserted by your friends in you time of need. Priestly also writes that taught of a decisive power superior to man. And Unlike Epicurus belief that the gods were unconcerned spectators of the plight of man, Socrates reasoned the gods were concerned and interceded in the affairs of man. At his trial Socrates said that he had often heard a Daemon (divine voice) who was frequently present within him. He trusted the judgement of his personal reason and the wisdom of the gods over people. During his trial,Socrates listened to his Daemon repeated commands not to make any defense to the accusations, which led to his demise against tyrants. During Socrates sentencing he pleaded a justifiable reason of vanity that he if was executed, Athens would find no other man like him. Ultimately Socrates execution made him even more famous as a martyr for morality. To Priestly it appears that Socrates had little or no faith in the sanction of virtue in the doctrine of a future state. But, believed in the pleasure received during life and the chance of honored by the living after death. Priestly writes, "Socrates, according to Plato, generally speaks of a future state, and the condition of men in, as the popular belief, which might be true or false. Priestly does mention that Socrates taught that there was a privilege given by the gods to only a select group humans initiated in the right manner into a philosophy of meditation of a pure mind over their body to live with them. Socrates did not know whether or not he had succeeded in this endeavor or not. SOCRATES AND JESUS COMPARED BY JOSEPH PRIESTLY page 22 Priestly maintained Socrates theorized that the substance of man's power of thinking, or mental action may remain when the corporeal body ceases to exist. Priestly then added the Greek general belief of an afterlife during the time of Socrates could have been similar to the Jews idea of afterlife, but the record of this Future State revelation had been long lost.
  16. The Didache - Introduction "Son, if you look for the good you will find it. If you look for the bad you will find it too." This was the first moral teaching given to me by my father when I was just a boy. Learning the truth of good and bad starts with life experiences with family (mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, guardians etc..) friends, classmates, teachers (pastors, priests, rabbis, professors, councilors, etc), and adversaries. Truth can be further shaped with the knowledge gained from media (internet, television, radio, movies, books, etc ). In this age of Science and Faith it can be difficult is discerning the Truth that comes from a Creative Force of Nature and what is from the teaching of man. I have chosen to research the Didache of the 12 Apostles because it is honored as the 'first catechism' (articles of faith) of the Christian church. The Didache (dee-da-ke, Greek word for teaching) of the 12 Apostles is a timeless moral compass that identifies selfless positive actions that lead to life and prosperity and negative selfish actions that lead to death and destruction. For nonChristians the Didache is a code of conduct without references to angels, prophecy and miracles.The principles of right living by the golden rule apply to everyone regardless of culture or creed. in life. For those in Behavior Sciences and religious naturalist the Didache is a good window to understanding the evolution of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic social morality. Congruent (in harmony) to the Laws give to the Israelites through Moses, the Didache is an instruction manual Jesus gave to the Apostles that further defines how to be righteous (law abiding) Christians. Over time the original Didache was replaced with revised teachings that brought about new catechisms, church schisms, reformations, and the birth of Arianism, Islam, Protestantism, Mormonism and Unitarianism. In humble admiration, I am using President Thomas Jefferson's syllabus method used in his book "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (also known as the Jefferson Bible) to best present the truth in the Didache of the 12 Apostles. Jefferson's book was made made by cutting out gospel wisdom passages of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and arranging them on the pages of a blank book, in a certain order of time or subject that he thought best to present the philosophical teachings of Jesus without the supernatural. President John Adams understood the magnitude of Jefferson's work. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813 I will follow the same method by adapting the modern technology of copying, cutting, and pasting a reasoned comparison of the Didache's text line by line with my life experiences, media and the Holy Word (Scripture) given by a supernatural Creative Force of Nature that has been witnessed and testified by the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths. In addition, I will include other faiths, philosophy, and natural science in context to a particular Apostolic teaching. I propose the Didache to be a great mechanism to create positive neuroplasticity (physical change to the brain) and socioplasticity (cultural change to a society) that should be studied for its benefits to the happiness of our human condition. I ask you the reader to temporarily suspend your preconception or disbelief on whether or not a Creative Force of Nature exists or how an Apostolic teaching can give us an understanding on how the choice of our actions can lead to Life and Happiness or Death and Misery until I am finished presenting testimony of definitions of to you. It is my hope that together you the reader and I the writer strip away the bias of belief and unbelief in our quest for truth to better understanding what it means to have good moral sense in life and share the happiness when we find it. In our pursuit for the truth of happiness I shall begin my essay with a quote from the United States Declaration of Independence. As the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson understood the liberty of choice our Creator has given us to pursuit the wisdom of life and prosperity or suffer the evils of death and destruction. The truth of choice that the followers of religion and/or nature, universally agree upon is defined as 'self evident.' Jefferson acquired John Locke's notion how Nature has transcribed into man the understanding of happiness and misery. In the 1689 book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke writes. Chapter III No Innate Practical Principles An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ( Chapters 2 -3) John Locke writes that the knowledge of the truths of Nature, Happiness and Misery comes through our senses from acquired experiences that are placed into memory. In infancy sensory development begins with our innate ability to differentiate pain from pleasure, hot from cold, bitter from sweet, stench from perfume, light from dark, loud from quiet, and rough from smooth. Locke notes that as our development continues, our minds begin to acquire general abstract ideas from familiar objects and prior experienced events. Some of the abstract ideas our minds formulate are right (successful) and some are wrong (failure). Our ability to recognize right and wrong ideas is what John Locke calls "the use of reason." Acquired ideas that become more accepted by reason are given names and basic language is formed. Ideas that are shared, understood and accepted by others become undoubted truths are what John Locke defines as "maxims." Many undoubted truths not known to others are reasoned by reflecting on their own unique development experiences. Undoubted truths that are reasoned and accepted before they are known are what John Locke terms "implicit maxims.' Ideas that are shared and not understood to be accepted as true or false, assent or dissent, are considered ignorant. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke To understand how Thomas Jefferson acquired maxim of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God we must first review Commentaries on the Laws of England by English judge, Sir William Blackstone published in 1765. The Will of the Creative force of Nature is called Natural Law. It is the explicit Will of Natural Law that binds us to this Universe and each other. It is the implicit Will of Natural Law to protect those who choose to accept and follow what we find to be good and self evident with our life. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England Introduction Of the Nature of Laws in General. In Jefferson's 1817 letter to John Tyler, our nation's third president acknowledged the use of Blackstone's common laws and the Will of the Creator in forming the the Republic of the United States. But, America's use of English common law was fashioned into a system that was more relevant to a government without a king. It was the Republic's cause of ascension of the rights of citizens over being ruled by a king that made the Declaration of Independence a necessary document. Locke, Blackstone and Jefferson believed that a Creative Force of Nature has given us power over our body and mind to pursue or avoid sensations and reflections of pleasure and pain. John Locke believed that the Creator willed us to follow moral laws of virtue and happiness that preserve our individual selves and society from pain. Locke wrote that mankind will be rewarded if we abide by the given laws and punished if we disobey them. Locke, Blackstone, and Jefferson knew that 50 years before Jesus Christ walked the earth, Cicero, the Roman Philosopher theorized how the moral sense of law bestowed by the Creator enables man to discern by reason what is virtue (good) and what is vice (evil). Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 5 July 1814 In The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, vol. 2 (Treatise on the Laws). Cicero defined the Law of Nature as the governing power of the Creator as both an equitable distribution of goods and discrimination of good and evil.
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    Actual reality?????

    From a study of the Holy Quran and Traditions of the Holy Prophet, it transpires that there are three objectives of Zakat (poor-due). One is basic and specific and the other two are secondary and collective. The basic and essential objective of Zakat is purification of the soul. It cures the lust for wealth, infuses the feat Allah in mans heart and makes one amenable to good deeds. The Holy Quran says: And away from it (Hell) shall be kept the most pious one, who gives away his wealth in order to purify himself. (XCIL:17-18) On another occasion Allah addresses and exhorts the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) in these words: Take alms of their wealth, wherewith you may cleanse and purify them. (9: 103) These verses make the real importance of Zakat quite clear: it aims to emancipate the heart from temporal preoccupations and purifies the soul. It is an acknowledged fact that the love of material things is the real enemy of prayer. It turns a man away from Allah and the After-life. The Holy Prophet once said: The root of all evil is the love of worldly things. (Mishkat) Although temporal love includes many things the most powerful and dangerous of all is the love of material wealth. The Holy Prophet has, therefore, regarded it as the greatest of all evils for the Muslims: The trial for my Ummah is wealth. (Tirmidhi) If a Muslim can save himself from the lure of wealth, he will be able to protect himself from many other vices. Because of its basic aim and purpose, poor-due is known as zakat in Islam. Literally it means both purification and growth. To give a portion of ones income to the needy for the pleasure of Allah is called Zakat because it purifies the soul. It must, however, be remembered that the aim of zakat is achieved only when its payment is motivated by sincere desire and practical effort. The pleasure of Allah should be the first and foremost consideration while paying Zakat. It must be free from every other motive. Zakat should be paid out of the income earned only by fair and honest means. Whatever is paid should be respectable. If cheap and worthless stuff is given in zakat it will go in vain. It will be no better than a hypocritical gesture. Zakats beneficiary should neither be made to feel grateful for it, nor should his feelings and self-respect be hurt. Otherwise, Zakat will cease to have any meaning. One secondary objective of the poor-due is to provide basic necessities to poor Muslims. The Holy Prophet said: Verily Allah has ordained the payment of Zakat on them (Muslims). It will be taken from the rich and returned to the poor. (Muslim) These Traditions make it quite obvious that there is also a social and economic aspect of the poor-due without which its Islamic concept remains incomplete. The other secondary objective of Zakat is the help and support of Islam. While giving the details of the beneficiaries of Zakat the Holy Quran says: The alms are only for the poor and the needy, and for those who collect them, and those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free the captives and the debtors and for the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarers. (9:60) The words the cause of Allah denote the struggle waged for Islam, zakat in islam https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PF0v1gz8IZo Dr. Zakir Naik Q&A Wealth, Zakat and its testing in Islam Islamic Research Foundation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRuEhOJyZpo
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    Eid Mubarak.....^_^

    Happy days Eid Mubarak.....^_^ \\ here my friends non muslims said Thank you for the interesting and engaging information, tiger . Happy Eid day. I hope you guys spend your eid day with your family and friends. I have also enjoyed my eid day with my family and friends. EID MUBARAK.. Happy days I hope you enjoy yourself. tiger dan semua Muslims. \ I wish you and your family joy of the celebration. \ Notwithstanding Eid Mubarak greeting is the norm in this region, Eid Mubarak to all Muslim brethren. \ After a long month of fasting, time for big meal. Saw many Malays selling Kueh to park yesterday mostly from Malaysia. \ Take the wife out for a romantic dinner. Nice \ May I take this opportunity to wish all our Muslim friends Selamat Hari Raya .... Happy days محاضرة السيد: عبدالرحيم جرين بمعرض رسولنا محمد بإزدان م ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hy8cpdkS1ZQ
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    Month of Return to.....?????

    Muslims all over the world love the month of Ramadan and look forward to it with mounting excitement. In the weeks preceding Ramadan lives are scrutinised, and plans are made for a month of serious worship and supplication. The countdown begins and conversations start with how many weeks it is until the blessed month arrives. Perhaps non-Muslims wonder why we look forward to fasting days and sleepless nights. Ramadan offers the chance of redemption and great rewards. It is a month like no other. A month of spiritual reflection and prayer. Hearts are directed away from worldly activities and towards God. In the month Ramadan, all physically mature and healthy Muslims are required to fast: to abstain from all food, drink, gum chewing, any kind of tobacco use and any kind of sexual contact between dawn and sunset. Nevertheless, this is only the physical aspect there are also the spiritual characteristics, which include refraining from gossiping, lying, slandering and all traits of bad character. All obscene and impious sights and sounds are avoided as a way of purifying thoughts and actions. Fasting is also a way of experiencing hunger and developing sympathy for the less fortunate and learning thankfulness and appreciation for all of God's bounties. God said,“O you who believe! Observing the fast is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become pious.” (Quran 2:183) The Prophet Muhammad also reminded us that fasting is not just abstaining from food and drink but there is a further dimension. He said, “He who does not desist from obscene language and acting obscenely (during the period of fasting), God has no need that he didn’t eat or drink.” Ramadan is also the month when Muslims try to establish or re establish a relationship with the Quran. Although this may sound like a strange thing to say, the words of God are a guiding light and a mercy. Nobody reads Quran except that it changes his or her life in some way. The Quran was sent down in this month of Ramadan. The two, Ramadan and Quran are inextricably entwined. Being with the Quran, reading, memorising, reciting it or pondering its meanings is spiritually uplifting comforting and a source of strength. Recitation in the night is particularly beneficial, the distractions of the day have faded away and closeness of God is palpable in the stillness of the night. Special evening prayers are conducted during which portions of the Qur'an are recited. These prayers are known as Taraweeh. One thirtieth of the Qur'an is read on successive evenings, so that by the end of the month the entire Qur'an has been completed. Ramadan Moon Sighting Issues | Khalid Yasin - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwYLUdIMzgk دعوة غير المسلمين - خالد ياسين - مترجم Dawah to N ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txhtZGkesVI
  20. Dear Parents, Last chance to get discount registration Early bird Discount ends June 1 Don't miss out! ⚽️☀️ Summer Training Registration Now Open! Girls & Boys (Ages 4 to 19) JUNE-JULY-AUGUST OPEN TO NON-CLUB MEMBERS INFORMATION & REGISTRATIONORMATION & REGISTRATION http://www.tocajuniors.com/programs_Summer-Soccer-Training.php
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    Month of Return to.....?????

    ماذا تفعل إذا كنت تحب الإسلام وتنتظر علامة؟ بلال فيلبس ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRYrDe-sKfI Ramadan Muslims - Abdur Raheem Green - YouTube ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TepFnBm9Qs8
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    Month of Return to.....?????

    It was Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, who made us raise our eyes from the dust beneath to view the glory of the starry heavens above. It was Muhammad who led us from the depths of darkness to the grandeur of the light of God. The Prophet was the one who led us to break our stone statues and wooden gods. It was Muhammad who lifted us out of the filth of idolatry to relish the serenity of God’s transcendence. On the Night of Power in one Ramadan, the Quran descended on Muhammad, and he received its first verses in the Cave of Hira. (Ibn Abbas) Thereafter the Prophet taught us how to celebrate Ramadan through days of fasting and nights of prayer: to honor each day of Ramadan as a day of patient endurance through fasting, and each night as a night of gratitude through prayers. An Unexpected Transformation It was nothing short of miraculous how the Prophet reformed and refined those unruly tribes of Arabia and transformed them into pious, disciplined, God-fearing ascetics, who stood in prayers in the mosque five times a day seeking the guidance of God. And imagine: these same people who once reveled in the pleasures of “wine and women” could now spend the whole month of Ramadan in fasting and prayers. Into the hearts of his followers, the Prophet instilled the love and fear of God and love for humanity. His example was inspiring and irresistible; and each of them became eager to be his closest follower. To them he was the sincerest and the most cordial of leaders. And his life was open before them like a book; they could see him practicing most closely in his own life what he was preaching. Ramadan Made Easy - Dr. Bilal Philips - YouTube ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZLQ--JZe9A
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    Month of Return to.....?????

    someone told me ramadan in non Muslim countries have to put up with it like it's one of our own festivals? the number of people who take it serious is growing as the influence of religion is growing here Gentleness in Hardship allah is All-Merciful and He has expressed His Mercy to us His creatures through the sending of His final messenger Muhammad as an embodiment of mercy. The Prophet said: “Have mercy to those on earth so that He Who is in Heaven will have mercy on you.” (Tirmidhi) “The believer is not the one who eats his fill when the neighbor beside him is hungry.” (Bayhaqi) So it was not surprising that the Prophet’s Companions loved him dearly, as he was the kindest of men, bestowing his mercy not only upon humans but also on other creatures of the world as well. No leader could be more considerate and solicitous of his followers than Muhammad: he never allowed any Muslim to bear any burden more than they could bear, as taught by God Himself. For he was well aware of the infirmities of people; and this is evident from his consideration for his followers in the matter of fasting: He taught Muslims to delay the sahur (the pre-dawn meal before fasting) till a little before Dawn Prayer and not to delay the iftar (the meal to break the fast) after the call to Sunset Prayer so that no unnecessary strain is laid on the fasting person by prolonging the fast time. During travel in Ramadan, the Prophet would either fast or break his fast; and he allowed his companions to choose between the two, according to their ability. Similarly during times of heat or thirst they were permitted to cool themselves by pouring water on the head, and the Prophet himself did so. His example in the matter of consorting with his wives during Ramadan was not different; he disallowed only such acts that would obviously undermine the fasting. As for the Tarawih Prayers (the supererogatory night prayers performed in Ramadan), . Thus while he demonstrated through his example that the Tarawih Prayers are better offered in congregation, he allowed leniency in the matter out of his mercy. Ramadan Reminder - Sh. Abdurraheem Green [HD] - ... ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdbFPw5eQrc The Soul of Ramadan - Dr. Bilal Philips - YouTube ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Py6REoVh020
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    The Prophet demonstrated to his people how this world is less important than the next, and how the body is less important than the soul. In fasting, the Prophet taught them step by step how to ignore the physical demands so that the spirit reigns supreme. Abandoning food, drink, and sex was only a prelude to the next stage of greater significance: of conquering avidity and cupidity, lust and licentiousness; of liberating one’s mind from flights of passion and fits of temper. Indeed the Prophet said: “The strong person is not the one who can wrestle someone else down. The strong person is the one who can control himself when he is angry.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari) Also about the effect of fasting on one’s behaviour, the Prophet said, “Fasting is a shield, so the one who fasts should avoid obscene speech and ignorant behaviour. If someone abuses him or starts to fight with him, he should reply by saying: ‘I am fasting. I am fasting’.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari) The core of fasting according to the Prophet was one’s willingness not merely to give up self-indulgence, but to feel the need of one’s brother as one’s own. And no one was more kind-hearted and generous than the Messenger of God; and his generosity reached its peak in Ramadan. (Saheeh Al-Bukhari) The Prophet stressed on the importance of treating people nicely when he said: “Make things easy for people and do not make them difficult, and cheer people up and do not drive them away.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari) He also said: “The most beloved of actions to God Almighty, is making another Muslim happy, removing a hardship that has befallen him, paying off a debt of his or ridding him of hunger. It is more beloved to me indeed that I walk with my Muslim brother to see to a need of his than secluding oneself in a mosque for a month…” (Tabarani) The heart of one who sincerely fasts is open to the contemplation of the magnificence of the countless bounties of God. That is why the Prophet asked his followers to avoid gluttony: “The food of two people is enough for three, and the food of three people is enough for four.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari) Bilal Philips - Ramadan is A Secret Between You and Allah ... ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7KTxQjQZqM Ramadan And Social Media ᴴᴰ #RamadanPicks Sheikh ... ‪ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sch7xh778qo
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    Actual reality?????

    الداعية الأمريكي خالد ياسين يتحدى الإعلام - مترجم - Khal ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92jumF7cXyw دعوة غير المسلمين - خالد ياسين - مترجم Dawah to N ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txhtZGkesVI علامات الأيام الأخيرة المُحاضر : عبد الرحيم غرين بالل ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkhPsmxXVzA
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    Actual reality?????

    \\\ qibla change in islam There are more than 1.5 billion Muslims in the world, and each time they pray, they turn their faces in one direction, towards Mecca. The Islamic term for this direction is qibla. When a Muslim prepares to pray, no matter where he is, he turns towards the qibla, the direction of the Kaba. The Kaba is a small cube shaped building in the courtyard of the mosque known as Masjid Al Haram, in the city of Mecca, in the country of Saudi Arabia. “For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So hasten towards all that is good. Wheresoever you may be, God will bring you together (on the Day of Resurrection). Truly, God is Able to do all things. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Mecca), that is indeed the truth from your Lord. And God is not unaware of what you do.” (Quran 2:148-149) Muslims do not worship the Kaba, or its contents, it is simply a focal point. Muslims worship One God, the Most Merciful, and the Most Wise. God decreed that when Muslims pray they all face one direction. It is a sign of unity that encapsulates the unity embedded in the religion of Islam. The Arabic word for prayer is salah and it demotes a connection between the believer and God; when all believers face the same direction it adds an extra dimension to the connection. The prayer connects the believers to God and the qibla connects the believers to one another. It has been said that if one could observe all the Muslims at prayer we would be able to see lines of worshippers bowing and prostrating like the petals of a flower opening and closing in unison. The qibla was not always oriented towards Mecca. The first Muslims prayed towards the al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Around sixteen months after Prophet Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to the city of Medina, the qibla was changed to the Kaba. According to accounts by Prophet Muhammad's companions, the change happened very suddenly. During the noon prayer, Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, received a revelation from God instructing him to, "Turn your face towards the Masjid al Haram". “Thus, we have made you real believers in Islamic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his legal ways, a just nation, witnesses over mankind and the Messenger a witness over you. And We made the Qibla (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed, it was great (heavy) except for those whom God guided. And God would never make your prayers to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, God is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards humankind.” “Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qibla (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Haram (at Mecca). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction...” (Quran 2:143-144) Changing the direction of prayer establishes Mecca as the fixed central point for worship. It establishes a common sense or purpose. Throughout the centuries, mathematicians and astronomers have established correct ways to determine the qibla (direction) from any point on the earth’s surface. There are two precise moments each year when the sun is directly above the Kaba, thus the direction of shadows in any sunlit place will point away from the qibla. There are also two moments per year when the sun is directly over the exact opposite position of the Kaba, thus pointing towards the qibla. It is important the Muslims make every effort to face the right direction when praying; however, slight deviations do not invalidate a person’s prayer. Prophet Muhammad said, “What is between the east and the west is qibla”.[1] Nowadays it is easy to locate the qibla. It is a simple matter to look at a map and draw a line between your location and the city of Mecca. Compasses and computer programs that locate the qibla are readily available and most mosques throughout the world have a niche in the wall to indicate the qibla. Islam is a religion of unity. Muslims are united by their belief in One God. They are one brotherhood united in the language and ritual of prayer and united by the direction of their worship. The qibla is not only about degrees of latitude or longitude it is about unity. It is about humankind united in the worship of the One God, Creator, and Sustainer of the universe. Change Of Qibla From Jerusalem To Kaaba By Nouman Ali https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfeSLuLMeAo Concept of Aqeeda e Risalat in the light of Incident of Change of Qibla by Tahir ul Qadri Khan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v67R8quJvP8
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    Actual reality?????

    Al-Isra and Al-Miraj Scenes from Paradise And fire() هذه الرحلة بواسطة الروح والجسد معا 1 This trip by soul and body together 3 from Mecca to Al-Aqsa=alisraa That journey was it from earth to heaven=almiraj Proof of the sincerity of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him Certificate in the Quraish infidels Shut up the mouths of all the skeptics \\\ In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful, Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon you. The Al-Aqsa Mosque has existed since ancient times before there was a thing called the Children of Israel. The mosque is the entire arena. It was known as the Holy House and the Holy Qur'an is the first to call it the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Israel, like David and Solomon, used to pray in it, and again the mosque is meant to be the whole arena, not the building that is now called the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The dome was built by the Umayyads on a rock Musa Cerantonio speaking in SLRC Annual Meet Part 1 - ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybPUvgwBu6E Musa Cerantonio speaking in SLRC Annual Meet Part 2 - ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iyzd8yRlVc
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